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 Title Page
 Executive committee/Sponsors
 April 22-25, 1979
 Demonstrations: Seafood processing...
 Abstracts






Title: Proceedings of the ... annual Tropical and Subtropical Fisheries Technological Conference of the Americas
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072277/00001
 Material Information
Title: Proceedings of the ... annual Tropical and Subtropical Fisheries Technological Conference of the Americas
Series Title: Technical paper
Abbreviated Title: Proc. annu. Trop. Subtrop. Fish. Technol. Conf. Am.
Physical Description: 6 v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Texas A & M University -- Sea Grant College Program
Marine Advisory Program (Florida Cooperative Extension Service)
Conference: Tropical and Subtropical Fisheries Technological Conference of the Americas
Publisher: Texas A & M University, Sea Grant College
Place of Publication: College Station Tex
Publication Date: 1977-1982
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Fisheries -- Congresses -- America   ( lcsh )
Fisheries -- Congresses -- Tropics   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
conference publication   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 2nd (Apr. 17-22, 1977)-7th (Jan. 11-14, 1982).
Issuing Body: Some years (4th, Apr. 1979) published by the Florida Sea Grant College Program, St. Petersburg, Fla.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Florida Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072277
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10243739
lccn - 83648148
issn - 0742-0765
 Related Items
Preceded by: Proceedings of the ... annual Tropical and Subtropical Fisheries Technological Conference
Succeeded by: Proceedings of the ... annual Tropical and Subtropical Fisheries Conference of the Americas

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Executive committee/Sponsors
        Page 1
    April 22-25, 1979
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Demonstrations: Seafood processing equipment and products
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Abstracts
        Page 11
        Product quality and safety activities of the national marine fisheries service: A status report
            Page 12
        Shrimp boat sanitation
            Page 12
        Improved seafood identification system
            Page 13
        A study of fish bones as a quality factor in seafood products
            Page 13
        Quality assessment of Atlantic croaker by objective methods
            Page 14
        The torrymeter: A new concept in fish freshness testing
            Page 14
        Free liquid content of oysters harvested from Apalachicola Bay during the month of March, 1978
            Page 15
        Bacteriological survey of iced commercial oysters
            Page 15
        A microbiological survey of coastal Georgia commercial ice plants
            Page 16
        "Dip stick" method for monitoring recal coliform levels in shellfish
            Page 16
        Planococcus citreus: Its potential for shrimp spoilage
            Page 17
        Quality acceptance inspection of sexually mature frozen female mullet
            Page 17
        Fluid separation of fish by shape
            Page 18
        The economic freezing of fish in a plate freezer
            Page 18
        Centrifumatic crab machine
            Page 19
        Solar drying of seafood products: Mullet roe
            Page 19
        Determination of the origin of heat stable protease in minced fish
            Page 20
        A preliminary report on a solar assisted fish smoker
            Page 20
        Some observations on the brining of mullet
            Page 21
        Extension of flounder shelf-life by poly (Hexamethylenebiguanide hydrochloride)
            Page 21
        Freezer storage of whole blue crabs for use in picking plants
            Page 22
        Quality and chemical stability of yu-sone made from different species of underutilized fish
            Page 22
        Deboned fish flesh from non-traditional Gulf of Mexico finfish species (Production, composition and quality)
            Page 23
        Deboned fish flesh from non-traditional Gulf of Mexico finfish species (Microbiology)
            Page 23
        Present thinking in Washington about fisheries development
            Page 24
        Seafoods - What information is needed to fully appreciate their nutritive value?
            Page 24
        Fish flake manufacture and uses
            Page 25
        The determination of optimal cooking time and temperature of shrimp in microwave cookery and consumer orientation on the subject
            Page 25
        Prospectus for a ten acre oyster farm in the Mississippi sound
            Page 26
        The biology and fishery of the queen conch (strombus gigas): A review
            Page 26
        The stability of adenosine deaminase and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) deaminase during ice storage of pink and brown shrimp
            Page 27
        Relationships between heat-stable protease activity and texture of gels prepared from minced fish
            Page 27
        Effect of salt, tripolyphosphate and sodium alginate on the texture quality of fish patties
            Page 28
        Asphyxia deaths of shrimp fishermen due to a toxic gas exposure, New Orleans, Louisiana
            Page 29
        Possible hazards from use of chlorine by the food industry
            Page 30
Full Text
10)
^- F653-L


FOURTH ANNUAL
TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL
FISHERIES
TECHNOLOGICAL CONFERENCE
OF THE AMERICAS

APRIL 1979

BAY FRONT CONCOURSE
ST, PETERSBURG, FLORIDA


Published by the Florida Sea Grant College Program, with support
from the NOAA Office of Sea Grant, U.S. Department of Commerce,
grant number 04-8-M01-76, under provisions of the National Sea
Grant College and Programs Act 1966.


TECHNICAL PAPER NO. 12


























The Tropical and Subtropical Fisheries Technological Society
of the Americas is a professional, educational association of
fishery technologists interested in the application of science
to the unique problems of production, processing, packaging,
distribution, and the utilization of tropical and subtropical
fishery species.

Individual abstracts edited by the authors of the abstracts.

Prepared by editors, W. Steven Otwell and John A. Koburger,
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University
of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

and

MAP Sea Grant Editorial Office
Florida Sea Grant Program
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


__








FOURTH ANNUAL TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL
FISHERIES TECHNOLOGICAL CONFERENCE OF TIHE AMERICAS

Executive Committee


Ron deBenedetto
Bayou Foods
Mobile, Alabama


Michael W. Moody
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana


Wayne A. Bough
University of Georgia
Brunswick, Georgia

Spencer Garrett
National Marine Fisheries Service
Southeast Fisheries Center
Pascagoula, Mississippi

Robert M. Grodner
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana

John A. Koburger
Department of Food Science 4
Human Nutrition
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida

Roy Martin
National Fisheries Institute
Washington, D.C.


John Ray Nelson
Bon Secour Fisheries
Bon Secour, Alabama

Ranzell Nickelson, II
Texas A&M University
College Station, Texas


W. Steven Otwell
Department of Food Science 4
Human Nutrition
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida

David Veal
Mississippi State University
Biloxi, Mississippi

Melvin Waters
National Marine Fisheries Service
Charleston Lab.
Charleston, South Carolina


Sponsors


Florida Sea Grant Program

University of Florida
Institute of Food and
Agricultural Science

Louisiana State University
Cooperative Extension Service


National Fisheries Institute
Washington, D.C.

Gulf and South Atlantic
Fisheries Development Founda-
tion, Inc.
Tampa, Florida







/ FOURTH ANNUAL
TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL FISHERIES TECHNOLOGICAL CONFERENCE
OF THE AMERICAS

April 22-25, 1979

Bay Front Concourse
St. Petersburg, Florida


SUNDAY April


.3:00 p.m.

3-6 p.m.

7:30 p.m.


MONDAY April

7:30 a.m.



9:00 a.m.


10:00 a.m.


PAPER SESSION


10:30 a.m.


22, 1979


Executive Committee Meeting, Suite 1517

Registration Open Arcade

Social cash bar


23, 1979


Registration Open Arcade
Note: A special coffee session for spouses has
been scheduled for 10:00 a.m., suite 1517

WELCOME W. Steven Otwell, Conference Co-chairman,
Grand Ballroom North

OPENING "Seafood Technology at the ---

--. State Level" Don Aska, Consultant Marine
Advisory Program, Florida Sea Grant System,
University of Florida.

--- National Level" Harry L. Seagran, Director,
NMFS, Southeast Fisheries Center, Charleston,
South Carolina

--- World Level" David James, Fishery Industry
Officer (Product Technology) Fish Utilization
and Marketing Service, FAO, Rome, Italy


Coffee Break


I QUALITY CONTROL Chairman, Michael W. Moody,
LSU, Baton Rouge, LA.

PRODUCT QUALITY AND SAFETY ACTIVITIES OF THE
NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE; A STATUS REPORT -
Thomas J. Billy and E. Spencer Garrett, Seafood
Quality and Inspection Division, NMFS, Wash., D.C.





10:45 a.m.




11:00 a.m.


11:15 a.m.



11:30 a.m.



11:45 a.m.


Noon


PAPER SESSION


1:30 p.m.



1:45 p.m.



2:00 p.m.



2:J5 p.m.



2:30 p.m.



2:45 p.m.


SHRIMP BOAT SANITATION Brian E. Perkins,
K.W. Gates, P.M. Scott, J.G. EuDaly and
W.A. Bough, University of GA, Marine Extension
Service, Brunswick, GA.

IMPROVED SEAFOOD IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM J.R. ]
NMFS Inspection Division, Wash., D.C.

A.STUDY OF FISH BONES AS A QUALITY FACTOR IN SI
PRODUCTS J.G. Rasekh, NMFS Inspection Division,
Wash., D.C.

QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF ATLANTIC CROAKER BY OBJECTIVE
METHODS R.R. Townley and T.C. Lanier, Dept. of
Science, N.C. State Univ., Raleigh, NC.

THE TORRYMETER: A NEW CONCEPT IN FISH FRESHNESS
TESTING Michael Campbell,NOVA & Company, Mane
by the Sea, MA.
LUNCH


II SEAFOOD INSPECTION Chairman, Roy Martin,
National Fisheries Inst.


