Group Title: Citrus Station mimeo report - Florida Citrus Experiment Station ; 58-2
Title: Factors affecting the flavor of frozen concentrated orange juice
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072393/00001
 Material Information
Title: Factors affecting the flavor of frozen concentrated orange juice
Series Title: Citrus Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 10, 19 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wenzel, F. W
Moore, E. L
Olsen, R. W
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Florida Citrus Commission
Publisher: Florida Citrus Experiment Station :
Florida Citrus Commission
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred FL
Publication Date: 1957
 Subjects
Subject: Frozen concentrated orange juice -- Quality -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Frozen concentrated orange juice -- Analysis -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Statement of Responsibility: F.W. Wenzel, E.L. Moore, and R.W. Olsen.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "September 26, 1957."
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Bibliographic ID: UF00072393
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 74845069

Full Text

Citrus Station Mimeo Report 58-2
September 26, 1957

Factors Affecting the Flavor of Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice
F. W. Wenzel, E. L. Moore, and R. W. Olsen

Frozen concentrated orange juice was introduced to consumers during the
1945-46 citrus processing season when 226,000 gallons were produced. Consumers
rapidly accepted this product chiefly because of its very good flavor and close
similarity to juice squeezed from fresh oranges in the home and the convenience
of preparation of the reconstituted juice by the housewife. Since the 1948-49
season, when over 10 million gallons were processed in Florida, consumption con-
tinued to increase to such an extent that it became necessary to produce over
72 million gallons during the 1956-57 season. Today it is evident that most of
the frozen orange concentrate must be of satisfactory and acceptable quality to
most consumers, otherwise they would not continue to buy and use this product at
the large rate of current consumption. However, this does not mean that the
quality and flavor of all of the presently produced frozen orange concentrate is
such that there is no necessity for improvement.

During the past 12 years, since the birth of the "Cinderella" product of
the citrus industry, many changes have occurred in both utilization of fruit and
processing procedures, as well as in the characteristics of frozen orange con-
centrate. Most of these changes have been brought about because of problems
that have arisen in and are adherent to the efficient production of enormous
quantities of frozen concentrate or any other food product, together with the
always present and very important economic factors. Because of these conditions
which will always confront the citrus concentrators, the flavor of frozen orange
concentrate has gradually and steadily declined ever since the product was
introduced in 1946. This does not mean that the processors are producing a
large volume of product of poor and unacceptable quality. However, the flavor
of the product today is such that responsible processors and growers are con-
cerned and recognize the fact that improvement in flavor is desirable since a
large portion of the yearly pack when used by the consumer does not have the
very good flavor that was in most of the product that was processed prior to
the 1950-51 season. The facts that sales of frozen orange concentrate have
leveled off during the past four years and the production of oranges in Florida
continues to increase have been ample reasons for the growing concern and
interest during the past two years in the quality of the product upon which
rests the welfare of the entire Florida citrus industry. The flavor of frozen
orange concentrate is still a major factor responsible for the continued
acceptance of it by many consumers; other important factors, such as price,
convenience, and nutritional values of the product are also recognized. There-
fore, the desire for a concerted effort on the part of all segments of the citrus
industry to improve the flavor of frozen orange concentrate is indeed welcomed.

The purpose of this paper is to summarize data and information that are
available concerning the many factors that affect the flavor of frozen concen-
trated orange juice; also to make some suggestions as to what may be done to
improve the flavor of this product. To do this, the following topics will be
discussed, (a) changes that have occurred since 1946 in the production of fro-
zen concentrated orange juice, (b) changes that have taken place in the charact-
eristics of frozen orange concentrate, and (c) uniformity of this product.
Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
810 o 9/26/57 FWW






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Changes in Production of Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice

Before discussing some of the various fruit and processing factors that
affect the flavor of frozen orange concentrate some of the major changes that
necessarily have taken place during the past 12 years in both the utilization
of fruit and processing procedures for the production of frozen concentrated
orange juices will be reviewed.

With the rapid increase in the demand for this product following its
introduction to the public in 1946, the demand for oranges for processing
naturally increased. The volume of concentrate produced in the 1948-49 season
was over 10 million gallons compared to slightly under 2 million gallons during
the previous season, this being the greatest percentage increase in volume that
ever occurred between two seasons. The production of over 72 million gallons
last season resulted in the use of approximately 49 million boxes of fruit or
about 53 percent of the oranges harvested in Florida. This gradual but continu-
ing increase in the demand for fruit for orange concentrate eventually necessi-
tated a gradual decrease in the overall quality of the fruit used during any one
season; also led to the utilization of early, mid- and late season oranges rather
than only the Valencia-type that were used chiefly during the first few years of
production, and resulted in the occurrence of production and quality problems
which had not previously been encountered to any great extent.

Physical instability, resulting in gelation and separation when the product
was abused by storage at temperatures above 0F., became a major problem to
processors during the 1948-49 season and eventually resulted in the use of heat
treatment in the range of 1550 to 1650F., either before or during the concen-
trating of orange juice, as a means of stabilization. This procedure was adopted
by the concentrators only after much deliberation and only because no other
practical method could be found to inactivate the enzyme, pectinesterase, which
is in citrus juices and causes the changes in orange concentrate that result in
gelation and separation. The conversion of all concentrate plants to the use of
heat treatment procedures for the purpose of improving the physical stability of
citrus concentrates was complete by the 1954-55 season. Such procedures brought
about a marked decrease in stability problems; however, they have not completely
eliminated this problem and also led to some extent to other practices, the
advisability of which must be questioned today. At this time it must be pointed
out that the use of heat treatment made possible increased juice yields, incor-
poration of larger quantities of pulp into concentrates and the use of fruit of
questionable quality.

As more plants continued to produce larger volumes of frozen orange concen-
trate each succeeding year, another trend that occurred in the industry was a
gradual increase in the yield of juice obtained from each box or ton of oranges
used. After the average cost of oranges for concentrate reached $2.69 per box
during the 1949-50 processing season, a marked increase in the average juice
yield was evident in the following season. Juice yield is of importance to
growers, processors, extractor manufacturers and consumers. The yield determines
the financial return to growers and extractor manufacturers,. as well as the cost
of the fruit to the processor which in turn affects the price that the consumer
pays for frozen orange concentrate. Therefore, as much juice as possible should

Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
810 p 9/26/57 FW







be obtained from each box of fruit; however, excessive extraction and finishing
are not advisable if such procedures result in the incorporation into the juice
of undesirable substances that may be the cause of deterioration in flavor of
the orange concentrate.


