Title: Measurement of potential clarification and gelation in frozen orange concentrate
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072344/00002
 Material Information
Title: Measurement of potential clarification and gelation in frozen orange concentrate
Series Title: Citrus Station mimeo series
Alternate Title: Prediction of stability by rapid method
Application of rapid method in commercial plants
Physical Description: 5, 3 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Li, Kuang C
Maraulja, M. D
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Florida Citrus Commission
Publisher: Florida Citrus Experiment Station :
Florida Citrus Commission
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred FL
Publication Date: 1960
 Subjects
Subject: Frozen concentrated orange juice -- Quality -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Kuang C. Li and M.D. Maraulja.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "September 21, 1960."
Funding: Citrus Station mimeo report ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072344
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 75265598

Full Text



Measurement of Potential Clarification and Gelation in Frozen
Orange Concentratel

II. Application of Rapid Method in Commercial Plants
M. D. Maraulja and Kuang C. Li

The rapid method for predicting the potential clarification in frozen
orange concentrate has been developed, as reported in Part I of this report,
anticipating that it could be used in the quality control laboratories of
commercial plants. By so doing, the cloud stability of the product could be
determined prior to filling of the can and subsequent freezing if a batch pro-
cedure was being used. If automatic blending of concentrate from the evaporator
with cutback juice was being used, then the rapid method could serve as a routine
quality control procedure. Therefore, the senior author of this report during
the 1959-60 season worked with quality control personnel in 5 plants producing
frozen orange concentrate to determine if the use of the method was practical
under continuous commercial operations.

Since the rapid method for predicting potential gelation had not yet been
completely developed, data discussed in this portion of this report only relate
to the use of the method for determining cloud stability of the samples of
orange concentrates which were examined.


Procedures. Results and Discussion

Detailed description of the rapid method, which was used in the commercial
quality control laboratories, has been given in Part I of this report.

Determination of optimum reaction pH. At each plant it was necessary to
first establish the optimum reaction pH that would give the best correlation
with the conventional abuse test, such as storage for 96 hr. at 400F., which was
being used at the individual plant. This was necessary because, as previously
pointed out, the optimum reaction pH may be different for different plants. Data
shown in Table 1 indicate how the optimum reaction pH was determined for concen-
trate being produced in 1 plant. Four samples were prepared in the laboratory
by mixing in different proportions stabilized midseason orange concentrate, which
was being pumped from the evaporator, with unheated juice of approximately 200
Brix obtained from the second stage of the evaporator. These 4 samples contained
different amounts of pectinesterase activity and, therefore, were different in
cloud stability as is shown in Table 1 by the degree of clarification found in
these samples after the rapid method using a reaction pH of 6.5. Under these
conditions the degree of clarification was definite, slight, none and none for
the 4 products. The loss of cloud was determined after the rapid method for each
of the 4 samples using a reaction pH of 6.5, 6.4 and 6.3 and also after storage
for 96 hr. at 400F. It is evident from the data in Table 1 that all of the
samples showed no clarification after storage for 96 hr. at 400F. and than an
optimum reaction pH of 6.3 for the rapid test also resulted in no clarification.

1 Cooperative research by Florida Citrus Experiment Station and Florida Citrus
Commission, aided by a grant-in-aid from the Continental Can Company.

Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
997 p 9/21/60 MDM










To determine the optimum reaction pH for concentrate from several plants,
samples having different degrees of cloud stability were obtained by mixing in
different proportions stable and unstable 420 Brix concentrates which were
available. These samples were then tested for loss of cloud after storage by
the usual procedure used in these plants and also after the rapid method using
several different reaction pH values. Uniformity in samples used for these
tests is absolutely essential because erratic results will result if can to can
variations occur.

Effect of size of pulp on optimum pH. The presence of large amounts of
coarse pulp in a pack of commercial frozen orange concentrate may cause can to
can variations in its tendency to clarify or gel. Also, variations may often
occur in aliquots taken from the same sample of reconstituted juice containing
large amounts of coarse pulp. When such variations occur in sampling, erratic
and erroneous results will be obtained when either conventional abuse tests or
the rapid method are used for determining cloud stability. Such unsatisfactory
results can be eliminated when the rapid method is used by diluting 1 volume of
concentrate with an equal volume of water and then blending in a Waring blendor.
Thereafter, 2 more volumes of water are added to fully reconstitute the juice and
then the sample deaerated before testing.

Data presented in Table 2 show the effect of particle size of the pulp on
the optimum reaction pH for the rapid method for 2 samples of concentrate, 1 of
which showed no clarification after storage for 96 hr. at 400F. while extreme
clarification occurred in the other sample. Results were practically the same
when the stable sample was either blended or not blended. However, it was found
for the unstable concentrate that the optimum reaction pH of 6.3 for the blended
concentrate was lower than the optimum reaction pH of 6.5 for the sample which
had been blended in the Waring blendor. Reduction in the size of the pulp
particles probably increased the availability of the pectinesterase in the pulp
which caused an increase in the degree of clarification, as is evident from the
data in Table 2.