FREE LIQUID CONTENT OF OYSTERS HARVESTED FROM
APALACHICOLA BAY DURING THE MONTH OF MARCH, 1978 -
Billy G. Miles, FL Dept. of Agriculture & Consumer
Services, Tallahassee, FL.

BACTERIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF ICED COMMERCIAL OYSTERS -
Robert M. Grodner, Dept. of Food Science, LSU,
Baton Rouge, LA.

A MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF COASTAL GEORGIA
COMMERCIAL ICE PLANTS Keith W. Gates, B.E. Perkins
P.M. Scott, J.G. EuDaly, and W.A. Bough, Marine
Extension Service, University of GA, Brunswick, GA.

DIP STICK METHOD FOR MONITORING FECAL COLIFORM
LEVELS IN SHELLFISH Gary P. Richards, NMFS,
Southeast Fisheries Center, Charleston Lab.,
Charleston, SC.

* PLANOCOCCUS CITREUS: ITS POTENTIAL FOR SHRIMP
SPOILAGE R.J. Alvarez and J.A. Koburger, Dept. of
Food Science, University of Florida, Gainesville,

QUALITY ACCEPTANCE INSPECTION OF SEXUALLY MATURE
FROZEN FEMALE MULLET Jack B. Dougherty, NMFS,
Southeast Inspection Office, St. Petersburg, FL.


* Student Paper







/


3:00 p.m.


PAPER SESSION


3:30 p.m.


3:45 p.m.


4:00 p.m.


4:15 p.m.



4:30 p.m.



4:45 p.m.



5:00 p.m.
5 00 p.m.
8:00 p.m.


* Student Paper


Coffee Break


IN III SEAFOOD TECHNOLOGY Chairman, Don Sweat,
MAP University of FL,
Largo, FL.

FLUID SEPARATION OF FISH BY SHAPE Lester F.
Whitney and Lino Correa, Food Engineering,
University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA.

THE ECONOMIC FREEZING OF FISH IN A PLATE FREEZER -
Frans Delhez, Refrigeration Engineer, Crepaco Inc.,
Chicago, IL.

THE CENTRIFUMATIC CRAB MACHINE Warren J. Craig,
Sarasota, FL.

SOLAR DRYING OF SEAFOOD PRODUCTS: MULLET ROE -
J.J. Heinis, K.V. Chau, C.D. Baird and J.C. Deng,
Dept, of Food Science, Unii. of FL, Gainesville, FL.

DETERMINATION OF THE ORIGIN OF HEAT STABLE
PROTEASE IN MINCED FISH TISSUE J.K. Su, T.C.
Lanier and T.S. Lin, Dept. of Food Science, N.C.
State University, Raleigh, NC.

A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON A SOLAR ASSISTED FISH SMOKER -
M. Perez, K.V. Chau, D.D. Baird, J.J. Heinis,
W.S. Otwell and J.C. Deng, Dept. of Food Science,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Adjourn

MARKETING SESSION Chairman, Sam Gillespie,
Texas AGM, College Station, TX

NIGERIA and EGYPT -
Stan Beebe, Coastal Plains Regional Commission,
Charleston, SC and Roger Anderson,.Gulf and
South Atlantic Fish. Development Foundation,
Thmpa, FL.

JAPAN, TAIWAN & CHINA -
C.M. Arnold Wu, University of Georgia, Marine Ext.
Service, Brunswick, GA and Mark Wu. CAC of New
York Inc., One World Trade Center, NY, NY.

MID-WEST (UNITED STATES) -
flank McAvoy, NMFS, St. Petersburg, FL and
liugene 'Skipper' Crow, North Carolina Sea Grant,
Morchcad City, NC.







TUESDAY April 24, 1979


PAPER SESSION


8:30 a.m.




8:45 a.m.




9:00 a.m.



9:15 a,m.



9:30 a.m.




9:45 a.m.



10:00 a.m.


PAPER SESSION



10:30 a.m.


10:45 a.m.


IV SEAFOOD UTILIZATION Chairman, Spencer Garrett,
NMFS, Pascagoula, MS.

SOME OBSERVATIONS ON TIIE BRTNTNG OF MULLET -
J.A. Koburger, D.M. Janky, ..L. Oblinger,
Dept. of Food Science, University of FL,
Gainesville, FL.

EXTENSION OF FLOUNDER SHELF-LIFE BY POLY(HEXAMETHYL-
ENEBIGUANIDE HYDROCHLORIDE) Mir N. Islam,
L. Kittner, and N.B. Islam, Dept. of Food Science 5
Human Nutrition, University of Delaware, Newark, DE.

FREEZER STORAGE OF WHOLE BLUE CRABS FOR USE IN
PICKING PLANTS David W. Cook and Sandra R. Lofton,
Gulf Coast Research Lab., Ocean Springs, MS.

QUALITY AND CHEMICAL STABILITY OF YU-SONE MADE FROM
DIFFERENT..SPECIES OF UNDERUTILIZED FISH Samuel L.
Stephens and C.M. Arnold Wu, Marine Extension Serv.,
University of Georgia, Brunswick, GA.

DEBONED FISH FLESH FROM NONTRADITIONAL GULF OF
MEXICO FINFISH SPECIES I. PRODUCTION, COMPOSITION
AND QUALITY Gunnar Finne, F. Nickelson II,
A. Quimby and N. Connally,.Texas AGM University,
College Station, TX.

DEBONED FISH FLESH FROM NONTRADITIONAL GULF OF
MEXICO FINFISH SPECIES II. MICROBIOLOGY -
G. Finne, R. Nickelson II, and C. Vanderzant,
Texas AGM University, College Station, TX.

Coffee Break


V SEAFOOD UTILIZATION Chairman, Garey Perkins,
Miss. State Univ., Miss.
State, MS

PRESENT THINKING IN WASHINGTON ABOUT FISHERIES
DEVELOPMENT John T. Everett, NMFS, Wash., D.C.

SEAFOODS WHAT INFORMATION IS NEEDED TO FULLY
APPRECIATE THEIR NUTRITIONAL VALUE Virginia D.
Sidwell, NMFS, Wash., D.C.







:100 a.m. FISH FLAKE MANUFACTURE AND USES Ted M. Miller,
Marine Chemurgics and N.B. Angel, NC Fisheries.
Assoc., NC.

11:15 a.m. THE DETERMINATION OF OPTIMAL COOKING TIME AND
TEMPERATURE OF SHRIMP IN MICROWAVE COOKERY AND
CONSUMER ORIENTATION ON THE SUBJECT,- Annette
Reddell, R.Nickelson II and I. Duval, Texas AEM
University,.College Station, TX.

11:30 a.m. 10 ACRE OYSTER FARM IN MISSISSIPPI Zach Lea,
Sea Grant Advisory Serv., MSU, Biloxi, MS.

11:45 a.m. THE BIOLOGY AND FISHERY OF THE QUEEN CONCH
(STROMBUS GIGAS): A REVIEW John X. Stevely,

Noon LUNCH


PAPER SESSION VI -CHEMISTRY Chairman, Lloyd Regier, NMFS,
Charleston, SC.


1:30 p.m.




1:45 p.m.




2:00 p.m. *




2:15 p.m.



2:30 p.m.


THE STABILITY OF ADENOSINE DEAMINASE AND ADENOSINE
MONOPHOSPHATE (AMP) DEAMINASE DURING ICE STORAGE
OF PINK AND BROWN SHRIMP Wai L. Cheuk, G. Finne,
and R. Nickelson II, Texas A&M University, College
Station, TX.

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HEAT-STABLE. PROTEASE
ACTIVITY AND TEXTURE OF GELS PREPARED FROM MINCED
FISH T.C. Lanier, T.S. Lin, and D.D. Hamann,
Dept..of Food Science, NC State University,
Raleigh, NC.

EFFECT OF SALT, TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE & SODIUM ALGINATE
ON THE TEXTURE QUALITY OF FISH PATfIES -
F. Tomaszewski, D. Toloday, R.F. Matthews,
J.C. Deng, Dept. of Food Science, University of FL,
Gainesville, FL.

THE SPOILAGE MECHANISM OF GULF OF KEXICO FINFISH
STORED IN A MODIFIED CO2 ATMOSPHERE Harrell Banks
Jr., R. Nickelson II, and G. Finne, Texas A&M
University, College Station, TX.

ASPHYXIA DEATHS OF SHRIMP FISHERMEN DUE TO A TOXIC
GAS EXPOSURE, NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA Roger Glass,
Public Health Serv., Center for Disease Control,
Atlanta, GA.







Student Paper








2:45 p.m



3:00 p.m.

3:30 p.m.

























5:30 p.m.

6:30 p.m.

7:30 p.m.


POSSIBLE HAZARDS FROM USE OF CHLORINE BY THE
FOOD INDUSTRY J.R. Kirk, Dept. of Food Science,
University of FL, Gainesville, FL.

Coffee Break

ADVISORY SESSION Chairman, David Attaway,
National Sea Grant Office,
Washington, D.C.

Scheduled Topics:

QUALITY CONTROL, INSPECTION, AND REGULATIONS

A Review of the Louisiana Cholera Outbreak -
Michael Moody, LSU, Baton Rouge, LA and
Spencer Garrett, NMFS, Pascagoula, MS.