Factors that Affect the Flavor of Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice


The factors that affect the flavor of frozen orange concentrate are many,
as may be seen from the list on the next page in which such factors have been
put into three groups, namely, fruit, processing, and storage, each of which is
of utmost importance. Emphasis in this discussion will be placed on several of
the important fruit factors and the major processing factors. Before discussing
these, it is desirable to consider results that have been obtained at this
Station from the evaluation of the flavor of commercial samples of frozen orange
concentrate obtained semi-monthly from Florida processing plants during the
1953-54, 1954-55, and 1956-57 citrus seasons. Most of the chemical, physical
and microbiological characteristics of 648 samples of frozen orange concentrate
have been determined and the flavor of these products has been evaluated by a
taste panel. Results of the evaluation of the flavor of these samples are pre-
sented in Table 21 of the tabular data that may be found at the end of this
report.

The numbers and percentages of the concentrates that were given flavor
grades of good, fair or poor by the taste panel are listed in Table 21 for all
of the samples obtained during each of the three seasons; also on the basis of
the samples representative of the midseason and late season packs. Products
graded "good" or "fair" were considered by the panel to be of acceptable quality,
but those given a grade of "poor" were considered unacceptable because concen-
trates of such quality would not be repurchased again.

From the data in Table 21 it is evident that the percentages of the total
samples of frozen orange concentrate that had a good flavor were 33.5% in 1953-54,
52.1% in 1954-55, and 46.7% in 1956-57. This indicates an improvement in the
flavor of the samples packed during the 1954-55 season compared with that in
those packed in 1953-54; however, a decrease in the flavor quality is indicated
in the samples packed in 1956-57. The problem of the flavor of frozen orange
concentrate that the citrus industry is confronted with today is shown by the
results in Table 21 indicating that 59.31%, 45.6% and 52.4% of the concentrates
examined during the three seasons were judged to be only "fair" in flavor;
nevertheless, all of these samples and those of good flavor mentioned above were
judged to be acceptable products. It is unfortunate that similar data, as that
shown in Table 21, are not available for samples of frozen orange concentrate
that were packed during some seasons prior to 1950 so that a comparison could be
made between the flavor of the product then and as it is today. However, it is
believed that if such data were available for the 1948-49 season that, as a
guess, the percentages of samples of good and fair flavor would have been per-
haps 85% and 15%, respectively, which is quite different from the 46.7% and
52.4% as found for samples packed during the 1956-57 season.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
810 q 9/26/57 FWW






-4-


Factors that May Affect the Flavor of Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice1

Fruit Factors

1. Quality of fruit
This is dependent upon many conditions, including variety,
maturity, rootstock, age of tree, soil, temperature, rainfall
irrigation, fertilizer and spray practices, pruning, handling,
storage, injury and infection.

Processing Factors

1. Extracting and finishing procedures that determine the yield of juice

2. Stabilization conditions, including temperature and time of exposure

3. Temperature during concentration

4. Degree of concentration in evaporator

5. Cut-back juice, including quality and quantity

6. Add-back concentrate, including quality and quantity

7. Incorporation of air into product

8. Rate of processing and freezing

9. Pulp, including amount, type, and particle size

10. Recoverable oil level

11. Sanitation

Storage Factors

1. Temperature of storage

2. Temperature fluctuations during storage

3. Length of time stored


1 The order in which the various factors are listed is of no significance
to the importance of each factor.




Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
810 u 9/26/57- FWW






-5-


It is hoped that steps can be taken by the citrus industry so that in the fu-
ture a larger proportion of the yearly pack of the frozen orange concentrate
produced in Florida will be of good flavor quality. If this is to be done then
consideration must be given to the many factors that affect the flavor of this
product and those that do so adversely must be eliminated.

Variety of fruit. The quality of fruit used for the production of frozen
orange concentrate is a major factor that affects the flavor of this product.
It has been pointed out previously that as the demand for oranges for the pro-
duction of frozen concentrate rapidly increased, a greater percentage of the
total crop was utilized each year and this finally necessitated the use of early,
midseason and late season varieties of fruit. This resulted in an unpreventable
overall decrease in the quality of the fruit used by the concentrators; also in
the production of add-back concentrate that was packed in bulk, frozen and stored
for blending at a later date with other orange concentrate.

Differences in the flavor quality of samples of frozen orange concentrate
packed during the midseason and that packed during the late season are evident
from the results shown in Table 21. For example, 34.2% of the samples from the
midseason packs were graded "good" and 64.9% "fair" during the 1956-57 season,
whereas 61.2% of the late season concentrates were judged to be of good flavor
and 37.8% of fair flavor. The fact that a larger percentage of the samples
packed during the late season period were graded "good" than those samples pro-
cessed during midseason is also evident from the data obtained during the 1953-54
and 1954-55 seasons. Thus, it became apparent that the total pack of frozen
orange concentrate produced during the late season period was better in flavor
than the total pack from the midseason period. It is believed that this justi-
fies the conclusion that when early and midseason-type oranges are processed
into frozen concentrate, the flavor of the product is not as good as when late
season-type fruit is used. It should be kept in mind that it is the overall
quality of the pack for any single season or a portion of the season that is
very important, and the above conclusion does not mean that better concentrate
can be made from individual lots of Valencia oranges than from lots of Pineapple
oranges. Perhaps it should also be pointed out that experience in the industry
has shown that, in general, orange concentrate produced from early fruit, such
as Hamlin or Parson Brown oranges, does not have as good a flavor or color as
concentrate made from midseason or late season varieties of fruit. The use of
considerable quantities of early varieties of oranges in the production of the
midseason pack of frozen orange concentrate is perhaps one of the reasons why
it is not of as good quality as the late season pack.

Quality of fruit. Another factor, which is quite obvious, that determines
the flavor of frozen concentrated orange juice is the quality of the fruit used.
Only oranges of good quality should be utilized and the use of fruit of question-
able or poor quality, such as immature, overmature, stale, or freeze-damaged
oranges for the production of concentrate will adversely affect the flavor of
this product. Even though the amount of such fruit used may be small in compari-
son with the amount of fruit of good quality utilized at the same time, such
practice is not believed to be advisable.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
810 s 9/26/57 FWW









Heat treatment. The use of heat treatment as a means of improving the
physical stability of frozen orange concentrate has been previously mentioned.
Careful control of the temperature and time of heating of juice or concentrate
will prevent any major changes in flavor from occurring during the process of
stabilization. However, the application of excessive amounts of heat to orange
juice, which is extremely heat sensitive, will result in a decrease in the
flavor quality of the frozen concentrate and undesirable flavors may become
pronounced during frozen storage or abuse of the product. Because of the em-
phasis that has been placed by processors on obtaining maximum stability in
frozen citrus concentrates in an attempt to prevent separation or clarification
when these products are not properly stored, there has resulted in recent years
a gradual increase in the amount of heat applied during the process of stabili-
zation. Although many factors are involved, it is believed that deterioration
in the flavor of orange concentrate will result if the amount of heat applied is
greater than that equivalent to 1750F. for 12 seconds. Data shown in Tables 15
and 22, which will be found at the end of this report, would seem to indicate
that greater amounts of heat were applied in the processing of orange concen-
trate during the 1956-57 season than during the 1954-55 season. It is believed
that the shift to smaller amounts of pectinesterase activity (Table 15) in
samples of frozen orange concentrate packed in 1954-55 and the greater stability
(Table 22) chiefly resulted because of the use of more heat.

