• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Classification system
 Regional patterns
 Recommended management practic...
 Conclusions
 Acknowledgement
 Bibliography
 List of Figures
 List of Tables






Title: Land systems of hill and highland tropical America
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Title: Land systems of hill and highland tropical America
Physical Description: v. (various leaves) : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Posner, Joshua L
Publication Date: 1981
 Subjects
Subject: Land use -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Abstract
        A 1
    Introduction
        A 1
        A 2
        A 3
    Classification system
        A 4
        A 5
        A 6
        A 7
        A 8
    Regional patterns
        A 9
        A 10
        A 11
    Recommended management practices
        A 12
        A 13
        A 14
        A 15
        A 16
        A 17
    Conclusions
        A 18
        A 19
    Acknowledgement
        A 20
    Bibliography
        A 21
        A 22
        A 23
        A 24
    List of Figures
        A 25
        A 26
    List of Tables
        A 27
        A 28
        A 29
        A 30
        A 31
        A 32
        A 33
        A 34
        A 35
        A 36
        A 37
        A 38
        A 39
        A 40
Full Text



o,, ) I









Land Systems of Hill and Highland Tropical America

Joshua L. Posner, Gustavo A. Antonini,
Gustavo Montanez, Robert Cecil and Mona Grigsby


Dr. Posner is Visiting Research Fellow at the Rockefeller Founda-

tion in New York, NY 10036.

Dr. Antonini is Professor of Geography and Latif American Studies at

the University of Florida in Gainesville, FL 32611.

Dr. Cecil is Assistant Professor of Geography at the University of

Western Ontario in London, Ontario N6A 3K7.

Mr. Montanez and Miss Grigsby are graduate students in Geography and

Latin American Studies, respectively, at the University of Florida in

Gainesville.






d t


Land Systems of Hill and Highland Tropical America*


ABSTRACT. A land classification scheme is proposed for the

steep-sloped and highland areas of tropical America, based on

topography, climate and soils characteristics. Nine categories

of land systems identify principal erosion hazards and recommended

land use. Cartographic analysis indicates that 52 percent of tropi-

cal America (excluding Mexico, Belize, Brazil, Cuba and the Guyanas)

is on slopes of 8 percent or greater or in intermontane valleys and

on highland plateaus; only 16 percent of this steepland area is

adequate for cropping systems. Other recommended land uses are

protection management (45 percent), range management (19 percent)

and forestry and pasture (20 percent). General research and policy

priorities are discussed for each land system, emphasizing the

need for an ecologically sound basis for agricultural development

and resource management.



INTRODUCTION


It is becoming increasingly evident in tropical Latin America that

expanding population pressures, limited resource availability and inequit-

able land distribution are forcing the cultivation of marginally produc-

tive steeplands. This move into the hill lands is forming part of the

small farmer's strategy for subsistence. Land use activities, such as

charcoal production, slash-and-burn farming, shorter rotations, and

extensive grazing are actions that frequently lead to deforestation,

irreversible soil erosion, floods and siltation of expensive downstream






d t


Land Systems of Hill and Highland Tropical America*


ABSTRACT. A land classification scheme is proposed for the

steep-sloped and highland areas of tropical America, based on

topography, climate and soils characteristics. Nine categories

of land systems identify principal erosion hazards and recommended

land use. Cartographic analysis indicates that 52 percent of tropi-

cal America (excluding Mexico, Belize, Brazil, Cuba and the Guyanas)

is on slopes of 8 percent or greater or in intermontane valleys and

on highland plateaus; only 16 percent of this steepland area is

adequate for cropping systems. Other recommended land uses are

protection management (45 percent), range management (19 percent)

and forestry and pasture (20 percent). General research and policy

priorities are discussed for each land system, emphasizing the

need for an ecologically sound basis for agricultural development

and resource management.



INTRODUCTION


It is becoming increasingly evident in tropical Latin America that

expanding population pressures, limited resource availability and inequit-

able land distribution are forcing the cultivation of marginally produc-

tive steeplands. This move into the hill lands is forming part of the

small farmer's strategy for subsistence. Land use activities, such as

charcoal production, slash-and-burn farming, shorter rotations, and

extensive grazing are actions that frequently lead to deforestation,

irreversible soil erosion, floods and siltation of expensive downstream







-2-


hydroelectric facilities. The effects of these actions over the long

run are economically costly to the individual farmer as well as to

society.

The problems of fragile hillside environments are common to a sub-

stantial area of the tropical Third World. In Latin America, for example,

52 percent of the region, excluding Mexico, Belize, Cuba, Brazil and the

Guyanas, has slopes of greater than 8 percent or is situated on high-

altitude plateaus. It has been estimated that more than one-third of

Latin American farmers have land on steep slopes, and nearly 25 percent

of the total land in annual crops is found in this slope category.

Production estimates for this region suggest that 40 to 80 percent of the

food crops come from hill farms, and including coffee, livestock and

timber, the fragile steeplands in many Latin American countries contri-

bute more than one-third of total agricultural production.1

Little attention has been directed to inventory and analyze natural

resource constraints that impinge upon the potential agricultural produc-

tivity of tropical hill and highland America. There have been several

attempts to develop and apply land use classification schemes in some

Latin American countries. For example, Venezuela, Nicaragua and Mexico

devised separate mapping categories based on the United States Department

of Agriculture-Soil Conservation Service Land Capability System.2 The

Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations in the

mid-1960's developed a land capability scheme for all Central America,

but, like many other mapping systems it operates from a flat land bias,

since it condones annual cropping only on slopes of less than 10 to 15

percent.







-3-


FAO is beginning to apply in Latin America a land capability

scheme initially developed in Africa. This scheme emphasizes "land

suitability" by using isohyets of growing days for eleven crops.

Yields are analyzed at two different levels of technology and the re-

sulting maps include actual as well as potential crop producing areas.

The International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) has devised a

computerized mapping system which concentrates on the transferability of

germplasm-based technology in the humid lowland tropics of Latin America.5

This system is based on an examination of climatological station records,

slope classification from airphoto or satellite imagery and the collection

and record of soil characteristics by field traverse methods. In Peru,

the official land classification code is modelled after the Tosi System,

which is based on type of technology to be applied, climate, slope and

nine soil variables. Another approach, developed by Wood, classifies

areas by type of human activity and relies heavily on economic survey as

well as questionnaire data.7

All of the above schemes require extensive data sets and in many

cases rely on survey research methods. No one system has been adopted

universally by all the nations of tropical America. Finally, given the

fact that the hill and highland areas are considered of lower economic

potential, they are the least likely to be mapped.

