Group Title: Citrus Station mimeo report - Florida Citrus Experiment Station ; 59-1
Title: Effect of the use of freeze-damaged fruit on the characteristics of frozen concentrated orange juice
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Title: Effect of the use of freeze-damaged fruit on the characteristics of frozen concentrated orange juice
Series Title: Citrus Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 11, 34 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wenzel, F. W
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Florida Citrus Commission
Publisher: Florida Citrus Experiment Station :
Florida Citrus Commission
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred FL
Publication Date: 1958
 Subjects
Subject: Oranges -- Effect of cold on -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Frozen concentrated orange juice -- Quality -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Statement of Responsibility: F.W. Wenzel ... et al..
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General Note: "October 2, 1958."
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 74904681

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Citrus Station Mimeo Report 59-1
October 2, 1958
Effect of the Use of Freeze-Damaged Fruit on the Characteristics of
Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice

F. W. Wenzel, A. H. Rouse, R. Patrick, R. W. Olsen, M. D. Maraulja,
E. L. Moore, E Hill, R. L. Huggart, G. H. Ezell,
R. W. Barron and C. D. Atkins


Advantage was taken of the serious situation caused by the severe freezes,
which occurred during the 1957-58 citrus season, to again investigate extensively
problems concerning the use of freeze-damaged fruit for the production of frozen
concentrated orange juice. Westbrook1 had studied some of these problems during
the 1954-55 and 1955-56 seasons; also, he had previously discussed2 and summa-
rized his findings. After the freezes of December 1957, Wenzel3 reported some
of the results obtained from the examination of experimental packs of frozen
orange concentrate which had been processed using fruit that had been seriously
damaged by cold weather that occurred in the northern area of the citrus belt
during the 1956-57 season. Briefly and from a practical viewpoint, these pre-
vious studies indicated that stability and flavor problems, normally associated
with frozen orange concentrate, possibly would be increased if seriously damaged
fruit was used. However, it was also evident from the results of these investi-
gations that if modifications in extraction and finishing procedures were made
to reduce juice yield, the possibility of the occurrence of off-flavors would be
minimized; also, that physically stable concentrates could be produced from
freeze-damaged fruit provided stabilization temperatures were increased to 195oF.

Immediately after the freeze of Dec. 12, 1957, it was decided that every
effort should be made to obtain additional information related to the utili-
zation of freeze-damaged fruit in frozen orange concentrate and that the
following aspects of this problem should be emphasized, (a) the effect of the
degree of damage in the fruit on the chemical and physical characteristics of
frozen orange concentrate, especially those related to physical stability and
flavor, (b) modifications to usual processing procedures, including those for
juice extraction, juice finishing, and stabilization, necessary for the pro-
duction of a stable product with acceptable flavor, and (c) method to determine
extent of freeze damage in oranges other than that of the visual examination of
cut fruit.

The data included in this report, together with a brief discussion, were
obtained from the examination of both commercial and experimental packs of fro-
zen orange concentrate processed during the abnormal citrus season of 1957-58.
For various reasons, in this report emphasis has been placed on the character-
istics of commercial and experimental orange concentrates and information ob-
tained from the investigations on processing procedures will be reported
subsequently.
4 Effect of the Use of Freeze-Damaged Fruit on the Characteristics of Frozen
Concentrated Orange Juices. George F. Westbrook, Jr. Doctoral dissertation.
University of Florida, June, 1957. 98 p., 23 tables, and 8 figures.
2 Eighth Annual Citrus Processors Meeting, Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida. Sept. 26, 1957.
3 Meeting of Concentrators' Advisory Committee, Lakeland, Florida, on Dec. 20,
1957; also, at special meeting of citrus processors on Jan. 15, 1958, Citrus
Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, Florida.
Florida Citrus Experiment Station and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lare Alfred, Florida. 866 gg 10/2/58 FWW






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Collection and Description of Samples of Commercial Frozen Orange Concentrates

420 Brix products. (a) 200 samples of commercial frozen concentrated
orange juice were obtained from 18 processing plants shortly after the freeze
of Dec. 12, 1957. All except one of these samples were packed in 6-oz. cans
during the period of Dec. 31, 1957 to Jan. 8, 1958; regulations of the Florida
Citrus Commission in effect over this period had allowed, until January 3, the
use of 15% of seriously damaged fruit in the production of frozen orange concen-
trate; this was increased to 25% on January 3. These 200 samples were examined
chiefly for flavor and physical stability.

(b) Samples from 193 packs of commercial frozen orange concentrate were
collected from 23 plants. These samples were taken from production lines in the
plants by U.S.D.A. inspectors on approximately the 1st and 15th of each month
throughout the 1957-58 season. The total number of samples received from each
plant ranged from 1 to 12; from 4 to 22 on the basis of the sampling dates. The
chemical and physical characteristics of these 193 samples were determined and
also an evaluation of their flavor was made. Results obtained are presented in
Tables 1-23.

Bulk products. A total of 59 samples of bulk concentrate4 were obtained
from 22 plants; 28 of these samples were processed and packed in bulk from Dec.
28, 1957 to Jan. 10, 1958, 18 samples from Jan. 20 to Feb. 7, and 13 samples
from March 14 to April 14. The flavor of these samples was evaluated and some
of their other characteristics determined; results are tabulated in Table 24.


Preparation and Description of Experimental Packs of Frozen Orange Concentrate

Experimental packs of both raw juices and orange concentrates were obtained
from 44 lots of freeze-damaged fruit, 23 of which came from commercial groves.
Each of these 44 lots were sampled prior to use and 1/4 inch, 1/2 inch, and
center cuts were made by the senior author on each fruit in the 44 samples to
determine the degree of damage in each lot of fruit. Approximately 1.3,000
individual fruit were cut during the season. Over 100 packs of raw juice were
canned and frozen after extraction from oranges having various amounts of injury
from freezing. Also, over 100 packs of 420 Brix or 550 Brix frozen orange con-
centrate were processed in the Station pilot plant and these do not include a
considerable number of other packs that were processed from damaged fruit for a
variety of reasons.

4 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service, Washington,
D. C. U.S. standards for grades of concentrated orange juice for manufactur-
ing. Dec. 20, 1957.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 hh 10/2/58 FWW






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All fruit was processed as soon as possible after it was picked; however,
in instances where some delay did occur, the fruit was stored either at 320F.
or 400F. until used. Most of the packs of 420 Brix frozen orange concentrate,
used for obtaining the data included in this report, were prepared using the
same processing procedures. A Food Machinery In-Line extractor equipped with
5-3 inch oil cups was used for extraction of the juice; the beam setting was
flush; 3-.04 and 2-.09 strainer tubes and 7/16 inch restrictors were used.
Finishing was done with a Food Machinery, Model 35, screw-type finisher usually
equipped with an .027 inch screen and with the head clearance adjusted within
the limits of .011 inch and .026 inch for minimum and maximum settings, respective-
ly, to give the pulp discharged approximately the same consistency. Stabilization
temperatures, using a Walker-Wallace plate-type heat exchanger, were 1950F. for
early and midseason packs and 1750F. for late season packs. Concentration to
approximately 550 Brix was done in the large pilot plant evaporator. Unheated
cutback juice and Valencia orange oil were added to the 550 Brix concentrates
and then the 420 Brix products canned in 6 oz. cans, frozen and stored at -80F.

Data concerning the degree of freeze damage in the fruit used for the 18
packs of raw juices and 24 packs of 420 Brix frozen orange concentrate are
shown in Tables A to R; also tabulated in these tables are some of the chemical,
physical, and organoleptic characteristics of these products.

In reviewing the tabulated data in Tables A to R and before drawing any
conclusions concerning the relationship between the various characteristics of
the products and the extent of freeze injury in the fruit from which they were
made, it is very important that the following information be taken into con-
sideration; otherwise, incorrect interpretation may result.

The information considered at any one time should be in one of the following
4 groups. First, the data in Tables A, B, and C were obtained from the exami-
nation of 18 lots of Valencia oranges and the juices extracted therefrom; as
indicated these lots of fruit were picked, over the period from Feb. 28 to May
16, in the same commercial grove from 3 groups of trees which had been defoli-
ated because of the cold weather to the extent of approximately 10%, 20 to 30%,
and 75 to 95%. The 2 lots of dropped fruit were picked up from under the trees
with 75 to 95% defoliation and consisted of oranges that were in fair condition
as judged by external appearance and extent of softness when this fruit was
washed and graded prior to the extraction of the juice. In Tables A, B, and C,
as well as in the other tables (D-R) the amount of freeze damage in each lot of
fruit is given on the basis of both the percentage of fruit scoreable against
#1 grade (1/4 inch cut) and that scoreable against #2 grade (1/2 inch cut).
Frozen concentrated orange juice was not made from any of the lots of fruit
listed in Tables A, B, and C.

The second group of tables, D through H, contain data obtained from the
examination of 6 packs of frozen orange concentrate which were made from freeze-
damaged Valencia oranges that were harvested from trees in the same location
(Block 17) in a Station grove. These lots of fruit were picked and processed
from March 14 to June 17.

5 This fruit was reserved and provided by Mr. W. C. Wooten.

Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 ii 10/2/58 FWW








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The third group of tables, I through M, contains data on the characteristics
of frozen orange concentrates made from lots of fruit in which the only variable
was the amount of freeze injury. This was accomplished in 2 instances by sepa-
rating by flotation a single batch of fruit into 2 lots; in the third instance 2
lots of midseason oranges one (9B) containing 15% damaged fruit, based on a
1/2 inch cut, and the other (9A) 81% damaged fruit, were mixed in different pro-
portions to obtain 3 additional lots (9E, 90, and 9D).

The principal variables in the lots of fruit listed in the three groups of
tables discussed above were the degree of freeze damage, the date of harvesting
and variety of fruit. Also, in almost all instances the same procedures were
used for the extraction of the raw juices and the processing of the concentrates
obtained from these lots of fruit. However, the juices from the lots of fruit
listed in the fourth group of tables, N through R, were in some instances ex-
tracted, finished, and processed using different procedures. Therefore, in
considering the data in this group of tables, the fact that variations in fruit
variety, grove location, date of harvesting, and processing procedures are in-
volved together with the degree of freeze damage, must be taken into account;
otherwise, some erroneous conclusions may be drawn concerning the relationship
between the extent of freeze injury and the characteristics of orange concentrates
processed from damaged fruit.