Yield of juice and pulp content. That the yield of juice obtained from
oranges by extracting and finishing procedures is of great economic importance
to growers, processors, extractor manufacturers and consumers has already been
mentioned. Therefore, as great a juice yield should be obtained as is possible
without causing any decline in the quality of the orange concentrate. Yield of
juice depends upon many variables, including variety, maturity, size and seedi-
ness of the fruit and the extraction and finishing procedures used. Excessive
yields, which are undesirable, are those that will result in the incorporation
into the extracted or finished juice any substances from the fruit that will
cause, either initially, during storage or upon abuse, deterioration in the
flavor or other desirable qualities of the frozen concentrated orange juice. It
is known that juice from the peel of the fruit has different characteristics
than that contained in the juice sacs, including substances that impart to the
concentrate undesirable flavors, such as astringency, if such substances are
incorporated into the juice in sufficient amounts. The data on the next page
illustrates differences in the characteristics of several experimental packs of
frozen orange concentrate that were made in pairs from the same lot of fruit
in each instance but extraction and finishing procedures used were such that
different yields of juice were obtained. It is evident from these data that
increased juice yield resulted in products containing greater amounts of pulp,
water-insoluble solids, pectin and flavonoids; also that the apparent viscosity
was increased. Results given in the frequency distribution Tables 13, 14A, 14B,
and 16 indicate that the above mentioned constituents in commercial samples of
frozen orange concentrate have been increasing during recent years. Because of
these observations an attempt was made to correlate the flavor grades of the
commercial samples of frozen orange concentrate packed during the 1956-57 season
with the amounts of pulp, water-insoluble solids, pectin and flavonoids found in
these products. However, no relationship could be established, as is evident
from the data in Table B, between these constituents and the flavor of the

Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
810t 9/26/57 FWW





-7-


Table A. Comparison of some characteristics of experimental samples of
frozen concentrated orange juice from packs prepared when the yield of juice was
at different levels

Reconstituted juice Concentrate
Pulp Water Water Flavonoids Apparent Color
Sample % by insoluble soluble as viscosity Hunter Rd value
code 1 vol. solids pectin hesperidin
mg./lOOg. mg./100g. mg./lOml. centipoises
A-1 14.5 230 38 77 670 23.0
B-1 15.0 255 42 87 750 25.3
A-2 10.5 128 24 45 340 14.8
B-2 18.0 256 47 93 1500 26.2
A-3 5.0 .45 20 36 63 13.5
B-3 14.0 227 50 105 1400 20.7
A-4 14.0 204 38 61 770 19.6
B-4 26.5 453 65 97 8200 24.6
1All samples coded B were made from juices when the juice yield was greater
than that for the samples that are coded A.


Table B. Comparison of flavor grades and average values for some
characteristics of samples of commercial frozen concentrated orange juices
collected from Florida processing plants

Reconstituted juice Concentrate
Water Water Flavonoids
Flavor Number Pulp insoluble soluble as Number Apparent
grade of % by solids pectin hesperidin of viscosity
samples vol. mg./lOg. img./100g. mg./100ml. samples centipoises
Midseason packs
Good 39 12.5 178 43 81 39 769
Fair 74 12.5 178 44 84 68 781

Late season packs
Good 60 12.0 188 40 74 44 543
Fair 37 11.5 182 40 80 26 529

Total packs for entire season
Good 99 12.0 184 41 77 83 649
Fair 111 12.0 179 43 83 94 711


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
810 r 9/26/57 FWW






.-8-


concentrates. Thus, the differences in flavor found must have been caused by
the presence in the concentrates of other constituents, about which little is
known, that were extracted from the fruit along with the above mentioned
materials.

Evidence is slowly, but gradually, being accumulated that makes it possible
to state at this time that eventually data may be available, which will definite-
ly show that the amount of pulp and the size of the pulp particles are a major
factor that affects the flavor of frozen orange concentrate. This-is-indicated
by such data ns is reported in Table B. The leaching of undesirable substances
from very small particles of pulp may occur to a greater extent and more rapidly
during both processing and storage than that from larger pulp particles. Also,
the disappearance of some of the initial good flavor of frozen orange concentrate
during storage may be caused by physical adsorption of substances on the great
amount of surface available when a product contains a large amount of fine pulp.
It is seen from data in Table A that the color of orange concentrate is affected
by the amount of pulp in it. As more pulp is incorporated and the size of the
particles decreased, orange juice becomes more milky in appearance; this change
in color is detectable by an increase in the Hunter "Rd" value as shown in Table
A; a shift to greater Hunter "Rd" values has also taken place during recent
years, as is shown by results given in Table 8, in commercial samples of frozen
orange concentrate.

Quality of add-back concentrate. Only add-back concentrate of good quality
should be blended with other batches of orange concentrate. Adverse effects on
the flavor of frozen orange concentrate that will result if add-back concentrate
of poor flavor and quality is used will fall in the same categories as those
that occur when fruit of poor quality is utilized, as has been previously dis-
cussed. Conditions that sometimes exist during the freezing, storage and subse-
quent thawing of add-back concentrate in large containers are often not too
conducive to the preservation of good flavor in this product.

Recoverable oil. The flavor of frozen orange concentrate is influenced
greatly and is dependent upon the amount of orange oil from the peel of the
fruit that becomes incorporated into the product. In a very good flavored
concentrate there will be a balance between the flavor that comes from the peel
oil and that which originates in the juice from the juice sacs. Since the 1953-
54 season, the flavor of frozen orange concentrate has been improved by the pro-
duction of concentrate that contains a greater level of recoverable oil than that
made previously; this trend is shown by the data given in Tables 5 and 21. As
the orange oil content in concentrate is increased, the flavor of the product
becomes different from that in a concentrate in which there is a more equal
balance between juice and peel oil flavors; also, there is a level above which
it is not advisable to go because the flavor of the oil becomes too prominent
and is objectional to many persons. Therefore, such high levels of peel oil
in frozen orange concentrate should be avoided. The prevention or masking of
small amounts of COF or oxidized off-flavors that may develop in frozen orange
concentrate has been chiefly accomplished by maintaining the recoverable oil
content of the product at a satisfactory level.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
810 v 9/26/57 FWW






-9-


The answer to the question of the importance of cut-back juice to the
flavor of frozen orange concentrate hinges upon the balance desired between
juice and peel oil flavors. The amount of cut-back juice used, which depends
upon the Brix value of the concentrate pumped from the evaporator, will not be
as important in a 420 Brix concentrate with a recoverable oil content of 0.068
ml. per 100 g. as in a concentrate with a lower oil level of 0.035 ml. per 100g.
Under current conditions, it is believed that peel oil is the more important of
these two factors, provided excessive amounts are not used.

