Group Title: Citrus Station mimeo report - Florida Citrus Experiment Station ; 56-4
Title: Storage studies on processed citrus juices and concentrates
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072373/00001
 Material Information
Title: Storage studies on processed citrus juices and concentrates
Series Title: Citrus Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 3, 17 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Moore, E. L
Atkins, C. D
Rouse, A. H
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Florida Citrus Commission
Publisher: Florida Citrus Experiment Station :
Florida Citrus Commission
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred FL
Publication Date: 1955
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus juices -- Storage -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Concentrated fruit juices -- Storage -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 3).
Statement of Responsibility: E.L. Moore, C.D. Atkins, and A.H. Rouse.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "October 4, 1955."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072373
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 74718202

Full Text

Citrus Station Mimeo Report 56-4
October 4, 1955


Storage Studies on Processed Citrus Juices and Concentrates 1

E. L. Moore, C. D. Atkins, and A. H. Rouse


The degree of clarification and gelation in citrus concentrates subjected
to above OOF. storage temperatures may be lessened by partial inactivation of
the pectinesterase by heat treatment. For the purpose of obtaining processing
and storage information on control and heat-treated concentrates when the heat
treatment is applied prior to concentration or at different stages of the con-
centration process, 24 packs of control and heat-treated 420Brix Pineapple
orange concentrates and Valencia orange concentrates were prepared for storage
at -80, 100, 200, 300, and 400F., and for short-term storage at 800F. for 24
hours.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

Pineapple orange juice and concentrates. Citra Pineapple oranges were re-
moved from 400F. storage. The juice was extracted with the rotary press. An
0.030 inch screen and a rotary screen were used to obtain an evaporator juice of
8% pulp content and a cut-back juice of 30fo pulp content by volume. The cut-
back juice was filled into 96 fluid ounce cans and cooled in dry ice-alcohol
mixture to a temperature of 250 to 300F. and then placed in -80F. storage until
used.

A portion of the 1-fold (single-strength) juice, 8% pulp content, pH 3.8,
was deaerated, canned in 96 fluid ounce cans, cooled in dry ice-alcohol mixture
to a temperature of 250 to 300F. and then placed in -80F. storage until used.
The remaining juice was fed to the evaporator until the concentration reached
2-fold (23oBrix) and then a portion was removed. The concentration was continued
to 3-fold (33oBrix) and a portion removed. The remaining concentrate was concen-
trated to 4-fold (42oBrix). The three concentrates were canned as prepared (96
fluid ounce cans), cooled in dry ice-alcohol mixture to a temperature of 250 to
300F. and then placed in -80F. storage until used.

When used, the 96 fluid ounce cans were placed on the bronze eliminator
rolls until the contents of the cans reached about 600F. (cool to touch). Each
fold was divided into three equal volumes representing a control (unheated), and
juices heated to 1500 and 1750F. in 6 seconds and cooled in 14 seconds. The
control juice (unheated) was also passed through the tubular pasteurizer and
cooling unit. The 12 juices were concentrated to 550Brix, and cut-back to 42
Brix with the thawed unheated pulpy juice containing 30%o pulp by volume, and
packaged. All concentrates were then stored at -80F. and later placed at the
various storage temperatures.

Valencia orange juice and concentrates. Valencia orange juice, pH 3.9, and
pulp content of 8%, was processed similarly with the exception that the unheated
pulpy cut-back juice contained 20% pulp by volume.
i 1 American Can Company cooperating
Florida Citrus Experiment Station through the establishment of"/--
and Florida Citrus Commission, grant-in-aid.
Lake Alfred, Florida.
597f 5/26/55 ELM 10







EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Heating the Pineapple orange juices to 150F. resulted in 57 to 73% inacti-
vation of pectinesterase and heating to 1750F. inactivated 92 to 93%. The
finished concentrates, cut-back with unheated pulpy juice, showed inactivations
of 35 to 53% and 52 to 61%, respectively.

The Valencia orange juices heated to 1500F. showed a 55 to 70% inactivation
of pectinesterase and 92 to 93% when heated to 175 F. The finished concentrates,
cut-back with unheated pulpy juice, showed inactivations of 33 to 49% and 60 to
68%, respectively.