Characteristics of Commercial Frozen Orange Concentrates Processed during
the 1957-58 Season
420 Brix products. (a) Following is a summary, as it appeared in a pub-
lished report7, of the results obtained concerning the physical stability of
the 200 samples of commercial frozen concentrated orange juice that were packed
in 18 plants during the period of Dec. 31, 1957 to Jan. 8, 1958.

"A study was made of factors relating to the physical stability
of 200 samples of commercial frozen concentrated orange juices packed
after the freeze of December 12, 1957. When compared with the re-
sults obtained from the examination of commercial samples collected
semi-monthly throughout the 1956-57 citrus season, these post-freeze
concentrates showed a similar pulp pattern, contained more cloud, and
showed increased stability to gelation and clarification".
Initial flavor evaluation of these concentrates, by the senior author of
this mimeographed report, indicated that with the exception of 1 sample all of
the products were acceptable, with 56.0% being classified as "good", 43.5% as
"fair", and 0.5% as "poor". The off flavor in the 1 unacceptable product was of
the oxidized or COF type. The flavor of these frozen orange concentrates were
again checked after storage at -80F. for approximately 7 months and only 5 of
the samples were judged to be not acceptable because of poor flavor; only 2 of
these 5 products had oxidized off-flavors.
6This fruit was supplied, harvested, and delivered to the Station by the
Minute Maid Corporation.
7 Moore, E. L., A. IH. Rouse, C. D. Atkins, R. L. Huggart and R. W. Barron.
1958. Comparison of the physical stability of some commercial frozen con-
centrated orange juices packed after the December 12, 1957 freeze with those
packed during the 1956-57 season. Citrus Magazine 20: 16-17, 20-21.
Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 jj 10/2/58 FWW






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(b) Data concerning the characteristics of the 193 samples of commercial
frozen orange concentrates collected from 23 plants during the 1957-58 season
are presented in Tables 1-23. For comparison purposes, similar data are also
included in these tables that were obtained from the examination of products
packed in Florida plants during the 1954-55 and 1956-57 citrus seasons. Some
of this data will be briefly discussed.

Pectinesterase activity, pecticubsthangces ad physical stability. The
average pectiiesterase values were 5.2 and 2.8, respectively, for the samples
obtained during the 1956-57 and 1957-58 seasons and, as shown in Table 18, 91.3%
of the 1957-58 samples were in the range of 0 to 5 units while only 51.4% of the
1956-57 samples were in this same range. This indicated that either the stabi-
lization temperature and/or length of time for heat treatment of juices or
partially concentrated juices processed during the 1957-58 season had been in-
creased. This low level of enzymic activity found in most of the 1957-58 samples
was the principal factor in the greater physical stability of these products, as
evident by data in Table 20, than that in the samples packed during the previous
season. Also, this becomes more evident when it is seen from data in Table 19
that the amount of water-soluble pectin in the samples from both seasons was
about the same. Average values for the pectin content in the samples from the
two seasons were 42.5 and 41.3 milligrams per 100 grams of centrifuged reconsti-
tuted juice.

The amount of both pulp and water-insoluble solids, Tables 15 and 16, was
slightly less in the concentrates from the 1957-58 season than that in products
processed the previous season. Averages for pulp values were 12% and 11%, for
the two years, a decrease of about 8%, and a comparable decrease of about 9% in
the water insoluble solids was indicated by average values of 181 and 164
milligrams per 100 grams of reconstituted juice.

Viscosity. The apparent viscosities of the 420 Brix orange concentrates,
as determined with both the Brookfield viscometer and pipette, were generally
lower for the 1957-58 samples than for those obtained during the 1956-57 season;
this is evident from the data in Table 7. Based upon the average values of 965
and 597 centipoises, respectively, for the 1956-57 and 1957-58 samples, a 38.2%
decrease in viscosity was indicated when the Brookfield instrument was used. A
statistical analysis of the data obtained on both the Brookfield viscometer and
the pipette showed good correlation between the two methods.

Diacetyl values, flavonoid content and microbiological data. The diacetyl
values, as given in Table 21, for the 1957-58 commercial frozen orange concen-
trates ranged from 0.2 to 2.9 p.p.m., with an average value of 0.9 p.p.m., as
compared to a range of none to 3.2 p.p.m. and an average of 0.6 p.p.m. for
similar products collected during the 1956-57 season. Of the samples tested, 22%
had diacetyl values of more than 1.0 p.p.m. compared with 10% for the previous
season. Only 1 of the 193 concentrates were judged to be poor in flavor because
of undesireable buttermilk-type flavor; this had a diacetyl value of 2.1 p.p.m.
One sample having a diacetyl value of 2.9 p.p.m. did not have buttermilk-type
off-flavor, and this was apparently due to a high acetylmethylcarbinol content
of 2.3 p.p.m.
Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 kk 10/2/58 FWW






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An increase in the flavonoid content was found in the concentrates processed
during the 1957-58 season as compared with products packed during the previous
year as shown by results in Table 17.

Because of the high stabilization temperatures used during the 1957-58
season, data of little importance would have been obtained from total plate
counts and, therefore, none of the 193 concentrates were plated.

The incidence of enteric microorganisms isolated from samples of frozen
orange concentrate examined in the past two years was very small. In the 1956-57
season there was only one sample from which Escherichia was isolated. From the
212 samples Aerobacter was isolated from 14 or 6.6% and streptococci from 86%;
however, of these 182 isolates of streptococci, only 10 or 5.5% confirmed as
enterococci. In the 1957-58 orange concentrates, 1.6% or 3 of 192 samples con-
tained Escherichia and 5.2% or 10 samples gave evidence of Aerobacter. There
were 145 or 75.5% of these juices from which streptococci were isolated but none
of these isolates were confirmed as enterococci.

To obtain additional data concerning the occurrence of enteric microorganisms
in citrus juices, the raw juices utilized by the pilot plant were also sampled
before processing. Of the 34 samples obtained in the 1956-57 season, most of
which were from freeze-damaged fruit, one sample or 2.9% contained Escherichia
and 4 or 11.8% contained Aerobacter. Streptococci were isolated from 24 or 70.6%
of the samples; of these 4 or 16.7% confirmed as enterococci. In the 1957-58
season, 78 samples of raw juice were obtained before processing. Again these
juices were mostly from freeze-damaged fruit. Escherichia was isolated from 3
or 3.8% of the samples and Aerobacter from 51.2% or 40 juices. Streptococci were
isolated from 92.3% or 72 of these juices, but none of them were confirmed as
enterococci.

Flavor and related characteristics. The results of the evaluation of the
flavor of the 193 samples of frozen orange concentrate collected during the
1957-58 season are shown in Table 22, along with similar data obtained during
1954-55 and 1956-57. The percentages of the 1957-58 samples that were graded
either good, fair, or poor were 12, 81, and 71 in comparison with 47, 52, and
1% of the concentrates from the previous season which were graded in the same
categories. This indicates that although most of the products processed during
a season when large quantities of freeze-damaged fruit were used were acceptable
in respect to flavor, nevertheless flavorwise they were not as good as during
seasons when it was not necessary to use fruit damaged by cold weather. The
information in Table 22 also shows that, as in previous seasons, the flavor of
the midseason products was not as good as that of those processed during the late
season. The percentage of the samples judged to be poor in flavor was greater
for the 1957-58 season than that for the previous year, as indicated by 7% and
1%, respectively. Off-flavors responsible for the poor flavor of 14 of the
1957-58 concentrates were principally of the COF type (castor oil, cardboard,
tallowy), since such undesirable flavors were found in 11 samples; buttermilk-
type flavor was evident in 1 concentrate and the other 2 samples had a stale
flavor. It should also be mentioned that perhaps a considerable number of the
samples were graded "fair" because of the presence in the concentrates of some
Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 11 10/2/58 FWW





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COF or oxidized flavor, but not enough to justify a grade of poor; COF flavors
were indicated by 3 or more panel members as being present in 22 of the 193
frozen orange concentrates.

Since the flavor of many of the 1957-58 concentrates was noticeably more
astringent and more tart than products packed in previous years, it was thought
that some correlation between the flavor grades and the Brix-to-acid ratios
might exist; however, when these were compared as shown in Table 23 it was seen
that because of the large percentage of samples in the fair flavor category, no
correlation was evident. Nevertheless, it is believed that the tartness and
astringency in many of the orange concentrates, along with a lack of flavor, were
factors for the grading of the flavor as fair in such a large percentage of the
193 samples. The frequency distribution tables for acid and pH (Tables 2 and 4)
indicate that both of these characteristics were factors causing the increased
tartness in the 1957-58 concentrates. Finally, it should be mentioned, as shown
in Table 23, that both the flavor and the color of the concentrates processed
during the late season were better than that in the midseason samples.

(c) Bulk concentrates. Minimum, maximum and average values for various
characteristics of the 59 samples of bulk concentrate examined are shown in Table
24. A discussion of the data obtained concerning 46 of these products, which
were processed during the midseason, has been published A summary of this
information, as included in the publication,follows.

"Forty-six samples of commercial frozen bulk orange concentrate
were examined for chemical, physical and flavor characteristics.
These products were processed in 22 plants following the December 1957
freeze during the time when early and midseason oranges were available.

Initially, all except one of the bulk concentrates met the re-
quirements for U.S. grade "A' concentrated orange juice for manu-
facturing; one sample was unacceptable because of an off flavor
similar to buttermilk.

The physical stability of all of the samples was considered
satisfactory in that they met the requirement of the Florida
Citrus Commission regulation that the degree of gelation after
storage for 24 hr. at 800F. should not be in excess of a No. 2
gel; however, one sample did show definite clarification.

During storage of the 46 frozen bulk concentrates at -80F.
for approximately 3 months, the initial flavor of 35 of the
samples was maintained, slight flavor deterioration occurred
in 6 of the samples, and 5 of the products became unacceptable
because of the development of objectionable off flavors".


8 Huggart, R. L., F. W. Wenzel and M. D. Maraulja. 1958. Characteristics of
bulk orange concentrate processed after the freeze of December 1957. Citrus
Magazine 20: 12, 14, 26, 27, 28.

Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 mm 10/2/ 58 FWW






-8-


Results from the analysis of the 13 bulk concentrates processed during a
portion of the Valencia season, March 34 to April 14, are also reported in
Table 24. The physical stability of all of these products was found to be
satisfactory and met the requirements of regulations concerning their use in
the production of 420 Brix frozen orange concentrate. The color and flavor of
the Valencia bulk concentrates were, in general, better than in similar products
processed during the midseason. Only one sample was not acceptable because of
an off-flavor resembling rancid castor oil.