Effect of final pH on degree of clarification after rapid method. After
the reaction period of 10 minutes at 80F. and the optimum reaction pH for the
rapid method, glacial acetic acid is added to the reaction mixture so that a
final pH of 3.9 is obtained. This adjustment to the final pH should be carefully
done since variations in the final pH result in differences in the degree of
clarification as determined after the rapid method. This is evident from the
following data.

Degree of clarification
Sample Final After rapid method After 96 hr.
pH 10 minutes at 800F. at 40F.
pH=6.5
4.4 24.0-none
A 3.9 67.0-extreme 55.0-definite
3.4 83.5-extreme
2.9 88.5-extreme
4.4 12.0-none
B 3.9 33.5-slight 35.0-slight
3.4 58.0-definite
2.9 71.5-extreme

Florida Citrus IEperiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida. 997 n 9/21/60 MDM







-3-


Examination of line samples in commercial plants. Data reported in Tables
3, 4 and 5 were obtained by the examination of line samples from 5 commercial
plants. These samples were taken at regular intervals ranging from 1/2 to 2 hr.
during the continuous production of orange concentrate in these plants. Samples
were tested when both midseason and late season concentrates were being packed.
Reaction pH values used for the rapid method were 6.3, 6.4 and 6.5 and 3 plants
used an abuse test of storage for 96 hr. at 400F. and the other 2 plants stored
the concentrates for 24 hr. at 800F. All of the line samples tested were very
stable and did not clarify either after the rapid method or after the usual
abuse test. Excellent agreement between the results from both methods was ob-
tained. Samples 14 and 15 of midseason concentrate listed in Table 3 were ob-
tained from frozen storage and showed definite clarification after storage for
24 hr. at 800F. Similar results were found when the rapid method was used.

Examination of concentrates with variations in cloud stability. Samples
of orange concentrates with differences in cloud stability were prepared in the
laboratories of 3 plants by mixing stable and unstable concentrates in different
proportions. Data given in Table 6 indicate that good correlation was obtained
between the degrees of clarification found in these 12 samples as determined by
the rapid method and by conventional tests. Clarification in these samples
ranged from none to extreme.


Summary
The rapid method for predicting the cloud stability of frozen orange con-
centrate was evaluated in 5 commercial plants using both midseason and late
season concentrates. Results indicated that the rapid method can be used during
continuous plant operations and good correlation was found between the results
obtained by the rapid method and the abuse tests then in use.

An optimum reaction pH for the rapid method must be determined for concen-
trate from each plant since this condition may be different for some plants;
also, the final pH for the rapid test should be carefully controlled. To avoid
variable and erroneous results, concentrate containing large amounts of course
pulp should be mixed in a Waring blendor before being used for the rapid test to
obtain a sample containing chiefly small pulp particles.

Study of the rapid method for predicting cloud stability will continue dur-
ing the 1960-61 season since sometimes, although very infrequently, unsatisfactory
results have been obtained. Application in commercial plants of the rapid method
for predicting the potential gelation in orange concentrate, as described in Part
I of this report, is also planned.


Acknowledgments
The cooperation of Adams Packing Association, Inc., Florida Citrus Canners
Cooperative, Minute Maid Corporation, Snively Groves, Inc. and Stokely-Bordo is
hereby acknowledged and the helpful assistance of personnel in the quality
control laboratories of these companies, including U.S.D.A. personnel, was
appreciated.
Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
997 o 9/21/60 MDM











Table 1. Determination of optimum reaction pH for rapid method for
predicting cloud stability in 42 Brix frozen orange concentrate from an
individual plant
Unheated juice Degree of clarification1
Sample approx. 200 Brix After rapid method After 96 hr.
number in sample 10 minutes at 80OF. ; at 400F.
% by wt. pH
1 40.0 6.5 54.0-definite
6.4 20.0-none
S" 6.3 14.5-none 13.0-none

2 37.0 6.5 32.0-slight
6.4 19.0-none
6.3 14.5-none 15,0-none

3 33.5 6.5 19.5-none
6.4 16.5-none
6.3 14.0-none 13.5-none

4 30.0 6.5 14.5-none
6.4 14.0-none
6.3 13.5-none 13.0-none

1 ,


Clarification
reconstituted
None = 0-24%;


indicated as percentage lignt transmittance or centriugea
juice based on Lumetron 401 with 650 filter and 18 mm cell.
Slight = 25-35%; Definite = 36-60%; and Extreme = 61-100%.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
997 i 9/21/60 MDM











Table 2. Effect of size of pulp on optimum reaction pH for rapid
method for predicting cloud stability in 420 Brix frozen orange
concentrate

Degree of clarification1
Sample Waring blendor After rapid method After 96 hr.
number used 10 minutes at 800F. at 400F.

pH
1 No 6.1 8.7-none
t" 6.2 8.7-none
6.3 8.7-none 9.0-none
6.4 8.7-none
6.5 8.0-none