An interesting trend was observed in both the Pineapple and Valencia orange
juices heated to 1500F. that showed a greater inactivation of pectinesterase at
the 2- and 3-folds than at the 1- and 4-folds.

Analyses for changes in clarification in the Pineapple orange concentrates
stored at 40F. are presented in Table 1. The control concentrates showed
extreme clarification in 1 to 3 days at 400F., the 1500F. heat-treated concen-
trates in 7 to 13 days, and the 1750F. heat-treated concentrates in 8 to 13 days.

Analyses for changes in clarification in the Pineapple orange concentrates
stored at 300F. are given in Table 2. The control concentrates showed extreme
clarification in 2 to 6 days at 300F., the 150oF. heat-treated concentrates in
11 to 28 days, and the 1750F. heat-treated concentrates in 14 to 24 days.

Analyses for changes in clarification in the Pineapple orange concentrates
stored at 200F. are presented in Table 3. The control concentrates showed ex-
treme clarification in 7 to 20 days at 200F., the 1500F. heat-treated concen-
trates in 42 to 84 days, and the 1750F. heat-treated concentrates in 42 to 84
days.

Analyses for changes in clarification in the Valencia orange concentrates
stored at 400F. are given in Table 4. The control concentrates showed extreme
clarification in 4 to 8 days at 400F., the 1500F. heat-treated concentrates in
14 to 35 days, and the 1750F. heat-treated concentrates in 21 to 49 days.

Analyses for changes in clarification in the Valencia orange concentrates
stored at 300F. are presented in Table 5. The control concentrates showed ex-
treme clarification in 8 to 14 days at 300F., the 1500F. heat-treated concen-
trates in 28 to 56 days, and three of the 1750F. heat-treated concentrates in
35 to 56 days.

Summarized in Table 6, but not in the order of folds, are the ranges of the
number of days required for the development of extreme clarification in the con-
trol and heat-treated concentrates as shown by the data in Tables 1 to 5.

Changes in clarification of the concentrates at the other storage tempera-
tures are being followed and results will be available at a later date when
the analyses are completed.

Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
597g 5/26/55 ELM




-3-


Comparison of Colorimeters. In this investigation percentage light trans-
mittance values from five types of colorimeters were obtained on reconstituted
orange and grapefruit juices. The concentrates were reconstituted with three
volumes of distilled water and mechanically stirred for 3 minutes. The cloudi-
ness in the juices was determined by measuring the percentage of light trans-
mittance through samples of the reconstituted juices after centrifuging for 15
minutes at 1700 r.p.m. in an International Centrifuge, Size 1, Type SB. Distilled
water was used as 100 percent transmittance blank.

The percentage of light transmittance through reconstituted commercial
orange and grapefruit and experimental grapefruit juices are indicated in Tables
7 and 8. For experimental packs of Pineapple and Valencia orange concentrates
only the Lumetrons 402-E and 401 were available and results obtained are given in
Tables 9 and 10.

Readings in percentage light transmittance determined on reconstituted
juices, using five colorimeters, are presented in Table 7 for commercial orange
concentrates after storage at 400F. Light transmittance values on the Photovolt
Lumetron 402-E vary from 34.3% to 99.3%; for the Lumetron 401, from 9.0% to 94.3%;
for the Fisher, from less than 10% to 96.6%; for the Bausch and Lomb Spectronic
20, from 1.2% to 85.2%o; and for the Beckman C, from 1.5% to 92.4%. Both the
Spectronic 20 and Beckman C colorimeter readings, on juices of excellent turbid-
ity (2), are concentrated in the low percentages of light transmittance at the
extremity of the scale and tend to vary only by a few tenths as illustrated in
sample 3, Table 7. Values for the Fisher colorimeter are comparable to those of
the Lumetron 401.

Light transmittance readings on the grapefruit juices presented in Table 8
varied from 51.5% to 93.2% for the Lumetron 402-E; 17.5% to 83.1% for the Lumetron
401; 17.5% to 85.7% for the Fisher; 3.87% to 75.5% for the Spectronic 20; and 6.5%
to 79.6% for the Beckman C colorimeter.

