Group Title: Citrus Station mimeo report - Florida Citrus Experiment Station ; 54-9
Title: Sugar hydrate formations in frozen citrus concentrates
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072356/00001
 Material Information
Title: Sugar hydrate formations in frozen citrus concentrates
Series Title: Citrus Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 3 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Olsen, R. W
Moore, E. L
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Publisher: Florida Citrus Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred FL
Publication Date: 1954
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus juices -- Quality -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Concentrated fruit juices -- Preservation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Concentrated fruit juices -- Quality -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.W. Olsen and E.L. Moore.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072356
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 74150286

Full Text





Sugar Hydrate Formations in Frozen Citrus Concentrates
R. W. Olsen and E. L. Moore

In the past, the industry has encountered some difficulty with sugar-added
frozen grapefruit concentrate due to the formation of sugar hydrates, which are
likely to appear under certain conditions. The purpose of this work was to study
controllable factors causing these formations. Factors studied were amount and
ratio of added sugars, heat treatment, seeding, type of container, length of stor-
age, and fluctuating storage temperatures. No effort was made to study factors
such as pH, maturity, viscosity, surface effects, and the undependability of spon-
taneous nucleation, that are uncontrollable from a practical viewpoint.

Effect of added sugar composition. When sucrose and dextrose were used in
combination, it may be seen from Table 1 that as the percentage of dextrose in the
added sugar mixture was increased beyond 30%, the hydrate formation appeared and
similarly increased. However, it might be mentioned that the percentage or total
amount of dextrose does not appear to be the sole factor in this formation, since
in a limeade pack containing added dextrose corresponding to 20% of total solids
no hydrate formed after 18 months storage at -8F., whereas in a grapefruit con-
centrate (sample 6) containing added dextrose corresponding to 12 1/2% of the total
solids, hydrate formation readily appeared after 6 months.

Effect of heat treatment. Only one series of concentrates was prepared to
determine whether heat treatment (single-strength juice heated to 1950F. and quick-
ly cooled) would have any marked effect on hydrate formation. Data in Table 2 show
that when sugar was added before heat treatment no hydrate appeared during a 12
month storage period, whereas when the sugar was added after heat treatment, the
hydrate readily appeared. It is doubtful if this can be attributed to undissolved
sugars since seeded samples readily showed hydrate formation as in sample 7.

Effect of seeding. As might be expected, whenever hydrate formation appeared
in control samples, seeding with sugar crystals had hastened its formation by from
3 to 6 months.

Effect of packaging. Hydrate formation in one set of grapefruit concentrate
that was packed in waxed paper containers (nonhermetically)'was hastened over that
of the corresponding hermetically sealed cans by frbam 3 t.6months.

Length of storage. Naturally the longer the storage period the more likeli-
hood of hydrate formation. I

Fluctuating storage temperatures. Packs alternat dat monthly intervals
between 50F. and -80F. hastened hydrate formatio over constant 50oF. and -8oF.
controls. -








Citrus Station Mimeo Report 54-9. Florida Citrus Experiment Station and Florida
Citrus Commission, Lake Alfred, Florida. 466 10/6/53 RWO









TABLE 1
Effect of added sugar combinations on formation of sugar hydrates
in frozen grapefruit concentrates

Sugar added to raise Rate of hydrate formation at -80F.
Sample Brix from 360 to A00
No. Sucrose Dextrose Initial 6 mo. 9 mo. 12 mo.

1 100 0 None None None None
2 90 0 None None None None

2 90 10 None None None None

3 80 20 None None None None
4 70 30 None None None None

5 60 40 None None Slight Slight

6 50 50 None Medium Medium Extreme




TABLE 2
Effect of heat treatment on formation of sugar hydrates in
frozen grapefruit concentrates

Sample Treatment of juice Rate of hydrate formation at -80F.
No. Initial 3 mO. 6 mo. 9 mo. 12 mo.
SSgatfg.d.ded'jhe ***- None None None None None
treated, concentra-
ted, and unheated
sweetened cut-back
juice added
9 Heat treated, con- None None Slight Medium Extreme
centrated,and sugar
added in unheated
cut-back juice

6 Concentrated and sugar None None Medium Medium Extreme
added in unheated cut-
back juice
7 Sample 6, seeded None Medium Medium - -
a Sugar used in all cases was.a mixture of 50% sucrose and 50% dextrose
Citrus Station Mimeo Report 54-9. Florida Citrus Experiment Station and Florida
Citrus Commission, Lake Alfred, Florida. 466a 10/6/53 RWO










TABLE 3
Effect of added sugar combinations and fluctuating storage temperatures on formation
of sugar hydrates in frozen limeades

Sample Sugar added to raise Brix to 48 Storage Rate of hydrate formation
No. Sucrose Inverted Dextrose temperature Initial 4 mo. 6 mo. 8 mo. 10 mo.
%% oF.
10 50 30 20 -8 b None None None None None
5 and 80b None None None
11 50 20 30 -8 o None None None None None
5 and -8b None Slight Extreme
12 50 10 40 -80' None None None Slight Slight
50 and -8b Medium Extreme Extreme
b Fluctuating storage temperature packs were alternated at monthly intervals after the fourth month.


Citrus Station l.imeo Report 54-9. Florida Citrus Experiment Station and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 466b 10/6/53 RWO




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs