• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 "How do I get started with...
 "Why no-till?
 "Where can I use no-till?"
 "What type of seedbed can...
 "Which varieties are best?"
 "Will suface fertilization do the...
 "What kind of planter do I...
 "What is a contact herbicide?"
 "Are regular herbicides still...
 "Can I keep insects under...
 "How critical is spraying?"
 "What about double-cropping?"
 "Is no-till really the way of the...






Title: The common sense of no till
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072230/00001
 Material Information
Title: The common sense of no till
Physical Description: 12 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Chevron Chemical Company
Publisher: Chevron Chemical Company (Ortho)
Place of Publication: San Francisco
Publication Date: 1979
 Subjects
Subject: No-tillage   ( lcsh )
Herbicides   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "Project number 8016P-19. 10/79"--P.4 of cover.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072230
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 76823793

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    "How do I get started with no-till?"
        Page 2
    "Why no-till?
        Page 2
        Page 3
    "Where can I use no-till?"
        Page 4
    "What type of seedbed can I use?"
        Page 4
    "Which varieties are best?"
        Page 5
    "Will suface fertilization do the job?"
        Page 6
    "What kind of planter do I need?"
        Page 7
    "What is a contact herbicide?"
        Page 8
    "Are regular herbicides still needed?"
        Page 9
    "Can I keep insects under control?"
        Page 10
    "How critical is spraying?"
        Page 10
    "What about double-cropping?"
        Page 11
    "Is no-till really the way of the future?"
        Page 12
Full Text

















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"How do I get started with no-till?"


OKAY... so you've decided to give no-till
farming a try. That's great, but what do
you do first? How do you get started?
In a way, the hardest part is already
behind you. It's not an easy decision to
depart from the traditional way of doing
things. Especially if you're among the first
to change.
But even if you're the first in your area
to try planting without tillage, you're not
alone. Thousands of farmers have proven
no-till to themselves. And thousands more
are beginning to realize just what you came
to realize, that "there's got to be a better
way" than riding your tractor back and


forth over your land to prepare an over-
worked pulverized seedbed.
Obviously, you've read a lot about no-
till, or have seen some no-till crops, or you
wouldn't have decided to try it. So this
publication isn't intended to sell you on
the idea. Rather, it's designed to take you
step by step through your first no-till
experiences... what you need, how you
use it and what you can expect.
The first thing you need is conviction in
your belief that there is a better way. To
help keep you from sliding backward to-
ward the plow, let's review the reasons why
you've decided to give no-till a try.


"Why no-till?"


YOU'VE PROBABLY HEARD all the ad-
vantages before .that no-till can and
does save fuel, save soil, save labor, save
water, save machinery costs, let you farm
most land-even hilly land-and much
more. Chances are, one or two of the above
benefits are most important to you.
But you do have to approach things
somewhat differently to succeed with no-
tillage. When farming with one trip across a
field, you don't get the opportunity to
"bury" your mistakes like you do with a
moldboard plow, or even a chisel plow or
disc.
You have to rely completely on herbi-
cides for weed control in most instances.
You have to know what weeds you have


...and which type herbicides to use to
control them.
While no-tillage refers to a wide variety
of crop production systems using reduced
or limited amounts of tillage, it basically
boils down to substituting herbicide for
horsepower.
To confirm your decision to try no-
tillage, compare these advantages with the
way you farm now:
No-till saves water and soil. With
no-tillage, you can expect 80% to 90% less
runoff of water and an even greater reduc-
tion in soil erosion. Plus, you'll get only
half the usual direct evaporation losses
from your fields with no-till.
The result is 20% to 25% more water


"There's got
to be a
better way"


Hard part
behind you


Farm more
land


Save soil
























"How do I get started with no-till?"


OKAY... so you've decided to give no-till
farming a try. That's great, but what do
you do first? How do you get started?
In a way, the hardest part is already
behind you. It's not an easy decision to
depart from the traditional way of doing
things. Especially if you're among the first
to change.
But even if you're the first in your area
to try planting without tillage, you're not
alone. Thousands of farmers have proven
no-till to themselves. And thousands more
are beginning to realize just what you came
to realize, that "there's got to be a better
way" than riding your tractor back and


forth over your land to prepare an over-
worked pulverized seedbed.
Obviously, you've read a lot about no-
till, or have seen some no-till crops, or you
wouldn't have decided to try it. So this
publication isn't intended to sell you on
the idea. Rather, it's designed to take you
step by step through your first no-till
experiences... what you need, how you
use it and what you can expect.
The first thing you need is conviction in
your belief that there is a better way. To
help keep you from sliding backward to-
ward the plow, let's review the reasons why
you've decided to give no-till a try.