The classification scheme, presented in this article, is an initial

attempt at describing the dominant land systems of the hill areas of

tropical America. It is based on existing published information. The

objective is to characterize the natural resource base of the areas of







-4-


tropical America (23.50 N.-23.50S.) that are predominantly steep

sloping, regardless of elevation, and where soil and water conservation

are primary considerations in developing sustainable agricultural systems.

The goal has been to create a conceptual framework that helps to organize

thinking about rural development in the highland and steep-sloped areas

of tropical America. To achieve this goal, land systems have been

classified based on slope, climate and soil quality. Mapping was carried

out at a scale of 1:3,000,000. This scheme should aid planners and

policy-makers in focussing on the productive potential and critical

limitations of the steep-sloped areas which in most tropical American

countries represent an important, yet unrecognized, natural resource.



CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM


Topography

Slope data were obtained from the FAO World Soils Map and the
8
information was regrouped into three classes. Flat to rolling lands

(A) are those that require little conservation cropping or other soil

erosion control measures (0-8 percent slope), and are suitable for

mechanized agriculture. The deeply dissected lands (B), often the most

heavily farmed areas in the highland valleys, represent the areas of

greatest erosion (8-30 percent slopes). These are areas where conserva-

tion practices must be employed, either by adapting to the slope with

terracing, hedge rows, contour furrowing and ditching, or by lengthening

the rotation cycles to include pasture, or by leaving the land for

permanent crops. The steeply sloping lands (C) are restricted almost







-5-


exclusively to Andean South America, and should be protected to prevent

erosion (greater than 30 percent slope). These categories are summarized

in Table 1.


Climate

The Holdridge Classification was used to characterize climate and

it is based on three measurable factors: temperature, humidity index

and latitude.9 Temperature in the tropics is generally a function of

altitude; humidity is the ratio of annual potential evapotranspiration to

annual precipitation, and latitude is a proxy for photoperiod, seasonality

of temperature and light quality. The interaction of these three factors

determines the characteristics of the flora and fauna found in each life

zone.

A triangular diagram is used to illustrate the interrelationship

between these three climatic factors (Figure 1). A rainfall scale

lies at the base, increasing in value from left to right (desert to

rainforest). On the right hand side are bands of descending annual

temperature, or at any one latitude, bands of increasing elevation.

Latitudinal belts are ranked on the left hand side; this article is

concerned with the tropics (00-130N. and S. Lat.) and subtropics

(130-27030'N. and S. Lat.).

More than one hundred life zones exist worldwide. Many of these

zones, while biotically distinct, do have underlying climatic character-

istics that directly affect systems of land use as well as strategies

for erosion control. Seven major life zone groups have been identified

and mapped using the following procedure.10 First, the 60C biotemper-

ature line was selected to separate montane from subalpine altitudinal







- 6 -


belts. This line approximates the tree line, near 4000m above sea level

in the equatorial region, and above it lies the Andean zone (VII).

In the area below the tree line, three climatic zones were delimited.

Two are extreme climatic zones: the "very dry" zone (I), where annual

potential evopotranspiration is more than twice annual rainfall, is used

for extensive grazing, and is an area where rainfed agriculture is very

risky; and the "very wet" area (VI), where annual potential evapotrans-

piration is less than one-half annual rainfall, and runoff is high

requiring good ground-cover. The broad middle band or moist province

below the tree line, where potential evapotranspiration and precipitation

are more nearly equal, was divided into three major temperature zones.

The uppermost band, the "cool moist" zone (V) is where potatoes, small

grains, and indigenous Andean tubers predominate. Its lower limit is set

by the critical temperature or frost line, which is at approximately

2000m elevation near the Equator. The middle band or "premontane moist"

zone (IV) is where frost sensitive perennials like coffee, banana and

citrus grow and has its lower boundary at about 800-900m elevation near

the Equator. The lowest band is characterized by high average tempera-

tures and is subdivided into two zones: the "tropical moist, seasonally

dry" zone (II); and a "tropical moist" zone (III). Life zone maps exist

for most tropical Latin American countries, with the exception of Mexico,

Cuba, Belize, Brazil and the Guyanas. These maps, however, are at dif-

ferent scales. Adjustments in scale and projection were required for map

compilation (Table I).


Soils

The FAO World Soils Map was used to characterize the suitability of







- 7 -


the soil for promoting sustainable small-holder agriculture.1 Since

the concern of this study is primarily with farmers who have small plots,

rely on hand labor or animal traction and would have access to fertilizer

and soil conservation technology if economically justifiable, informa-

tion was extracted to identify pedogenic conditions which set limits on

small farm productivity. The soil classification scheme uses soil depth

and top soil quality as indicator variables.

There are three depth classes:

(1) lithosols, situated on the steep slopes of the Andes with

bedrock within 10 cm from the surface, and uncultivatable,

except on associated sway and hollow soils;

(2) shallow soils, in the lithic phase with bedrock or some in-

durated horizon that impedes root growth within 50 cm of the

surface; and

(3) deep soils, with no physical barrier to root penetration within

the first 100 cm of top soil.

Inherent fertility, internal drainage, salt content and similar soil

characteristics provide a basis for defining soil quality as either good

or poor. If the soil was deep, it was classified by inherent fertility,

taking into account disadvantages like excessive internal drainage or

difficult physical structure. For example, a stony Rendzina would remain

a "good soil" as it has high native fertility, good structure and its

stoniness is of little importance when hand tilled. A Eutric Regosol

would be categorized as a "good soil" due to fertility but reduced to poor

suitability because of excessive internal drainage. Soils with a water

deficiency primarily Yermosols, Xerosols, arid-zone Lithosols and Regosols,







-8-


have been classified by fertility and soil structure, not actual produc-

tivity, since the humidity factor in crop production already has been

taken into consideration under climate. Four soils categories emerge,

based on their suitability for small-holder farming systems (Table 1).


