Title: Grapefruit investigations
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072346/00002
 Material Information
Title: Grapefruit investigations
Series Title: Citrus Station mimeo series
Alternate Title: Blue Albedo in grapefruit
Burgundy grapefruit
Physical Description: 4, 3 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Deszyck E.J
Ting, S. V., 1918-
Oberbacher, M. F
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Florida Citrus Commission
Publisher: Florida Citrus Experiment Station :
Florida Citrus Commission
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred FL
Publication Date: 1960
Subject: Grapefruit -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Grapefruit -- Quality -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "September 21, 1960."
Funding: Citrus Station mimeo report ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072346
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 75266561

Full Text

II. The Burgundy Grapefruit

E. J. Deszyck, S. V. Ting and M. F. Oberbacher

A new afd distinct variety of grapefruit originating as a bud sport on a
Thompson pink seedless grapefruit tree was discovered during 1943-44 in Saint
Lucie County by Hudson J. McReynolds and Oliver L. Peacock. By budding trees
from this sport the discoverers reproduced the new variety in numerous trees
which were true in all respects to the original. McReynolds and Peacock (5)
patented this variety in 1954, and named it Burgundy. At the present time about
300 acres of this grapefruit have been planted, most of the trees being under
nine years of age.

According to the patent, the most distinctive feature of the Burgundy
variety is the deep red appearance of the fruit flesh. It is claimed that the
color is deeper red than that of either Ruby Red or Thompson pink seedless
variety, and that the Burgundy fruit retains its deep color as long as it re-
mains on the tree. Unlike the Ruby Red, the Burgundy grapefruit shows no red
blush on the rind; that is, the color is restricted to the juice sacs, and
segment walls. The fruit is practically seedless and contains a large central
core. Further description of the Burgundy fruit and tree are included in the
plant patent (5).

This report presents a comparison of the internal quality factors of the
Burgundy and Ruby Red grapefruit grown on two rootstocks, and suggests possible
uses in processing the new variety.

A summary of the internal quality factors of Burgundy and Ruby Red grape-
fruit is presented in Table 1. The Burgundy contains more acid, vitamin C and
naringin, but has lower ratio and juice content than the Ruby Red grapefruit
(1). From a maturity standpoint the Burgundy is a late season fruit since it
is low in ratio and juice content.

Table 1. Summary of internal quality factors of Burgundy and Ruby
Red grapefruit on two rootstocks for 1958-591

Quality Burgundy Ruby Red
factor2 Rough Lemon Sour Orange Rough Lemon Sour Orange
Glucose 1.68 1.96 1.69 1.97
Fructose 2.01 2.52 2.17 2.27
Sucrose 1.67 2.80 2.11 2.90
Total Sugars 5.36 7.28 5.97 7.16
Brix 7.1 9.0 7.8 9.0
Acid 1.02 1.38 .90 1.02
Ratio 7.0 6.7 8.8 8.9
Juice yield 43.7 41.3 49.6 50.0
Vitamin C (mg/100 ml) 38.6 38.9 34.0 34.3
Naringin3 (mg/100 ml) 91 87 66 63
1 Each value is the average of 8 samples collected monthly from Oct. through May.
2 Each result except naringin and vitamin C is expressed in percentage by
weight of the juice.
3 Naringin determined by the Davis method.
Florida Citrus Experiment Station and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 991 d 9/21/60 EJD

The outstanding feature of the Burgundy fruit is its deep red color of
the flesh. The color is considerably deeper red than in any other pink or
red variety. Although the color fades with maturity, it is still very marked
in late fruit even in June. A high a/b ratio as measured by the Hunter Color
Difference Meter indicates the deep red color of the sections (Fig. 1). This
ratio for the Burgundy sections grown on sour orange ranged from 2.8 in October
to 1.2 in March with similar values for those grown on rough lemon (3). With
maturity the color of the flesh in both varieties fades gradually, but because
of the intense redness in the Burgundy, the a/b ratio in June was similar to
that of Ruby Red in the early season.

In October, the Burgundy sections Gontained more than twice as much lyco-
pene as did the Ruby Red (Fig. 2). In June even though the lycopene content in
the sections of both varieties decreased, Burgundy sections contained about 4
times as much lycopene as Ruby Red. As with the a/b ratio, the lycopene content
of the Burgundy in June was as high as that of the Ruby Red in October. The
correlation between lycopene content and color, expressed as a/b ratio, was
highly significant (2).

Beta-carotene content in the two varieties initially increased as the
season progressed, and in general reached a maximum in midseason; thereafter
it decreased (Fig. 2).

Although the supply is very limited, the Burgundy grapefruit seems satis-
factory for processing as citrus salad. Sections of this fruit prepared
experimentally in a commercial plant as chilled or frozen retained their deep
red color on storage. Sections processed by heating in glass jars and cans
appeared unchnaged in color after four months storage at room temperature.
The juice is deeper red than that of Ruby Red. Another possibility is the use
of Burgundy in the newly developed pulp-fortified red grapefruit juice to give
a deep color to the canned product (4).

In summary, the Burgundy is a distinct variety of grapefruit with a deep
red color of the flesh without any red blush in the rind. The lycopene content
and the a/b ratio of this variety are considerably greater than in other red
and pink varieties, being much greater in the late than in the early season.
The Burgundy contains high acidity with low ratio and juice content. When pro-
cessed, the Burgundy appears satisfactory as chilled, frozen, and canned
sections, and also may be suitable for use in pulp-fortified canned red grape-
fruit juice.


The authors are indebted to Mr. Gray Singleton, Salada-Shirriff-Horsey,
Ltd., for processing the Burgundy sections.

Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
991 e 9/21/60 EJD

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1958 1959
Fig. 1. Monthly changes in the Hunter a/b values of the pulp of Burgundy
and Ruby Red grapefruit grown on rough lemon and sour orange root-
stocks during the 1958-59 season.

19N5 1959 1968 1989
Fig. 2. Monthly change of lycopene (left) and carotene (right) content of the
pulp of Burgundy and Ruby Red grapefruit grown on rough lemon and
sour orange rootstocks during the 1958-59 season.


Literature Cited

1. Deszyck, E. J. and S. V. Ting. Burgundy, a new variety of grapefruit.
Citrus Ind. 40: No. 5, 5-9, 1959.

2. Oberbacher, M. F., S. V. Ting and E. J. Deszyck. Internal color and
carotenoid pigments of Burgundy grapefruit. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort.
Science 75: 262-5, 1960.

3. Ting, S. V., M. F. Oberbacher and E. J. Deszyck. Features of the Burgundy
grapefruit. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rpt., 265, June 30, 1959.

4. U.S.D.A. Consumer acceptance of pulp-fortified and unfortified grapefruit
juices from red and white fruit. Agricultural Marketing Research Report
No. 398.

5. U. S. Patent Office, Plant Patent 1276, issued May 11, 1954.

Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
991 f 9/21/60 EJD

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