"Why no-till?"


YOU'VE PROBABLY HEARD all the ad-
vantages before .that no-till can and
does save fuel, save soil, save labor, save
water, save machinery costs, let you farm
most land-even hilly land-and much
more. Chances are, one or two of the above
benefits are most important to you.
But you do have to approach things
somewhat differently to succeed with no-
tillage. When farming with one trip across a
field, you don't get the opportunity to
"bury" your mistakes like you do with a
moldboard plow, or even a chisel plow or
disc.
You have to rely completely on herbi-
cides for weed control in most instances.
You have to know what weeds you have


...and which type herbicides to use to
control them.
While no-tillage refers to a wide variety
of crop production systems using reduced
or limited amounts of tillage, it basically
boils down to substituting herbicide for
horsepower.
To confirm your decision to try no-
tillage, compare these advantages with the
way you farm now:
No-till saves water and soil. With
no-tillage, you can expect 80% to 90% less
runoff of water and an even greater reduc-
tion in soil erosion. Plus, you'll get only
half the usual direct evaporation losses
from your fields with no-till.
The result is 20% to 25% more water


"There's got
to be a
better way"


Hard part
behind you


Farm more
land


Save soil






available for crop growth and higher yields.
Many Soil Conservation Service workers
say no-till can also replace contour farming,
terraces and strip cropping in their areas ...
and do the same erosion control job much
more cheaply.
In many areas of the country, this
Save water savings of available moisture can be turned
into higher crop yields with use of no-till.
Work at Virginia Polytechnic Institute, for
example, shows a 20.5% yield boost with
no-till corn over conventional corn.
No-till can reduce the number of field
operations along with labor and machinery
requirements. Instead of making a half
dozen trips across your fields, you may
make as few as two or three with no-till-
just planting, fertilizing and harvesting.
No-till lets you expand without adding
more labor or machinery. If you had 792
Save labor hours of labor available, you could plant
400 acres of conventionally-tilled corn. But
with 792 hours of labor, you could handle
1,015 acres of corn planted via no-tillage.
With fuel getting more scarce and
higher priced, no-till really shines. Univ. of
Nebraska data shows it takes 5.33 gal. of
Save fuel diesel fuel to plant an acre of convention-
ally-tilled corn. This can be reduced to only
.90 gal. per acre by switching to no-till.
So on 400 acres of corn, you save 1,772
gal. of diesel fuel by planting via no-tillage.
With high fuel prices, that really adds up. At
90d per gal. for diesel fuel, you would save
$1,594.80 with 400 acres.

400 ACRES OF CORN


Labor


Conventional
No-till
Savings


Fuel


792 hours 2,132 gal.
312 360
480 ($1,440) 1,772 ($886)


792 hours labor = 1,015 acres no-till corn


No-till is ideally suited to the young
farmer just getting started or any farmer
needing to replace a major share of his farm
machinery. With no-till, you can trim your
machinery investment by around 40%.
You simply do not need equipment as big
or as much equipment to farm the no-till
way.
Instead of a barn full of equipment, all
you need is a medium size tractor, planter,
sprayer and combine and you're in bus-
iness. You can forget about the moldboard
plow, huge horsepower tractor, disc, drag,
chisel plow, cultivator, and other equipment.
You'll also enjoy better flotation of
planting and harvesting equipment with
no-till. The protective mulch on the surface
lets you plant earlier and harvest earlier
when wet conditions normally keep many
conventional tillage farmers out of the
field. No-till also cuts down compaction.
In areas where double-cropping is
practical, double-cropping with no-till
opens up new profit horizons. Planting
begins as the first crop is harvested-the
extra couple of weeks this gives you often
means the difference between making a
second crop or not before cold weather
arrives. The profit potential with double-
cropping is limited only by your imagina-
tion and your location.
No-till will let you farm more inten-
sively. Some of your sloping land where
erosion is a problem can be returned to
effective row crop production with no-till.
In summary, no-till has a number of
advantages for farmers all over the country.
You'll find more benefits than we have
listed here. While it takes a little extra man-
agement to make it work, the move to less
and less tillage definitely is gaining momen-
tum. USDA officials say less than 7% of all
U.S. row crops will be planted with conven-
tional tillage by the year 2010. (There's more
on this on the back of this publication.)


Save
machinery

























Plus much
more








"Where can I use no-till?"


No-tillage is working on most types of
soil found throughout the country.