Integrative Classification Scheme

The three natural resource variable maps--slope, generalized life

zones and soil quality classes-were overlaid and a composite map of

"land systems" was compiled which delineated units with recurring patterns
12
of topography, soils, vegetation and climate.2 The initial land systems

matrix offered eighty-five possible combinations, but many fell outside

the purview of study since they represented tropical coastal and interior

plains (Table 2). Excluding these flat, low lying areas (denoted by "X"

in Table 2), the remaining 68 units were reduced to four generalized land

systems: areas designated for protection management (W); range (R); for-

estry and pasture (FP); and cropping systems (CS). Subsequently, the

range land system (R) was subdivided into "dry range" (Rd) and "andean

range" (Ra) due to very different flora and fauna. Similarly, the "crop-

ping systems" (CS) was subdivided into tropical annual (CSII), tropical

perennial (CS III), premontane (CSI), cool season (CS ), and wet

(CS ) cropping areas. A total of nine "land systems" were defined

based on principal erosion hazards and dominant land production systems.

The areas of steepest slopes (C), thinnest soils (1) and high

precipitation have been designated for "protection management" (W).

These areas usually coincide with the "very wet" zone (VI) where

runoff approximates 70 to 80 percent of rainfall, so good ground cover


4 1







- 9 -


is important. Soil-loss tolerances of 15 to 35 tons/ha/yr are easily

surpassed when annual crops are grown under these conditions.13

Overgrazing is a problem in the "range" areas. Soil-loss tolerances

are only about 4 tons/ha/yr in these areas since low rainfall and tempera-

ture limit pedogenesis.4 "Forestry and pasture" (FP) areas have

limited agricultural potential due to thin, usually acid soils. In

such areas, once the forest is cut, annual cropping can persist only for

a few years; the area then reverts to poor pasture, and if heavily grazed

can promote serious erosion.15

The remaining land systems fundamentally are cropping units (CS)

where soil loss tolerances range from a high of 42 tons/ha/yr (CS VI)

to a low of 12 tons/ha/yr (CS ).16 Pedogenic processes are directly

affected by farming systems; some systems, such as coca production

provoke erosion; others, like shade-grown coffee are conservational.


REGIONAL PATTERNS


Topography

Fifty-two percent of Central America, the island Caribbean and

Andean South America is characterized by highland plateaus and slopes

that exceed 8 percent (Col. 9 Table 3).17 The Andean countries, with

steeplands averaging 50 percent of their national territories, should be

concerned with proper management of these lands since the hills and

highlands are the areas of population concentration, major cities, and

the political, cultural and historical centers of each nation state.

In Central America and the Caribbean, steeplands account for close






I I


10 -


to 75 percent of the national territories. This higher percentage,

coupled with the small size of these countries, can result in potential

ecological problems of uncommon magnitude. Limited territory extent

functions to open up for cultivation even the most remote interior areas.

Empty frontiers, that could absorb expanding population pressure, are

rapidly disappearing.


Climate

The "very dry" (I) and the "Andean" (VII) zones are important in

South America. These zones, used for extensive grazing, cover respec-

tively, 10 and 9 percent of the tropical steeplands (Table 3, Col. 2 and

8). The "very wet" (VI) zone covers the largest territory, 31 percent of

the steeplands, and is present in all countries with the exception of El

Salvador. In Central America, precipitation increases from north to

south (Table 3, Col. 7): while only 14 percent of the Guatemala high-

lands falls into this "very wet" category, nearly 75 percent of Costa

Rica receives at least twice as much rainfall as the vegetation can

potentially transpire.

The two warm tropical life zones, "tropical moist, seasonally dry"

(II) and "tropical moist," (II) are important at lower elevations.

Together they account for 40 percent of hilly Central America and 52

percent of interior Jamaica. In the Andean countries, these life zones

occur along the lower reaches of the Magdalena, Cauca and Guayas river

valleys as well as along the coast of Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador.

The "warm, seasonally dry" zone (II) covers 64 percent of the Salvadorean

steeplands and it is an area devoted to annual crops, such as corn,







- 11 -


sorghum and beans. The "warm, perennially moist" zone (III) of Central

America, in contrast, is situated on the Atlantic side where crops, such

as manioc, plantain and cowpeas predominate.

The "premontane moist" zone (IV), the principal coffee producing

region, is most common in highland Central America, the northern Andes

and on several Caribbean islands. In Central America, the "cool moist"

zone (V), best suited to annual small grains, root and tuber crops, is

important only in Guatemala (21 percent of its highlands); this zone,

however, is where most of the rural Guatemalan population lives. In the

Andean countries, where the steeplands become progressively higher, the

area covered by the "cool moist" climate increases as one moves south

(e.g., Venezuela 0 percent Bolivia 18 percent). Generally, this

climatic zone corresponds to the centers of Indian populations where

indigenous crops and technology are widely used.


Soilsl8

Approximately one-third of hill and highland Central American soils

have been mapped as good, deep soils; the remaining two-thirds are poor

soils (Table 4). Good soils predominate along the Pacific volcanic fault

scarp: 76 percent of the El Salvadorean steeplands has good soils. In

the Caribbean, good, deep soils are more prevalent in Jamaica and Puerto

Rico than on Hispaniola. In the Andean countries, lithosols prevail (42

percent of the study area), followed by poor soils (35 percent) and good

soils (22 percent). Lithosols are limited to the Andes and the Guyana

Shield. Poor soils are situated in the tropical foothills in the hilly

parts of the Llanos and Amazon basin. Good soils occur in isolated






- 12 -


intermontane valleys, in the area around Lake Titicaca and the Bolivian

desert, as well as along the coastal foothills of Ecuador.


RECOMMENDED MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES


Protection Management

Forty-five percent the hill and highland area of tropical America

requires protection management (W) (Table 5). These are areas too steep

for cropping. In addition, precipitation is so heavy that maintaining

the natural cover is the key management objective. A prime factor

limiting rational use of this vast zone (W) is the lack of natural

resource management policies in many Latin American countries. A second

limiting factor is the absence of laws, fiscal strategies and technologies

that can make protecting and managing watersheds a reality.

Generally, the watersheds facing the Pacific Coast of Latin America

supply irrigation water, hydroelectric power and water for urban uses.

In contrast, most of the rivers that flow eastward cross under-inhabited

areas and are relatively untapped. Agricultural and urban development in

the island Caribbean affects nearly all the local watersheds.

An initial task of a Ministry of Natural Resources, concerned with

developing the steeplands, should be to describe the major watersheds

within the national territory and to evaluate the costs and benefits of

protecting each watershed. Research is needed on how to carry out such

evaluations if governments with limited funds are to prioritize their

development projects. Such a focus is being pursued in Jamaica, Panama

and the Dominican Republic. Down-stream projects (e.g., dams and irriga-

tion systems) should set aside funding for the protection of their







- 13 -


upstream water sources. The assistance of conservationists is needed

if governments are to set ecologically realistic as well as economically

viable priorities.