The curves in Figures 1, 2 and 3 are based upon the data reported in Tables
7, 8, 9 and 10 and were obtained by plotting the percentage light transmittance
values for the Lumetron 402-E against those for the Lumetron 401. These curves
may be used for the conversion of light transmittance values, obtained using one
of these colorimeters, to the corresponding values that would be obtained if the
other instrument was used, thus making it possible to compare data from laborator-
ies using either the Lumetrons 402-E or 401.
The ranges of percentage light transmittance values for the Lumetron 402-E
corresponding to the various degrees of clarification in citrus juices, as indi-
cated in Table 11, were previously suggested (1, 2) after visual examination of
clarification in many samples of citrus juices. The corresponding ranges of per-
centage light transmittance for the Lumetron 401, also listed in Table 11, which
indicate none, slight, definite and extreme degrees of clarification in orange
or grapefruit juices were obtained from Figures 1, 2 and 3.
LITERATURE CITED
1. Atkins, C. D., A. H. Rouse, R. L. Huggart, E. L. Moore, and F. W. Wenzel.
Gelation and .clarification in concentrated citrus juices. III. Effect
of heat treatment of Valencia orange and Duncan grapefruit juices prior
to concentration. Food Technol., 2: 62-66. 1953.

2. Huggart, R. L., E. L. Moore, and F. W. Wenzel. The measurement of
clarification in concentrated citrus juices. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc., 64: 185-188. 1951

Florida Citrus Experiment Station and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 629 9/21/55-CDA








TABLE 1
Clarification in control and heat-treated 420Brix Pineapple orange concentrates during
storage at 400F.
Degree of clarification in reconstituted juice1
Control 1500F.2 1750F.2
Storage period IX 2X 3X 4X 1X 2X 3X 4X 1X 2X 3X 4X
When prepared N N N S N N N N S N N N
After packaging
and freezing S S S D S N N N S N N N
When stored at 400F.
for this study S S D D S N S S S N S S
1 day at 400F. D E E E S S S S S S S S
2 days D E E E S S S D S S S D
j I E E E E S S S D D S D D
4 E E E E S S D D D S D D
6 E E E E D S D D D D D D
7 E E E E D D D E D D D D
8 E E E E D D D E D D D E
10 D D E E D E E E
11" D D E E D E E E
13 E E E E E E E E
15" E E E E E E E E
17" n E E E E E E E E

1 Clarification measured by percentage light transmission of centrifuged reconstituted juice using 14 ml.
rectangular cell in Lumetron colorimeter (402-E) with filter No. 730. Degree of clarification is ex-
pressed as 0-59% = None (N); 60-69% = Slight (S); 70-84%o = Definite (D); 85-100% = Extreme (E).
Juice was heated at stated fold to temperature in 6 seconds and cooled in 14 seconds. 1X = 1-fold, 2X =
2-fold, etc. After heat treatment of juice at the respective fold, the juice was concentrated to 550
Brix and cut-back to 42OBrix with unheated juice.
Florida Citrus Experiment Station and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 597 5/25/55 -1 ELM







TABLE 2
Clarification in control and heat-treated 420Brix Pineapple orange concentrates during
storage at 300F.


Degree of clarification


Storage period
When prepared
After packaging
and freezing


Control
2X 3X


N N


S S S D


in reconstituted juice1


- -- ----"2


150-iF2
IX 2X


1750F.2
3X LX 1i 2X .X Y


N N


N


S N N N


S N N N


When stored at 300F.
for this study
1 day at 300F.
2 days "
3 1 n In

6 Ii It II
6 11 11 !
8 11 II It
1 "11 II
14 II It II
17 I I"
20 It It It
24 11 i I
28 "
35 I" "I


S S D D S N
S D D D S S
D D E E S S
D E E E S S
D E E E S S
E E E E D S
E E E E D S
E E E E D D
- D D
- D D
- D D
- D E
- E E
- E E


Clarification measured by percentage light transmission of centrifuged reconstituted juice using 14 ml.
rectangular cell in Lumetron colorimeter (402-E) with filter No. 730. Degree of clarification is ex-
pressed as 0-59% = None (N); 60-69% = Slight (S); 70-84% = Definite (D); 85-100% = Extreme (E).
2
2Juice was heated at stated fold to temperature in 6 seconds and cooled in 14 seconds. IX = 1-fold, 2X =
2-fold, etc. After heat treatment of juice at the respective fold, the juice was concentrated to 550
Brix and cut-back to 420Brix with unheated juice.