WASTE MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION

Problems in Waste Management for the Seafood
Industries in the Southeast Wayne Bough,
Marine Extension Service, University of Georgia,
Brunswick, GA.

SEAFOOD EXPORTATION

Underutilized Species: New Markets and New Products -
Jack Greenfield, NMFS, St. Petersburg, FL.

Miscellaneous Topics:

Open to the floor

Adjourn

Open Bar Lucayan Room

Seafood Banquet Lucayan Room

Student Awards Bob Grodner, LSU, Baton Rouge, LA.

Guest Speaker Dr. Howard Appledorf, Food Nutr'
Food Science & Human Nutrition,
University of Florida.








SWEDNESDAY April 25, 1979

8:30 a.m. INDUSTRIAL SESSION "The 'Real' World of Seafood"
Chairman, Jim Cato, Marine Economic Specialist,
Florida Sea Grant, IFAS Extension, University of FL,
Gainesville, FL.

Supplier Jerry Sansom, Executive Director,
Organized Fishermen of Florida (O.F.F.), Melbourne,
FL.

Processor Don Toloday, Singleton Packing Corp.
Tanma, FL.

Wholesaler Gene Mical, Johns Pass Seafoods
(Booth Fisheries), Treasure Island, FL.

9:30 a.m. Coffee Break

Retailer Tom DeMott, Kroger Co., Cincinnati, OH.

Importer Jack DeFonso, Red Lobster, Orlando, FL.

Exporter Eugene McRoberts, McRoberts Sales Co.,
Ruskin, FL.

11:30 a.m. Tropical and Subtropical Fisheries Society -
Business Meeting.

Noon Conference Adjourned


CONCURRENT ACTIVITIES

Product and Equipment Demonstrations Grand Ballroom South

12 noon 9:00 PM April 23, 1979
8:00 AM 5:00 PM April 24, 1979










DEMONSTRATIONS


Seafood Processing Equipment and Pnducts


Provisions for these demonstrations are spmsored in part
by the Florida Sea Grant Program and the Tipical and
Subtropical Fisheries Technological Society. Certain
companies (*) participating in the exhibitshave made
voluntary contributions to the Tropical andSubtropical
Fisheries Technological Society.


Grand Ballroom
Bay Front Concourse (Hilton)
Downtown, St. Petersburg, Flodda

12 noon 9:00 PM April 23, H79
8:00 AM 5:00 PM April 24, 1979


Exhibits


Equipment

Gen-Pak, long-distant
packaging for seafood

Torrymeter, for quality
assessment of fish

Tray packs for oysters
and shrimp

Plastic shrink
wrapping

Refrigeration equipment


Cryovac, vacuum packaging


AFOS, mini-smoking units


Floorings for food plants


Edible seafood coatings


Company.


*Prlysar Packaging
(en Falls, NY

*fWfA E Co.
Mnchester, MA

Tiend Mfg. of Americas
Jcksonville, FL

Dfont Packaging-Filmcraft
Sarasota, FL


*Cmepaco, Inc.
Gicago, IL

raace & Co.
Cmcan, SC

AIDS Ltd.
HIl1, England

MI Systems, Inc.
Biloxi, MS

.rod Research, Inc.
p mpa, FL


Location:


Time:







Floor type skinning machine


New crab picking machine


Flighted IQF equipment for
low volume processors

Vacuum packing of foods


Table size fish skinning
machine

Walk-in coolers & freezers


Hydrasieve pollution
screens

Dormavac, hypobaric
storage systems

Refrigeration, air flotation


Ice-makers, shore facilities
& on-board

Non-metallic food
conveyor belts

Bulk shrimp processing
machinery


Maritime Hydraulics
Dartmouth, Canada

Warren & Margaret Craig
Sarasota, FL

Liquid Carbonics Corp.
Chicago, IL

*CVP Systems, Inc.
Lombard, IL

Cape Cod Sea Foods, Inc.
Lakeville, MS

Kania & Assoc.
Kissimmee, FL

C-E Bauer
Springfield, OH

Grumman Allied Industries,
Woodbury, NY

Lewis Refrigeration Co.
Houston, TX

Howe Corporation
Chicago, IL

Intra-Lox, Inc.
New Orleans, LA

Laitram Machinery Inc.
New Orleans, LA

















ABSTRACTS

of the

FOURTH ANNUAL TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL


FISHERIES TECHNOLOGICAL CONFERENCE OF THE AMERICAS



April 1979





Abstracts are arranged in the order of presentation.
Individual abstracts edited by the authors of the abstracts.






PRODUCT QUALITY AND SAFETY ACTIVITIES OF THE
NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE
SA. STATUS REPORT

Thomas J. Billy
Seafood Quality and Inspection Division
National Marine Fisheries Service
Washington, DC .20235

E. Spencer Garrett
National Seafood Quality and Inspection Laboratory
National Marine Fisheries Service
Pascagoula, MS 39567

S A review of the significant product quality and
-safety research activities is offered. Special emphasis
is directed toward a status report of product safety
research.projects relating to establishment of minimum
nitrate/salt concentrations necessary to prevent spore
outgrowth and toxin elaboration in fishery products; base
line surveys for lead, PCB's and other toxicants; histamine
research; and imported products survey of USDC inspected
products for toxic organic. USDC standardization and
compliance evaluation activities are also detailed.




SHRIMP BOAT SANITATION

Brian E. Perkins, Keith W. Gates, Paul M. Scott
Jackie G. EuDaly, and Wayne A. Bough
The University of Georgia
Marine Extension Service
Bldg. No. 1, South Yards
Brunswick, Georgia 31520

Inexpensive and easily performed clean-up, sanitization,
and handling procedures which would maximize shrimp product
quality were developed and assessed. Deck, sorting table,
and storage surfaces were shown to be 99.9% sanitizable
by the methods enumerated, with a corresponding,
significant increase in shrimp quality during nine
days of iced storage.






PRODUCT QUALITY AND SAFETY ACTIVITIES OF THE
NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE
SA. STATUS REPORT

Thomas J. Billy
Seafood Quality and Inspection Division
National Marine Fisheries Service
Washington, DC .20235

E. Spencer Garrett
National Seafood Quality and Inspection Laboratory
National Marine Fisheries Service
Pascagoula, MS 39567

S A review of the significant product quality and
-safety research activities is offered. Special emphasis
is directed toward a status report of product safety
research.projects relating to establishment of minimum
nitrate/salt concentrations necessary to prevent spore
outgrowth and toxin elaboration in fishery products; base
line surveys for lead, PCB's and other toxicants; histamine
research; and imported products survey of USDC inspected
products for toxic organic. USDC standardization and
compliance evaluation activities are also detailed.




SHRIMP BOAT SANITATION

Brian E. Perkins, Keith W. Gates, Paul M. Scott
Jackie G. EuDaly, and Wayne A. Bough
The University of Georgia
Marine Extension Service
Bldg. No. 1, South Yards
Brunswick, Georgia 31520

Inexpensive and easily performed clean-up, sanitization,
and handling procedures which would maximize shrimp product
quality were developed and assessed. Deck, sorting table,
and storage surfaces were shown to be 99.9% sanitizable
by the methods enumerated, with a corresponding,
significant increase in shrimp quality during nine
days of iced storage.








IMPROVED SEAFOOD IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM


J. R. Brooker
NMFS, Seafood Quality and
Inspection Division
Washington, D.C.

The National Marine Fisheries Service, with good
support from consumers, industry, and FDA, has undertaken
comprehensive studies to develop and implement a new system
for establishing market names for fishery products.

Presently, a prototype model of a product identification
system has been developed and is being reviewed by intc
groups. Responses have been very favorable relative to the
overall approach.

It will require 2-4 years to complete the new system
for implementation. The system will have a major positive
impact on fishery products in the marketplace with benefits
occurring to consumers, the industry, and regulatory agencies
This report describes the status of development of an o
seafood nomenclature system and the benefits that can be
realized in the development and marketing of underutilized
species.


A STUDY OF FISH BONES AS A QUALITY FACTOR IN SEAFOOD PRODUCTS

J. G. Rasekh
NMFS, Seafood Quality and
Inspection Division
Washington, D.C.

Fish provides about 5.2% of the world's supply of
protein. The U.S. per capital consumption of fish is low,
about 12.8 pounds per year. Besides, the increase in cost,
another obstacle that probably has discouraged the American
consumer from consuming more fish is due to the presence of
bone in fish. In recent years advancement in technology
and development of new products have concerned both the
consumer and industry more about the problem of bone in
fishery products.

In this study, consumer complaint in regard to the
health hazard, chemical, composiiton, a grading survey and
the positions of different governmental agencies about the
presence of bone in fishery products are discussed.

During the study, it became apparent that the need
developing a reliable, economical and simple method for
detection of bones in fishery products is necessary.








IMPROVED SEAFOOD IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM


J. R. Brooker
NMFS, Seafood Quality and
Inspection Division
Washington, D.C.

The National Marine Fisheries Service, with good
support from consumers, industry, and FDA, has undertaken
comprehensive studies to develop and implement a new system
for establishing market names for fishery products.

Presently, a prototype model of a product identification
system has been developed and is being reviewed by intc
groups. Responses have been very favorable relative to the
overall approach.