Cumulative effect of several adverse flavor factors. The additive effect
of several factors that finally may cause a decrease in the flavor quality of
frozen orange concentrate should be stressed. For example, the use in the pro-
duction of a batch of concentrate of a small amount of fruit of questionable
quality and also of a small amount of add-back with a very slight buttermilk-
type flavor, together with the use of a slightly high temperature and exposure
time during stabilization and the incorporation into the product of a small amount
of air, would probably result in an unacceptable concentrate which would be poor
in flavor, whereas if only one of these factors that affect quality was involved,
then perhaps an acceptable product of only fair quality might have resulted. It
is believed that one of the reasons, why 52.4$ (Table 21) of the commercial
samples of frozen orange concentrate packed during the 1956-57 season were judged
to have only a fair flavor, was this cumulative effect of various adverse factors.


Improvement in Flavor of Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice

The overall flavor of the yearly pack of frozen orange concentrate may be
improved by the use of only fruit of good quality and by the elimination of any
processing procedures that adversely affect the flavor of this product, together
with the prevention of mishandling of the concentrate through all channels of
distribution.

If improvement of flavor in frozen orange concentrate is desired, then con-
centrators should do everything possible to eliminate during the processing of
this product the use of fruit of questionable or poor quality, excessive juice
yields, incorporation of excessive amounts of pulp, excessive heating of the
juice or concentrate, use of add-back concentrate of questionable or poor quality,
and incorporation of air into the product. Also, the utilization of a minimum
quantity of early varieties of oranges, careful control of the recoverable oil
level in the concentrate, and maintenance of good sanitary practices are suggested.
Every effort should also be made to pack as uniform a product as is possible
throughout the entire processing season, especially in respect to flavor and
color. If the data in Tables 1-22 attached to this report are examined, it will
be seen that there is considerable variation or lack of uniformity in some of the
characteristics of commercial frozen orange concentrates. Variations are especi-
ally noticeable in color and flavor between midseason and late season packs as
shown in Tables 11, 12 and 21; variation in apparent viscosity is also indicated
by data in Table B.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
810 w 9/26/57 FWW







-10-


In summary, perhaps the following should be restated. The factors that
affect the flavor of frozen orange concentrate are many. The importance of using
only fruit of good quality can not be overstressed. The yield of juice obtained,
the quality of add-back concentrate used, and the amount of recoverable oil and
pulp in the concentrate are believed to be very important factors. Excessive
heating of juice or concentrate during processing will result in decreased flavor
quality. The additive effect of each of several adverse factors will result in a
product of poor flavor, even though each of these factors by itself would not
have caused a significant amount of flavor deterioration. Again it should be
emphasized that to preserve the initial good flavor of frozen orange concentrate
every effort should be made by packers, distributors and consumers to store it
at temperatures of OOF. or below until it is used. Economic factors must be
considered in the production of frozen orange concentrate and such factors have
and will continue to have an effect on the overall quality of the yearly pack of
this product.

Responsibility for the production in the future of frozen orange concentrate
having uniform characteristics and good flavor will depend upon the attitudes and
actions of both growers and processors. It is hoped that the information and
suggestions contained in this paper will be considered constructive and used as
a guide by persons interested in the welfare of the Florida citrus industry, and
especially by top management in companies that produce frozen orange concentrate,
so that products of such good flavor will be made in the future that the question
of improving the quality of frozen orange concentrate, whether it be 420 Brix or
a concentrate of higher density, will never arise again.


Acknowledgment

The data included in this report were obtained and tabulated by C. D. Atkins,
R. W. Barron, G. H. Ezell, E. C. Hill, R. L. Huggart, M. D. Maraulja, E. L. Moore,
R. W. Olsen, Roger Patrick, A. H. Rouse and F. W. Wenzel.

The members of the taste panel were R. W. Barron, M. H. Dougherty, E. C. Hill,
M. D. Maraulja, R. R. McNary, R. W. Olsen, Roger Patrick, S. V. Ting, F. W.
Wenzel and R. W. Wolford.

Appreciation and thanks are expressed to all of the companies in Florida
who furnished the samples of frozen concentrated orange juices that were used
to obtain the data in this report.








Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
810 x 9/26/57 FWW









Table 1. Frequency distribution of Brix values for samples of
commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida
processing plants 1

Number of samples and season
Brix 220 215 212
value 1953-54 1954-55 1956-57
% of samples
Less than 40.90 0.0 1.9 0.0

40.90-41.40 10.0 29.3 1.5

41.50-41.70 28.2 29.7 3.3

41.80-42.00 44.5 23.7 42.4

42.10-42.30 14.1 14.0 41.0

42.40-42.60 2.3 1.4 7.5

More than 42.60 0.9 0.0 4.3


Table 2. Frequency distribution of total acid in samples of
commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida
processing plants
Number of samples and season
Acid as 220 __215 : 212
citric % 1953-54 1954-55 1956-57
% of samples___
Less than 2.50 3.2 0.5 0.9
2.50-2.69 20.0 7.0 9.4
2.70-2.89 37.3 14.9 21.6
2.90-3.09 30.0 46.5 38.0
3.10-3.29 7.7 23.7 25.9
3.30-3.49 1.3 5.6 3.3
More than 3.49 0.5 1.8 0.9
1 Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June,
inclusively, during each processing season.
2These values were calculated.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
810b 9/26/57 RLH








Table 3. Frequency distribution of Brix-to-acid ratios in samples
of commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida
processing plants 1
Number of samples and season
Brix-to-acid 220 215 212
ratio 1953-54 1954-55 1956-57
%_ of samples_
Less than 12.0 0.5 0.5 0.9
12.0-12.9 1.8 13.0 7.1

13.0-13.9 19.1 43.2 38.7
14.0-14.9 34.1 32.5 34.0
15.0-15.9 34.5 7.0 11.3
16.0-16.9 8.6 3.3 7.1
More than 16.9 1.4 0.5 0.9


Table 4. Frequency distribution of pH in samples of commercial
frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida processing
plants 1
Number of samples and season
pH of 220 215 212
concentrate 1953-54 1954-55 1956-57
S of samples