Research must be conducted, furthermore, on the formulation of

policy (e.g., laws, tax incentives and surcharges) that will permit

governments to finance their watershed development strategies. Several

Latin American countries have had experience in instituting reforestation

programs and land use legislation; comparative analyses of these experi-

ences would provide guidelines useful in transferring such experiences to

other countries.

The "protection management" (W) zone is not without agricultural

activities. In some of the longest settled regions, the land is in

pasture or coffee and these crops partially mimic the forest they

replaced. In recently colonized areas, such as the eastern foothills

of the Andes, farmers are planting annual crops with disastrous results;

severe erosion occurs due to the heavy rains on the steep slopes. Zoning

legislation should be passed to prevent this type of development. Where

such legislation is not feasible, planning should emphasize agro-forestry

development.

Logging is another major activity of the forested steeplands.

Harvesting and milling techniques should be modernized to reduce environ-

mental degradation as well as to increase the yield of usable wood.

Strategies should also be developed, furthermore, to productively manage

the secondary forest.


Forestry and Pasture

The second major land system in the Latin American steeplands







- 14 -


is "forestry and pasture" (FP). This category covers approximately

one-half of the "protection management" area (20 percent, Table 5).

Shallow or poor soils make annual cropping precarious. This system

includes the large tracts of montane and tropical moist forests that

are rapidly disappearing in Central America and the Caribbean. The

cooler zones still have a pine forest cover, but as temperature and

humidity rise, the percent of land in man-made pasture increases. In

many cases, this pasture has invaded lands which are adequate for for-

estry but marginal for livestock production. The sequence of forest

clearing, annual cropping and reversion to unimproved pasture has been

influenced by factors, such as: the high export price of beef; inequali-

ties in land holding that propel land-hungry farmers to invade forested

areas; and forestry laws which are disincentives to reforestation. A

major result of this pattern of exploitation is the millions of hectares

of denuded hill lands in Central America. Only very low quality pasture

has replaced the original forest cover.

Appropriate government policies and basic research should be imple-

mented in order to arrest this trend. The tropical American countries

should develop plans that encourage the spread of such pasture lands only

into those areas where pasture has a marked advantage over the previous

vegetation. Concomitantly, research should be conducted on the intensi-

fication of pasture (e.g., grass and legume species, fertilization), as

well as herd management in the hilly humid and dry tropics.


Range Management

The 250,000 km2 of "andean range" (Ra), predominantly in Peru








- 15 -


and Bolivia, is a major misused resource of the Andes (Table 6).

The pasture land, usually above 3,500 m, is often overstocked and

degraded, nutrition and health of livestock are poor, and the net

result is low off-take rates. The social and technical problems

associated with increasing sustainable production in the "paramo"

lands only recently have received attention. Research should focus

on the introduction of exotic grass species and on ways to manage

the range in order to favor the more palatable and nutritional plant

cover. Equally important to the development of technology will be

the integration of these recommendations into the traditional

social fabric. The "dry range" (Rd) faces similar problems in addi-

tion to its lower productive potential. Furthermore, the potential

for erosion is greater in the "dry range" since the meager vegetative

cover, if heavily grazed, provides little soil protection during rain-

storms.


Cropping Systems

Small-holder agriculture includes a number of farming systems

developed over a long period of time. These systems are often

well adapted to the environment and permit a low but sustainable

rate of production. In the drier regions of Mexico and the high

Andes, terraces and hedge rows are used to reduce runoff. In wetter

areas, the farmer's land use strategy has maintained good crop cover

on the soil, either through intensive rotations like those in the

Guatemalan highlands, or by means of perennial tree crops and

pasture as in Colombia.







- 16 -


Most farming systems in the Latin American steeplands include

livestock to provide motive power, food and fiber. Labor inputs for

livestock production, though heavy, can be supplied by children.

Animals do not compete for cropland since they are confined to the

extensive areas of non-arable land associated with dissected terrain;

they complement the crop enterprise by eating crop residue and their

manure is used as fertilizer.

Attempts at intensifying production and increasing output in

the steeplands often result in more rapid soil loss. Research,

therefore, should be undertaken with a clear understanding of the

implications the results of such research have in a complex and

somewhat precarious natural resource environment.

For example, water harvesting and mini-irrigation systems can

be developed at low cost in many of the drier areas. Slopes may be

used advantageously by directing surface water to specially con-

structed furrows or by providing a hydraulic head in plastic piping

which in turn permits the overhead sprinkling of high value crops.

Soil conservation practices, however, are also needed in these dry

steeplands. The soil is particularly vulnerable to erosion at the

end of the dry season, when the soil cover is at a minimum. This

lack of "mulch" also makes minimum tillage impractical. The con-

servation practices required are less intensive than ancient terracing

systems, yet more sustainable than the annual cropping patterns that

predominate in Haiti, Cabrican (Guatemala) or Tarija (Bolivia).

Agro-forestry should be emphasized in the wetter areas where

annual crops are grown. A shift to tree crops like African oil palm,







- 17 -


banana, nutmeg, citrus or coffee, should be promoted. Mixed and

relay cropping as well as minimum-tillage become more important

resource conservation strategies in the wetter areas since they aid

in keeping the land covered and reducing rainfall impact and run-

off.

In the cooler cropping zones, the problems of erosion remain,

but there are more economically viable cropping alternatives. The

cooler areas can produce high value crops, such as coffee, vegetables,

beans and potatoes, as well as dairy products. The high rate of re-

turn for these crops makes the benefits of conservation more apparent

and more economically attractive. Also, these areas are often

organized along traditional kinship lines, and communities have

extensive experience in using communal labor to complete important

"public" works which could include soil conservation structures.

Finally, the public sector, development banks and private credit

unions (e.g., coffee federations, vegetable processing plants) can

play an important role in facilitating loans for permanent land

improvements.

Agricultural systems research for the Latin American steep-

lands should focus on integrated programs of animal and crop produc-

tion, on the economics of soil conservation practices and'on the use

of rotations to maintain soil stability and fertility. In addition,

research is needed on methods of intensifying livestock production in

the humid and dry tropics, and on the adoption of improved range manage-

ment techniques in the traditional societies of the dry and Andean range

areas.







- 18 -


Perennial crop and forestry research should focus on systems

especially adapted to the more humid, steeply sloping areas where

logging techniques, secondary growth management and plantation

development have a particular role to play. Encouragement should be

given to conservation strategies such as slope reforestation and

management of fallow so as to promote tree regrowth.