It will require 2-4 years to complete the new system
for implementation. The system will have a major positive
impact on fishery products in the marketplace with benefits
occurring to consumers, the industry, and regulatory agencies
This report describes the status of development of an o
seafood nomenclature system and the benefits that can be
realized in the development and marketing of underutilized
species.


A STUDY OF FISH BONES AS A QUALITY FACTOR IN SEAFOOD PRODUCTS

J. G. Rasekh
NMFS, Seafood Quality and
Inspection Division
Washington, D.C.

Fish provides about 5.2% of the world's supply of
protein. The U.S. per capital consumption of fish is low,
about 12.8 pounds per year. Besides, the increase in cost,
another obstacle that probably has discouraged the American
consumer from consuming more fish is due to the presence of
bone in fish. In recent years advancement in technology
and development of new products have concerned both the
consumer and industry more about the problem of bone in
fishery products.

In this study, consumer complaint in regard to the
health hazard, chemical, composiiton, a grading survey and
the positions of different governmental agencies about the
presence of bone in fishery products are discussed.

During the study, it became apparent that the need
developing a reliable, economical and simple method for
detection of bones in fishery products is necessary.






QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF ATLANTIC CROAKER BY OBJECTIVE METHODS

R. R. Townley and T. C. Lanier
Department of Food Science
N. C. State University
Raleigh, N.C. 27650


Several objective tests were compared with subjective
methods in evaluating the quality of Atlantic Croaker held
eviscerated and uneviscerated for fifteen days on ice. The
objective tests used included quanitative determination of
total volatile nitrogen (TVN), trimethylamine (TMN) and
hypoxanthine (Hx) as well as use of the Texturometer to
assess texture of raw and cooked fish and the Torrymeter
to assess overall freshness. Other quality evaluations
included microbial counts, subjective grading using a
standardized scale, and profile panel evaluations of cooked
tissue. Results revealed that TMA, TVN and Hx values increased
linearly during the initial days of storage while Torrymeter
readings dropped rapidly over the same period, indicating the
possible usefulness of these tests in evaluating the freshness
of croaker.: Texturometer and panel measurements of texture
indicated no change in textural characteristics over the
entire storage period. Microbial counts correlated well with
other quality tests; inclusion of two percent salt in the
plating media yielded counts within two days which paralleled
psychrotroph counts requiring ten days incubation.



THE TORRYMETER: A NEW CONCEPT IN FISH FRESHNESS TESTING

Michael Campbell
NOVA & Company
Manchester by the Sea, Massachusetts 01944

Introducing the new gr-Torrymeter a revolutionary
new way to measure the freshness of fish. Developed at the
Torry Research Station in Aberdeen, Scotland, the Torrymeter
is the first commercial instrument developed to standardize
and accurately measure fish freshness. The principle behind
the Torrymeter is based on the change in fish tissue after
death, and its ability to conduct an electric current. The
instrument is compact and is packaged in a bright red, sealed
polycarbonate plastic housing, about the size of a princess
telephone. The tested fish is scored on a digital readout,
and provides the user with a choice of two settings: 1 and 16.
Setting 1 is used mostly for laboratory work. Setting 16
enables the user to take a series of 16 readings at random
from several boxes of fish, then averages the score
automatically. The score is then matched with typical data,
according to fish type. Torrymeter is powered by sealed,
rechargeable Ni/Cad batteries and may be recharged off
either 120 or 240 Volts AC current.






QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF ATLANTIC CROAKER BY OBJECTIVE METHODS

R. R. Townley and T. C. Lanier
Department of Food Science
N. C. State University
Raleigh, N.C. 27650


Several objective tests were compared with subjective
methods in evaluating the quality of Atlantic Croaker held
eviscerated and uneviscerated for fifteen days on ice. The
objective tests used included quanitative determination of
total volatile nitrogen (TVN), trimethylamine (TMN) and
hypoxanthine (Hx) as well as use of the Texturometer to
assess texture of raw and cooked fish and the Torrymeter
to assess overall freshness. Other quality evaluations
included microbial counts, subjective grading using a
standardized scale, and profile panel evaluations of cooked
tissue. Results revealed that TMA, TVN and Hx values increased
linearly during the initial days of storage while Torrymeter
readings dropped rapidly over the same period, indicating the
possible usefulness of these tests in evaluating the freshness
of croaker.: Texturometer and panel measurements of texture
indicated no change in textural characteristics over the
entire storage period. Microbial counts correlated well with
other quality tests; inclusion of two percent salt in the
plating media yielded counts within two days which paralleled
psychrotroph counts requiring ten days incubation.



THE TORRYMETER: A NEW CONCEPT IN FISH FRESHNESS TESTING

Michael Campbell
NOVA & Company
Manchester by the Sea, Massachusetts 01944

Introducing the new gr-Torrymeter a revolutionary
new way to measure the freshness of fish. Developed at the
Torry Research Station in Aberdeen, Scotland, the Torrymeter
is the first commercial instrument developed to standardize
and accurately measure fish freshness. The principle behind
the Torrymeter is based on the change in fish tissue after
death, and its ability to conduct an electric current. The
instrument is compact and is packaged in a bright red, sealed
polycarbonate plastic housing, about the size of a princess
telephone. The tested fish is scored on a digital readout,
and provides the user with a choice of two settings: 1 and 16.
Setting 1 is used mostly for laboratory work. Setting 16
enables the user to take a series of 16 readings at random
from several boxes of fish, then averages the score
automatically. The score is then matched with typical data,
according to fish type. Torrymeter is powered by sealed,
rechargeable Ni/Cad batteries and may be recharged off
either 120 or 240 Volts AC current.






FREE LIQUID CONTENT OF OYSTERS HARVESTED FROM APALACHICOLA
BAY DURING THE MONTH OF MARCH, 1978

Billy G. Miles
Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services
Tallahassee, Florida


Free liquid content was determined on 115 samples of
oysters collected from different areas of Apalachicola Bay
between 3-1-78 to 4-11-78. The minimum percent free liquid
was 0.5% and the maximum percent free liquid was 28.2%.
Thirty two percent of the samples examined exceeded 15%
free liquid. Also, aero-bic plate count at 370C and coliforms
counts were elevated on some samples.




BACTERIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF ICED COMMERCIAL OYSTERS
Robert M. Grodner
Department of Food Science
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, LA 70803


Indices of sanitary quality of oysters on the retail
level were monitored during a six month period from retail
outlets in Baton Rouge, LA.

Oysters as purchased from the retail outlets and
assays ranged from 3.5 x 103 to > 30 x 106 organisms/g.
A.P.C. (mean value = 2.3 x 106), 4 x 102 to > 24 x 104
M.P,M. total coliforms/100g (mean value = 14 x 104),
0 to > 24 x 104 M.P.N. E. coli/100g (mean values = 5.3 x
103) and 0 to > 2.4 x 103 M.P.N. coagulase-positive
S. aureus/g. (mean value = 15.6). Storage on ice for
seven days produced significant increases in the mean
values for the numbers organisms present in the oyster
samples studied.






FREE LIQUID CONTENT OF OYSTERS HARVESTED FROM APALACHICOLA
BAY DURING THE MONTH OF MARCH, 1978

Billy G. Miles
Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services
Tallahassee, Florida


Free liquid content was determined on 115 samples of
oysters collected from different areas of Apalachicola Bay
between 3-1-78 to 4-11-78. The minimum percent free liquid
was 0.5% and the maximum percent free liquid was 28.2%.
Thirty two percent of the samples examined exceeded 15%
free liquid. Also, aero-bic plate count at 370C and coliforms
counts were elevated on some samples.




BACTERIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF ICED COMMERCIAL OYSTERS
Robert M. Grodner
Department of Food Science
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, LA 70803


Indices of sanitary quality of oysters on the retail
level were monitored during a six month period from retail
outlets in Baton Rouge, LA.

Oysters as purchased from the retail outlets and
assays ranged from 3.5 x 103 to > 30 x 106 organisms/g.
A.P.C. (mean value = 2.3 x 106), 4 x 102 to > 24 x 104
M.P,M. total coliforms/100g (mean value = 14 x 104),
0 to > 24 x 104 M.P.N. E. coli/100g (mean values = 5.3 x
103) and 0 to > 2.4 x 103 M.P.N. coagulase-positive
S. aureus/g. (mean value = 15.6). Storage on ice for
seven days produced significant increases in the mean
values for the numbers organisms present in the oyster
samples studied.








A MICROBIOLOGTCAL SURVIiY OF COASTAL
EIORGIA COMMHRCTIAL ICl PLANTS

Keith W. Gates, Brian E. Perkins, Paul M. Scott,
Jackie G. EuDaly, and Wayne A. Bough
University of Georgia Marine Extension Service
Building No. 1, South Yards
Brunswick, Georgia 31520


A microbiological survey of the three major ice
plants servicing Georgia's shrimping fleet was made to
determine commercial ice quality and to recommend any
changes needed to meet federal standards. The plants
were sampled during the summer (high output) and winter
(low production) for total coliforms, fecal coliforms,
and fecal steptococci at critical production points.
Specific recommendations were made to each plant manager
and group of employees.




"DIP STICK" METHOD FOR MONITORING FECAL
COLIFORM LEVELS IN SHELLFISH.

Gary P. Richards
National Marine Fisheries Services
Southeast Fisheries Center
Charleston Laboratory
P. O. Box 12607
Charleston, South Carolina 29412


The use of a "Dip Stick" technique for monitoring
fecal coliform levels in oyster and blue crab meats is
discussed. This procedure offers a less complex, less
time consuming, and more cost effective alternative to
the current most probable number (MPN) technique for
the enumeration of fecal coliforms in shellfish.








A MICROBIOLOGTCAL SURVIiY OF COASTAL
EIORGIA COMMHRCTIAL ICl PLANTS

Keith W. Gates, Brian E. Perkins, Paul M. Scott,
Jackie G. EuDaly, and Wayne A. Bough
University of Georgia Marine Extension Service
Building No. 1, South Yards
Brunswick, Georgia 31520


A microbiological survey of the three major ice
plants servicing Georgia's shrimping fleet was made to
determine commercial ice quality and to recommend any
changes needed to meet federal standards. The plants
were sampled during the summer (high output) and winter
(low production) for total coliforms, fecal coliforms,
and fecal steptococci at critical production points.
Specific recommendations were made to each plant manager
and group of employees.




"DIP STICK" METHOD FOR MONITORING FECAL
COLIFORM LEVELS IN SHELLFISH.

Gary P. Richards
National Marine Fisheries Services
Southeast Fisheries Center
Charleston Laboratory
P. O. Box 12607
Charleston, South Carolina 29412


The use of a "Dip Stick" technique for monitoring
fecal coliform levels in oyster and blue crab meats is
discussed. This procedure offers a less complex, less
time consuming, and more cost effective alternative to
the current most probable number (MPN) technique for
the enumeration of fecal coliforms in shellfish.









PLANOCOCCUS CITREUS: ITS POTENTIAL FOR SHRIMP SPOILAGE

R. J. Alvarez and J. A. Koburger
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Planococcus citreus is a motile gram positive coccus
found in the marine environment. A random survey of thirty-
five samples of marine origin were examined for the presence
of P. citreus. Five samples, four of.them shrimp, yielded
this organism. Isolates exhibited good growth over a
range of pH 7-10, 5-350C and in broth containing 0.5-12%
sodium chloride. All isolates were able to hydrolyze
gelatin, cottonseed, soy and shrimp protein. In addition,
isolates of P. citreus inoculated onto irradiated shrimp
were able to produce a TVN/AAN ratio of 1.3 by the 10th
day of storage at 50C. The need for additional research
regarding the potential spoilage of seafood products,
especially shrimp, by Planococcus citreus is indicated.



QUALITY ACCEPTANCE INSPECTION OF SEXUALLY
MATURE FROZEN FEMALE MULLET

Jack B. Dougherty
Southeast Inspection Office
National Marine Fisheries Service
St. Petersburg, Florida 33702


Quality factors found acceptable to Taiwan in insl
of roe mullet were shipments possessing 95% or over red roe
mullet, 15% to 18% roe by weight, roe weight category
average 4 oz. 6 oz. or 6 oz. 8 oz., free from damaged
roe sacs and possession of good flavor a:d odor.









PLANOCOCCUS CITREUS: ITS POTENTIAL FOR SHRIMP SPOILAGE

R. J. Alvarez and J. A. Koburger
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Planococcus citreus is a motile gram positive coccus
found in the marine environment. A random survey of thirty-
five samples of marine origin were examined for the presence
of P. citreus. Five samples, four of.them shrimp, yielded
this organism. Isolates exhibited good growth over a
range of pH 7-10, 5-350C and in broth containing 0.5-12%
sodium chloride. All isolates were able to hydrolyze
gelatin, cottonseed, soy and shrimp protein. In addition,
isolates of P. citreus inoculated onto irradiated shrimp
were able to produce a TVN/AAN ratio of 1.3 by the 10th
day of storage at 50C. The need for additional research
regarding the potential spoilage of seafood products,
especially shrimp, by Planococcus citreus is indicated.



QUALITY ACCEPTANCE INSPECTION OF SEXUALLY
MATURE FROZEN FEMALE MULLET

Jack B. Dougherty
Southeast Inspection Office
National Marine Fisheries Service
St. Petersburg, Florida 33702


Quality factors found acceptable to Taiwan in insl
of roe mullet were shipments possessing 95% or over red roe
mullet, 15% to 18% roe by weight, roe weight category
average 4 oz. 6 oz. or 6 oz. 8 oz., free from damaged
roe sacs and possession of good flavor a:d odor.










FLUID SEPARATION OF FISH BY SHAPE


Lester F. Whitney
Lino Correa
Food Engineering
Univ. of Massachusetts
Amherst, MA


Fish are trawled for with a resulting catch consisting
of different species such as flounder, whiting mixes. A
labor intensive separation must be accomplished to
separate species. A method utilizing air and conveyin;
by belt separates fishes by shape, so that an air-pulse
imparts a greater horizontal vector, based on shape
factor and drag coefficient. Also, water velocities
are compared.



THE ECONOMIC FREEZING OF FISH IN A PLATE FREEZER

Frans Delhez
Refrigeration Engineer
CREPACO, INC.
Chicago, Illinois


Plate freezers provide one of the most economical
ways to freeze packaged fish products. Intimate contact:
between refrigerated plates and product ensures rapid
freezing, resulting in high quality, uniform products.
Weight losses are zero. Plate freezers require less
refrigeration, use less power and occupy less space thz
conventional blast freezers.










FLUID SEPARATION OF FISH BY SHAPE


Lester F. Whitney
Lino Correa
Food Engineering
Univ. of Massachusetts
Amherst, MA


Fish are trawled for with a resulting catch consisting
of different species such as flounder, whiting mixes. A
labor intensive separation must be accomplished to
separate species. A method utilizing air and conveyin;
by belt separates fishes by shape, so that an air-pulse
imparts a greater horizontal vector, based on shape
factor and drag coefficient. Also, water velocities
are compared.



THE ECONOMIC FREEZING OF FISH IN A PLATE FREEZER

Frans Delhez
Refrigeration Engineer
CREPACO, INC.
Chicago, Illinois


Plate freezers provide one of the most economical
ways to freeze packaged fish products. Intimate contact:
between refrigerated plates and product ensures rapid
freezing, resulting in high quality, uniform products.
Weight losses are zero. Plate freezers require less
refrigeration, use less power and occupy less space thz
conventional blast freezers.









CENTRIFUMATIC CRAB MACHINE


Warren J. Craig
Independent Machine Designer
Sarasota, Florida

The Centrifumatic Crab Machine is an .in-line mechanical
process capable of continuously removing shell, claws, lungs,
eyes and mouthparts from blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus.
The crab meat extraction concept is based on centrifugal
force. The regular and backfin meat is extracted and
deposited as one lump in containers ready for shipment.
The machine can extract 60 pounds of meat per hour and
employs no more than six people.





SOLAR DRYING OF SEAFOOD PRODUCTS: MULLET ROE
1 2 2 1
J. J. Heinis K. V. Chau, C. D. Baird and J. C Deng
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition1
and Agricultural EngineeringZ
IFAS, University.of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Solar drying, traditionally conducted in the open
sun, is one of the earliest means of food preservation.
Mullet roe, with a 1974 Florida production of 2 million
pounds, is an example of a product which is open sun
dried. Presently the whole fish is shipped to the Far
East and the roe is extracted and dried in the open
sun to form karasumi. Studies were conducted with model
drying cabinets (3' x 2' x 6") with a view toward optimizing
airflow rates and direction for drying mullet roe. Drying
in cabinets with transparent covers that permit the entry
of sunlight into the drying chamber combines the low
energy costs of open sun drying with increased control
over drying conditions and prevention of potential insect,
rodent and bird damage.









CENTRIFUMATIC CRAB MACHINE


Warren J. Craig
Independent Machine Designer
Sarasota, Florida

The Centrifumatic Crab Machine is an .in-line mechanical
process capable of continuously removing shell, claws, lungs,
eyes and mouthparts from blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus.
The crab meat extraction concept is based on centrifugal
force. The regular and backfin meat is extracted and
deposited as one lump in containers ready for shipment.
The machine can extract 60 pounds of meat per hour and
employs no more than six people.





SOLAR DRYING OF SEAFOOD PRODUCTS: MULLET ROE
1 2 2 1
J. J. Heinis K. V. Chau, C. D. Baird and J. C Deng
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition1
and Agricultural EngineeringZ
IFAS, University.of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Solar drying, traditionally conducted in the open
sun, is one of the earliest means of food preservation.
Mullet roe, with a 1974 Florida production of 2 million
pounds, is an example of a product which is open sun
dried. Presently the whole fish is shipped to the Far
East and the roe is extracted and dried in the open
sun to form karasumi. Studies were conducted with model
drying cabinets (3' x 2' x 6") with a view toward optimizing
airflow rates and direction for drying mullet roe. Drying
in cabinets with transparent covers that permit the entry
of sunlight into the drying chamber combines the low
energy costs of open sun drying with increased control
over drying conditions and prevention of potential insect,
rodent and bird damage.








DETERMINATION OF THE ORIGIN OF HEAT STABLE PROTEASE IN MINCED FISH
H. K. Su, T. C. Lanier and T. S. Lin
Department of Food Science
N. C. State University
Raleigh, N. C. 27650


This paper gives evidence which rules out a bacterial
origin for the heat-stable alkaline protease present in
the minced tissue prepared from Atlantic croaker (Micropogan
undulatus). Studies indicate that improper washing of
eviscerated fish prior to mincing may result in inclusion
of residual tissue from internal organs then a concommitant
increase in protease activity in the minced tissue. The
tissue fraction incriminated in the increased protelytic
activity when added to properly washed fish tissue was
found to cause increased degradation of the fish tissue
upon cooking at 600C.






A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON A SOLAR ASSISTED FISH SMOKER

M. PerezI, K. V. Chan2, C. D. Baird2, J. J. Heinis1
W. S. Otwelll and J. C. Deng1
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition
and Agricultural Engineering2
IFAS, University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


Currently the smoked fish industry in Florida consists
of a number of small operations with limited resources. A
solar assisted smoker was constructed with the bulk of
the energy in the smoking process supplied by a solar
collector. Temperature increases as high as 680F over
ambient were obtained with lower airflow rates. This,
however, was not adequate to provide higher temperatures
required within the chamber. Additional studies are
underway to obtain even higher collector efficiencies
and temperatures through the use of baffles within the
collector.








DETERMINATION OF THE ORIGIN OF HEAT STABLE PROTEASE IN MINCED FISH
H. K. Su, T. C. Lanier and T. S. Lin
Department of Food Science
N. C. State University
Raleigh, N. C. 27650


This paper gives evidence which rules out a bacterial
origin for the heat-stable alkaline protease present in
the minced tissue prepared from Atlantic croaker (Micropogan
undulatus). Studies indicate that improper washing of
eviscerated fish prior to mincing may result in inclusion
of residual tissue from internal organs then a concommitant
increase in protease activity in the minced tissue. The
tissue fraction incriminated in the increased protelytic
activity when added to properly washed fish tissue was
found to cause increased degradation of the fish tissue
upon cooking at 600C.






A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON A SOLAR ASSISTED FISH SMOKER

M. PerezI, K. V. Chan2, C. D. Baird2, J. J. Heinis1
W. S. Otwelll and J. C. Deng1
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition
and Agricultural Engineering2
IFAS, University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


Currently the smoked fish industry in Florida consists
of a number of small operations with limited resources. A
solar assisted smoker was constructed with the bulk of
the energy in the smoking process supplied by a solar
collector. Temperature increases as high as 680F over
ambient were obtained with lower airflow rates. This,
however, was not adequate to provide higher temperatures
required within the chamber. Additional studies are
underway to obtain even higher collector efficiencies
and temperatures through the use of baffles within the
collector.









SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE BRINING OF MJLLET

J. A. Koburger1, D. M. Janky2 and J. L. Oblinger1
Food Science and Human Nutrition Department1
and Poultry Science Department2
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


Whole (gutted and gilled, scaled or unsealed) mullet
were brined in solutions of 0-12% sodium chloride for 16 hrs
at 400F and cold smoked for 5 hrs at 120*F. Weight gain
followed brining, weight loss following smoking and water
phase salt were determined for all treatments.
Maximum weight gain occurred in brines between 4-6%
salt. Weight loss during smoking also was minimal within
this range. Uptake of salt was dependent upon brine
concentration. Scaling of the fish increased the observed
changes. Butterflied fish responded in a similar manner
as did whole fish.



EXTENSION OF FLOUNDER SHELF-LIFE BY POLY
(HEXAMETHYLENEBIGUANIDE HYDROCHLORIDE)

Mir N. Islam, L. Kittner, and N. B. Islam
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition
University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19711

Fresh Flounders, upon evisceration, were dipped in
solutions of Poly (hexamethylenebiguanide hydrochloride)
or PHMB, and then drained and held at 1.10C until spoiled.
The shelf-lives of Flounder treated with 100, 200, and
300 ppm PHMB were found to be 8.8, 14.0, and 17.2 days
respectively, compared to only 6-days of the control
samples.









SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE BRINING OF MJLLET

J. A. Koburger1, D. M. Janky2 and J. L. Oblinger1
Food Science and Human Nutrition Department1
and Poultry Science Department2
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


Whole (gutted and gilled, scaled or unsealed) mullet
were brined in solutions of 0-12% sodium chloride for 16 hrs
at 400F and cold smoked for 5 hrs at 120*F. Weight gain
followed brining, weight loss following smoking and water
phase salt were determined for all treatments.
Maximum weight gain occurred in brines between 4-6%
salt. Weight loss during smoking also was minimal within
this range. Uptake of salt was dependent upon brine
concentration. Scaling of the fish increased the observed
changes. Butterflied fish responded in a similar manner
as did whole fish.



EXTENSION OF FLOUNDER SHELF-LIFE BY POLY
(HEXAMETHYLENEBIGUANIDE HYDROCHLORIDE)

Mir N. Islam, L. Kittner, and N. B. Islam
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition
University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19711

Fresh Flounders, upon evisceration, were dipped in
solutions of Poly (hexamethylenebiguanide hydrochloride)
or PHMB, and then drained and held at 1.10C until spoiled.
The shelf-lives of Flounder treated with 100, 200, and
300 ppm PHMB were found to be 8.8, 14.0, and 17.2 days
respectively, compared to only 6-days of the control
samples.










FREEZER STORAGE OF WHOLE BLUE CRABS
FOR USE IN PICKING PLANTS

David W. Cook and Sandra R. Lofton
Microbiology Section
Gulf Coast Research Laboratory
Ocean Springs, Mississippi 39564


Two methods of processing, freezing and storage of
blue crabs for later picking were investigated. Evaluation
included pickability test, lump and total meat yields,
palatability test and shelflife of the picked crabmeat.
Meat picked from crabs which had been frozen by both
methods was found acceptable to a trained taste panel.
Meat yields, lump meat quality and storage characteristics
of meat from frozen crabs was good.




QUALITY AND CHEMICAL STABILITY OF YU-SONE MADE
FROM DIFFERENT SPECIES OF UNDERUTILIZED FISH

Samuel .. Stephens and C. M. Arnold Wu
The University of Georgia
Marine Extension Service
Bldg. No. 1, South Yards
Brunswick, Georgia 31520


Ten species of finfish were used in the production
of Yu-sone for this project. Each species possessed unique
storage qualities such as potential for oxidative rancidity
and off-flavor development. TBA assays and sensory
evaluations were used to analyze these different qualities.










FREEZER STORAGE OF WHOLE BLUE CRABS
FOR USE IN PICKING PLANTS

David W. Cook and Sandra R. Lofton
Microbiology Section
Gulf Coast Research Laboratory
Ocean Springs, Mississippi 39564


Two methods of processing, freezing and storage of
blue crabs for later picking were investigated. Evaluation
included pickability test, lump and total meat yields,
palatability test and shelflife of the picked crabmeat.
Meat picked from crabs which had been frozen by both
methods was found acceptable to a trained taste panel.
Meat yields, lump meat quality and storage characteristics
of meat from frozen crabs was good.




QUALITY AND CHEMICAL STABILITY OF YU-SONE MADE
FROM DIFFERENT SPECIES OF UNDERUTILIZED FISH

Samuel .. Stephens and C. M. Arnold Wu
The University of Georgia
Marine Extension Service
Bldg. No. 1, South Yards
Brunswick, Georgia 31520


Ten species of finfish were used in the production
of Yu-sone for this project. Each species possessed unique
storage qualities such as potential for oxidative rancidity
and off-flavor development. TBA assays and sensory
evaluations were used to analyze these different qualities.










DEBONED FISH FLESH FROM NON-TRADITIONAL GULF OF MEXICO
FINFISH SPECIES
1. Production, Composition and Quality

Gunnar Finne, Ranzell Nickelson II, Annette Quimby and
Nina Connally
Seafood Technology
Texas AGM University
College Station, Texas 77843

.Deboned fish flesh was produced from both fresh and
prefrozen sheepshead, sandtrout, black drum, croaker,
mullet and tilapia. The yield of deboned flesh varied
from a high of 31.3% (fresh croaker) to a low of 22.0%
(prefrozen black drum). The proximate composition of the
deboned flesh showed that the moisture content varied
from 77.1% (black drum) to 81.9% (mullet); protein from
14.2% (mullet) to 18.7% (sandtrout) and fat content from
1.3% (mullet to 5.8% (croaker). Croaker contained the
highest degree of saturated fatty acids while sheepshead
was highest with respect to unsaturated acids. Thiobarbi-
turic acid number showed the deboned flesh to be of good
quality with regard to oxidation, but there was a marked
increase in TBA number during four weeks of prefrozen
storage of the round fish. Total volatile nitrogen analy-
sis showed these non-traditional species available on a
wholesale basis to be of variable quality.

DEBONED FISH FLESH FROM NON-TRADITIONAL GULF OF MEXICO
FINFISH SPECIES
2. Microbiology

Gunnar Finne, Ranzell Nickelson II and Carl Vanderzant
Seafood Technology
Texas AGM University
College Station, Texas 77843

The microbiology of minced flesh from six species of
tropical and subtropical fish was determined during the
various stages of processing and after frozen storage.
Total aerobic plate counts fluctuated during the processing,
but there was a general trend towards lower counts after
scaling and deheading with increases at evisceration and
mincing. Counts of finished procuct were reduced by at
least one-log after freezing but remained relatively
constant during 6 months storage. Moraxclla-Acinetobacter
spp. were a substantial part of the microbial flora of
whole fish as well as the finished minced product. Overall,
the numbers and types of microorganisms on whole fish
were similar to finished minced flesh.










