Group Title: Citrus Station mimeo report - Florida Citrus Experiment Station ; 54-12
Title: Frozen tangerine concentrate
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072359/00001
 Material Information
Title: Frozen tangerine concentrate
Series Title: Citrus Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 4 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wenzel, F. W
Moore, E. L
Atkins, C. D
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Publisher: Florida Citrus Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred FL
Publication Date: 1953
 Subjects
Subject: Tangerine -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Concentrated fruit juices -- Preservation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: F.W. Wenzel, E.L. Moore, and C.D. Atkins.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "Cooperative publication of the Florida Citrus Experiment Station and Florida Citrus Commission. Presented at the 66th annual meeting of the Florida State Horticultural Society, November 5, 1953."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072359
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 74323220

Full Text


.Frozen Tangerine Concentratea


F. W. Wenzel, E. L. Moore, and C. D. Atkins
Florida Citrus Experiment Station
Lake Alfred


In considering the utilization of tangerines for the manufacture of frozen
tangerine concentrate, emphasis should be put upon the following factors: a good
quality concentrate can be made and the quality maintained by frozen storage, the
supply of tangerines is actually limited from the processors' and consumers' view-
points, and handling and processing costs for production of tangerine concentrate
will be greater than similar costs for orange concentrate. With these factors in
mind this report will consider the supply and demand situation relative to tang-
erines, some of the problems that confront the processor in the production of a
good quality tangerine concentrate, and some suggestions that may help to bring
about complete utilization of the Florida tangerine crop. The possibilities of
tangerine concentrate in providing an outlet for this fruit were previously dis-
cussed by the senior author at the Sixth Annual Gulf Citrus Growers Institute,
Brooksville, in April 1951, and also at the Eighteenth Annual Citrus Growers In-
stitute, Camp McQuarrie, Lake County, in August 1951. This report provides addi-
tional current information.

Tangerine SupRly and Demand. During the past four fruit seasons, out of a
total crop of tangerines of from four and one-half to five million boxes, approxi-
mately three and one-half million boxes were sold either as fresh fruit interstate
or as fresh fruit in Florida and approximately one-half to one and one-half million
boxes were available for processing either as single-strength canned juice, tange-
rine concentrate, or other processed products. The total disposition of Florida
oranges, grapefruit, and tangerines, as well as the utilization of these citrus
fruits by canning and concentrating plants, is shown in Table 1 for the past four
seasons. Over 53% of the citrus fruit used during and since the 1949-50 season
went to the commercial processing plants with the utilization of oranges, grape-
fruit, and tangerines showing ranges of 59 to 63%, 41 to 56%, and 16 to 32%, re-
spectively. A comparison of the quantity of tangerines sold as fresh fruit with
that used by commercial processors is presented in Table 2, and also a further
breakdown showing the boxes of tangerines used for both canned juices and frozen
concentrate, which definitely was produced in greater volume during the 1952-53
season than during the 1951-52 season.

Considering the quantity of tangerines available for processing from the view-
point oQ both the manufacturer of concentrate and the potential consumer consump-
tion, the one-half to one and one-half million boxes of tangerines available is
actually a limited supply and is extremely small in comparison with the quantity
of oranges that is now utilized yearly for the production of frozen orange- concen-
trate. During the 1952-53 season 46,553,695 gallons of frozen orange concentrate
were produced, as compared to the production of 551,397 gallons'of tangerine. con-
centrate (3). i o

a Cooperative publication of the Florida Citrus Experiment Station and Florida
Citrus Commission. Presented at the 66th Annual Meeting of the Florida State
Horticultural Society, November 5, 1953.
Citrus Station Mimeo Report 54-12. Florida Citrus Experiment Station and
Florida Citrus Commission, Lake Alfred, Florida. 487 11/23/53 F W











Table 1
Disposition of Florida oranges, grapefruit, and tangerinesb


Oranges Grapefruit Tangerines Totals
Total Cannery Total Cannery Total Cannery Total Cannery
Commercial Commercial Commercial Commercial
Season Boxes Boxes % Boxes Boxes Bxes Boxes Bx% Boxes Boxes %

1949-50 58,553,679 34,657,323 59 24,206,061 13,486,200 56 5,000,009 1,594,920 32 87,759,749 49,738,4/.3 57

1950-51 67,302,284 1/1,857,889 62 33,224,132 17,813,786 54 4,800,000 1,354,572 28 105,326,416 61,026,257 58

1951-52 78,807,067 17,450,510 60 32,791,071 13,593,001 41 4,084,622 657,136 16 115,682,760 61,700,647 53

1952-53 72,855,267 15,838,898 63 32,727,318 15,167,188 46 4,900,000 1,064,134 22 110,482,585 62,070,220 56
b Citrus and Vegetable Inspection Division. Annual reports for 1949-50, 1950-51, 1951-52 and 1952-53 seasons. In
terms of 1-3/5 bushel boxes. Florida Department of Agriculture, Hinter Haven, Florida.

Citrus Station "limeo Report 54-12. Florida Citrus Experiment Station and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 487d 11/23/53 FYM













Table 2


Disposition of tangerinesc


Fresh Commercial Used for Used for frozen
Season fruit cannery canned juices concentrate
Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes

1949-50 3,405,089 1,594,920 1,485,366 -
1950-51 3,445,428 1,354,572 973,753 -
1951-52 3,127,486 657,136 339,967 298,440
1952-53 3,835,866 1,064,134 567,594 491,885

c Citrus and Vegetable Inspection Division. Annual reports for
1949-50, 1950-51, 1951-52 and 1952-53 seasons. In terms of
1-3/5 bushel boxes. Florida Department of Agriculture, Winter
Haven, Fla.
d Total of certified fresh fruit shipments, express shipments, and
non-commercial intrastate use.
Citrus Station Hlimeo Report 54-12. Florida Citrus Experiment
Station and Florida Citrus Commission, Lake Alfred, Florida.
487e 11/23/53 FUK-









It is interesting to note the quantity of tangerine concentrate that would
be available for distribution to consumers if a million boxes of tangerines were
processed. Information in Table 3 indicates an average yield of 1.15 gallons of
concentrate per box of fruit. On this basis a million boxes of tangerines would
yield 1,150,000 gallons of concentrate'(1,022,200 cases of 24 6 oz. cans). The
average weekly national consumer purchases of frozen concentrated orange juice, as
estimated by Market Research Corporation of America for six months, April to Sep-
tember inclusive, during 1953 was about 1,076,000 gallons per week. If consumer
consumption of tangerine concentrate would reach 5% of the present rate of con-
sumption of orange concentrate, then the 1,150,000 gallons of tangerine concen-
trate produced from a million boxes of fruit would be consumed within approximately
21 weeks. To process one million boxes of tangerines into 1,150,000 gallons of
concentrate, a plant with an evaporation capacity of 20,000 pounds of water per
hour would have to operate efficiently and continuously for approximately 60 days.
Thus from these calculated figures it is evident that the supply of tangerines is
actually quite limited from the standpoint of both the processor and the consumer.

Problems in Processing Tangerine Concentrate. A frozen concentrated tange-
rine juice of good quality can be made provided fruit of good quality is carefully
handled and properly processed. Experimental packs of frozen tangerine concentrate
have been processed in the pilot plant at the Station and the characteristics of
the concentrates were previously discussed (5). Results indicated that frozen tan-
gerine concentrates of good quality can be made. Tangerines are definitely more
difficult to process into frozen concentrate than oranges chiefly because of the
size, shape, and fragility of the fruit. To overcome some of the difficulties en-
countered, greater handling and processing costs are incurred which make production
costs for tangerine concentrate greater than similar costs for orange concentrate.
The major problems arise from the time the fruit is picked until after the juice
is extracted and screened prior to concentration in high-vacuum, low-temperature
evaporators such as described by Atkins, Wenzel, Fehlberg, and Slater (1). The
concentration of the juice and its subsequent freezing and storage pose no special
problems.

Fully mature fruit should be used if a good flavored concentrate is desired
and therefore the fruit should not be harvested until January or February. Early
in the season the addition of sugar to the juice, although not recommended, is
possible if the Brix/acid ratio is too low for consumer acceptance. Late in the
season the fruit becomes dry and puffy, which results in a decrease in the juice
yield. Since a large volume of tangerines is shipped for the Thanksgiving and
Christmas trade, if the cost were not prohibitive, such fruit could be spot-picked
for quality as needed and the excess fruit allowed to remain on the tree to be
harvested later for processing into concentrate. In harvesting, tangerines should
be clipped and not pulled since pulling often results in plugging the fruit. Plug-
ged fruit becomes contaminated not only with dirt but also with microorganisms that
may cause spoilage of the fruit prior to or during processing; also plugged fruit
becomes contaminated with detergents used for washing fruit at the processing plant.