CONCLUSIONS

Tropical America (excluding Mexico, Belize, Cuba, Brazil

and the Guyanas) has 52 percent of its area in slopes of greater

than 8 percent or high-level plateaus. A nine-tier classification

of land systems, based on topography, climate, and soils points out

that 84 percent of the steeplands are typed for non-agricultural

use: "protection management" (45 percent), "range management"

(andean-9 percent, dry-10 percent), and "forestry and pasture" (20

percent). Sixteen percent of the Latin American steeplands (443,000

km2) has an adequate resource base for perennial or annual crop

production. There are five cropping zones, approximately equal in

size, each representing slightly more than 3 percent of the steep-

lands.

A high national priority in the Latin American tropics should

be to design intermediate-range development policies for the steep-

lands based on an evaluation of the natural resource potential.

Such policy planning can set the stage for program implementation in

accordance with a region's potential. Applied research and manage-

ment programs should be developed based on preserving natural







19 -


resources and intensifying their rational use. The intensified

use of scarce natural resources in the steeplands will have to be

approached cautiously due to the delicacy of existing ecosystems.

It is hoped that this land classification scheme can provide

planners and decision-makers with a better understanding of the

importance of their hill and upland areas and can help to identify

the major issues that must be addressed in formulating policies and

programs for agricultural development and resource management in

hill and highland Latin America.











LAND SYSTEMS OF HILL AND HIGHLAND TROPICAL AMERICA


Footnote of Acknowledgement



*This project was sponsored by the Agricultural Science Division of

The Rockefeller Foundation and the Center for Latin American Studies

of the University of Florida. Preliminary results were presented in

Spanish at the "Seminario Internacional Sobre Produccion Agropecuaria

y Forestal en Zonas de Ladera de America Tropical," held in Turrialba,

Costa Rica, during December 1-5, 1980. This conference was co-hosted

by the Tropical Center for Agronomic Research and Teaching (CATIE) and

The Rockefeller Foundation.






LAND SYSTEMS OF HILL AND HIGHLAND TROPICAL AMERICA


Footnotes



1 J. Posner and M. McPherson, "Las Zonas de Ladera de Mejico,

Centro America, los pauses Andinos y el Caribe:' Situacion Actual

y Perspectivos para el ano 2000." M. Valderrama, "Contribucion

de la Agricultura de Ladera de la Region Andina en la Economia

Nacional," both papers presented at Seminario Internacional

Sobre la Produccion Agropecuaria y Forestal en Zonas de Ladera

de America Tropical (1981) in press. L. Wilson, "Some General

Problems of Soil Erosion of Disturbed Lands in the Caribbean"

Hill Lands (Morgantown, Va.: University of West Virginia

Press, 1976, 457-464).


2 K. J. Beek, Land Evaluation for Agricultural Development,

Publication No. 23 (Wageningen, The Netherlands: International

Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement, 1978).


3 C. V. Plath, Uso Potencial de la Tierra Parte 1-6:El Salvador,

Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Report

No. At-2234 (Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization, 1967).


4 B. Dudal, "Land Resources for Agricultural Development," Eleventh

International Soil Science Society Congress (Edmonton, Canada:

University of Alberta, 1978), pp. 313-340.


5 T. T. Cochrane et al. An Explanatory Manual for CIAT's Computerized

Land Resource Study of Tropical America (Cali, Colombia: Centro

International de Agricultura Tropical, 1979).







-2-


6 J. A. Tosi, Una Clasificacion y Metodologia para la Determinacion

y Levantamiento de Mapas de la Capacidad de Uso Mayor de la Tierra en

Colombia, Project UNDP/SF-FAO COL 16 (Medellin, Colombia: Universidad

Nacional, 1978).


7 H. A. Wood, "A Classification of Tropical Agricultural Land Use for

Development Planning; Canadian Geographer, Vol. 16, No. 3 (1972),

pp. 249-55.


8 Food and Agricultural Organization and United Nations Educational,

Scientific and Cultural Organization, World Soils Map, Volumes 1,3,4

(Paris, France: UNESCO, 1974).


9 L. Holdridge, Ecologia Basada en Zonas de Vida, Libros y Materiales

Educativos No. 34 (San Jose, Costa Rica: Instituto Interamericano

de Ciencias Agricolas, 1979).


10 The simplification of the "Life Zone" triangle was based on discussions

with L. Holdridge, J. Tosi and J. Ewel. The following life zone maps

were used as a basis for compilation purposes:

J. J. Ewel, Mapa Ecologico de Venezuela, 1:2,000,000 (Caracas: Ministerio

de Agriculture y Crna, 1965); J. J. Ewel and J. L. Whitmore, Ecological

Life Zones of Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands, 1:250,000

(Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico: United States Department of Agriculture,

Forest Service, 1973); K. M. Gray, Life Zones of Jamaica, 1:500,000

(Kingston, Jamaica: United Nations Development Programme Forestry Project,

1969); Organization of American States, Haiti; Mapa Ecol6gico, Anexo de

la Mision de Asistencia Tecnica Integrada, 1:500,000 (Washington:






-3-


Pan American Union, 1972); J. A. Tosi, Mapa Ecologico de Bolivia,

1:1,000,000 (La Paz, Bolivia: Ministerio de Asuntos Compesinos y

Agropecuarios 1975); J. A. Tosi, Mapa Ecologico de Panama, 1:500,000

(Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization, 1971); J. A.

Tosi, Mapa Ecologico de Costa Rica, 1:750,000 (San Jose, Costa

Rica: Centro Cient5fico Tropical, 1969); J. A. Tosi, et al.,

Croquis Ecologico del Ecuador, 1:1,000,000 (Quito, Ecuador:

Ministerio de Agricultura, Direccion General de Bosques, 1963);

J. A. Tosi, Mapa Ecologico de Colombia, 1:1,000,000 (Bogota,

Colombia: Instituto Geografico Agustin Codazzi, 1962); J. A.

Tosi, Mapa Ecologico del Peru, 1:1,000,000 (Lima, Peru: Instituto

Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas, 1957); Organization of

American States, Mapa de Zonas de Vida, Anexo del Reconocimiento

y Evaluacion de los Recursos Naturales de la Republica Dominicana,

1:250,000 (Washington: Pan American Union, 1967).


11 Food and Agricultural Organization and United Nations Educational,

Scientific, and Cultural Organization, op. cit., footnote 8.


12 C. Christian, "The Concept of Land Limit and Land Systems," Proceedings

of the Ninth Pacific Science Congress, Vol. 20 (1958), pp. 74-81.