Characteristics of Experimental Packs of Frozen Orange Concentrates Processed
during the 1957-58 Season

The chemical, physical and organoleptic characteristics of 18 packs of
Valencia orange juice and 24 packs of 420 Brix frozen orange concentrate, pro-
cessed in the Station pilot plant from freeze-damaged fruit, are tabulated in
Tables A-R. Following is a brief discussion of this information.

Valencia orange juices. Results reported in Tables A, B, and C concern
Valencia orange juices extracted from fruit which had been injured in various
amounts by cold weather and which had been picked during the Valencia season
from trees in the same location. Since juice extraction procedures were the
same for these 18 lots of fruit, the two principal variables were fruit maturity
and degree of freeze damage. That the usual changes in such characteristics as
acid and pH, which decrease and increase, respectively, as the fruit ripens, are
evident in the juices extracted as the season progressed can be seen if a com-
parison of juices from fruit picked on different successive dates is made.
Differences in the characteristics of these juices because of the extent of
freeze injury become apparent only if comparisons are made of juices that were
extracted on the same date. When this is done, the data in Table A, show that
the acid content and the Brix value decreased, while the Brix-to-acid ratio
increased, as the amount of freeze damage in the fruit became greater. The
relative juice yield decreased with extent of damage and was lowest. In one lot
of the dropped fruit. As indicated in Table B, ~hen the degree of freeze injury
increased a reduction in ascorbic acid occurred; also, the flavonoid content and
the microbiological counts were greater in the juices from extremely damaged
fruit than those in juices from fruit with only a slight amount of injury. Ex-
tremely high counts were found in the juices from the dropped fruit.

Data in Table C show a decrease in pectinesterase activity in the Valencia
juices as the degree of freeze damage increased; average values of 33.5, 29.0,
and 27.2 units for juices from slightly, moderately, and extremely damaged fruit,
respectively; the lowest average of 22.8 units was found in the dropped fruit.

Serum pectin was slightly greater in the juice from extremely damaged fruit
than in that with slight damage, as indicated by the respective averages of
16.5 and 17.9 units. The largest quantity of serum pectin was found in juice
from the dropped fruit.

As the degree of damage increased, there was a slight increase in the water-
insoluble solids in the juices; average values for juices from fruit with slight,

Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 nn 10/2/58 FWW







moderate, and extreme injury were 118, 122, and 131 mg./100 g., respectively.
Some of the highest values for water-insoluble solids were found in the dropped
fruit. Although there was an increase in water-insoluble solids in the juices
as the degree of damage increased, this was not definitely evident from the
pulp values which were relatively constant; however, the pulp content was the
greatest in juice from dropped fruit.

It is important to stress at this time the fact that the data just dis-
cussed were for Valencia orange juices and that changes in some of the character-
istics of these juices brought about by freeze injury of the fruit may not be the
same for early or midseason varieties of fruit.

Frozen Valencia orange concentrates. These 6 products were processed
using Valencia oranges that were harvested from trees located in the same area
in a Station grove. Processing procedures were the same for all packs and a
stabilization temperature of 1750F. was used. The amount of fresze-damage, based
upon the 1/2 inch cut as shown in Tables D-H, varied irregularly from 10 to 38%
as the season progressed; also, 3 lots of fruit were damaged to about the same
extent of 10 or 11%, and 2 other lots to 19 and 20%. Thus, it is evident that
the principal variable was the maturity of the fruit rather than the degree of
freeze injury; also, the amount of freeze damage in the fruit was not as great
as had been expected. Because of these conditions, some of the trends evident
in the characteristics of these concentrates, such as decreasing acidity and
ascorbic acid, are primarily those that would occur during the normal ripening
of fruit and were influenced to only a small extent by the degree of damage in
the fruit, with perhaps the exception of the concentrate processed on June 17
in which the extent of damage was 38%. The fact that the microbiological counts
in the raw juices increased as the season progressed is of interest.

The apparent viscosities of both the 420 and 55-560 Brix orange concentrates
showed a steady increase as the fruit matured. The pulp, which is a major
viscosity factor, showed this same steady increase with maturity and probably
this accounts largely for the increase in viscosity. In general, the water-
insoluble solids followed the pattern of the viscosity and pulp increases, but
the correlation was not as good. It should also be noted that the concentrate
with the highest apparent viscosity showed the least degree of clarification and
that the productwith lowest apparent viscosity was extremely clarified after 24
hours at 80OF.
In general, a greater degree of clarification occurred in the samples that
had the higher pectinesterase activities. In the 2 samples in which there was
either no or slight clarification, it is possible that the higher apparent
viscosities kept a part of the dispersed water-insoluble solids in suspension;
also, since the quantity of pectin was lower in these two samples, the quality
or grade of pectin is indicated as an important factor.

Serum pectin data show a trend to decrease and this is a normal metabolic
pattern; however, juice from freeze-damaged fruit will usually increase in this
pectic constituent. There is an apparent downward trend in pectinesterase
activity but no explanation for this can be given at this time.

Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 oo 10/2/58 FW






-10-


As is shown in Table H, the Hunter "at values indicated that the color of
these 6 packs of orange concentrate was poor. The flavor of the products pro-
cessed on or after April 10 was fair, but the samples packed during March were
poor in flavor because of the immaturity of the fruit.

Effect of degree of freeze-damage in fruit on concentrate characteristics, -
The only variable of significance in the packs of frozen orange concentrate to
be discussed in this section was the degree of freeze-damage in the fruit that
was used. In 2 different instances, fruit from the same batch were separated
into 2 lots by flotation. In a third instance fruit from 2 lots containing 15%
and 81% damage, as shown in Table I, was mixed in different proportions so that
5 lots of fruit, each having a different degree of damage, were available for
processing. It is evident from the data in Tables I and J that as the amount of
damage in the fruit used increased, the juice yield, acid, and ascorbic acid
decreased in most of the concentrates and the Brix-to-acid ratio, pH, and flavo-
noid content increased.

Both the viscosity and the pulp content of the concentrates increased as
the degree of freeze injury became greater in the fruit, as is indicated by data
in Tables K and L; and as previously noted it is believed that the increased
viscosities resulted primarily from the increased amounts of pulp. Water-insolu-
ble solids also usually were greater in the concentrates made from fruit with
larger amounts of freeze injury.

The quantity of serum pectin in the concentrates prepared from the midseason
fruit was greater than that in the products made from late season oranges. As
the extent of damage in the fruit increased, the pectin in the concentrates in-
creased in all except one of the packs.

As shown in Table L, the orange concentrate with the highest viscosity
formed a No. 2 or slight gel after storage for 24 hr. at 800F.; no gelatin
occurred in the other products. The 2 concentrates prepared from the late
season oranges were the only samples that clarified and both of these contained
low quantities of pectin and had relatively high pectinesterase activity.

The color of all of these concentrates was poor, as shown by the Hunter
"a" values given in Table M.

There was a definite difference in the flavor of the 2 packs of concentrate
made from midseason oranges which had been separated by flotation into 2 lots of
fruit, 1 lot of which contained 14% freeze-damaged fruit and the other lot con-
taining 42%, based on a 1/2 inch cut. The flavor of the concentrate made from
the fruit with the greater amount of damage was poor and unacceptable, while
the other concentrate "as acceptable and its flavor was graded as fair.

There was no practical difference in the flavor of the 2 packs of concen-
trate made from 2 lots of late season oranges, 1 lot having been damaged to the
extent of 7% and the other lot containing fruit with 52% damage, as indicated in
Table M. Both of these products were acceptable having a fair flavor.

The 5 packs of concentrate processed from the 5 lots of midseason oranges,
obtained by mixing in various proportions 2 batches of fruit with different
Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 pp 10/2/58 FWW





-11-


degrees of damage, were found to be acceptable and the flavor of all of these
products was judged to be of fair quality. The extent of damage in the lots of
fruit used for, these packs ranged from 15% to 81% of fruit scoreable against the
No. 2 grade (1/2 inch cut).

Other packs of frozen orange concentrate. The characteristics of 13 packs
of orange concentrate processed from both early and midseason fruit having
different amounts of freeze damage are shown in Tables N to R. As previously
mentioned, variables other than the extent of damage are involved in these packs,
such as fruit variety and maturity, grove location and processing procedures.
Without knowing what the variables are in respect to each of these packs, it is
impossible to draw conclusions concerning any relationship between the character-
istics of these concentrates and the degree of freeze damage in the fruit used.
These data were included in this report only so that they, along with the other
data presented, could be used to see the range of values for the various
characteristics of frozen orange concentrate that were found when oranges of
different varieties and with a wide range of freeze injury were used for the
production of this product.
































Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 qq 10/2/58 FWW








Table 1. Frequency distribution of Brix values for samples of
commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida
processing plants 1

Number of samples and season
Brix 215 212 193
value 1954-55 1956-57 1957-58
% of samples
Less than 40.90 1.9 0.0 1.6

40.90-41.40 29.3 1.5 5.2

41.50-41.70 29.7 3.3 24.8

41.80-42.00 23.7 42.4 40.4

42.10-42.30 14.0 41.0 19.7

42.40-42.60 1.4 7.5 4.7

More than 42.60 0.0 4.3 3.6


Table 2. Frequency distribution of total acid in samples of
commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida
processing plants I
Number of samples and season
Acid as 215 212 193
citric % 1954-55 1956-57 1957-58
% of samples
Less than 2.50 0.5 0.9 1.0
2.50-2.69 7.0 9.4 4.7
2.70-2.89 14.9 21.6 17.1
2.90-3.09 46.5 38.0 30.1
3.10-3.29 23.7 25.9 31.6
3.30-3.49 5.6 3.3 14.5
More than 3.49 1.8 0.9 1.0
1 Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June,
inclusively, during each processing season.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866h- 10/2/58 FWW








Table 3. Frequency distribution of Brix-to-acid ratios in samples
of commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida
processing plants 1
Number of samples and season
Brix-to-acid 215 212 193
ratio 1954-55 1956-57 1957-58
% of samples
Less than 12.0 0.5 0.9 1.5
12.0-12.9 13.0 7.1 22.3
13.0-13.9 43.2 38.7 39.4
14.0-14.9 32.5 34.0 23.8
15.0-15.9 7.0 11.3 10.4
16.0-16.9 3.3 7.1 2.1
More than 16.9 0.5 0.9 0.5


Table 4. Frequency distribution of pH in samples of commercial
frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida processing
plants

