Group Title: Citrus Station mimeo report - Florida Citrus Experiment Station ; 55-2
Title: Citrus molasses evaporator scale
Full Citation
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 Material Information
Title: Citrus molasses evaporator scale
Series Title: Citrus Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 2 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hendrickson, Rudolph
Kesterson, J. W
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Florida Citrus Commission
Publisher: Florida Citrus Experiment Station :
Florida Citrus Commission
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred FL
Publication Date: 1954
Subject: Citrus fruit industry -- By-products -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: R. Hendrickson and J.W. Kesterson.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "October 12, 1954."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072363
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 74325278

Full Text

Citrus Station Mimeo Report 55-2
October 12, 1954

Citrus Molasses Evaporator Scale
R. Hendrickson and J. W. Kesterson

One of the most aggravating problems of the citrus molasses producer has
been the frequent necessity of removing scale from the heat exchange surfaces
of the evaporator. The degree of scaling is increased considerably by the neces-
sary practice of adding hydrated lime to chopped citrus peel in the conventional
processing technique. An evaluation of possible solutions to this problem was
begun on a laboratory basis by first analyzing the scale.

Physical analysis of dry citrus molasses evaporator scale showed it to have
a porous nature with an apparent density of 0.75, which would mean that a one
mm. scale deposit on a 1000 sq. ft. of heating surface would weigh 153 lbs. The
greater part of this scale was shown to be readily soluble in a hot acid solution.
Although hot acid solutions are considered to be too corrosive for most citrus
molasses evaporators, the possibility of their use with some of the newer acid
corrosion inhibitors was listed as a possible solution.

Since there has been some confusion as to the composition of this evapora-
tor scale, detailed attention was given to it. Spectrographic analysis brought
out that calcium, magnesium, iron, silicon and manganese are present in scale.
Chromatographic analysis in conjunction with ion exchange treatment and titration
substantiated that approximately 80 percent of this scale was calcium citrate.
Another 10 percent was calculated to be a high molecular weight condensation pro-
duct, insoluble in both alkali and acid. Practically no hesperidin or pectates
could be found in this scale. Ash analysis of citrus evaporator scale is shown
in Table 1.

The removal of citrus molasses evaporator scale was shown to be readily
accomplished with a five percent "Versene" solution. The rate of scale removal
was determined for 850C. and 100oC. and found to be approximately 3 mm. per hr.
at the higher temperature when using a five percent solution. Cost estimates on
this procedure showed it to be rather expensive. Testing of the industryls pre-
sent alkali boil-out treatments showed straight caustic in high strength to give
the quickest removal of scale. Soda ash, certain phosphates, and various sur-
face active agents in combination, or alone did not materially improve the rate
of scale removal.

The problem of citrus molasses evaporator scale could be considerably
alleviated by certain pretreatment procedures. The possibility of substituting
waste lye for lime has already been shown to have possibilities by Kilburn (1952
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.). Another possibility, however, is felt to lie in
the use of a hydrated lime of lower purity, primarily one having a greater
magnesium content whose salts are more soluble. Further suggested possibilities
include the use of sequestering agents to wholly or partially complex the calcium
present, as well as the use of various phosphates that would precipitate the
calcium as an insoluble salt with a minimum deposit as a scale.

Florida Citrus Experiment Station and
Florida Citrus Commission, Lake Alfred, Fla.


Ash analysis of citrus evaporator scale


Sulfated ash

















Florida Citrus Experiment Station and
Florida Citrus Commission, Lake Alfred, Fla.

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