DEBONED FISH FLESH FROM NON-TRADITIONAL GULF OF MEXICO
FINFISH SPECIES
1. Production, Composition and Quality

Gunnar Finne, Ranzell Nickelson II, Annette Quimby and
Nina Connally
Seafood Technology
Texas AGM University
College Station, Texas 77843

.Deboned fish flesh was produced from both fresh and
prefrozen sheepshead, sandtrout, black drum, croaker,
mullet and tilapia. The yield of deboned flesh varied
from a high of 31.3% (fresh croaker) to a low of 22.0%
(prefrozen black drum). The proximate composition of the
deboned flesh showed that the moisture content varied
from 77.1% (black drum) to 81.9% (mullet); protein from
14.2% (mullet) to 18.7% (sandtrout) and fat content from
1.3% (mullet to 5.8% (croaker). Croaker contained the
highest degree of saturated fatty acids while sheepshead
was highest with respect to unsaturated acids. Thiobarbi-
turic acid number showed the deboned flesh to be of good
quality with regard to oxidation, but there was a marked
increase in TBA number during four weeks of prefrozen
storage of the round fish. Total volatile nitrogen analy-
sis showed these non-traditional species available on a
wholesale basis to be of variable quality.

DEBONED FISH FLESH FROM NON-TRADITIONAL GULF OF MEXICO
FINFISH SPECIES
2. Microbiology

Gunnar Finne, Ranzell Nickelson II and Carl Vanderzant
Seafood Technology
Texas AGM University
College Station, Texas 77843

The microbiology of minced flesh from six species of
tropical and subtropical fish was determined during the
various stages of processing and after frozen storage.
Total aerobic plate counts fluctuated during the processing,
but there was a general trend towards lower counts after
scaling and deheading with increases at evisceration and
mincing. Counts of finished procuct were reduced by at
least one-log after freezing but remained relatively
constant during 6 months storage. Moraxclla-Acinetobacter
spp. were a substantial part of the microbial flora of
whole fish as well as the finished minced product. Overall,
the numbers and types of microorganisms on whole fish
were similar to finished minced flesh.










PRESENT THINKING IN WASHINGTON
ABOUT FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT

John T. Everett
NMFS, Office of Utilization and Development
Washington, D.C.


There are various efforts underway in Washington in
both the Executive Branch and in Congress to define the
proper role of the Federal Government in fisheries develop-
ment. There are several bills pending dealing with fisheries
development and others are being drafted. In adidtion, the
Department of Commerce has established a Department-wide
Task Force to develop an Executive Branch policy and program
in fisheries development. A brief overview of the activities
and the present status will be presented.







SEAFOODS--WHAT INFORMATION IS NEEDED TO FULLY APPRECIATE
THEIR NUTRITIVE VALUE?

Virginia D. Sidwell
NMFS, Quality Control and Inspection Div.
Washington, D.C.

Seafoods should play an important role in the American
diet. To ascertain this role more scientific information
is needed.

For the past 5-6 years, the Southeast Fisheries Center,
National Marine Fisheries Service has been establishing a
data bank on the chemical and nutritional composition of
fish and fishery products. The bank contains data from
nearly 1600 references. In general, on a particular
aquatic animal, the data tend to be fragmentary,
especially for the vitamin, mineral, and lipoid components.
To make this nutritional information more meaningful, it is
necessary to augment it with the more scientific information.










PRESENT THINKING IN WASHINGTON
ABOUT FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT

John T. Everett
NMFS, Office of Utilization and Development
Washington, D.C.


There are various efforts underway in Washington in
both the Executive Branch and in Congress to define the
proper role of the Federal Government in fisheries develop-
ment. There are several bills pending dealing with fisheries
development and others are being drafted. In adidtion, the
Department of Commerce has established a Department-wide
Task Force to develop an Executive Branch policy and program
in fisheries development. A brief overview of the activities
and the present status will be presented.







SEAFOODS--WHAT INFORMATION IS NEEDED TO FULLY APPRECIATE
THEIR NUTRITIVE VALUE?

Virginia D. Sidwell
NMFS, Quality Control and Inspection Div.
Washington, D.C.

Seafoods should play an important role in the American
diet. To ascertain this role more scientific information
is needed.

For the past 5-6 years, the Southeast Fisheries Center,
National Marine Fisheries Service has been establishing a
data bank on the chemical and nutritional composition of
fish and fishery products. The bank contains data from
nearly 1600 references. In general, on a particular
aquatic animal, the data tend to be fragmentary,
especially for the vitamin, mineral, and lipoid components.
To make this nutritional information more meaningful, it is
necessary to augment it with the more scientific information.











FISH FLAKE MANUFACTURE AND USES


Ted M. Miller and Norman B. Angel*
Marine Chemurgics
Newport, North Carolina 28570
The North Carolina Fisheries Assosiation, Inc.*
New Bern, North Carolina 28560

Fish flakes produced with full attention to achieving
excellent flavor, odor and texture characteristics have an
important function in improving other seafood ingredients
used in formulated products. Selection of raw materials,
manufacturing details, and the applications of the various
kinds of fish flakes and byproducts are discussed.








THE-DETERMINATION OF OPTIMAL COOKING TIME
AND TEMPERATURE OF SHRIMP IN MICROWAVE COOKERY
AND CONSUMER ORIENTATION ON THE SUBJECT

Annette Reddell, Ranzell Nickelson II and Ira Duval
Seafood Technology
Texas A & M University
College Station, Texas 77843


Three counts of shrimp were subjected to microwave
cookery to determine optimal cooking time and temperature.
Selected amounts of 3 shrimp counts were arranged in petri
dishes in 2 trials each. Internal temperatures were taken
with thermocouple points and recorded on Leeds & Northrup
Recorder. The procedure was repeated at specific time
intervals until the temperature leveled and a cooking curve
was established. Research is being continued. Another
phase of the project involves developing and testing recipes
featuring shrimp for consumer use in microwave cookery. A
publication for general distribution is being compiled
which will highlight the ease, adaptability and convenience
of shrimp in home microwave oven cookery. Initial research
has begun on developing formulations and technology
necessary for the commercial production of consumer and
institutional size, microwave compativle shrimp meals.











FISH FLAKE MANUFACTURE AND USES


Ted M. Miller and Norman B. Angel*
Marine Chemurgics
Newport, North Carolina 28570
The North Carolina Fisheries Assosiation, Inc.*
New Bern, North Carolina 28560

Fish flakes produced with full attention to achieving
excellent flavor, odor and texture characteristics have an
important function in improving other seafood ingredients
used in formulated products. Selection of raw materials,
manufacturing details, and the applications of the various
kinds of fish flakes and byproducts are discussed.








THE-DETERMINATION OF OPTIMAL COOKING TIME
AND TEMPERATURE OF SHRIMP IN MICROWAVE COOKERY
AND CONSUMER ORIENTATION ON THE SUBJECT

Annette Reddell, Ranzell Nickelson II and Ira Duval
Seafood Technology
Texas A & M University
College Station, Texas 77843


Three counts of shrimp were subjected to microwave
cookery to determine optimal cooking time and temperature.
Selected amounts of 3 shrimp counts were arranged in petri
dishes in 2 trials each. Internal temperatures were taken
with thermocouple points and recorded on Leeds & Northrup
Recorder. The procedure was repeated at specific time
intervals until the temperature leveled and a cooking curve
was established. Research is being continued. Another
phase of the project involves developing and testing recipes
featuring shrimp for consumer use in microwave cookery. A
publication for general distribution is being compiled
which will highlight the ease, adaptability and convenience
of shrimp in home microwave oven cookery. Initial research
has begun on developing formulations and technology
necessary for the commercial production of consumer and
institutional size, microwave compativle shrimp meals.










*PROSPECTUS FOR A TEN ACRE OYSTER FARM
IN THE MISSISSIPPI SOUND

Zach Lea
Sea Grant Advisory Service
MSU, Biloxi, MS

The State of Mississippi has recently begun leasing
public water bottoms to state residents for the purpose
of cultivating oysters. The estimated cost and returns
for a 10-acre.oyster farm are given to provide potential
investors and lenders preliminary decision making data.
The paper concludes that net returns from such an operation
will range between $2,000 and $4,000 per acre.










THE BIOLOGY AND FISHERY OF THE
QUEEN CONCH (STROMBUS GIGAS): A REVIEW

John Stevely
MAP-- Florida Sea Grant
Palmetto, Florida

The queen conch has traditionally been an important
food source throughout the Caribbean. However, in recent
years, there has been a dramatic increase in demand due
to growing population and increasing tourism in the
Caribbean Islands. In addition, a lucrative market for
frozen conch meat has developed in the U.S.A. Although
growing demand has resulted in queen conch becoming an
important revenue source for native fishermen, data
compiled in the present report indicate that severe
fishing in some areas has occurred. It is concluded
that considerable effort towards developing sound
management strategies will be needed if the queen conch
is to continue as an important source of food and revenue.