Number of samples and season
pH of 215 212 193
concentrate 1954-55 1956-57 1957-58
% of samples

3.4 0.5 1.4 2.0
3.5 15.8 17.5 50.8
3.6 46.0 52.4 42.0
3.7 31.7 22.6 5.2
3.8 5.5 3.3 0.0
3.9 0.5 2.8 0.0


Samples collected semi-monthly from
inclusively, during each processing


December through June,
season.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 1 10/2/58 FW







Table 5. Relationship of date of packing to average values for
Brix-to-acid ratios in samples of commercial frozen concentrated orange
juices from Florida processing plantsI
1956-57 Season 1957-58 Season
212 samples 193 samples
Approx. Number Average Number Average
date of Brix-to-acid of Brix-to-acid
packed samples ratio samples ratio
12/ 1 1 13.8 4 14.3
12/15 8 13.6 15 13.5
1/ 1 16 13.4 17 13.9
1/15 21 13.6 22 14.2
2/ 1 23 14.9 22 14.2
2/15 20 14.7 19 13.6
3/ 1 15 14.6 8 13.5
3/15 10 14.0 11 12.8
4/ 1 5 13.7 14 12.7
4/15 12 13.1 17 13.1
5/ 1 20 13.7 19 13.8
5/15 21 13.9 16 14.2
6/ 1 21 14.5 9 14.7
6/15 19 15.4 -



Table 6. Frequency distribution of recoverable oil in samples of
commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida
processing plants1
Recoverable oil Number of samples and season
Reconstituted 215 212 193
Concentrate juice 2 1954-55_ 1956-57 1957-58
ml./10Og. % by volume % of samples
Trace-0.002 Trace-0.001 0.0 0.0 0.0
0.003-0.018 0.001-0.005 7.4 0.9 1.0
0.019-0.035 0.006-0.010 41.9 31.1 36.3
0.036-0.052 0.011-0.015 43.3 55.7 48.7
0.053-0.068 0.016-0.020 6.5 12.3 13.0
0.069-0.086 0.021-0.025 0.9 0.0 1.0

1 Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June,
inclusively, during each processing season.
2 These values were calculated.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 1 10/2/58 RLH








Table 7. Frequency distribution of apparent viscosities of commercial
frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida processing plants 1

Apparent viscosity at 300C.
Brookfield Number of samples Pipette Number of samples
viscometer2 and seasonI and season
Centipoises 178 185 Time in 178 185
1956-57 1957-58 seconds3 1956-57 1957-58
% of samples % of samples
0- 249 0.0 0.0 Less than 10 0.0 1.6

250- 499 2.8 42.0 10-19 15.2 47.0

500- 749 26.4 33.5 20-29 45.0 34.1

750- 999 35.5 16.8 30-39 21.3 10.9

1000-1249 18.0 5.9 40-49 9.5 4.4

1250-1499 9.0 0.6 50-59 1.0 0.5

1500-1749 1.7 0.6 60-69 3.4 1.0

1750-1999 3.9 0.6 70-79 1.6 0.5

2000-2249 1.7 0.0 80-89 1.0 0.0

2250-2499 0.5 0.0 90-99 1.0 0.0

2500-2749 0.5 0.0 More than 99 1.0 0.0


SSamples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively
during each processing season.
2 Each sample was thawed for 90 minutes in 3000C. water bath; viscosity
measured at 3000. with concentrate in 6 oz. can, using Brookfield LVT
viscometer, No. 2 spindle, 12 r.p.m. with reading made after 1 minute.
3
Time for flow of 150 ml. of concentrate from pipette with product
at 300C.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 m 10/2/58 GHE


2










Table 8. Frequency distribution of ascorbic acid in samples of
commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida
processing plants 1
Ascorbic acid Number of samples and season
Reconstituted 215 212 193
Concentrate juice 2 1954-55 1956-57 1957-58
mg./100 g. mg./100 ml. % of samples

100-109 30-32 3.7 0.0 0.0
110-119 33-35 4.7 0.9 0.5
120-129 36-38 11.6 7.5 1.6
130-139 39-41 6.5 14.2 7.3
140-149 42-44 11.6 15.1 18.1
150-159 45-47 10.2 8.0 26.9
160-169 48-50 9.8 9.0 28.5
170-179 51-53 16.3 16.0 16.1
180-189 54-56 15.8 15.6 1.0
190-199 57-59 7.0 9.4 0.0
200-209 60-62 2.3 3.8 0.0
210-219 63-65 0.5 0.5 0.0


Samples collected semi-monthly from December
inclusively, during each processing season.


through June,


These values were calculated.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 j 10/2/58 RLH












Table 9. Relationship of date of packing to average values for ascorbic acid in samples of commercial frozen
concentrated orange juices collected from 1Forida processing plants

Ascorbic acid Asco-bic acid Ascorbic acid
1954-55 season 2.5 samples 1956-57 season 212 samples 1957-58 season 193 samples
Approx. Number Reconstituted Number Reconstituted Number Reconstituted
date of Concentrate juice2 of Concentrate juice2 of Concentrate juice2
packed samples mg./lOOg. mg./100 ml. samples mg./lOOg. mg./100 ml. samples mg./100g. mg./l0 ml.
12/1 1 187 56 4 172 51
12/15 11 178 53 8 186 55 15 169 50
1/1 17 184 54 i6 191 57 17 164 49
1/15 20 181 54 21 191 57 22 161 48
2/1 21 179 53 23 182 54 22 164 49
2/15 24 177 53 20 179 53 19 165 49
3/1 20 172 51 15 170 50 8 158 47
3/15 13 156 46 10 167 50 11 160 48
4/1 14 140 42 5 161 48 14 154 46
4/15 23 140 42 12 146 43 17 151 45
5/1 20 133 40 20 144 43 19 146 43
5/15 21 124 37 21 139 41 16 138 41
6/1 11 125 37 21 136 40 9 136 40
6/15 19 132 39 0 -
SSamples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during each processing season.


2 These values were


calculated.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 866 k 10/2/58 RLH











Table 10. Frequency distribution of Hunter "Rd"
juices collected from Florida processing plants


values for samples of commercial frozen concentrated orange


Concentrates Reconstituted juices
Hunter Color I Number of samples and season Hunter Color Number of samples and season
Difference Meter 215 212 193 Difference Meter 215 212 i 193
Rd 1954-55 1956-57 1957-58 Rd 1954-55 1956-57 1957-58
% of samples _% of samples
Less than 16.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Less than 15.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
16.0-16.9 0.9 0.0 0.0 15.0-15.9 0.0 0.0 0.0
17.0-17.9 6.0 0.0 0.0 16.0-16.9 0.9 0.0 0.0
18.0-18.9 10.2 2.8 3.1 17.0-17.9 6.1 0.0 0.0
19.0-19.9 11.6 4.7 4.7 18.0-18.9 14.4 0.9 1.0
20.0-20.9 9.8 10.0 4.1 19.0-19.9 16.3 9.4 2.1
21.0-21.9 11.6 13.2 14.5 20.0-20.9 14.4 10.4 8.8
22.0-22.9 16.8 11.8 15.6 21.0-21.9 21.9 23.1 14.0
23.0-23.9 15.8 15.1 17.6 22.0-22.9 15.8 16.6 22.8
24.0-24.9 11.2 12.3 17.6 23.0-23.9 7.4 19.3 24.9
25.0-25.9 2.3 10.8 12.4 24.0-24.9 2.8 13.7 18.1
26.0-26.9 2.8 7.5 5.2 25.0-25.9 0.0 3.3 6.2
27.0-27.9 1.0 5.7 1.0 26.0-26.9 0.0 2.8 2.1
28.0-28.9 0.0 0.9 1.6 27.0-27.9 0.0 0.5 0.0
29.0-29.9 0.0 2.8 1.6
30.0-30.9 0.0 1.9 1.0
31.0-31.9 0.0 0.0 0.0
32.0-32.9 0.0 0.5 0.0 __


Samples collected


semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during each processing season.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 c 10/2/58 RLH








Table 11.
juices collects


Frequency distribution of Hunter "a"
ed from Florida processing plants 1


values for samples of commercial frozen concentrated orange


Concentrates Reconstituted juices
Hunter Color Number of samples and season Hunter Color Number of samples and season
Difference Meter 215 i 212 193 Difference Meter 215 212 193
a 1954-55 1956-57 1957-58 a 1954-55 956-57 1957-58
S% of samples % of samples
11.1-12.0 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.0 to -0.9 0.0 1.9 0.0
10.1-11.0 0.5 5.2 0.0 -1.0 to -1.9 2.8 8.5 2.6
9.1-10.0 2.3 8.0 0.5 -2.0 to -2.9 11.2 21.2 10.9
8.1- 9.0 5.1 18.8 2.1 -3.0 to -3.9 17.2 13.2 16.1
7.1- 8.0 12.6 11.8 9.8 -4.0 to -4.9 15.8 9.0 20.7
6.1- 7.0 11.6 4.3 13.5 -5.0 to -5.9 23.7 21.7 21.7
5.1- 6.0 12.6 9.4 13.0 -6.0 to -6.9 26.5 21.7 26.4
4.1- 5.0 14.9 17.0 21.2 Less than -6.9 2.8 2.8 1.6
3.1- 4.0 17.2 20.8 18.1
2.1- 3.0 12.5 3.8 13.5
1.1- 2.0 10.2 0.0 7.3
Less than 1.1 0.5 0.0 1.0

Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during each processing season.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 d 10/2/58 RLH










Table 12. Frequency distribution of Hunter "b" values for samples of commercial frozen concentrated orange
juices collected from Florida processing plants 1

Concentrates Reconstituted juices
Hunter Color Number of samples and season Hunter Color Number of samples and season
Difference Meter 215 212 193 Difference Meter 215 212- 193
b 1954-55 1956-57 1957-58 b 1954-55 1956-57 1957-58
% of samples of samples
More than 34.9 1.4 0.0 0.5 More than 30.9 2.8 0.0 0.0
34.0-34.9 11.2 0.5 2.1 30.0-30.9 14.9 0.9 8.8
33.0-33.9 28.8 8.0 18.1 29.0-29.9 32.5 12.3 32.6
32.0-32.9 33.0 24.1 37.3 28.0-28.9 23.3 46.7 45.1
31.0-31.9 16.8 36.8 27.5 27.0-27.9 20.5 35.4 11.4
30.0-30.9 6.9 23.1 11.4 26.0-26.9 5.1 4.7 2.1
29.0-29.9 1.4 6.6 2.6 25.0-25.9 0.9 0.0 0.0
28.0-28.9 0.0 0.9 0.5 Less than 25.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
27.0-27.9 0.0 0.0 0.0
Less than 27.0 0.5 0.0 0.0