3.4 1.4 0.5 1.4
3.5 20.4 15.8 17.5
3.6 57.9 46.0 52.4
3.7 19.4 31.7 22.6
3.8 0.9 5.5 3.3
3.9 0.0 0.5 2.8
________1 ----------------"


1 Samples collected semi-monthly from
inclusively, during each processing


December through June,
season.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
810c 9/26/57 RLH












Table 5. Frequency distribution
commercial frozen concentrated orange
processing plants 1


of recoverable oil in samples of
juices collected from Florida


1 Samples collected semi-monthly from December
inclusively, during each processing season.
These values were calculated.


through June,


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
810a 9/26/57 RLH


Recoverable oil Number of samples and season
Reconstituted 220 215 212
Concentrate juice 2 1953-54 1954-55 1956-57
ml./l0g. % by volume % of samples

Trace-0.002 Trace-0.001 5.5 0.0 0.0

0.003-0.018 0.001-0.005 43.1 7.4 0.9

0.019-0.035 0.006-0.010 41.4 41.9 31.1

0.036-0.052 0.011-0.015 7.7 43.3 55.7

0.053-0.068 0.016-0.020 1.4 6.5 12.3

0.069-0.086 0.021-0.025 0.9 0.9 0.0











Table 6. Frequency distribution of ascorbic acid in samples of
commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida
processing plants

Ascorbic acid Number of samples and season
Reconstituted 220 215 212
Concentrate juice 2 1953-54 1954-55 1956-57
mg./lOOg. mg./100 ml. ___ of samples

100-109 30-32 0.0 3.7 0.0

110-119 33-35 0.9 4.7 0.9

120-129 36-38 9.1 11.6 7.5

130-139 39-41 7.7 6.5 14.2

140-149 42-44 12.7 11.6 15.1

150-159 45-47 7.3 10.2 8.0

160-169 48-50 8.6 9.8 9.0

170-179 51-53 19.1 16.3 16.0

180-189 54-56 19.6 15.8 15.6

190-199 57-59 11.4 7.0 9.4
200-209 60-62 3.6 2.3 3.8

210-219 63-65 0.0 0.5 0.5
1 Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June,
inclusively, during each processing season.
2 These values were calculated.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
810 9/26/57 RLH









Table 7. Relationship of date of packing to average values for ascorbic acid in samples of commercial frozen
concentrated orange juices collected from Florida processing plants 1
Ascorbic acid Ascorbic acid Ascorbic acid
1953-54 season 220 samples 1954-55 season 215 samples 1956-57 season 212 samples
Approx. Number Reconstituted Number Reconstituted Number Reconstituted
date of Concentrate juice2 of Concentrate juice2 of Concentrate juice2
packed samples mg./lOOg. mg./100 ml. samples mg./lOOg. mg./100 ml. samples mg./lOOg. mg./l0 ml.
12/1 2 185 55 1 187 56
12/15 20 190 56 11 178 53 8 186 55
1/1 19 185 55 17 184 54 16 191 57
1/15 21 183 54 20 181 54 21 191 57
2/1 20 183 54 21 179 53 23 182 54
2/15 20 184 55 24 177 53 20 179 53
3/1 17 172 51 20 172 51 15 170 50
3/15 11 168 50 13 156 46 10 167 50
4/1 19 153 45 14 140 42 5 161 48
4/15 22 148 44 23 140 42 12 146 43
5/1 22 139 41 20 133 40 20 144 43
5/15 18 131 39 21 124 37 21 139 41
6/1 9 124 37 11 125 37 21 136 40
6/15 19 132 39


1 Samples
2These v
These va


collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during each processing season.


Llues were


calculated.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
810c 9/26/57 RIH








Table 8. Frequency distribution of Hunter Rd values for
juices collected irom Florida processing plants1


samples of commercial frozen concentrated orange


Concentrates Reconstituted juices
Hunter Color Number of samples and season Hunter Color Number of samples and season
Difference Meter 220 215 212 Difference Meter 220 215 1 212
Rd 1953-54 1954-55 1956-57 Rd 1953-54 1954-55 1956-57
% of samples ______ of samples
Less than 16.0 1.8 0.0 0.0 Less than 15.0 0.5 0.0 0.0
16.0-16.9 5.0 0.9 0.0 15.0-15.9 2.7 0.0 0.0
17.0-17.9 12.7 6.0 0.0 16.0-16.9 9.6 0.9 0.0
18.0-18.9 15.0 10.2 2.8 17.0-17.9 21.8 6.1 0.0
19.0-19.9 13.6 11.6 4.7 18.0-18.9 19.1 14.4 0.9
20.0-20.9 12.7 9.8 10.0 19.0-19.9 15.9 16.3 9.4
21.0-21.9 15.5 11.6 13.2 20.0-20.9 12.7 14.4 10.4
22.0-22.9 8.2 16.8 11.8 21.0-21.9 10.0 21.9 23.1
23.0-23.9 5.9 15.8 15.1 22.0-22.9 4.5 15.8 16.6
24.0-24.9 3.7 11.2 12.3 23.0-23.9 2.3 7.4 19.3
25 0-25.9 3.2 2.3 10.8 24.0-24.9 0.9 2.8 13.7
26.0-26.9 1.8 2.8 7.5 25.0-25.9 0.0 0.0 3.3
27.0-27.9 0.9 1.0 5.7 26.0-26.9 0.0 0.0 2.8
28.0-28.9 0.0 0.0 0.9 27.0-27.9 0.0 0.0 0.5
29.0-29.9 0.0 0.0 2.8
30.0-30.9 0.0 0.0 1.9
31.0-31.9 0.0 0.0 0.0
32.0-32.9 0.0 0.0 0.5
1 Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during each processing season.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
810i 9/26/57 RLH











Table 9. Frequency distribution of Hunter a values
juices collected from Florida processing plants 1


1Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June,
Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June,


for samples of commercial frozen concentrated orange


inclusively, during each processing season.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
810j 9/26/57 RLH


Concentrates Reconstituted juices
Hunter Color Number of samples and season Hunter Color Number of samples and season
Difference Meter 220 215 212 Difference Meter 220 215 212
a 1953-54 1954-55 1956-57 a 1953-54 1954-55 1956-57
% of samples _% of samples