Florida Citrus Experiment Station and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 597a 5/25/55 ELM


N S S


1~


I-


S2X






TABLE 3
Clarification in control and heat-treated 42OBrix Pineapple orange concentrates during
storage at 200F.


Degree of clarification in reconstituted juiceI


Control 1500F.2 1750F.2
Storage period IX 2X 3X 4X IX 2X 3X 4X iX 2X 3X 4X
When prepared N N N S N N N N S N N N
After packaging
and freezing S S S D S N N N S N N N
When stored at 200F.
for this study S S D D S N S S 3 N S S
7 days at 200F. D D E E S S S D 3 S S S
11 D E E E S S S D 3 S S D
14 D E E E S S S D S S S D
20 E E E E S S D D S S D D
28 E E E E S S D D D D D D
42 E E E E D D D E D D D E
56" E E E E D D E E D E E E
70 D E E E D E E E
84 E E E E E E E E
98 E E E E E E E E
1 Clarification measured by percentage light transmission of centrifuged reconstituted juice using 14 ml.
rectangular cell in Lumetron colorimeter (402-E) with filter No. 730. Degree of clarification is ex-
pressed as 0-59% = None (N); 60-69% = Slight (S); 70-84% = Definite (D); 85-1C00 = Extreme (E).
2
Juice was heated at stated fold to temperature in 6 seconds and cooled in 14 seconds. IX = 1-fold,
2X = 2-fold, etc. After heat treatment of juice at the respective fold, the juice was concentrated
to 550Brix and cut-back to 420Brix with unheated juice.

Florida Citrus Experiment Station and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 597b 5/25/55 ELM







TABLE 4
Clarification in control and heat-treated 420Brix Valencia orange concentrates during
storage at 400F.
Degree of clarification in reconstituted juice1
Control 1500F.2 1750F.2
Storage period 1X 2X 3X 4X iX 2X 3X 4X IX 2X 3X 4X
When prepared N N N N N N N N S N N N
After packaging
and freezing N N N N N N N N N N N N
When stored at 400F.
for this study N S S S S N N N S N N N
1 day at 400F. S D D D S N. N N S N N N
2 days D D D D S S S S S N S S
3 11 n D D D D S S S S S S S S
4 1 n n D D D E S S S S S S S S
6 D E E E S S S D S S S S
8 n E E E E D D S D S S S S
11" E E E E D D D D D D. D D
14" I D D D E D D D D
18 i D D D E D D D D
21 D E E E D D D E
24 11 n D E E E D D D E
28 n D E E E
35 E3 E E E D E E E
42" E E E E D E E E
49 E E E3 E
1 Clarification measured by percentage light transmission of centrifuged reconstituted juice using 14 ml.
rectangular cell in Lumetron colorimeter (402-E) with filter No. 730. Degree of clarification is ex-
pressed as 0-59% = None (N); 60-69% = Slight (S); 70-84% = Definite (D); 85-100% = Extreme (E).
2 Juice was heated at stated fold to temperature in 6 seconds and cooled in 14 seconds. IX = 1-fold, 2X =
2-fold, etc. After heat treatment of juice at the respective fold, the juice was concentrated to 550
Brix and cut-back to 42Brix with unheated juice.
3 Mold growth.
4 Yeasty odor.
Florida Citrus Experiment Station and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 597c 5/25/55 ELM