1 Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during each processing season.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 e 10/2/58 LH








Table 13. Relationship of date of packing to average Hunter color values for commercial frozen concentrated orange
juices collected from Florida processing plants 1
Hunter Color Difference Meter average values for concentrates
1954-55 season 215 samples 1 1956-57 season 212 samples 1957-58 season 193 samples
Approx. Number Number Number
date of Rd a b of Rd a b of Rd a b
packed samples samples samples
12/1 1 27.7 5.4 33.2 4 25.7 2.5 32.1
12/15 11 23.6 3.0 31.5 8 25.4 3.8 31.6 15 25.8 3.5 32.8
1/1 17 23.9 2.6 31.6 16 25.7 4.0 32.0 17 25.0 2.9 32.6
1/15 20 23.6 3.0 31.9 21 26.8 4.0 32.5 22 23.9 3.4 32.2
2/1 21 23.3 2.9 32.8 23 25.5 4.3 32.0 22 24.2 3.7 32.2
2/15 24 23.5 3.3 33.4 20 24.4 4.5 31.8 19 24.2 3.3 32.4
3/1 20 22.6 3.5 33.1 15 24.7 4.5 31.7 8 23.2 4.6 31.7
3/15 13 21.6 5.1 33.4 10 24.3 5.6 31.7 11 23.1 4.8 32.3
4/1 14 20.0 6.3 33.0 5 23.2 7.2 31.7 14 22.8 5.7 32.2
4/15 23 19.6 6.8 32.6 12 21.9 9.0 31.2 17 22.5 5.8 32.0
5/1 20 19.5 7.1 32.7 20 21.8 8.9 30.9 19 21.8 7.0 31.6
5/15 21 18.9 7.7 32.4 21 22.2 8.6 30.7 16 21.1 6.8 31.1
6/1 11 18.9 7.3 32.1 21 21.1 8.5 30.5 9 21.0 6.4 31.2
6/15 19 21.1 8.9 31.0 -


1 Samples
Samples


collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during each processing season.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 f 10/2/58 RLU









Table 14. Relationship of date of packing to average Hunter color values for commercial frozen concentrated
orange juices collected from Florida processing plants -

Hunter Color Difference Meter average values for reconstituted juices
1954-55 season 215 samples j 1956-57 season 212 samples 1957-58 season 193 samples
Approx. Number Number Number
date of a b of Rd a b of f Rd a b
packed samples samples samples
12/1 1 23.7 -5.0 28.5 4 24.3 -5.9 27.8
12/15 11 22.3 -5.8 27.9 8 23.6 -6.2 28.0 15 23.9 -5.7 28.2
1/1 17 22.6 -6.1 27.2 16 23.9 -6.0 28.1 17 23.6 -6.0 28.2
1/15 20 21.9 -6.1 27.3 21 24.0 -6.1 28.3 22 23.3 -5.9 28.3
2/1 21 21.9 -6.3 28.3 23 23.7 -5.6 28.0 22 23.6 -5.7 28.4
2/15 24 21.8 -6.0 28.8 20 23.2 -5.8 27.8 19 23.8 -5.9 28.8
3/1 20 21.5 -5.8 29.1 15 23.3 -5.9 27.7 8 23.3 -5.5 29.0
3/15 13 20.8 -4.5 29.9 10 23.4 -4.8 28.3 11 23.2 -4.5 29.4
4/1 14 19.6 -3.8 29.9 5 22.1 -3.8 28.4 14 23.1 -3.9 29.8
4/15 23 19.3 -3.5 29.7 12 20.8 -2.5 28.2 17 22.5 -4.0 29.4
5/1 23 19.0 -3.6 29.5 20 21.1 -2.7 28.5 19 21.4 -2.8 29.0
5/15 21 18.7 -2.7 29.4 21 20.7 -2.9 28.2 16 21.2 -3.0 28.7
6/1 11 18.4 -2.8 28.5 21 20.8 -2.5 28.0 9 21.1 -3.4 28.4
6/15 19 21.0 -1.9 28.5 -

Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during each processing season.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 g 10/2/58 RLB









Table 15. Frequency distribution of pulp in samples of
commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected from
Florida processing plants 1
Number of samples and season
Pulp2 215 212 193
Sby volume 1954-55 1956-57 1957-58
4% of samples
4.5 0.0 0.0 0.0
5.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
5.5 1.4 0.0 0.0
6.0 3.7 0.0 0.0
6.5 9.3 0.0 0.0
7.0 22.3 0.0 0.0
7.5 11.2 0.0 0.5
8.0 13.6 0.5 0.5
8.5 11.6 1.4 1.6
9.0 7.0 i 3.8 9.8
9.5 3.3 i 0.9 6.2
10.0 5.6 7.1 15.5
10.5 2.3 6.6 9.3
11.0 2.3 12.7 18.7
11.5 0.9 6.1 7.3
12.0 2.3 20.3 10.9
12.5 0.9 7.5 4.2
13.0 0.9 10.9 4.2

14.0 0.5 6.1 3.6
14.5 0.0 2.4 1.0
15.0 0.0 2.8 2.1
15.5 0.0 0.9 0.0
16.0 0.0 3.8 0.5
16.5 0.0 0.9 0.5
17.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
17.5 0.0 0.5 0.0
18.0 0.0 0.5 0.0

1 Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June,
inclusively, during each processing season.
2 Determined by centrifugal method; does not include floating
pulp. Samples for 1954-55 season centrifuged at 1700 r.p.m.
for 15 minutes; samples for 1956-57 and 1957-58 seasons at
1300 r.p.m. for 10 minutes.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 b 10/2/58 -RLH-ELM









Table 16. Frequency distribution of water-insoluble solids in


samples of commercial frozen
Florida processing plants 1


concentrated orange juices collected from


Table 17. Frequency distribution of flavonoids in samples of
commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida
processing plants 1
Flavonoids as Number of samples and season
hesperidin 215 212 193
Reconstituted juice 1954-55 1956-57 1957-58
mg./100 ml. .i % of samples
20- 29 0.0 0.0 0.0
30- 39 0.0 0.0 0.0
40- 49 0.0 0.0 0.0
50- 59 0.0 0.5 0.0
60- 69 7.4 8.5 8.3
70- 79 32.5 47.2 23.8
80- 89 36.3 29.7 32.1
90- 99 16.7 9.4 19.2
100-109 4.7 4.2 13.0
110-119 1.9 0.5 2.6
120-129 0.5 0.0 0.5
130-139 0.5
1 Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June,
inclusively, during each processing season.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 10/2/58 FWW


Water-insoluble Number of samples and season
solids 215 212 M 193
Reconstituted juice 1954-55 1956-57 1957-58
mg./lOOg. _% of samples
75- 99 7.4 0.0 0.5
100-124 27.4 1.9 9.3
125-149 27.0 10.4 23.3
150-174 20.0 29.7 33.7
175-199 7.0 31.1 20.2
200-224 3.3 21.7 8.8
225-249 5.1 4.2 4.2
250-274 1.4 0.5 0.0
275-299 0.9 0.5 0.0
300-324 0.0 0.0 0.0
325-349 0.5 0.0 0.0







Table 18. Frequency distribution of pectinesterase activity in samples
of commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida
processing plants I
Pectinesterase activity Number of samples and season
Concentrate 215 ___ i 212 193
(PE.u.)g. soluble solids2 i 1954-55 1956-57 1957-58
X 1000 i % of samples
0- 4 18.6 51.4 91.3
5- 9 52.6 38.2 8.2
10-14 19.1 9.4 0.5
15-19 6.0 1.0 0.0
20-24 3.2 0.0 0.0
25-29 0.5 0.0 0.0
30-34 0.0 0.0 0.0
35-39 0.0 0.0 0.0
40-44 0.0 0.0 0.0


Table 19. Frequency distribution of water-soluble pectin in samples of
commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida
processing plants 1

Number of samples and season
Pectin water soluble 215 212 i 193
Reconstituted juice 1954-55 1956-57 i 1957-58
mg./100g. ._____ 1% of samples ___
10-14 0.0 0.0 0.0
15-19 0.5 0.0 0.0
20-24 3.7 0.0 0.0
25-29 19.1 0.0 3.1
30-34 22.8 9.4 6.2
35-39 27.9 30.2 32.6
40-44 13.5 26.9 30.6
45-49 8.8 24.1 19.2
50-54 3.2 5.6 5.7
55-59 0.5 2.8 2.6
60-64 0.0 0.5 0.0
65-69 0.0 0.5 0.0
1 Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively,
during each processing season.
2Soluble solids determined by refractometer at 28oC.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 a 10/2/58 AHR-CDA










Table 20. Frequency distribution of degree of clarification and gelation, after storage
of samples at 400F. or 800F., in commercial frozen concentrated orange juices collected from
Florida processing plants 1


Degree of
clarification


None
Slight
Definite
Extreme


Number of samples and season
212 212 212 193 193
1954-55 1956-57 1956-57 1957-58 1 1957-58
After 72 hr. at 400F. After 96 hr. at 400F. After 24 hr. at 800F.
% of samples % of samples % of samples


43.4
16.5
24.1
16.0


74.5
13.7
9.9
1.9


74.1
5.2
12.7
8.0


96 .4
0.0
2.6
1.0


90.1
2.1
2.6
5.2


gelatin

0-None 76.8 56.6 53.3 75.7 65.8
1-Very slight 12.3 24.5 25.0 11.9 20.7
2-Slight 9.0 18.9 21.7 11.9 13.0
3-Semi-gel 1.9 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.5
4-Solid gel 0.0 0.0 C0. 0.0 0.0


1 Samples collected semi-monthly
each processing season.


from December through June, inclusively, during


2 Clarification measured by percentage light transmission of centrifuged reconstituted
juice using Lumetron 402-E with 730 filter and 14 ml. cell. None = 0-59%;
Slight = 60-69%; Definite = 70-84%; and Extreme = 85-100%.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 n 10/2/58 FWW








Table 21. Frequency distribution of diacetyl
samples of commercial frozen concentrated orange
from Florida processing plants


values for
juices collected


Number of samples and season
Diacetyl 215 212 193
value2 1954-55 1956-57 1957-58
p.p.m. % of samples