In hauling tangerines from the grove to the processing plant they should be

Citrus Station Mimeo Report 54-12. Florida Citrus Experiment Station and
Florida Citrus Commission, Lake Alfred, Florida. 487a 11/23/53 FWN











Table 3
Frozen tangerine concentrate production


Tangerines Concentrate Concentrate Juice
Season used produced yield yieldf
Boxes Gallons Gal./box Gal./box

1951-52 298,440 349,161 1.17 4.64

1952-53 491,885 551,397 1.12 4.45
e Citrus and Vegetable Inspection Division. Annual reports
for 1951-52 and 1952-53 seasons. In terms of 1-3/5 bushel
boxes. Florida Department of Agriculture, Winter Haven,
Fla.
f Calculation based on 42Brix concentrate and 120Brix juice
and assuming no addition of sugar.

Table 4
Comparison of number of boxes of oranges and
tangerines to yield 100 gallons of 420Brix
concentrate

Brix of Oranges Tangerines
juice 1.43 gal./box 1.12 gal./box
10 85 108
11 77 98
12 70 89
13 64 82
Citrus Station Mimeo Report 54-12. Florida Citrus
Experiment Station and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 487f 11/23/53 FU






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handled carefully. Field boxes can be used. When hauled in bulk tangerines can-
not be piled as high in trucks as oranges because they become mashed and damaged
quite easily. The use of baffles in trucks might make it possible to haul larger
quantities of fruit with a minimum amount of damage. Utilization of damaged or
spoiled fruit by the processing plant results in products of poor quality and
therefore such fruit should not be used.

Tangerines tend to deteriorate and spoil faster than oranges and therefore
should be used as. rapidly as possible after arrival at the processing plant if
losses are to be prevented. The fruit cannot be stored in available fruit bins
and therefore storage ties up hauling equipment. Also since the fruit is not
stored in fruit bins, it is practically impossible to blend the fruit to obtain
a definite Brix/acid ratio in the juice.

When processing equipment designed and built for handling oranges is used to
handle tangerines, various problems arise because of the difference in the size
and shape of these fruits. Difficulties are encountered during the washing, con-
veying, sizing, and extraction operations and consequently losses of fruit, juice,
and production time result. For production of a good product excessive amounts of
peel extractives in the finished concentrate should be avoided. Therefore, if
large particles of peel get into the juice during extraction they should be re-
moved from the juice by screening before it enters the juice finisher for final
screening. Thus in some plants it may be necessary to introduce another operation
into the processing procedure. Also the small size of the fruit and lower juice
yield per box creates a problem of having sufficient extraction equipment avail-
able for obtaining the large volume of juice required by the evaporating equipment.
After the juice has been extracted and screened, processing of tangerine concen-
trate is carried out using the same procedures and equipment that are used for the
manufacture of orange concentrate without encountering other difficulties. The
concentrated tangerine juice, if properly and carefully manufactured, will be of
good quality which can be maintained by frozen storage.

The yield of juice or concentrate from a box of tangerines is smaller than
that obtained from a box of oranges. The quantity of concentrate that can be made
from a box of fruit depends upon both the juice yield and the soluble solids con-
tent (oBrix) of the juice (Table 4). It is evident that if the cost of tangerines
and oranges is the same, then the total cost for the production of tangerine con-
centrate will be greater than that for orange concentrate because of the lower
yield of tangerine concentrate obtained from each box of fruit. Also other factors,
such as the need for more grading and the impossibility of obtaining full plant
capacity, while fixed costs and other labor costs are about the same, result in
total factory costs for processing tangerines into concentrate that are consider-
ably greater than those for processing oranges.

Suggestions for Complete Utilization of Tangerine Crop. The following sug-
gestions are offered as steps to be considered that might help to bring about com-
plete utilization of the tangerine crop. As much of the crop as possible should
be sold as fresh fruit after being harvested as needed and such fruit should be
picked carefully from the standpoint of quality. Fruit to be processed into frozen

Citrus Station Mimeo Report 54-12. Florida Citrus Experiment Station and
Florida Citrus Commission, Lake Alfred, Florida. 487b 11/23/53 FYW






-4-


concentrate should not be harvested until January or February. Since from the
processors' standpoint the crop is limited, it would perhaps be better if two or
three plants could process all of the tangerines available into concentrate. Such
plants should be located as close as possible to the areas in which most of the
tangerines are produced to eliminate long distance hauling. Also these plants
should be properly equipped so that the fruit may be handled and processed effici-
ently. Processing of all the fruit available within one or two months is also de-
sirable.