Grow However, it does work best on soils with
any crop good drainage, even though a few farmers
turn out good yields from fields suffering
from drainage problems. As a rule of
thumb, if the soil you select is productive
with tillage, it will be productive without
tillage
"The surface has just been scratched as
far as no-tillage potential in Ohio is con-
cerned," says Dr. G. B. Triplett, Jr., agron-
omist at the Ohio Agricultural Research
and Development Center at Wooster, Ohio.


"No-tillage, when properly performed, has
the highest yield potential of any tillage
choice on some soils. No-tillage planting is
also possible whenever the soil is dry enough
to plow, a significant factor in years with
wet springs."
Moderately well to excessively well
drained, these silt loam, loam, sandy loam
or fine loamy sand surface textured soils
are relatively low in organic matter. They
include glaciated, residual and terraced
soils.
Proper drainage is important. Ohio re-
searchers say the amount of soil drainage is
one of the most important factors in
deciding whether to no-till or not. You
must consider both surface drainage and
internal soil drainage.
"On well drained and moderately well
drained soils, no-tillage is equal to conven-
tional tillage for most cropping sequences
and decidedly better following sod," says
Triplett. "Mulch cover, however, must be
at a satisfactory level for this to apply.
"On poorly drained soils, yields of no-
tillage corn following crops other than corn
have generally been equal to corn planted
in fall or winter plowed soil."
Well drained soils generally require a
mulch covering to provide needed erosion
control. The mulch also helps reduce evap-
oration from the soil surface.


"What type of seedbed can I use?"


SINCE no-till crops can be planted into a
wide variety of different seedbeds, you
need to select the kind of seedbeds that are
best for your particular farming situation.
No-till corn, sorghum and other crops
can be planted into established sod, an
annual cover crop seeded the previous fall
or into old crop residue such as corn stalks,
sorghum stalks, grain stubble or soybean
stubble. Each type of crop cover has its
own advantages and disadvantages.


Another popular seedbed is used when
double-cropping soybeans, grain sorghum,
short season corn, millet or other crops
into small grain stubble. The grain can be
harvested in June and the second crop
planted the same day. Double-cropping is
generally successful as far north as the
latitude of Springfield, Ill.
The stubble-plant system is ideal for
farmers short on labor and equipment in
the spring. It works well when wet weather


Well
drained
land best










Mulch is
critical


Four basic
seedbeds


~cr,








"Where can I use no-till?"


No-tillage is working on most types of
soil found throughout the country.


Grow However, it does work best on soils with
any crop good drainage, even though a few farmers
turn out good yields from fields suffering
from drainage problems. As a rule of
thumb, if the soil you select is productive
with tillage, it will be productive without
tillage
"The surface has just been scratched as
far as no-tillage potential in Ohio is con-
cerned," says Dr. G. B. Triplett, Jr., agron-
omist at the Ohio Agricultural Research
and Development Center at Wooster, Ohio.


"No-tillage, when properly performed, has
the highest yield potential of any tillage
choice on some soils. No-tillage planting is
also possible whenever the soil is dry enough
to plow, a significant factor in years with
wet springs."
Moderately well to excessively well
drained, these silt loam, loam, sandy loam
or fine loamy sand surface textured soils
are relatively low in organic matter. They
include glaciated, residual and terraced
soils.
Proper drainage is important. Ohio re-
searchers say the amount of soil drainage is
one of the most important factors in
deciding whether to no-till or not. You
must consider both surface drainage and
internal soil drainage.
"On well drained and moderately well
drained soils, no-tillage is equal to conven-
tional tillage for most cropping sequences
and decidedly better following sod," says
Triplett. "Mulch cover, however, must be
at a satisfactory level for this to apply.
"On poorly drained soils, yields of no-
tillage corn following crops other than corn
have generally been equal to corn planted
in fall or winter plowed soil."
Well drained soils generally require a
mulch covering to provide needed erosion
control. The mulch also helps reduce evap-
oration from the soil surface.


"What type of seedbed can I use?"


SINCE no-till crops can be planted into a
wide variety of different seedbeds, you
need to select the kind of seedbeds that are
best for your particular farming situation.
No-till corn, sorghum and other crops
can be planted into established sod, an
annual cover crop seeded the previous fall
or into old crop residue such as corn stalks,
sorghum stalks, grain stubble or soybean
stubble. Each type of crop cover has its
own advantages and disadvantages.