0.0 0.0 5.7 0.0
0.1 1.4 7.1 0.0
0.2 3.7 8.0 1.1
0.3 9.3 13.7 0.5
0.4 14.9 11.8 6.2
0.5 15.8 12.3 5.2
0.6 12.5 11.8 17.1
0.7 13.5 6.6 13.5
0.8 9.3 5.2 9.3
0.9 4.6 2.8 12.4
1.0 4.2 5.2 12.4
1.1 1.9 2.4 4.7
1.2 2.8 0.9 5.7
1.3 1.9 0.45 2.6
1.4 0.9 0.45 4.2
1.5 0.0 1.9 0.0
1.6 0.0 2.8 0.5
1.7 0.5 0.0 0.5
1.8 0.9 0.0 2.1
1.9 0.9 0.0 0.5
2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
2.1 0.0 0.45 0.5
2.2 0.0 0.45 0.0
2.3 0.0 0.0 0.5
2.6 0.0 0.0 0.0
2.7 0.0 0.0 0.0
2.9 0.0 0.0 0.5
3.1 0.5 0.0 0.0
3.2 0.5 0.0 0.0
3.3 0.0 0.0 0.0
1 Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June,
inclusively, during each processing season.
2
Diacetyl and acetyl-methyl-carbinol in 25 ml. of distillate
from 300 ml. of 120 Brix reconstituted juice, expressed as
diacetyl.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 o 10/2/58 ECH







Table 22. Frequency distribution of flavor.grades for samples of commercial
frozen concentrated orange juices collected from Florida processing plants
1954-*5 1956-57 1957-58
Flavor Number of % of Number of % of Number of % of
grade2 samples samples samples samples samples samples
Midseason packs 1
Good 40 35.4 39 34.2 1 1
Fair 70 61.9 74 64.9 88 89
Poor 3 2.7 1 0.9 10 10
Totals 113 100.0 114 100.0 99 100
Late season packs
Good 72 70.6 60 61.2 22 23
Fair 28 27.4 37 37.8 68 73
Poor 2 2.0 1 1.0 4 4
Totals 102 100.0 98 100.0 94 100

Total packs for entire season
Good 112 52.1 99 46.7 23 12
Fair 98 45.6 111 52.4 156 81
Poor 5 2.3 2 0.9 14 7
Totals 215 100.0 212 100.0 193 100

1Samples collected semi-monthly from December through June, inclusively, during
each processing season. Samples of midseason packs collected from December 15
to March 1, inclusively, for the 1954-55 season; from December 1 to March 15,
inclusively, for the 1956-57 season; from December 1 to February 15, inclusively,
for the 1957-58 season.
2Based on the evaluation of the flavor of 215 samples for the 1954-55 season,
212 samples for the 1956-57 season and 193 samples for the 1957-58 season.
The taste panel followed instructions as given on the following page. Each of
the reconstituted juices from the concentrates was tasted at 3 different times.
The data for the 1954-55 season are based upon 4515 individual flavor grades;
for the 1956-57 season on 4452 grades; for the 1957-58 season on 3377 grades.









Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 dd 10/2/58 FW











INSTRUCTIONS TO TASTE PANEL


Flavor Evaluation of Frozen Concentrated Orange Juices

Samples: Reconstituted commercial frozen 420 Brix orange
concentrates.


Directions:


(a) Grade for flavor on the following basis and do
not consider other factors, such as color or separation.


Excellent
Very good
Good
Fair


10
9
8-7
6-5


Poor 4-3
Very Poor 2
Unpalatable 1


Use excellent, good, or fair only if the juice in your
opinion is acceptable as frozen orange concentrate, and
therefore, would be repurchased by you.

(b) If you score a sample of juice 4 or lower, indica-
ting that the product is not acceptable as frozen orange
concentrate, and therefore, would not be repurchased by
you, then indicate all of the flavor defects responsible
for the poor flavor quality.

Indicate flavor defects using only the following descrip-
tive terms. If necessary, other terms will be added to
this list. If you are not sure of the type of flavor
defect in any juice, which you score 4 or lower, then
indicate that it is nondescript.


Flavor Defects


Too sour (acid)
Too sweet
Excessive peel oil
Too bitter
Too astringent


Heated
Buttermilk
Cardboard
Castor Oil
Tallowy


Immature fruit
Overmature fruit
Stale fruit
Insipid


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
809 9/26/57 FWW









Table 23.
orange juices
based upon the


Comparison of flavor grades of commercial frozen concentrated
with average Brix-to-acid ratio and average Hunter color values


Sdate


of packing


Approx. Number Number of samples Brix/acid Color
date of add flavor grade ratio Hunter Relative
packed samples Good Fair Poor "a" value quality1
12/ 1/57 4 3 1 14.3 2.5 Poor
12/15/57 15 13 2 13.5 3.5 Fair
1/ 1/58 17 15 2 13.9 .2.9 Poor
1/15/58 22 22 14.2 3.4 Fair
2/ 1/58 22 1 19 2 14.2 3.7 Fair
2/15/58 19 16 3 13.6 3.3 Fair

3/ 1/58 8 5 3 13.5 4.6 Fair
3/15/58 11 11 12.8 4.8 Fair
4/ 1/58 14 1 12 1 12.7 5.7 Good
4/15/58 17 2 15 13.1 5.8 Good
5/ 1/58 19 11 8 13.8 7.0 Good
5/15/58 16 6 10 14.2 6.8 Good
6/ 1/58 9 2 7 14.7 6.4 Good


1 Based
Based


on average Hunter na" values for concentrates.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 ee 10/2/58 FWW









Table 24. Characteristics of samples of commercial bulk frozen orange concentrate processed during the
1957-58 season
ii L i 13 sape packed


28 samples packed
Dec. 28 to Jan. 14


Characteristic


o Brix
Acid as anhydrous
altric, %
Brix/acid ratio
pH
Flavonoids as
hesperidin-mg./100 ml.


Pulp, % by vol.
Color, Hunter Color
Difference Meter
"Rd" value
"a" value
nb" value
Apparent viscosity'
in centipoises


18 samples packed
Jan. 20 to Feb. 7


Minimum Maximum Average Minimum Maximum Average


13 samples packed
March 14 to Apr. 14
Minimum Meximnm Average


Concentrate


49.0
3.11

12.7
3.4

88


8


20.4
-7.1
25.7

1750


66.7
4.58

18.8
3.7

128


15


25.6
-5.5
28.7

13500


58.1
3.79

15.4
,

104


11


23.3
-6.2
27.6

5585


42.0
2.93

13.0
3.5

83


65.7
4.60

19.5
3.7

127


57.4
3.70

15.7


102
102


Reconstituted juice


7


20.4
-6.6
25.2

550


18


26.5
-4.0
30.3

15650


11


23.3
-5.5
27.9

5452


42.0 64.6
3.90 6.31


10.0
3.4

89


8.0


19.0
-5.3
27.9

600


12.6
3.6

122


11.0


22.2
-2.8
29.6

5500


56.7
5.28

10.8


107


9.5


21.3
-4.2
28.6

2192


1 Each sample was thawed for 90 minutes in 3000. water
in 6 oz. can, using Brookfield LVT viscometer, No. 4


bath; viscosity measured at 300C. (860F.) with concentrate
spindle, 12 r.p.m. with reading made after 1 minute.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 ff o/2/58 FW







Table A. Effect of degree of freeze damage in fruit on characteristics of
Valencia orange juice. I. Acid, Brix, Brix-to-acid ratio, and pH
Fruit Date Freeze damage Relative juice Acid as Brix Brix/acid pH
Lot No. extracted % scoreable yield citric ratio
#1 #2 gal./90 lb. box %
Slight freeze damage Estimated defoliation =10%
12A 2/28/58 21 6 5.7 1.30 11.2 8.6 3.4
19B 3/13/58 21 9 5.5 1.16 11.0 9.5 3.5
260 3/31/58 24 8 5.4 1.12 11.2 10.0 3.5
32D 4/ 9/58 17 5 5.5 1,12 10.8 9.7 3.5
Moderate freeze damage Estimated defoliation = 2%0-30%
13A 2/28/58 51 31 5.6 1.22 10.2 8.4 3.4
20B 3/13/58 34 15 5.4 1.07 10.3 9.6 3.5
270 3/31/58 55 32 5.3 0,99 10.4 10.5 3.6
31D 4/ 9/58 37 12 5.8 0.88 10.1 11.4 3.7
38E 5/ 2/58 51 15 5.0 0.74 10.1 13.7 3.7
40F 5/16/58 41 29 5.2 0.77 9.6 12.5 3.8
Extreme freeze damage Estimated defoliation = 75%-95%
14A 2/28/58 84 60 5.0 1.04 10.1 9.7 3.5
21B 3/13/58 92 80 4.6 0.89 9.5 10.6 3.6
280 3/31/58 88 48 4.4 1.10 9.6 8.7 3.5
33D 4/ 9/58 79 47 4.5 0.87 9.1 10.4 3.7
39E 5/ 2/58 81 62 5.4 0.83 9.8 11.8 3.7
41F 5/16/58 37 7 4.5 0.77 8.6 11.2 3.9

Dropped fruit from extreme freeze damage
15A 2/28/58 96 96 4.7 0.99 10.5 10.6 3.5
22B 3/13/58 90 90 3.6 0.90 9.7 10.7 3.6


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 p 10/2/58 FWW








Table B. Effect of degree of freeze damage in fruit on characteristics
juice. II. Ascorbic acid, flavonoids, and microbiological count


of Valencia orange


Fruit Date Freeze damage Ascorbic Flavonoids as Total count
Lot no. extracted % scoreable acid hesperidin orange serum
#1 #2 mg./lO0 ml. mg./100 ml. agar
Slight freeze damage Estimated defoliation = 10%
12A 2/28/58 21 6 48 80 -
19B 3/13/58 21 9 48 64 13,000
26C 3/31/58 24 8 49 63 4,000
32D 4/ 9/58 17 5 48 108 2,600
Moderate freeze damage Estimated defoliation = 20%-30%
13A 2/28/58 51 31 46 90 31,000
203 33/58 34 15 45 77 2,000
27C 3/31/58 55 32 43 80 2,000
31D 4/ 9/58 37 12 42 60 9,000
38E 5/2/58 51 15 36 77 101,000
40F 5/16/58 41 29 35 781 7,500
Extreme freeze damage Estimated defoliation = 75%-95%
14A 2/28/58 84 60 38 92 385,000
21B 3/13/58 92 80 37 86 52,000
280 3/31/58 88 48 38 78 7,000
33D 4/ 9/58 79 47 37 80 8,000
39E 5/ 2/58 81 62 35 74 128,000
41F 5/16/58 37 7 31 80 9,000
Dropped fruit from extreme freeze damage
15A 2/28/58 96 96 39 85 4,000,000
22B 3/13/58 90 90 36 83 4,900,000


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 r 10/2/58 FWW








Table C. Effect of degree of freeze damage in fruit on characteristics of Valencia orange
juice. III. Pectinesterase activity, serum pectin, water-insoluble solids and pulp
Fruit Date Freeze damage Pectinesterase Serum Water-insoluble Pulp
Lot No. extracted % sooreable activity1 pectin solids
#1 #2 mg./lOOg. mg./lOOg. % by vol.