TABLE 5
Clarification in control and heat-treated 420Brix Valencia orange concentrates during
storage at 300F.
Degree of clarification in reconstituted juice
Control 1500F.2 1750F.2
Storage period IX 2X 3X 4X IX 2X 3X 4X IX 2X 3X 4X
When prepared N N N N N N N N S N N N
After packaging
and freezing N N N N N N i N N N N N
When stored at 300F.
for this study N S S S S N N N S N N N
1 day at 300F. S S S S S N N S S N N N
2 days S S D D S N N S S N N N
3 11 i S D D D S S S S S S S S
4 D D D D S S S S S S S S
6 D D D D S S S S S S S S
8 D E E E S S S S S S S S
11" D E E E S S S D S S S S
14 E E E E D D S D S S D S
20 E E E E D D D D D D D D
24" D D D D D D D D
28" D D D E D D D D
35 D D D E D D D E
42 D E E E D D D E
56 E E E E D E E E
70" "It E E E E D E E E
1 Clarification measured by percentage light transmission of centrifuged reconstituted juice using 14 ml.
rectangular cell in Lumetron colorimeter (402-E) with filter No. 730. Degree of clarification is ex-
pressed as 0-59% = None (N); 60-69% = Slight (S); 70-84% = Definite (D); 85-100% = Extreme (E).
Juice was heated at stated fold to temperature in 6 seconds and cooled in 14 seconds. 1X = 1-fold, 2X =
2-fold, etc. After heat treatment of juice at the respective fold, the juice was concentrated to 550
Brix and cut-back to 42oBrix with unheated juice.
Florida Citrus Experiment Station and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 597d 5/25/55 ELM











TABLE 6
Summary to date of number of days required for development of extreme clarification in
control and heat-treated 420Brix Pineapple orange concentrates and Valencia orange
concentrates during storage at various temperatures 1
Variety Temperature of Days required for development of extreme clarification
storage Control 1500F. 1750F.

Pineapple orange 400F. 1-3 7-13 8-13
t" 300F. 2-6 11-28 14-24

200F. 7-20 42-84 42-84

Valencia orange 400F. 4-8 14-35 21-49

300F. 8-14 28-56 35-56 2

1See text for details of preparation of concentrates and other tables for complete data.
2
Samples of 1-fold were used up before extreme clarification occurred.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 597e 5/25-55 ELM









TABLE 7
Comparison of clouds in colorimeters of reconstituted orange juices from commercial samples stored at 40OF.
Storage Light transmittance
Sample number period Lumetron 402E Lumetron 401 Fisher Bausch & Lomb Beckman C
and Spectronic 20
designation 730 filter 650 filter 650 filter 650 mu 660 filter
14 ml. cell 18mm. O.D. cell 3 ml. cell 1/2-in. O.D. cell 15mm. O.D. cell
days % % % % %
Initial 34.3 9.5 <10.0 1.7 1.7
1 37.3 10.5 10.0 2.5 2.3
1 2 39.4 11.0 10.8 2.5 2.7
Commercial 3 48.1 16.0 15.2 3.0 4.6
7 58.7 23.0 22.8 6.0 9.2
14 86.9 64.0 64.0 39.4 50.8

Initial 40.2 12.3 11.0 2.2 2.8
1 46.1 14.5 14.0 3.0 4.0
2 2 63.0 27.2 28.0 8.2 13.5
Commercial 3 81.2 54.9 55.0 27.4 37.4
7 95.0 83.2 87.4 70.5 77.0
14 99.3 94.3 96.6 85.2 92.4

Initial 38.8 11.5 10.0 2.2 1.9
1 40.8 12.3 11.0 2.3 2.6
3 2 40.0 11.4 11.0 2.2 2.5
Commercial 3 41.5 12.0 11.3 2.0 2.7
7 45.3 13.8 13.2 2.5 3.9
14 45.8 14.0 13.6 2.5 3.8
21 55.7 20.0 20.5 4.0 7.5
28 69.4 34.1 33.7 12.2 18.3

Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
588b 5/19/55 CDA








TABLE? (continued)