*PROSPECTUS FOR A TEN ACRE OYSTER FARM
IN THE MISSISSIPPI SOUND

Zach Lea
Sea Grant Advisory Service
MSU, Biloxi, MS

The State of Mississippi has recently begun leasing
public water bottoms to state residents for the purpose
of cultivating oysters. The estimated cost and returns
for a 10-acre.oyster farm are given to provide potential
investors and lenders preliminary decision making data.
The paper concludes that net returns from such an operation
will range between $2,000 and $4,000 per acre.










THE BIOLOGY AND FISHERY OF THE
QUEEN CONCH (STROMBUS GIGAS): A REVIEW

John Stevely
MAP-- Florida Sea Grant
Palmetto, Florida

The queen conch has traditionally been an important
food source throughout the Caribbean. However, in recent
years, there has been a dramatic increase in demand due
to growing population and increasing tourism in the
Caribbean Islands. In addition, a lucrative market for
frozen conch meat has developed in the U.S.A. Although
growing demand has resulted in queen conch becoming an
important revenue source for native fishermen, data
compiled in the present report indicate that severe
fishing in some areas has occurred. It is concluded
that considerable effort towards developing sound
management strategies will be needed if the queen conch
is to continue as an important source of food and revenue.











THE STABILITY OF ADENOSINE DEAMINASE AND ADENOSINE
MONOPHOSPHATE (AMP) DEAMINASE DURING ICE STORAGE OF
PINK AND BROWN SHRIMP

Wai L. Cheuk, Gunnar Finne and Ranzell Nickelson II
Seafood Technology
Texas AGM University
College Station, Texas 77843

The stability of adenosine deaminase and AMP deaminase
from pink and brown shrimp muscle extracts was assayed during
postmortem ice storage. For both species, AMP deaminase
activity was lost during the early stages (12-14 days),
while adenosine deaminase activity could be detected
through the entire storage period of 21 days. The stability
of these two enzymes was also correlated with the tradi-
tional spoilage indicators; total volatile nitrogen (TVN),
total plate count (TPC) and organoleptic evaluations.
During the lag phase of bacterial growth, AMP deaminase lost
about 50% of its original activity while adenosine
deaminase remained active. During the log phase, bacterial
counts and TVN gradually increased to 100/g and 30 mg N/100g,
respectively, while AMP deaminase lost its activity.
Finally, during the stationary phase, adenosine deaminase
(with low activity) was the only ammonia producing tissue
enzyme that could be detected.



RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HEAT-STABLE PROTEASE
ACTIVITY AND TEXTURE OF GELS
PREPARED FROM MINCED FISH

T. C. Lanier, T. S. Lin, and D. D. Hamann
Department of Food Science
N. C. State University
Raleigh, N. C. 27650


This paper reports work which clearly demonstrates
a high degree of correlation between activity of heat-
stable alkaline protease in minced fish tissue and the
corresponding texture of gels prepared from this fish.
Activity of protease in the raw tissue extract was measured
in this manner closely correlated with texture degeneration
and protein degradation in fish gels under varying conditions
of harvest time, location, temperature, cooking time, pH
and ionic strength. Studies of the effects of several
chemical and biological protease inhibitors also support
the role of the heat-stable alkaline protease in the
texture degradation of fish gels.











THE STABILITY OF ADENOSINE DEAMINASE AND ADENOSINE
MONOPHOSPHATE (AMP) DEAMINASE DURING ICE STORAGE OF
PINK AND BROWN SHRIMP

Wai L. Cheuk, Gunnar Finne and Ranzell Nickelson II
Seafood Technology
Texas AGM University
College Station, Texas 77843

The stability of adenosine deaminase and AMP deaminase
from pink and brown shrimp muscle extracts was assayed during
postmortem ice storage. For both species, AMP deaminase
activity was lost during the early stages (12-14 days),
while adenosine deaminase activity could be detected
through the entire storage period of 21 days. The stability
of these two enzymes was also correlated with the tradi-
tional spoilage indicators; total volatile nitrogen (TVN),
total plate count (TPC) and organoleptic evaluations.
During the lag phase of bacterial growth, AMP deaminase lost
about 50% of its original activity while adenosine
deaminase remained active. During the log phase, bacterial
counts and TVN gradually increased to 100/g and 30 mg N/100g,
respectively, while AMP deaminase lost its activity.
Finally, during the stationary phase, adenosine deaminase
(with low activity) was the only ammonia producing tissue
enzyme that could be detected.



RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HEAT-STABLE PROTEASE
ACTIVITY AND TEXTURE OF GELS
PREPARED FROM MINCED FISH

T. C. Lanier, T. S. Lin, and D. D. Hamann
Department of Food Science
N. C. State University
Raleigh, N. C. 27650


This paper reports work which clearly demonstrates
a high degree of correlation between activity of heat-
stable alkaline protease in minced fish tissue and the
corresponding texture of gels prepared from this fish.
Activity of protease in the raw tissue extract was measured
in this manner closely correlated with texture degeneration
and protein degradation in fish gels under varying conditions
of harvest time, location, temperature, cooking time, pH
and ionic strength. Studies of the effects of several
chemical and biological protease inhibitors also support
the role of the heat-stable alkaline protease in the
texture degradation of fish gels.










EFFECT OF SALT, TRIPOLYPHOSPIIATE AND SODIUM ALGINATE
ON THE TEXTURE QUALITY OF FISH PATTIES
1 2 1
F. Tomaszewski D. Toloday ,1R. F. Matthews
and J. C. Deng

University of Florida
Food Science and Human Nutrition Department
Gainesville, Florida 32611
and 2
Singleton Packing Corporation
Tampa, Florida 33601


An attempt was made to formulate a seafood patty
using minced mullet and croaker. Deboned and washed fish
was mixed with various combinations of sodium chloride,
tripolyphosphate, and sodium alginate. Breaking force
was determined using the Universal Instron. Response
surface methodology was used to analyze the data. Results
indicated that as the alginate level increased, the patties
became softer. However, the patties became firmer as
either the salt concentration or tripolyphosphate levels
were increased. Sensory evaluation data was correlated
with instrumental analysis.


THE SPOILAGE MECHANISM OF GULF OF MEXICO FINFISH
STORED IN A MODIFIED CO ATMOSPHERE

Harrell Banks, Jr., Ranzell Nickelson II
and Gunnar Finne
Seafood Technology
Texas A & M University
College Station, Texas 77843


Continued research on the shelf-life of finfish
packaged in a modified CO2 atmosphere showed the surface
of these fish to contain a different microbial flora as
compared to fish held on ice. While the CO2 atmosphere
was shown to inhibit the increase in numbers of common
types of spoilage bacteria such as gram-negative rods
(Pseudomonas), stimulation of gram-positive bacteria such
as Lactobacillus was also demonstrated. The result of
these studies indicated that an extension of the shelf-
life of fresh fish can be obtained by packaging and
storing the fish in a CO2 atmosphere. The traditional
(chemical spoilage indicator, total volatile nitrogen, was
shown to be of little value as a spoilage indicator for
fish stored in a modified atmosphere.










ASPHYXIA DEATHS OF SHRIMP FISHERMEN DUE TO
A TOXIC GAS EXPOSURE, NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA
Roger M. Glass
Center for Disease Control
Atlanta, Georgia


On July 19, 1978, two crewmen of a shrimp fishing
vessel died and the captain was hospitalized after being
exposed to the toxic atmosphere of the ship's hold.
Although low oxygen tension and high concentrations of
H2S, S02, CO, and C02 have previously been found in the
holds of fishing vessels, we were unable to identify
toxic concentrations of any of these gases in the holds
of 8 other boats sorting shrimp under similar conditions
Nonetheless, an examination of Coast Guard records of
deaths at sea since 1968 led to the identification of
12 incidents involving 37 deaths by asphyxia. Four of
these incidents (7 deaths) were among shrimpers and 5
others (19 deaths) were among fishermen. All deaths
occurred in the unventillated holds of ships in warm
waters and warm months of the year. All incidents
involved multiple deaths, usually including the death
of a rescuer trying to save a fellow crewman. Asphyxia
from toxic gas exposure in the unventilated holds of ships
is a real and often unrecongnized hazard to boatmen.
Recommendations are aimed at informing fishermen of this
hazard, ventilating the hold before it is entered, and
providing safety protocols for rescuing.men found
unconscious in a ship's hold.








POSSIBLE HAZARDS FROM USE OF CHLORINE BY THE FOOD INDUSTRY
Jim Kirk
Department of Food Science and
Human Nutrition
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611


Chlorine is a Generally Recognized As Safe listed
chemical. The FDA Good Manufacturing Practice regulation
21 CFR S110 lists the use of chlorine as a sanitizing
agent and indicates that the chlorination process is
effective in destroying vegetative cells of pathogenic
and spoilage bacteria, as well as other microorganisms.
Initially, it was thought that chlorine reacted with
organic materials to produce innocuous inorganic and
organic compounds. Recent studies, however, using
radioactive chlorine have estimated that from .5 to
3.1% of the chlorine used for sanitizing purposes ends
up as chlorinated organic compounds, some of which have
been shown to be hazardous. Questions concerning the
use of chlorine compounds as direct and indirect food
additives have arisen because of the potential hazards
associated with these compounds.




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