11.1-12,0 0.0 0.0 0.9 0.0 to -0.9 0.0 0.0 1.9
10.1-11.0 0.0 0.5 5.2 -1.0 to -1.9 4.1 2.8 8.5
9.1-10.0 2.7 2.3 8.0 -2.0 to -2.9 16.8 11.2 21.2
8.1- 9.0 8.2 5.1 18.8 -3.0 to -3.9 17.3 17.2 13.2
7.1- 8.0 16.8 12.6 11.8 -4.0 to -4.9 12.7 15.8 9.0
6.1- 7.0 10.9 11.6 4.3 -.5.0 to -5.9 27.7 23.7 21.7
5.1- 6.0 9.5 12.6 9.4 -6.0 to -6.9 20.0 26.5 21.7
4.1- 5.0 17.3 14.9 17.0 Less than -6.9 1.4 2.8 2.8
3.1- 4.0 20.5 17.2 20.8
2.1- 3.0 10.5 12.5 3.8
1.1- 2.0 3.6 10.2 0.0
Less than 1.1 0.0 0.5 0.0
_-______. -- .__________________________. ___ ------- --- -- -









Table 10. Frequency distribution of Hunter b values for
juices collected from Florida processing plants 1


samples of commercial frozen concentrated orange


Concentrates Reconstituted juices
Hunter Color I Number of samples and season Hunter Color Number of samples and season
Difference Meter 220 215 212 Difference Meter 220 215 212
b 1953-54 i 1954-55 1956-57 b 1953-54 1954-55 1956-57
% of samples % of samples

More than 34.9 0.0 1.4 0.0 More than 30.9 0.0 2.8 0.0
34.0-34.9 1.4 11.2 0.5 30.0-30.9 0.0 14.9 0.9
33.0-33.9 5.0 28.8 8.0 29.0-29.9 3.6 32.5 12.3
32.0-32.9 8.2 33.0 24.1 28.0-28.9 12.7 23.3 46.7
31.0-31.9 23.6 16.8 36.8 27.0-27.9 44.5 20.5 35.4
30.0-30.9 30.0 6.9 23.1 26.0-26.9 30.0 5.1 4.7
29.0-29.9 22.2 1.4 6.6 25.0-25.9 8.2 0.9 0.0
28.0-28.9 7.3 0.0 0.9 Less than 25.0 1.0 0.0 0.0
27.0-27.9 1.8 0.0 0.0
Less than 27.0 0.5 0.5 0.0

1 Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during each processing season.



Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
810k 9/26/57 RLH







Table 11. Relationship of date of packing to average Hunter color values for commercial frozen concentrated orange
juices collected from Florida processing plants 1

Hunter Color Difference Meter average values for concentrates
1953-54 season 220 samples 1954-55 season 215 samples 1956-57 season 212 samples
Approx. Number Number Number
date of Rd a b of Rd a b of Rd a b
packed, samples samples samples
32/1 2 24.2 2.7 32.5 1 27.7 5.4 33.2
12/15 20 22.3 3.5 31.6 11 23.6 3.0 31.5 8 25.4 3.8 31.6
1/1 19 23.0 3.7 32.0 17 23.9 2.6 31.6 16 25.7 4.0 32.0
1/15 21 22.3 3.5 31.5 20 23.6 3.0 31.9 21 26.8 4.0 32.5
2/1 20 21.6 3.6 31.0 21 23.3 2.9 32.8 23 25.5 4.3 32.0
2/15 20 21.1 3.7 30.9 24 23.5 3.3 33.4 20 24.4 4.5 31.8
3/1 17 20.3 4.4 30.6 20 22.6 3.5 33.1 15 24.7 4.5 31.7
3/15 11 19.9 6.0 30.5 13 21.6 5.1 33.4 10 24.3 5.6 31.7
4/1 19 18.7 7.0 30.0 14 20.0 6.3 33.0 5 23.2 7.2 31.7
4/15 22 18.5 7.4 29.9 23 19.6 6.8 32.6 12 21.9 9.0 31.2
5/1 22 18.2 7.7 29.5 20 19.5 7.1 32.7 20 21.8 8.9 30.9
5/15 18 17.5 7.4 29.3 21 18.9 7.7 32.4 21 22.2 8.6 30.7
6/1 9 18.1 7.6 29.7 11 18.9 7.3 32.1 21 21.1 8.5 30.5
6/15 19 21.1 8.9 31.0
1Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during ech processing season.
Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during each processing season.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
9/26/57 RLH 810d








Table 12. Relationship of date of packing to average Hunter color values for commercial frozen concentrated
orange juices collected from Florida processing plants
Hunter Color Difference Meter average values for reconstituted juices
1953-54 season 220 samples 1954-55 season 215 samples 1956-57 season 212 samples
Approx. Number Number Number
date of Rd a b of Rd a b of Rd a b
packed samples samples samples
12/1 2 23.0 -6.0 28.4 1 23.7 -5.0 28.5
12/15 20 20.7 -5.7 27.3 11 22.3 -5.8 27.9 8 23.6 -6.2 28.0
1/1 19 20.7 -5.7 27.5 17 22.6 -6.1 27.2 16 23.9 -6.0 28.1
1/15 21 20.3 -5.9 27.Z 20 21.9 -6.1 27.3 21 24.0 -6.1 28.3
2/1 20 19.7 -5.7 27.0 21 21.9 -6.3 28.3 23 23.7 -5.6 28.0
2/15 20 19.7 -5.7 27.1 24 21.8 -6.0 28.8 20 23.2 -5.8 27.8
3/1 17 19.0 -5.3 27.2 20 21.5 -5.8 29.1 15 23.3 -5.9 27.7
3/15 11 18.3 -4.1 27.5 13 20.8 -4.5 29.9 10 23.4 -4.8 28.3
4/1 19 17.9 -3.4 27.5 14 19.6 -3.8 29.9 5 22.1 -3.8 28.4
4/15 22 17.9 -3.0 27.3 23 19.3 -3.5 29.7 12 20.8 -2.5 28.2
5/1 22 17.5 -2.9 26.9 20 19.0 -3.6 29.5 20 21.1 -2.7 28.5
5/15 18 17.1 -2.7 26.8 21 18.7 -2.7 29.4 21 20.7 -2.9 28.2
6/1 9 17.3 -2.5 26.3 11 18.4 -2.8 28.5 21 20.8 -2.5 28.0
6/15 19 21.0 -1.9 28.5


1 Samples
Samples


collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during each processing season.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
810e 9/26/57 RLH