4
Commercial







5
Commercial


Initial
1
2
3
7
14
21
28

Initial
1
2
3
7
14


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
588c 5/19/55 CDA


36.0
36.4
35.7
37.2
38.8
49.1
71.0
85.3

38.2
48.2
52.3
73.3
90.8
96.0


9.0
9.6
9.0
9.8
10.1
15.8
36.3
62.1

11.4
15.6
18.0
40.1
74.1
85.0


1i0.0
<10.0
410.0
<10.0
10.0
16.3
38.0
62.2

10.0
14.5
17.8
38.8
74.6
87.4


2.0
2.0
2.0
1.2
2.0
3.2
14.3
37.5

2.1
3.4
4.1
12.6
49.5
63.8


2.0
2.0
1.5
2.1
2.2
5.5
21.2
49.0

1.9
4.3
6.5
21.5
59.9
76.2









TABLE 8
Comparison of clouds in colorimeters of reconstituted grapefruit juices (3 commercial and 2 Station samples)
stored at 400F.
Storage Light transmittance
Sample number period Lumetron 402E Lumetron 401 Fisher Bausch & Lomb Beckman C
and Spectronic 20
designation 730 filter 650 filter 650 filter 650 mu 660 filter
days 14 ml. cell 18mm. O.D. cell 3 ml. cell 1/2-in. O.D. cell 15mm. O.D. cell


Initial 56.7 21.3 21.0 5.1 8.5
1 57.4 21.4 21.3 5.4 8.7
1 2 64.5 29.8 29.2 9.0 14.5
Commercial 3 87.4 67.5 68.9 47.6 59.0
4 91.5 79.0 82.0 69.0 74.5

Initial 52.9 18.2 18.5 4.2 6.9
1 54.6 19.2 19.5 4.5 7.2
2 2 59.7 24.4 24.3 6.0 10.8
Commercial 3 79.4 51.5 50.5 28.0 38.1
4 85.0 66.0 66.5 47.5 54.5
7 93.0 83.1 85.6 75.5 79.6

Initial 51.5 17.5 17.5 3.8 6.5
1 54.3 19.0 18.8 4.5 7.5
3 2 54.4 20.0 20.1 4.6 7.8
Commercial 3 56.7 22.0 21.0 5.4 9.9
4 59.0 25.5 25.0 7.0 11.3
7 71.1 39.1 38.4 14.5 23.8
14 89.6 72.1 73.7 54.5 63.5


,Florida Citrus Experiment Station and Florida
Lake Alfred, Florida. 588d 5/19/55 CDA


Citrus Commission,









TABLE 8 (continued)


4
Experimental
(uncut)
8% Pulp


5
Experimental
(cut)
8% Pulp


Initial
1
2
3
4
7

Initial
1
2
3
4
7


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
588e 5/19/55 CDA


59.1
60.1
62.1
80.5
90.0
93.0

55.0
55.8
58.0
76.0
89.0
93.2


23.2
24.0
27.0
52.0
74.0
82.9

20.0
20.2
23.0
46.0
73.0
82.8


23.2
23.9
26.8
53.0
76.0
85.7

19.3
19.9
22.7
45.0
75.0
85.0


6.5
6.5
8.0
26.5
58.5
74.5

4.7
4.8
5.2
22.2
57.0
74.0


10.5
10.8
12.5
37.5
65.0
79.4

7.4
8.0
9.6
31.0
64.5
79.3






TABLE 9
Comparison of "clouds" in colorimeters of reconstituted Pineapple
orange juices from frozen concentrated juices stored at 400F.
Sample number Storage Lumetron 402E Lumetron,4 01
and period 730 filter 650 filter
10 mm. rect. cell 18 mm. O.D. cell
treatment days Light transmittance-% Light transmittance-%


1
1-fold
6 sec. to
1500F.



2
2-fold
6 sec. to
1500F.


3
3-fold
6 sec. to
1500F.


4
4-fold
6 sec. to
1500F.


5
1-fold
6 sec. to
175 F.



6
2 -fold
6 sec. to
1750F.

7
3 -fold
6 sec. to
1750F.

8
4-fold
6 sec. to
1750F.