Slight freeze damage Estimated defoliation = 10o
12A 2/28/58 21 6 37.9 17.3 154 10.0
19B 3/13/58 21 9 27.4 18.7 138 10.0
260 3/31/58 24 8 33.6 15.9 84 9.5
32D 4/ 9/58 17 5 35.2 14.0 94 9.0
Moderate freeze damage Estimated defoliation = 20c-30%
13A 2/28/58 51 31 33.2 20.0 205 10.5
20B 3/13/58 34 15 24.9 18.0 150 10.0
270 3/31/58 55 32 28.1 14.7 92 9.5
31D 4/9/58 37 12 30.1 18.7 94 9.0
38E 5/ 2/58 51 15 29.7 16.0 75 9.5
40F 5/16/58 41 29 28.2 14.7 116 8.0

Extreme freeze damage Estimated defoliation= 75%-95%
14A 2/28/58 84 60 22.4 23.3 201 11.0
21B 3/13/58 92 80 23.6 20.7 191 9.5
28C 3/31/58 88 48 30.2 13.3 84 10.0
33D 4/ 9/58 79 47 35.3 18.0 112 8.5
39E 5/ 2/58 81 62 24.0 18.0 95 8.5
41F 5/16/58 37 7 27.6 14.0 103 9.0
Dropped fruit from extreme freeze damage
15A 2/28/58 96 96 20.6 28.0 219 13.0
22B 3/13/58 90 90 25.0 22.0 203 11.5
1 (PE.u.)g. soluble solids X 1000
Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 q 10//58 0FWW







Table D. Characteristics ef frozen concentrated orange juice made from freeze-
damaged Valencia oranges harvested throughout the late season from the same location.
I. Acid, Brix, Brix-to-acid ratio, and pH


Freeze damage Relative juice
% scoreable yield
#1 #2 gal./90 lb. box


5.2
5.3
5.0
5.5
5.3
4.8


Reconstituted juice
Acid as Brix Brix/acid pH
citric ratio
, ,_________


4.45
4.36
3.77
3.43
3.36
2.94


42.6
42.6
43.4
42.7
43.2
43.4


9.6
9.8
11.5
12.4
12.8
14.8


Table E. Characteristics of frozen concentrated orange juice made from freeze-
damaged Valencia oranges harvested throughout the late season from the same location.
II. Ascorbic acid, flavonoids, and microbiological count


Reconstituted juice


Freeze damage Ascorbic


Flavonoids


processed % scoreable acid as hesperidin
#1 #2 mg./100ml. mg./100ml.


99
102
96
82
90
109


Raw juice
Total couAt/ml.
Orange serum
agar

7,000
12,000
16,000
64,000
103,000
100,000


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 s 10/2/58 WW


Fruit
Lot No.


23
25
34
37
42
43


Date
processed


3/14/58
3/31/58
4/10/58
5/ 2/58
5/26/58
6/17/58


3.2
3.3
3.4
3.6
3.7
3.8


Date


Fruit
Lot No.


23
25
34
37
42
43


3/14/58
3/31/58
4/10/58
5/ 2/58
5/26/58
6/17/58








Table F. Characteristics of frozen concentrated orange juice made from freeze-damaged Valencia oranges
harvested throughout the late season from the same location. III. Pectinesterase activity, serum pectin,
water-insoluble solids, and pulp
Reconstituted juice


Freeze damage
% scoreable
#1 #2
28 10
26 11
45 19
38 10
49 20
73 38


Pectinesterase
activity1


7.4
5.8
3.5
3.7
2.9
4.3


Serum
pectin
mg./100 g.
33.3
29.3
29.3
27.3
26.0
26.7


Water-insoluble
solids
mg./100 g.
109
136
127
133
148
169


S(PE.u.)g. soluble solids X 1000.


Table G. Characteristics of frozen concentrated orange juice made from freeze-damaged Valencia oranges
harvested throughout the late season from the same location. IV. Viscosity and physical stability


Fruit Date Freeze damage Apparent viscosity1 Degree of Degree of
Lot No. processed % scoreable 300C, (860F.) gelation in clarification in
# #2 42 550560 420 concentrate reconst. juice
# After 24 hr. at 80OF.
23 3/14/58 28 10 285 955 0-None 94-Extreme
25 3/31/58 26 11 380 1085 0-None 76-Definite
34 4/10/58 45 19 400 1250 0-None 79-Definite
37 5/ 2/58 38 10 450 1460 0-None 83-Definite
42 5/26/58 49 20 580 1760 0-None 67-Slight
43 6/17/58 73 38 720 2350 0-None 54-None
1 Eah Sr a +1r.-iA 4*A. QfP 4n .1t-,4 4 hno4 4 4 0 1-t, -JA -4- JnO1 --41,


p w s e o e W eM Q v c u wA coanc VMUYM "e -UMV
rate in 6 oi. can, using Brookfield LVT viscometer, No. 2 spindle for 420 Brix concentrate, No. 3
spindle for 550 Brix concentrate, 12 r.p.m. with reading made after 1 minute.
Florida Citrus Experiment Station and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 866 t 10/2/58 FWW


Fruit
Lot No.


23
25
34
37
42
43-


Date
processed


3/14/58
3/31/58
4/10/58
5/ 2/58
5/26/58
6/17/58


Pulp

% by vol.
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0
11.0











Table H. Characteristics of frozen concentrated orange juice made from freeze-damaged Valencia oranges
harvested throughout the late season from the same location. V. Color and flavor


Freeze damage
% scoreable
#1 #2

28 10
26 11
45 19
38 10
49 20
73 38


Hunter Color Difference Meter values
Concentrate Reconstituted juice
Rd al b Rd a b

22.0 -4.1 31.7 23.1 -10.8 29.3
20.8 -3.9 31.1 22.4 -10.8 29.3
20.2 -2.7 30.8 21.7 -10.2 28.6
19.8 -1.3 30.6 21.3 8.8 28.6
19.6 -1.2 30.4 21.3 8.6 28.4
20.3 -0.4 30.2 22.8 7.7 28.2-


Flavor
grade


Poor
Poor
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair


Flavor
defects


Too sour, astringent
Too sour, astringent


1 All samples poor in color on basis of Hunter "al values for concentrates.








Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 u 10/2/58 FW


Fruit
Lot No.


23
25
34
37
42
43


Date
processed


3/14/58
3/31/58
4/10/58
5/ 2/58
5/26/58
6/17/58







Table I. Effect of degree of freeze damage in fruit on the characteristics of
frozen concentrated orange juice. I. Acid, Brix, Brix-to-acid ratio, and pH


Date Freeze damage
processed % scoreable
#1 #2


Relative juice Acid as Brix


yield


citric
%


gal./90 lb, box


Midseason oranges Separated by flotation


5.2
4.8


2.44 43.2
1.28 42.7


Late season oranges Separated by flotation


5.4
4.8


3.54 42.7
3.26 42.3


Midseason oranges Fruit mixed


5.6
5.1
4.8
4.4
4.3


Lot Nos. 9E, 9C, and 9D obtained by mixing of fruit from Lot Nos. 9B and 9A.


Table J. Effect of degree of freeze damage in fruit on the characteristics of
frozen concentrated orange juice. II. Ascorbic acid, flavonoids, and microbiologi-
cal counts
Reconstituted juice Saw jue'.
Fruit Date Freeze damage Ascorbic Flavonoids Total cou t!m.
Lot No. processed % scoreable acid as hesperidin Orange serum
#1 #2 mg./100 ml. mg./lOO ml. agar
Midseason oranges Separated by flotation


4A
4B1


36B
36A


1/ 9/58
1/10/58


51
45


81
100


Late season oranges Separated by flotation
5/14/58 32 7 43 82
4/22/58 84 52 46 94
Midseason oranges Fruit mixed1


30,000
20,000


25,000
32,000


96
104
105
113
119


6,000
440,000
1,310,000
1,380,000
1,850,000


1 Fruit Lot Nos. 9E, 90, and 9D obtained by mixing of fruit from Lot Nos. 9B
and 9A.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 v 10/2/58 FWW


Fruit
Lot No.


Brix/acid
ratio


4A
4B1

36B
36A


SFruit


L/ 9/58
1/10/58

5/14/58
4/22/58

2/10/58
2/13/58
2/11/58
2/12/58
2/ 6/58


17.7
33.4

12.1
13.0


15.5
15.5
16.1
16.6
16.9


3.7
4.2

3.6
3.6


3.6
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.7


2.77
2.74
2.62
2.58
2.50


42.8
42.4
42.2
42.7
42.2


2/10/58
2/13/58
2/11/58
2/12/58
2/ 6/58


I I I







Table K. Effect of degree of freeze damage in fruit on the characteristics of frozen concentrated
orange juice. III. Pectinesterase activity, serum pectin, water-insoluble solids, and pulp
Reconstituted juice


Freeze damage
% scoreable
#1 #2


Pectinesterase
activity


Serum
pectin
mg./lO g.


Water-insoluble
solids
mg./100 g.


Midseason oranges Separated by flotation


4A
4B1

36B
36A


1/ 9/58
1/10/58

5/14/58
4/22/58


9B
9E
90
9D
9A
(PE.b.)g.
Fruit Lot


2.3
3.1


48.7
53.3


Late season oranges Separated by flotation
7 4.0 22.7
52 4.0 30.7
Midseason oranges Fruit mixed2


177
161

145
176


2/10/58 24 15 2.1 34.7 15
2/13/58 35 29 2.9 32.0 19
2/11/58 59 50 2.4 38.7 15
2/12/58 73 68 1.9 44.7 17
2/ 6/58 91 81 2.1 48.7 17;
soluble solids X 1000
Nos. 9E, 90, and 9D obtained by mixing of fruit from Lot Nos. 9B and 9A.