Table 13. Frequency distribution of pulp in samples of
commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected from
Florida processing plants 1
Number of samples and season
Pulp2 221 i 215 212
% by volume 1953-54 1954-55 1956-57
% of samples
4.5 0.4 0.0 0.0
5.0 0.9 0.0 0.0
5.5 2.3 1.4 0.0
6.0 14.9 3.7 0.9
6.5 15.4 9.3 0.9
7.0 10.4 22.3 6.6
7.5 15.8 11.2 2.4
8.0 16.3 13.6 19.8
8.5 9.0 11.6 6.6
9.0 5.0 7.0 25.0
9.5 1.8 3.3 8.0
10.0 2.3 5.6 15.6
10.5 1.8 2.3 4.2
11.0 1.4 2.3 5.2
11.5 0.9 0.9 0.5
12.0 0.9 2.3 1.9
12.5 0.4 0.9 0.0
13.0 0.0 0.9 1.9
13.5 0.0 0.9 0.0
14.0 0.0 0.5 0.5
1 Samples collected semi-monthly from December through
June, inclusively, during each processing season.
2 Determined by centrifugal method; does not include floating
pulp.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
810g 9/26/57 RLH-AHR






Table 14A. Frequency distribution of water-insoluble
solids in samples of commercial frozen concentrated
orange juices collected from Florida processing plants
Number of samples and season
Water-insoluble 215 212 -
solids2 1954-55 1956-57
mg./100g, % of samples
75- 99 7.4 0.0
100-124 27.4 1.9
125-149 27.0 10.4
150-174 20.0 29.7
175-199 7.0 31.1
200-224 3.3 21.7
225-249 5.1 4.2
250-274 1.4 0.5
275-299 0.9 0.5
300-324 0.0 0.0
325-349 0.5 0.0


Table 14B. Frequency distribution
commercial frozen concentrated orange
processing plants 1


of flavonoids in samples of
juices collected from Florida


Flavonoids as Number of samples and season
hesperidin 220 215 212
Reconstituted juice 1953-54 1954-55 1956-57
mg./100 ml. % of samples
20- 29 0.5 0.0 0.0
30- 39 0.5 0.0 0.0
40- 49 2.7 0.0 0.0
50- 59 9.1 0,0 0.5
60- 69 21.8 7.4 8.5
70- 79 28.2 32.5 47.2
80- 89 22.7 36.3 29.7
90- 99 9.1 16.7 9.4
100-109 3.6 4.7 4.2
110-119 0.9 1.9 0.5
120-129 0.9 0.5 0.0
1 'Smn les collected nemi-mnnthlv from December throu-h June.


inclusively, during each processing
2 In reconstituted juices


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
810 1 9/26/57 FWW


season.






Table 15. Frequency distribution of pectinesterase activity in samples
of commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida
processing plants 1

Pectinesterase activity Number of samples and season
Concentrate 221 i 215 212
(PE.u.)g. soluble solids2 1953-54 1954-55 1956-57
X 1000 % of samples
0- 4 12.6 18.6 51.4
5- 9 48.0 52.6 38.2
10-14 13.1 19.1 9.4
15-19 8.2 6.0 1.0
20-24 10.8 3.2 0.0
25-29 3.6 0.5 0.0
30-34 3.2 0.0 0.0
35-39 0.0 0.0 0.0
40-44 0.5 0.0 0.0


Table 16. Frequency distribution of water-soluble peotin in samples of
commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida
processing plants 1

Number of samples and season
Pectin water soluble 221 215 212
Reconstituted juice 1953-54 i 1954-55 1956-57
mg./100g. of samples
10-14 1.8 0.0 0.0
15-19 3.6 0.5 0.0
20-24 9.1 3.7 0.0
25-29 23.5 19.1 0.0
30-34 24.9 22.8 9.4
35-39 17.6 27.9 30.2
40-44 10.9 13.5 26.9
45-49 4.5 8.8 24.1
50-54 3.2 3.2 5.6
55-59 0.9 0.5 2.8
60-64 0.0 0.0 0.5
65-69 0.0 0.0 0.5


1 Samples collected semi-monthly from December through]
during each processing season,
2 Soluble solids determined by refractometer at 280C.


h June, inclusively,


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
810f 9/26/57 CDA










Table 17. Frequency distribution of apparent viscosities for 178 samples
of commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected semi-monthly during the
1956-57 citrus season

Apparent viscosity at 3000.1

Brookfield Stormer Mitchell
viscometer2 viscometer3 viscometer4
% of Time in % of Time in % of
Centipoises samples seconds samples seconds samples

0- 249 0.0 0- 18 17.0 0- 15 0.0
250- 499 28.1 19- 36 65.5 16- 30 59.3
500- 749 43.7 37- 54 8.5 31- 45 29.0
750- 999 15.8 55- 72 3.9 46- 60 4.5
1000-1249 5.1 73- 90 2.3 61- 75 3.9
1250-1499 3.4 91-108 1.1 76- 90 1.9
1500-1749 1.7 109-126 1.1 91-105 0.7
1750-1999 2.2 127-144 0.6 105-120 0.7

1 Each sample was thawed for one hour in 300C. water bath, transferred from the
can to a beaker and mechanically stirred for five minutes at 300C. The same
sample was then used for each of the three viscosity determinations.

2 Determination made using No. 2 spindle, speed of 12 rpm and reading taken
after one minute.

Used 125 gram weight and determined time for 100 revolutions of spindle.

4 Loaned by Mr. W. G. Mitchell, Pasco Packing Company, Dade City, Fla.
Viscometer of stainless steel with 145 ml. capacity; time determined for
100 ml. of concentrate to flow through orifice, 1/8 inch inside diameter
and 17/32 inch in length.









Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
810n 9/26/57 GHE









Table 18. Frequency distribution of diacetyl
samples of commercial frozen concentrated orange
from Florida processing plants 1


values for
juices collected


Number of samples and season
Diacetyl 220 215 I 212
value2 1953-54 1954-55 956-57
p.p.m. % of samples
0.0 0.0 0.0 5.7
0.1 0.0 1.4 7.1
0.2 0.9 3.7 8.0
0.3 6.8 9.3 13.7
0.4 10.0 14.9 11.8
0.5 13.7 15.8 12.3
0.6 10.4 12.5 11.8
0.7 15.4 13.5 6.6
0.8 12.3 9.3 5.2
0.9 11.4 4.6 2.8
1.0 5.9 4.2 5.2
1.1 1.8 1.9 2.4
1.2 6.4 2.8 0.9
1.3 2.3 1.9 0.45
1.4 0.45 0.9 0.45
1.5 0.0 0.0 1.9
1.6 0.45 0.0 2.8
1.7 0.0 0.5 0.0
1.8 0.45 0.9 0.0
1.9 0.0 0.9 0.0
2.0 0.0 0. 0.0
2.1 0.0 0.0 0.45
2.2 0.0 0.0 0.45

2.6 0.45 0.0 0.0
2.7 0.45 0.0 0.0

3.1 0.0 0.5 0.0
3.2 0.0 0.5 0.0
3.3 0.45 0.0 0.0
1 Samples collected semi-monthly from Deconber through June,
inclusively, during each processing season.
2
2Diacetyl and acetyl-methyl-carbinol in 25 ml. of distillate
from 300 ml. of 120 Brix reconstituted juice, expressed as
diacetyl.