Initial
2
4
7
10
14

Initial
2
4
7
10
14

Initial
2
4
7
10

Initial
2
4
7
10

Initial
2
4
7
10
14

Initial
2
4
7
10
Initial
2
4
7
10
Initial
2
4
7
10


61.7
65.1
68.7
74.3
83.7
86.8

56.5
61.1
65.8
78.6
87.2
90.8

59.5
65.0
73.9
87.1
92.2

60.8
76.2
83.6
91.8
95.5

65.4
67.7
68.8
76.8
86.0
87.1

56.8
60.8
68.1
84.5
91.0


- slight
- slight
- slight
- definite
- definite
- extreme

- none
- slight
- slight
- definite
- extreme
- extreme

- slight
- slight
- definite
- extreme
- extreme

- slight
- definite
- definite
- extreme
- extreme

- slight
- slight
- slight
- definite
- extreme
- extreme

- none
- slight
- slight
- extreme
- extreme


26.8
29.9
35.1
42.5
59.0
65.1

21.4
25.6
31.5
49.6
67.0
75.8

24.6
29.2
42.3
66.8
78.6

25.0
45.0
60.0
77.9
87.5

30.8
33.0
35.4
46.3
65.0
67.3

21.5
25.3
34.2
60.4
.75.4
24.0
31.8
39.6
63.5
78.0


59.0 none
66.8 slight
72.1 definite
86.1 extreme
92.0 extreme


61.2
72.2
78.2
85.5
93.0


- slight
- definite
- definite
- extreme
- extreme


Florida Citrus Experiment Station and Florida
Lake Alfred, Florida. 588f 5/19/55 CDA


26.0
39.1
49.3
62.8
81.0


Citrus Commission,


- slight
- slight
- slight
- definite
- definite
- extreme

- none
- slight
- slight
- definite
- extreme
- extreme

- slight
- slight
- definite
- extreme
- extreme

- slight
- definite
- definite
- extreme
- extreme

- slight
- slight
- slight
- definite
- extreme
- extreme

- none
- slight
- slight
- extreme
- extreme
- none
- slight
- definite
- extreme
- extreme


slight
definite
definite
extreme
extreme


---


I








TABLE J10


Comparison of "clouds" in colorimeters of reconstituted Valencia
orange juice from frozen concentrated juices stored at 400F.
Sample number Storage Lumetron 402E Lumetron 401
and period 730 filter 650 filter


treatment
1
1-fold
control


2
2-fold
control


3
3-fold
control


4
4-fold
control


5
1-fold
6 sec. to
1500F.




6
2-fold
6 sec. to
1500F.


I II I


10 mm. rect, cell
Light transmittance-%


Initial 54.2
7 2 57.6
3-fold 6 71.3
6 sec. to 9 79.7
1500F. 13 85.7
16 87.8
Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
588g 5/19/55 CDA


days
Initial
1
2
4

Initial
1
2
4

Initial
1
2
4

Initial
1
2
4

Initial
2
6
9
13
16
20
24

Initial
2
6
9
13
16


18 mm. O.D. cell
Light transmittance-%


59.8
63.0
74.3
84.8

61.0
70.5
84.5
89.2

63.3
71.4
85.8
87.3

60.3
72.5
87.7
90.7

58.4
60.4
71.2
76.6
83.1
82.6
85.6
87.3

55.3
58.6
71.8
78.4
83.8
90.0


slight
slight
definite
extreme

slight
definite
extreme
extreme

slight
definite
extreme
extreme

slight
definite
extreme
extreme

none
slight
definite
definite
definite
definite
extreme
extreme

none
none
definite
definite
definite
extreme

none
none
definite
definite
extreme
extreme


~


24.2
28.2
39.9
65.0

26.0
38.0
57.8
75.2

28.5
39.0
60.4
71.0

25.1
40.6
64.4
79.0

23.5
24.6
'36.5
45.7
59.0
57.7
63.1
67.4

20.1
23.2
37.9
49.5
60.1
73.8

20.0
22.5
37.2
51.0
64.1
69.1


slight
slight
definite
extreme

slight
definite
extreme
extreme

slight
definite
extreme
extreme

slight
definite
extreme
extreme

none
slight
definite
definite
definite
definite
extreme
extreme

none
none
definite
definite
definite
extreme

none
none
definite
definite
extreme
extreme








TABLE 10(continued)


8
4-fold
6 sec. to
1500F.




9
1-fold
6 sec. to
1750F.


10
2-fold
6 sec. to
175OF.






11
3-fold
6 sec. to
175oF.