13 J. A. Tosi, Mapa Ecologico de Panami, 1:500,000 op. cit. footnote 10.


14 J. A. Tosi, 1978, op. cit., footnote 6, Annex A fig. 1.


15 R. Daubenmire, "Some Ecological Consequences of Converting Forest to

Savanna in Northwestern Costa Rica," Tropical Ecology, Vol. 13 (1972),

pp. 31-51.







-4-


16 J. A. Tosi, 1978, op. cit. footnote 6, Annex A fig. 1.

17 Most of the hill areas have slopes well above the minimum 8 percent.

Dudal (op. cit., p. 329) estimates that two-thirds of the "B"

slopes are not mechanizable and under traditional farming methods

fully one-third would be non-arable. Eighty-five percent of the

"C" slopes are considered non-arable; the remaining 15 percent

are treated as "B" slopes. Also included is the relatively small

area of intermontane valleys and highland plateaus, which is

mapped "A" slopes.


18 It is important to note that this soil classification scheme places

no emphasis on erosion hazard and little weight on specific nutrient

problems (e.g., phosphorus fixation on volcanic soils). The supposi-

tion is that if remedial actions are economically justified, small

farmers will adopt the necessary recommendations. As a result, the

tabulation indicates as good soils the amount of land that does not

have serious soil chemistry or structural problems.










LAND SYSTEMS OF HILL AND HIGHLAND TROPICAL AMERICA


Diagram for the Classification of World Life
Zones according to the Holdridge System


Figure 1.






LAND SYSTEMS OF HILL AND HIGHLAND TROPICAL AMERICA


Figure 1.


Diagram for the Classification
the Holdridge Systema


of World Life Zones According to


LATITUDINAL

REGIONS


POLAR


SUBPOLAR


"p.
Ca
ao- ------------------I.. --
IL\ I_1" -

t ALPINE
/ 9- -I
I/- -...----.-...-. .- --- "I


OOREAL

- S---- ------------

COOL TEMPECATE

-I2--------------

WARM TEMPERATE

SUBTROPICAL
24---- ------------

TROPICAL Dv D

4 /
fe


<- -/- -- -- -y ---^ ~/ "- ^f- -T^-- ~- --~^" -
S oI..., \.,' Tho. Vfi Wet
S Scrub \ Woodland \I rFoag l For
I,'\ \ /'
/ / '// // //


", 3. UBALPINE --
',/_ \ -',
'/ .--


--
/ ON-TANE --;N



LOWER MONTANE --

Forl / PRforMONTANE
-------"i--------2--
a' n


f'/'/'/


\, ....\ V, \\\\\\\\\'c x,x'\'\,\\ ,,x,, \ \ ^W"x,"""'""""^"^^ "'"^Y\' V ''\'".,,",,,,....".....'"\
6400 3200 1600 000 400 too00 00 0.50 02l O0
\SEMIPARCED \ SUPERARID \ PERAIID \ ARID \ SEMIARID \ SuHUMID \ HUMID \ PEHUUID \5UPERHUMIO

HUMIDITY PROVINCES


a Source, Holdridge op. cit. footnote 9,Figure 1















Land Systems of Hill and Highland Tropical America



TABLE 1. Components of the Land Classification Scheme

TABLE 2. Land System Matrix

TABLE 3. Area in Steeplands and Distribution of Life Zones

TABLE 4. Distribution of Soils

TABLE 5. Description of Land Systens

TABLE 6. Distribution of Steeplands by Land Systems





LAND SYSTEMS OF HILL AND HIGHLAND TROPICAL AMERICA


Table 1 Components of the Land Classification Scheme


Component


Symbol Name


(1)

Topography


Description


(3)

flatlands

dissected areas

steep-sloped areas


(4)

0-8 percent slope

8-30 percent slope

above 30 percent slope


I very dry






II tropical moist,

seasonally dry

(dry tropical forest)


III tropical moist

(moist tropical

forest)


IV premontane moist








V cool moist


biotemp above 60C
PET
ppt. above 2




biotemp above 24 C
-PET
-ff between 1 and 2




biotemp above 240C
PET
pp-n between 1 and .5



o
biotemp less than 24 C

but no killing frosts occur
PET
ppt between 2 and .5




biotemp ranges between approxi-

mately 18 C (occasional frost line)

and 60C (treeline)
PET
pptn between 2 and .5


cont....


Climate


. o








VI very wet






VII andean


mountain

thin

good, deep soil

poor, deep soil


biotemp greater than 60C
PET
pptn less than .5



biotaep below 60C


topsoil less than 10 cm deep

topsoil between 10-50 an deep

good topsoil more than 100 cm deep

poor topsoil more than 100 cm deep


a. Abbreviations:


biotemp (biotemperature): average yearly temperature

considering taTperatures above 300C as 300 and below

0C as 00 in computations of daily averages.


PET (potential evapotranspiration): the yearly amount of

water (mn) that would be transferred to the atmosphere

under continuously ideal conditions of soil moisture

content and healthy vegetative growth.


pptn (precipitation): yearly average rainfall (mn).


Table -1


Soils





LAND SYSTEMS OF HILL AND HIGHLAND TROPICAL AMERICA


Table 2 Land System Matrix


Tropical

Moist/Sea-

sonally Tropical Premontane Cool.

Very Wet Very Dry Andean Dry Moist Moist Moist



Climate VI I VII II III IV V

Slope ABC ABC ABC ABC ABC ABC ABC


Soils


1 XWW X RdRd Ra Ra Ra X W W X W W W W W WWW

2 X W W XRd Rd Ra Ra Ra X FP W X FPW FPFPW FP FP W

3a X CS CS X Rd Rd Ra Ra Ra X CS CS X CS CS CS CS CS CS CS CS

3b X W W X Rd Rd Ra Ra Ra X FPW X FP W FP FP W FP FP W


X = flat terrain outside study region

W = protection management

R range management

d dry range includes areas of (A) slope when high elevation range (e.g.,

Bolivian highlands)

a Andean range

FP = forest and pasture

CS = cropping systems (perennial crops, annual crops, livestock)

CSII = tropical annual crops

CSIII = tropical perennial crops

CSIV = premontane crops,especially coffee

CSV = cool season crops,especially small grains and potatoes

CSVI = wet cropping zone,especially tree crops





LAND SYSTEMS OF HILL AND HIGHLAND TROPICAL AMERICA


Table 3 Area in Steeplands, and Distribution of Life Zones


II III
Tropical


V VI VII Total area
in steep


moist sea- Tropical Premontane Cool Very slopes and
Country Very dry sonally dry Moist Moist Moist Wet Andean highlands
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)
I.Central
America