Since the supply of finished concentrate would also be limited from the con-
sumers' point of view, perhaps it would be wise not to aftempt national d'istribu-
tion but to limit its sale to a number of large markets during a certain time of
the year, such as the summer months. It has been pointed out that tangerine con-
centrate may be more expensive to produce than orange concentrate because of ex-
tra costs incurred during harvesting and hauling, lower juice yield per box, loss-
es of fruit before and during processing on account of spoilage and difficulties
in handling, and greater factory costs. To take care of these increased costs the
tangerine concentrate could be sold to the consumer as a specialty item at a prem-
ium price and thereby make possible a just and reasonable profit to both the grow-
er and the processor. Other tangerine products which are outlets for the fruit
are a tangerine base for sherbet as described by Bissett (2) and Singleton (4),
canned tangerine juice and blended juice, and tangerine popsicles.

Some attempt to put these suggestions into operation could be made by the
coordinated effort and action of growers and processors working with such agencies
as the Florida Tangerine Cooperative, Florida Citrus Commission, and Florida Citrus
Mutual. The solution of the problem of utilizing not only all of the tangerines,
but also the increasingly large Florida crop of oranges and grapefruit, will depend
on the efforts and cooperation of growers, processors, and all other persons who
afe interested in the welfare of the Florida citrus industry.

LITERATURE CITED

1. Atkins, C. D., F. W. Wenzel, Ellis Fehlberg, and Lloyd E. Slater. 1950. New
evaporator robotized for high output, efficiency. Food Industries 22:1521-
1523.

2. Bissett, Owen W. 1949. Frozen purees from Florida citrus fruits. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 62:163-165.

3. Citrus and Vegetable Inspection Division. Annual reports for 1949-50, 1950-
51, 1951-52, and 1952-53 seasons. Florida Department of Agriculture, Winter
Haven, Fla.

4. Singleton, Gray. 1952. Preparation of tangerine puree. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 65:214-217.

5, Wenzel, F. W., R. L. Huggart, R. W. Olsen, E. L. Moore, and C. D. Atkins. 1952.
Examination of experimental packs of frozen tangerine concentrate. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 65:246-249.

Citrus Station Mimeo Report 54-12. Florida Citrus Experiment Station and
Florida Citrus Commission, Lake Alfred, Florida. 487c 11/23/53 FWW






-4-


concentrate should not be harvested until January or February. Since from the
processors' standpoint the crop is limited, it would perhaps be better if two or
three plants could process all of the tangerines available into concentrate. Such
plants should be located as close as possible to the areas in which most of the
tangerines are produced to eliminate long distance hauling. Also these plants
should be properly equipped so that the fruit may be handled and processed effici-
ently. Processing of all the fruit available within one or two months is also de-
sirable.

Since the supply of finished concentrate would also be limited from the con-
sumers' point of view, perhaps it would be wise not to attempt national distribu-'
tion but to limit its sale to a number of large markets during a certain time of
the year, such as the summer months. It has been pointed out that tangerine con-
centrate may be more expensive to produce than orange concentrate because of ex-
tra costs incurred during harvesting and hauling, lower juice yield per box, loss-
es of fruit before and during processing on account of spoilage and difficulties
in handling, and greater factory costs. To take care of these increased costs the
tangerine concentrate could be sold to the consumer as a specialty item at a prem-
ium price and thereby make possible a just and reasonable profit to both the grow-
er and the processor. Other tangerine products which are outlets for the fruit
are a tangerine base for sherbet as described by Bissett (2) and Singleton (4),
canned tangerine juice and blended juice, and tangerine popsicles.

Some attempt to put these suggestions into operation could be made by the
coordinated effort and action of growers and processors working with such agencies
as the Florida Tangerine Cooperative, Florida Citrus Commission, and Florida Citrus
Mutual. The solution of the problem of utilizing not only all of the tangerines,
but also the increasingly large Florida crop of oranges and grapefruit, will depend
on the efforts and cooperation of growers, processors, and all other persons who
afe interested in the welfare of the Florida citrus industry.
LITERATURE CITED

1. Atkins, C. D., F. W. Wenzel, Ellis Fehlberg, and Lloyd E. Slater. 1950. New
evaporator robotized for high output, efficiency. Food Industries 22:1521-
1523.

2. Bissett, Owen W. 1949. Frozen purees from Florida citrus fruits. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 62:163-165.

3. Citrus and Vegetable Inspection Division. Annual reports for 1949-50, 1950-
51, 1951-52, and 1952-53 seasons. Florida Department of Agriculture, Winter
Haven, Fla.

4. Singleton, Gray. 1952. Preparation of tangerine puree. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 65:214-217.

5. Wenzel, F. W., R. L. Huggart, R. J. Olsen, E. L. Moore, and C. D. Atkins. 1952.
Examination of experimental packs of frozen tangerine concentrate. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 65:246-249.

Citrus Station Mimeo Report 54-12. Florida Citrus Experiment Station and
Florida Citrus Commission, Lake Alfred, Florida. 487c 11/23/53 FW




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