12
4-fold
6 sec. to
175 F.


Initial
2
6
9
13
16

Initial
3
7
10
14
16
20
24
31
38

Initial
3
7
10
14
16
20
24
31

Initial
3
7
10
14
16
20
24

Initial
3
7
10
14
16
20
24


54.4
59.8
68.4
73.4
79.8
80.3
80.6
81.9
86.8

54.3
60.5
67.3
78.9
85.1
83.8
79.2
87.1

54.3
59.6
69.5
86.9
88.3
85.0
87.7
89.6


54.3
61.1
82.4
89.0
92.6
94.2

5915
62.2
68.0
72.7
74.4
73.5
72.3
77.8
81.3
87.9


- none
- slight
- slight
- definite
- definite
- definite
- definite
- definite
- extreme

- none
- slight
- slight
- definite
- extreme
- definite
- definite
- extreme

- none
- slight
- definite
- extreme
- extreme
- extreme
- extreme
- extreme


- none
- slight
- definite
- extreme
- extreme
- extreme

- slight
- slight
- slight
- definite
- definite
- definite
- definite
- definite
- definite
- extreme


19.4
25.4
56.0
70.4
80.2
84.2

24.2
27.5
33.2
40.3
42.3
41.6
39.0
48.5
55.2
68.3

19.2
24.5
34.0
42.0
51.8
53.5
53.0
56.2
67.1

19.9
25.5
32.9
51.0
62.1
59.9
50.7
68.0

19.2
24.4
35.8
67.2
70.1
63.0
68.3
73.3


none
slight
slight
definite
definite
definite
definite
definite
extreme

none
slight
slight
definite
extreme
definite
definite
extreme


- none
- slight
- definite
- extreme
- extreme
- extreme
- extreme
- extreme


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
588h 5/19/55 CDA


- none
- slight
- definite
- extreme
- extreme
- extreme

- slight
- slight
- slight
- definite
- definite
- definite
- definite
- definite
- definite
- extreme
















90
-4


I 90





1.0
H O
So


70




B 60
Pc


Fig. 1. Relationship of light transmittance values
for two colorimeters obtained on reconsti-
tuted centrifuged juices prepared from ex-
perimental frozen concentrated Valencia and
Pineapple orange juices stored at 40OF.


/
/

/



4 25-3 <,, 36-60


Florida Citrus Experiment Station and
Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 588j-5/19/55-CDAj


____ ---- 61-100


PERCENT LIGHT TRANSMITTANCE LUMETRON 401


100 _


CD
4.


4.)


h0

a,


/M-> 0-


//i


L
















-4,

Q)







Ir-





r.





0

-,

E:____


60-100


90_
90


PERCENT LIGHT TRANSMITTANCE LUMETRON 401


Fig. 2. Relationship of light transmittance
values for two colorimeters obtained
on reconstituted centrifuged juices
prepared from commercial frozen con-
centrated orange juices stored at 400F.








Florida Citrus Experiment Station and
Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 588k-5/19/55-CD


0





-4







0
a- 0










E-i


0-23


- 24-34 (--


35-59


IA


I__ _____ _____


--; I----;-









Fig. 3. Relationship of light transmittance values for
two colorimeters obtained on reconstituted
centrifuged juices prepared from both commercial
and experimental frozen concentrated grapefruit
juices stored at 400F.


100,-





90__





801





70-





60


< ---


Florida Citrus Experiment Station and
Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 5881-5/19/55-CDA


0-35 -- 36-50 I 51-72
I i


73-100


100


PERCENT LIGHT TRANSMITTANCE LUMETRON 401


-- --


i i


!


-I-<














TABLE 11
Degree of clarification in orange and grapefruit juices
based on light transmittance values obtained on the
Lumetron 402-E and Lumetron 401 colorimeters
Degree of
clarification 402-E 401 402-E 401
Orange Grapefruit
None 0- *59 0- 24 0- 69 0- 35

Slight 60- 69 25- 35 70- 79 36- 50

Definite 70- 84 36- 60 80- 89 51- 72

Extreme 85- 100 61- 100 90- 100 73- 100


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
588i 5/19/55 CDA




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