Guatneala km2-- 945 43,560 13,590 18,648 12,870 89,613
% 0 1 49 15 21 14 0

El
Salvador km2-- 12,603 7,155 19,758
% 0 64 0 36 0 0 0

Honduras km2- 11,790 22,095 37,460 3,555 17,550 -- 92,450
% 0 13 24 40 4 19 0

Nicaragua km24,500 14,175 29,160 32,902 -- 25,020 -- 105,757
% 4 13 28 31 0 24 0

Costa Rica kn2- 1,350 5,130 3,555 135 26,873 180 37,233
% 0 3 14 10 <.01 73 <.01

Panama km2- 2,115 19,350 2,385 -- 34,715 -- 58,565
% 0 4 33 4 0 59 0

TOTAL an24,500 42,978 119,295 97,047 22,338 117,028 180 403,366
% 1 11 30 24 5 29 < .01

II. Caribbean


Daminican km2- ---- 13,680 -- 13,950 27,630
Republic % 0 0 0 50 0 50 0

Haiti km2- -- 13,860 1,215 6,885 -- 21,960
% 0 0 0 63 6 31 0

Jamaica km2 270 2,957 1,800 2,520 -- 1,620 -- 9,167
% 3 32 20 27 0 18 0

Puerto km2- 3,990 -- 1,890 5,880
Rico % 0 0 0 68 0 32 0

TOTAL km2 270 2,957 1,800 34,050 1,215 24,345 64,637
% <.01 5 3 53 2 37 0

III.South America


Venezuela km2 31,950 72,315 115,565 43,585 4,140 228,480 1,755 497,790
% 6 15 24 9 0 46 6.01


cont...





-2-


Colombia km25,440 74,475
% 1 15

Ecuador km24,320 7,280
% 3 4

Peru km2119,20 18,810
% 18 3

Bolivia km2101975 59,715
% 25 14

TOTAL km2269,05 232,595
% 12 10

IV. Total
in study km2273,75 278,530
area % 10 11

aAll percentages represent the
planimeter to the total study


143,481 27,045 27,135 205,055
29 6 6 42

25,995 10,585 37,525 81,629
15 6 21 46

41,355 40,005 126,993 137,205
6 6 20 21

65,070 -- 84,985 57,960
15 0 19 13

391,466 121,220 280,778 710,329
17 5 13 32


512,561 252,317 304,331 851,702
19 9 11 31

relation of the actual area in kmn2
area (col.9).


Table 3


5,220 487,851
1

9,450 176,784
5

166,635 650,523
26

62,820 438,525
17

245,880 2,251,473
11


246,060 2,719,476
9

measured by


L
L


L










L


,







LAND SYSTEMS OF HILL AND HIGHLAND TROPICAL AMERICA


Table 4 Distribution of Soils


Good, Deep Poor, Deep Thin Mountain
Soils Soils Soils Soils

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

I Central America

Guatemala km 31,680 12,240 45,513
% 35 14 51

EL Salvador km2 15,057 2,361 2,340
% 76 12 12

Honduras km 28,640 19,125 44,685
% 31 21 48

Nicaragua km 21,015 58,732 26,009
% 20 56 24

Costa Rica km2 18,540 8,028 10,665
X 50 21 29

Panama km2 21,465 29,720 7,380
% 37 51 12

Total km2 136,397 130,206 136,592
% 34 32 34


II Caribbean

Dominican Rep. km2 1,440 1,530 23,085 1,575
Z 5 6 84 5

Haiti km2 3,105 18,855
% 14 86

Jamaica km2 4,892 180 2,610 1,485
X 53 2 29 16

Puerto Rico km 4,710 1,170
% 80 20

Total km2 14,147 2,880 44,550 3,060
% 22 4 71 5


III South America

Venezuela km 101,610 308,520 31,050-. 56,610
% 21 62 6 11

Colombia km2 66,240 146,841 133,560 141,210
% 14 30 27 29

Ecuador km 55,790 55,204 65,790
S 32 31 37
2
Peru km 101,520 78,753 473,220
% 15 12 73

Bolivia km2 184,860 57,600 224,685
% 40 12 48
2
Total km 510,020 646,918 164,610 961,515
x 22 28 7 42


IV Study Area km 660,564 780,004 345,752 964,575
% 24 28 13 35





LAND SYSTEMS OF HILL AND HIGHLAND TROPICAL AMERICA

Table 5 Description of Land Systems


Land System


Physical Description Location


Land Use


Erosion Hazard


Percent
of Hills
and High-
land Area


Protection

Management

(W)


Steepest slopes ()30

percent), thin or

poor soils; areas

with high rainfall,

moderate slopes (8-

30 percent) and thin

or poor soils


Atlantic Pr minant- mval of the

foothills y forest, ativeveegeta-

in Central ut logging ion causes dis-

America, ad coloni- .sterous results

eastern azation are due to high per-
i
western destroying centage of rain-

foothills natural fall transformed:

of the cover. into surface

northern runoff.

Andes,

eastern

foothills

Sof central

Andes.


Dry Range

Management

(Rd)


Evapotranspiration

rmre than twice

rainfall, cropping

alrmst impossible

without irrigation


Along the

Pacific

foothills

of Peruvi-

San Andes,

part of

Bolivian

highlands

(Mexico

(excluded)


extensive Overgrazing

grazing causes serious

land held erosion during

cainunally; few,. intensive

oats, sheep,downpours

Cattle pre-

daminate

!:


10















cont...










Andean

Range

Management

(Ra)


Forest and

Pasture

(FP)


Tropical

Annual

Crops

(CSI )


Mean annual biotemp-
o
eratures below 6 C.;

areas above timber

line.


Climate and slopes

(<30 percent) ade-

quate for annual

cropping; thin or

poor soils preclude

this option


-2-

High puna -

and paramo grazing by

of Ecuador, ameloid

Peru and species

Bolivia (llama,al-

paca) and

sheep.