1 Yes 6.1 8.0-none
6.2 8.0-none
6.3 8.0-none 9.0-none
6.4 8.0-none
6.5 8.0-none

2 No 6.1 9.0-none
6.2 11.0-none
6.3 37.0-definite 75.0-extreme
6.4 49.0-definite
"t 6.5 78.0-extreme

2 Yes 6.1 18.0-none
6.2 28.5-slight
6.3 79.0-extreme 75.0-extreme
6.4 91.0-extreme
a" 6.5 91.0-extreme

See footnote on Table 1.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
997 h 9/21/60 MDM










Table 3. Use of rapid method for predicting cloud stability in
midseason samples of 420 Brix frozen orange concentrate in commercial
plants

Degree of clarificationI
Sample After rapid method After 96 hr.
number 10 minutes at 800F. at 400F.

pH
Plant A Midseason concentrate2 Feb. 4, 1960
1 6.3 13.0-none 13.0-none
2 6.3 13.0-none 13.0-none
3 6.3 13.5-none 12.5-none
4 6.3 13.0-none 13.0-none
5 6.3 13.5-none 12.0-none
6 6.3 14.0-none 13.5-none
7 6.3 13.5-none 13.5-none

Plant A Midseason concentrate2 Feb. 5, 1960
8 6.5 14.0-none 12.0-none
9 6.5 15.0-none 12.0-none
10 6.5 15.0-none 13.5-none
11 6.5 14.0-none 12.5-none
12 6.5 13.5-none 12.0-none
13 6.5 14.0-none 12.0-none

Plant D Midseason concentrate3
14 6.3 76.0-extreme 60.0-definite4
15 6.3 53.5-definite 51.0-definite4

1 See footnote on Table 1.
2 Line samples taken every 2 hours.
3 Samples from storage.
After 24 hr. at 800F.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
997 j 9/21/60 MDM











Table 4. Use of rapid method for predicting cloud stability in
late season samples of 420 Brix frozen orange concentrate in
commercial plants

Degree of clarification1
Sample After rapid method After 96 hr.
number 10 minutes at 800F. at 400F.


Plant A Late season concentrate2 May 5, 1960


6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4


21.0-none
14.0-none
18.5-none
13.0-none


-'19.0-none
16.0-none
19.5-none
12.0-none


Plant B Late season concentrate2 April 27, 1960


12.5-none
12.0-none
13.0-none
11.0-none
12.0-none
13.0-none
14.0-none


12.0-none
11.5-none
12.5-none
11.5-none
12.0-none
11.5-none
12.0-none


Plant C Late season concentrate2 May 26, 1960


6.3
6.3
6.3
6.3
6.3
6.3
6.3
6.3


9.0-none
9.0-none
9.0-none
9.0-none
9.0-none
9.0-none
9.5-none
9.0-none


See footnote on Table 1.


2Line samples
depending on


taken at
plant.


regular intervals ranging from 1/2 to 2 hr.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
997 k 9/21/60 MDM


6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4


8.5-none
8.5-none
9.0-none
9.0-none
9.0-none
9.0-none
9.0-none
8.5-none










Table 5. Use of rapid method for predicting cloud stability
in late season samples of 420 Brix frozen orange concentrate in
commercial plants

Degree of clarification1
Sample After rapid method After 24 hr.
number 10 minutes at 800F. at 800F.

pH
Plant D Late season concentrate2 May 18. 1960
1 6.3 10.5-none 10.4-none
2 6.3 11.2-none 9.6-none
3 6.3 9.5-none 8.4-none
4 6.3 9.5-none 8.0-none
5 6.3 10.7-none 11.6-none
6 6.3 11.2-none 13.0-none
7 6.3 9.5-none 14.5-none
8 6.3 10.5-none 11.5-none
9 6.3 9.5-none 10.8-none

Plant E Late season concentrate2 June 2. 1960
10 6.3 9.5-none 11.5-none
11 6.3 11.0-none 11.0-none
12 6.3 10.5-none 10.0-none

See footnote on Table 1.


Line samples
depending on


taken at
plant.


regular intervals of either 1 or 2 hr.


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
997 1 9/21/60 MDM











Table 6. Use of rapid method for predicting cloud stability in
420 Brix orange concentrates prepared in quality control laboratories
of commercial plants by mixing stable and unstable products

Degree of clarification1
Sample After rapid method After 96 hr.
number 10 minutes at 800F. at 400F.

pH
Commercial plant B
1 6.3 18.0-none 15.5-none
2 6.3 54.0-definite 37.5-definite
3 6.3 48.0-definite 42.0-definite
4 6.3 61.0-extreme 57.5-definite

Commercial plant C
5 6.3 11.0-none 13.0-none
6 6.3 13.0-none 15.0-none
7 6.3 21.5-none 22.0-none
8 6.3 44.5-definite 36.0-definite

Commercial plant E
9 6.1 88.0-extreme 68.0-extreme2
10 6.1 59.0-definite 51.0-definite2
11 6.1 21.0-none 27.0-slight2
12 6.1 12.0-none 11.0-none2

See footnote on Table 1.


2 After 24 hr. at 800F.;
slight fermentation in


also, extreme fermentation in
samples 10 and 11.


sample 9 and


Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and Florida Citrus Commission,
Lake Alfred, Florida.
997 m 9/21/60 MDM




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