Florida Citrus Experiment Station and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 810h 9/26/57 ECH






Table 19. Relationship of date of packing to average diacetyl values for
commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida processing
plants 1

Average diacetyl values 2
p.p.m.
1953-54 220 samples 1954-55 215 samples 1956-57 212 samples
Approx.
date Number of Average Number of Average Number of Average
packed samples value samples value samples value
12/1 3 0.6 1 2.2*
12/15 20 0.6 11 0.4 8 0.3
1/1 19 0.6 17 0.6 16 0.3
1/15 21 0.6 20 0.5 21 0.3
2/1 20 0.7 21 0.5 23 0.7
2/15 20 0.7 24 0.5 20 0.4
3/1 17 0.6 20 0.7 15 0.3
3/15 11 0.7 13 0.6 10 0.6
4/1 19 .0.8 14 0.4 5 0.2
4/15 22 0.8 23 0.7 12 0.5
5/1 21 1.0 20 0.8 20 0.5
5/15 18 1.0 21 1.4 21 0.6
6/1 .9 1.0 11 1.0 21 0.8
6/15 19 1.1


Table 20. Relationship of date of packing to average values for flavonoids
in samples of commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida
processing plants 1
Flavonoids as hesperidin
Reconstituted juice mg./100 ml.
1953-54 220 samples 1954-55 215 samples 1956-57 212 samples
Approx.
date Number of Average Number of Average Number of Average
packed samples value samples value samples value
12/1 2 98 1 85
12/15 20 83 11 84 8 85
1/1 19 80 17 89 16 84
1/15 21 78 20 87 21 85
2/1 20 77 21 85 23 84
2/15 20 77 24 85 20 80
3/1 17 75 20 84 15 78
3/15 11 75 13 85 10 86
4/1 19 58 14 81 5 82
4/15 22 74 23 78 12 75
5/1 22 76 20 79 20 78
5/15 18 74 21 80 21 74
6/1 9 75 11 84 21 75
6/15 19 78


1 Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during
each processing season.
2 Diacetyl and acetyl-methyl-carbinol in 25 ml. of distillate from 300 ml. of
120 Brix reconstituted juice, expressed as diacetyl.
* The flavor of this sample was poor because of buttermilk-type off-flavor, and
therefore the diacetyl value was high.


y
3








Table 21. Frequency distribution of flavor grades for samples of commercial
frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida processing plants

1953-54 1954-55 1956-57
Flavor Number of % of Number of % of Number of % of
grade2 samples samples samples samples samples samples
Midseason packs 1

Good 17 14.2 40 35.4 39 34.2
Fair 88 73.3 70 61.9 74 64.9
Poor 15 12.5 3 2.7 1 0.9
Totals 120 100.0 113 100.0 114 100.0

Late season packs 1

Good 57 56.4 72 70.6 60 61.2
Fair 43 42.6 28 27.4 37 37.8
Poor 1 1.0 2 2.0 1 1.0
Totals 101 100.0 102 100.0 98 100.0

Total packs for entire season

Good 74 33.5 112 52.1 99 46.7
Fair 131 59.3 98 45.6 111 52.4
Poor 16 7.2 5 2.3 2 0.9
Totals 221 100.0 215 100.0 212 100.0

1 Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during
each processing season. Samples of midseason packs collected from December 1
to March 1, inclusively, for the 1953-54 and 1954-55 seasons; from December 1
to March 15, inclusively, for the 1956-57 season. Samples of late season packs
collected from March 1 to June 1, inclusively, for the 1953-54 and 1954-55
seasons; from March 15 to June 15, inclusively, for the 1956-57 season.

2 Based on the evaluation of the flavor of 221 samples for the 1953-54 season,
215 samples for the 1954-55 season and 212 samples for the 1956-57 season. The
taste panel followed instructions as given on the following page. The total
number of flavor evaluations made by the taste panel in checking the samples
for the 1953-54 season was 2174, including 705 replications. Each of the re-
constituted juices from the concentrates, collected during the 1954-55 and the
1956-57 seasons, were tasted at 3 different times by most of the panel members.
The data for the 1954-55 season are based upon 4515 individual flavor grades;
for the 1956-57 season on 4452 grades.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
810 1 9/26/57 FWW









Table 22. Frequency distribution of degree of clarification and
gelation, after storage of samples at 40OF., in commercial frozen
concentrated orange juices collected from Florida processing plants1

After 72 hr. Number of samples and season
at 400F. 221 212 212
Degree of 1953-54 1954-55 1956-57
clarification2 % of samples

None 40.7 43.4 74.5
Slight 16.3 16.5 13.7
Definite 16.3 24.1 9.9
Extreme 26.7 16.0 1.9


Degree of
gelation

0-None 49,9 76.8 56.6
1-Very slight 35.7 12.3 24.5
2-Slight 12.2 9.0 18.9
3-Semi-gel 1.8 1.9 0.0
4-Solid gel 0.4 0.0 0.0


Samples collected semi-monthly from December
inclusively, during each processing season.


through June,


Clarification measured by percentage light transmission of
centrifuged reconstituted juice using Lumetron 402-E with
730 filter and 14 ml. cell. None = 0-59%; Slight = 60-69%;
Definite = 70-84%; and Extreme = 85-100%.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
810 n 9/26/57 RWO










INSTRUCTIONS TO TASTE PANEL


Flavor Evaluation of Frozen Concentrated Orange Juices

Samples: Reconstituted commercial frozen 420 Brix orange
concentrates.


Directions:


(a) Grade for flavor on the following basis and do
not consider other factors, such as color or separation.


Excellent
Very good
Good
Fair


10
9
8-7
6-5


Poor 4-3
Very Poor 2
Unpalatable 1


Use excellent, good, or fair only if the juice in your
opinion is acceptable as frozen orange concentrate, and
therefore, would be repurchased by you.

(b) If you score a sample of juice 4 or lower, indica-
ting that the product is not acceptable as frozen orange
concentrate, and therefore, would not be repurchased by
you, then indicate all of Lhe flavor defects responsible
for the poor flavor quality.

Indicate flavor defects using only the following descrip-
tive terms. If necessary, other terms will be added to
this list. If you are not sure of the type of flavor
defect in any juice, which you score 4 or lower, then
indicate that it is nondescript.


Flavor Defects


Too sour (acid)
Too sweet
Excessive peel oil
Too bitter
Too astringent


Heated
Buttermilk
Cardboard
Castor Oil
Tallowy


Immature fruit
Overmature fruit
Stale fruit
Insipid


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
809 9/26/57 FWW




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