Northern

Central

: America,

Hispanola

SColrobia

Sand Vene-

zuela


At higher

,elevations

-land under

pine trees;

in humid

tropics

pasture

advancing

rapidly


Biotemperatures Gulf of Sorghum,

above 240C, a marked Fonseca on orn, sesame

dry season often 4 ta the Pacif- and some

6 months long; soils ic coast beans in

relatively good and of Central mainland

deep; due to increas-. America tropical

ing population pres- (especial- America;

sure cropping often ly El Sal- these

takes place on great- vador) ,lee-crops plus

er than 30 percent ward side yams in the

slopes i of JamaicaCaribbean;

Caribbean livstock is

'foothills important.

of Venezu-


-. i..-;,.

Lauses serious

erosion.


asture and for-

est protect soil;

overgrazing or

slash-and-burn

agriculture

results in

'serious erosion


Climatically

areas most suited

'for annual crop-

ping; severe ero-

sion hazards exist:

since rainfall

gins when 4

round cover is

t a minimum.


Table 5 cont..

















Biotemperatures

above 240C; rainfall

between-one-two time

evapatranspixation,

and no conth re-

ceives generally

less than. .0-l00m

of rainfall; soils

are relatively good

and deep therefore

cropping often takes

place on slopes

above 30 percent.


-3-

ela and

lower in-

ter-Andean

valleys of

Colombia


coastal

hills of

Ecuador


erenna ood ground

tree crops cover offers gooc

root protection on

ops (cas- steep slopes;

sava,yam, 'annual crops pro-j

sweet po- voke serious soil

itato); losses when pro- 3

livestock vision is not

important made for the

evacuation of

excess runoff.


Premontane

Crops

(CSIy)


Biotemperatures
o
cooler than 24 C but:

occasional frosts do'

not occur; rainfall

varies between one-

half to twice evapo-

transpiration; soils

relatively good and

deep so cropping


Lower 'Sorghmn, Drier premontane

slopes of corn and zones have se-

mountains beans in vere erosion

in tropi- !drier problems while

cal Amer- zones; cof- more humid areas 3

ica impor- fee, citrus have better

tant in and sugar- ground cover

Caribbean cane in throughout

where wetter .year. Table 5 cont...


. I a


Tropical

Perennial

Crops

(CSIII)





Small

areas on

Atlantic

side of

the con-

tinental

divide in

Central

America;

Pacific

foothills

in Guat-

emala and

Panama;





(e.g.,coffee, sugar-

cane) take place on

slopes above 30 per-

cent.


4


Occasional frosts

occur near timber

line; rainfall be-

tween one-half and

twice evapotran-

spiration; soils

relatively good and

due to high popula-

tion densities,

cropping takes place

on slopes above 30

percent.


er north-

ern lati-

tude

results in

cooler

tempera-

tures, even

near sea

level.


Higher

slopes and

highland

valleys,

important

in Guate-

mala,

Colombia,

SEcuador,

Peru and

Bolivia.


Slive-

stock impor-

tant.


Small Though drier

,corn,areas have

and terraces, erosion

t r crops.tan be a hazard

ny areas where conserva-

have terra- tion structures 3

!ces and ao not exist;

:sane irri- more humid areas

gation is have better crop

present; cover due to re-

ilivestock ay cropping

,is impor- systems.

:tant.


Table 5 cont...


Cool

Season

Crops

(CSy)




-5-


Wet

Cropping

Area

(CSVi)


Rainfall more than

twice evapotranspir-

ation but deep, rich

soils make agricul-

ture possible.





I






i


Humid

Pacific

foothi

of Gua

mala,

Costa

and

Panama


Coffee, perennial crops

-c pasture and hold soil in

.lls sugarcane; place; disaster-

ite- some annual ous results

cropping occur when

Rica does take annual cropping

place. takes place.



































Table 5






Table 5





LAND SYSTEMS OF HILL AND HIGHLAND TROPICAL AMERICA




Table 6 Distribution of Steeplands by Land System





Tropical Wet
Forest Tropical Peren- Pre- Cool Crop-
I. Central Protection Range and Annual nial montane Season ping
America Management Dry Andean Pasture Crops Crops Crops Crops Zone

km2 7,851 54,623 10,035 4,995 7,159 4,950
Guatemala % 9 0 0 61 0 11 6 8 5

km2 812 3,825 10,281 4,840 -
El Salvador % 4 0 0 19 52 0 25 0 0

km2 14,400 53,030 9,270 2,025 7,830 990 4,905
Honduras % 16 0 0 58 10 2 8 1 5

km2 29,460 4,500 51,997 10,485 5,490 1,530 2,295
Nicaragua % 28 4 0 49 10 5 2 0 2

km2 13,958 180 4,905 3,150 2,115 12,915
Costa Rica % 37 0 <1 13 0 8 6 0 35

km2 26,525 11,160 2,205 8,730 2,475 7,470
Panama % 45 0 0 19 4 15 4 0 13

km2 93,006 4,500 180 179,540 32,241 29,430 23,785 8,149 32,535
TOTAL % 23 1 (1 45 8 7 6 2 8

II. Caribbean

Dcminican km2 14,220 11,475 1,845 90
Republic % 51 0 0 42 0 0 7 0 (1

km2 6,165 11,115 3,735 405 540
Haiti % 28 0 0 51 0 0 17 2 2

km2 1,800 270 2,115 2,147 630 1,755 450
Jamaica % 20 3 0 23 23 2 19 0 5

km2 1,080 300 3,420 1,080
Puerto Rico % 19 0 0 5 0 0 58 0 18

km2 23,265 270 25,005 2,147 630 10,755 405 2,160
Total % 36 (1 39 3 1 15 1 3

III. South America

km2 273,015 31,950 1,755 132,525 16,830 16,065 19,575 225 5,850
Venezuela % 54 6 <1 27 4 3 4 <1 1












Colaobia


Ecuador


Peru


Bolivia


Total

Study Area
Totals


km2 248,359
% 52

km2 113,019
% 64

km2 293,313
% 45

km2 179,485
% 41

km21,107,191
% 53

an21,223,462
% 45


5,440
1

4,320
2

119,520
18

107,975
24

269,205
12

273,975
10


5,287
1

9,495
5

166,635
26

62,820
14

245,992
11

246,172
9


171,666
35

3,285
2

4,500
1

16,155
4

328,131
15

532,676
20


16,965
3

4,185
2


0

35,640
8

73,620
3

108,008
4


7,335
1

16,875
-10

8,190
1

14,670
3

63,135
3

93,195
3


9,990
2

4,140
2

7,695
1


0

41,400
2

75,940
3


8,207
2

8,415
5

30,780
5

20,115
5

67,562
3

76,116
3


14,602
3

13,050
8

19,890
3

1,665
1

55,057
2

89,752
3


Table 6


b


I




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