5
0
8
6
8


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
466 w 10/2/58 FWW


Fruit
Lot No.


Date
processed


Pulp

% by vol.


12.0
16.0

10.0
11.0

10.5
9.5
11.0
11.5
l1-0


.-w










Table L. Effect of degree of freeze damage in fruit on the characteristics of
orange juice. IV. Viscosity and physical stability


frozen concentrated


Freeze damage
% scoreable
#1 #2


Apparent viscosityl
3000. (86oF.)
420 550-560


Degree of
gelation in
concentrate
After 24


Degree of
clarification in
reconst. juice
hr. at 80oF.


Midseason oranges Separated by flotation


835
1870


0-None
2-Slight


34-None
37-None


Late season oranges Separated by flotation


430
670


1090
2250


Midseason oranges Fruit mixed2


510
580
600
630
970


1815
2105
2265
2575
4350


0-None
0-None


0-None
0-None
0-None
0-None
0-None


80-Definite
82-Definite


40-None
41-None
36-None
34-None
31-None


SEach sample was thawed for 90 minutes in 300C. water bath; viscosity measured at 300C. with
concentrate in 6 os. can, using Brookfield LVT viscometer, No. 2 spindle for 420 Brix
concentrate, No. 3 spindle for 550 Brix concentrate, 12 r.p.m. with reading made after 1 minute.
2 ibuit Lot Nos. 9E, 9C, and 9D obtained by mixing of fruit from Lot Nos. 9B and 9A.

Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 x 10/2/58 FW


Fruit
Lot No.


Date
processed


36B
36A


1/9/58
1/10/58


5/14/58
4/22/58


2/10/58
2/13/58
2/11/58
2/12/58
2/ 6/58












Table M. Effect of degree of freeze damage in fruit on the characteristics of frozen concentrated orange
juice. V. Color and flavor


Date Freeze damage Hunter Color Dif:
processed % scoreable Concentrate
#1 #2 Rd al b


ference Meter Values


Reconstituted juice
Rd a b


Midseason oranges Senarated bv flotation


44 14
62 42


23.1 -4.5 31.2
24.0 -3.3 31.4


24.5 -10.9 28.6
25.7 9.6 28.9


Late season oranges Separated by flotation
32 7 20.4 -2.2 31.0 21.9 9.5 29.0
84 52 21.6 -2.0 31.5 23.6 9.3 29.8
Midseason oranges Fruit mixed2


22.8
23.9
25.1
25.3
25.7


-4.9
-4.9
-5.0
-4.7
-4.2


31.3
31.6
32.1
32.0
32.0


23.5
24.5
25.8
26.6
27.4


-10.9
-10.9
-10.7
-10.6
-10.0


27.6
28.0
28.3
28.6
29.0


Fair
Poor


Fair
Fair


Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair


Insipid, overmature


1 All samples poor in color on basis of Hunter "a" values for concentrates.
2 Fruit Lot Nos. 9E, 90, and 9D obtained by aAxing of fruit from Lot Nos. 9B and 9A.






Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 y 10/2/58 FWW


36B
36A


9B
9E
90
9D
9A


Fruit
Lot No.


Flavor
grade


1/ 9/58
1/10/58


5/14/58
4/22/58


2/10/58
2/13/58
2/11/58
2/12/58
2/ 6/58


Flavor
defects






Table N. Characteristics of experimental packs of frozen concentrated orange
juice processed from early and midseason fruit with different amounts of freeze
damage. I. Acid, Brix, Brix-to-acid ratio, and pH


Freeze damage Relative juice Acid as
% scoreable yield citric
#~L 2_ al./90 lb. box %
Early season oranges


6.2

5.7
4.1


Midseason oranges


5.2
5.6
5.4
5.0
5.5
5.2
4.8
4.5
4.3


2.88
2.57
3.06
2.33


2.44
2.77
2.51
2.87
3.78
3.03
1.28
1.50
2.50


Brix Brix/acid
ratio


42.6
42.3
43.1
42.7


43.2
42.8
42.8
42.6
43.1
42.7
42.7
42.2
42.2


14.8
16.5
14.1
18.4


17.7
15.5
17.1
14.8
11.4
14.1
33.4
28.1
16.9


3.5
3.7
3.4
3.5


3.7
3.6
3.8
3.7
3.4
3.6
4.2
4.0
3.7


Table 0. Characteristics of experimental packs of frozen concentrated orange
juice processed from early and midseason fruit with different amounts of freeze
damage. II. Ascorbic acid, flavonoids, and microbiological counts


Freeze damage
% scoreable
#1 #2


Reconstituted juice
Ascorbic Flavonoids
acid as hesperidin
mg./100 ml. mg./100 ml.


Total count
in raw juice
Orange serum
agar


Early season oranges


12/27/57
2/ 3/58
12/31/57
1/21/58


1/9/58
2/10/58
3/11/58
3/20/58
12/19/57
1/22/58
1/10/ 8
4/ 358
2/ 6/58


Midseason oranges


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 z 10/2/58 FWW


Fruit
Lot No.


4A
9B
18A
24A
1C
7
4B1
29
9A


Date
processed


12/27/57
2/ 3/58
12/31/57
1/21/58


1/ 9/58
2/10/58
3/11/58
3/20/58
12/19/57
1/22/58
1/10/58
4/ 3/58
2/ 6/58


Fruit
Lot No.


Date
processed


2
8B
3B
6


4A
9B
18A
24A
1C
7
4B1
29
9A


100
117
116
110


81
96
89
106
92
84
100
100
119


9,200
448,000
3,000
100,000


30,000
6,000
70,000
67,000
7,000
50,000
20,000
128,000
1,850,000


i~--


--


- -










Table P. Characteristics of experimental packs of frozen concentrated orange juice processed from early
and midseason fruit with different amounts of freeze damage. III. Pectinesterase activity, serum pectin,
water-insoluble solids, and pulp
Reconstituted juice


Freeze damage
% scoreable
#1 #2


Pectinesterase
activity1


Serum
pectin
mg./100 g.


Water-insoluble
solids
mg./lOO g.


Pulp

% by vol.


Early season oranges
3.6
5.5
2.8
2.1

Midseason oranges
2.3
2.1
3.1
3.9
2.1
1.9
3.1
4.7
2.1


L (PE.u.)g. soluble solids X 1000.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 aa 10/2/58 FW


Fruit
Lot No.


Date
processed


12/27/57
2/ 3/58
12/31/57
1/21/58


4A
9B
18A
24A
1C
7
4B1
29
9A


1/ 9/58
2/10/58
3/11/58
3/20/58
12/19/57
1/22/58
1/10/58
4/ 3/58
2/ 6/58


53.3
36.0
53.3
42.7


48.7
34.7
33.3
33.3
44.7
36.7
53.3
44.0
48.7


246
191
175
139


177
155
180
178
127
105
161
221
178


13.5
14.5
12.0
11.0


12.0
10.5
13.0
12.5
9.5
10.0
16.0
16.0
14.0


__ Imll











Table Q. Characteristics of experimental packs of frozen concentrated orange juice processed from
early and midseason fruit with different amounts of freeze damage. IV. Viscosity a-d physical stability


Date
processed


Freeze damage
% scoreable
#1 #2


Apparent viscosity1
30C0. (86oF.)
420 550-560


Degree of
gelation in
concentrate


Degree of
clarification in
reconst. juice


Aftsr 24 hr. at 80F.


Early season oranges


1320
1525
980
425


4540
3600
3745
1725


1-Very slight
1-Very slight
0-None
0-None


38-None
98-Extreme
35-None
35-None


Midseason oranges


835
510
770
810
540
290
1870
1350
970


1815
2605
2945
2775
1675

4770
4350


0-None
0-None
0-None
0-None
0-None
0-None
2-Slight
2-Slight
0-None


34-None
40-None
43-None
40-None
34-None
40-None
37-None
37-None
31-None


1 Each sample was thawed for 90 minutes in 3000. water bath; viscosity measured at 3000. with
concentrate in 6 oz. can, using Brookfield LVT viscometer, No. 2 spindle for 42 Brix concentrate,
No. 3 spindle for 550 Brix concentrate, 12 r.p.m. with reading made after 1 minute.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 bb 10/2/58 FW1i


Fruit
Lot No.


12/27/57
2/ 3/58
12/31/57
1/21/58



1/ 9/58
2/10/58
3/11/58
3/20/58
12/19/57
1/22/58
1/10/58
4/ 3/58
2/ 6/58


4A
9B
18A
24A
ic
1C
7
4B1
29
9A


I I I











Table R. Characteristics of experimental packs of frozen concentrated orange juice processed
midseason fruit with different amounts of freeze damage. V. Color and flavor


from early and


Date
processed



12/27/57
2/ 3/58
12/31/57
1/21/58


Freeze damage
% scoreable
#1 #2


Hunter Color Difference Meter values


Concentrate


Flavor


Reconstituted juice grade


Rd al b Rd a
Early season oranges


Fruit
Lot No.



2
8B
3B
6


1/ 9/58
2/10/58
3/11/58
3/20/58
12/19/57
1/22/58
1/10/58
4/ 3/58
2/ 6/58


-6.4
-6.2
-7.0
-5.3


30.5
31.6
30.8
31.2


27.1
26.0
28.3
25.6


Midseason oranges


-4.5
-4.9
-4.6
-5.5
-6.5
-4.8
-3.3
-3.7
"4.2


31.2
31.3
31.4
32.0
31.3
30.8
31.4
32.4
32.0


24.5
23.5
23.3
24.8
25.9
22.6
25.7
26.9
s2.4


-10.9
-11.1
-11.0
-10.3


-10.9
-10.9
-10.6
-11.1
-11.2
-10.4
- 9.6
-10.0
-10.0


b


25.9
26.9
26.2
27.0


28.6
27.6
27.6
28.2
27.2
26.8
28.9
29.3
29.0


Poor
Fair
Fair
Fair


Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Poor
Poor
Fair


Insipid, overmature
Insipid, overmature


1 All samples poor in color on basis of Hunter "a" values for concentrates.

Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
866 cc 10/2/58 FWW


27.0
26.7
27.6
24.9


23.1
22.8
22.7
24.2
25.2
22.2
24.0
25.2
25.7


4A
9B
18A
24A
1C
7
4B1
29
9A


Flavor


COF


__ ____ ~


_ L .u




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