Another popular seedbed is used when
double-cropping soybeans, grain sorghum,
short season corn, millet or other crops
into small grain stubble. The grain can be
harvested in June and the second crop
planted the same day. Double-cropping is
generally successful as far north as the
latitude of Springfield, Ill.
The stubble-plant system is ideal for
farmers short on labor and equipment in
the spring. It works well when wet weather


Well
drained
land best










Mulch is
critical


Four basic
seedbeds


~cr,



























makes tillage impossible at planting time.
While it will work on many different
types of soils, it has been used with
soybeans grown on the buckshot soils
found in the Mississippi Delta states.
With this system, the previous crop
stubble is left undisturbed. You plant with


a minimum of soil disturbance and spray off
the weeds with a mixture of ORTHO Paraquat
CL and residual herbicides registered for that
crop before the crop emerges.
The stale seedbed system allows the
weeds to come up considerably ahead of
planting. Then the weeds are sprayed off
with Paraquat before the crop emerges.
This system can save you valuable time
at planting. It is easier on your available
labor, equipment and timing since you can
till in the off-season. You simply work the
fields early and let the weeds grow back.
Then you spray them off with Paraquat
at planting time.
The result is no delays at planting while
seedbeds are being tilled and no waiting for
rain to replace soil moisture lost by tillage.
These are the basic types of different
seedbeds you can try with the various
forms of no-tillage or minimum tillage.
One word of caution: Avoid no-tilling in
fields where perennial weeds such as John-
songrass, Dallisgrass and Bermudagrass are
problems. These difficult-to-control perennial
weeds frequently re-grow too rapidly to allow
success with no-tillage.


"Which varieties are best?"


WHILE NO-TILLAGE is much like conven-
tional crop production, it's different
enough that some change in variety selec-
tion usually pays off.
Even though selection of corn hybrids is
still mainly the same "pick and choose"
task you go through with conventional -i
tillage planting, some no-tillers feel it is
essential to pay more attention to a few
special factors.
These growers suggest that you pay more
attention to cold tolerance, resistance to
leaf diseases, germination, seedling vigor
and standability. Good, uniform emergence
is also valuable in corn planted via no-
tillage. Yet some seed company agron-
omists believe the best hybrids under con-


ventional tillage are also likely to be best
with no-tillage.


This is usually necessary to end up with
your desired stand at harvest time.
Most early corn varieties are especially


No delays
at planting


Rely on
your plots





suited to no-till. This is due to the fact that
these varieties have extremely good cold
tolerance and fast emergence.
But the best bet is to rely on your own
test plot data. Plant several recommended
varieties for no-till and see which yield best
for you.
For no-till double-cropped soybeans, the
proper choice of variety is important. Since
the soybean plant is strongly photo-
periodic, shorter day length like we get in
late summer hastens maturity of the beans.


A good rule of thumb given by agron-
omists is to plant the latest variety that will
safely mature. This will give the most
vegetative growth, height, weed suppression
and yield. Early varieties are shorter and
lower yielding.
For full season no-tilled soybeans, med-
ium season length varieties seem to do best.
Ask your seed company salesman for
specific ideas on which hybrids or varieties
are best suited for no-tillage planting. He
should be able to help you out.


"Will surface fertilization do the job?"


PLOWING DOWN or side-dressing fertilizer
has always been the traditional way of
applying fertilizer for conventionally-tilling
farmers.
But this has been replaced with surface
fertilization in no-tillage crop production
to cut down on operations and soil dis-
turbance-although side-dressing with mini-
mum soil disturbance can be used.
Farmers considering a switch to no-
tillage frequently find it hard to believe
that surface application of fertilizer will
provide the plant's roots with all the plant
food that is needed.
Soil testing is recommended before get-
ting started with no-tillage. This enables
you to know exactly which nutrients and


how much plant food are needed in every
field.
No-tillage works best on a soil with a pH
above 6.6. If your soils are below this level,
broadcast the necessary amount of lime. If
a soil test shows a low phosphorous level,
a starter fertilizer should be used. Low pH
can have an adverse effect on some residual
Herbicides. Triazin herbicides don't work as
well on soils of below 6.0 pH.
If you plan to no-till into a cover crop,
much of your needed fertilizer and lime
can be applied in the fall at the time you
work the ground for the cover crop. All of
6


the fertilizer, except for starter, can be
broadcast and incorporated into the ground
in the fall before seeding the cover crop.
Most fertilizer can also be broadcast or
banded when you are no-tilling into ex-
isting sod or crop residues. Many growers
use starter fertilizer at planting time. Some
even set up a tube to drop fertilizer ahead
of off-set fluted coulters for one operation
planting and early side-dressing.
A number of no-till corn growers use a
split application of fertilizer. They apply all
of the phosphorous and potassium along
with part of the nitrogen on the surface
ahead of planting. Then they apply the
remainder of the nitrogen later as a side-
dressing. If soil tests indicate low to me-
dium phosphorous it should be incorpora-
ted the year before or applied with planter
as starter fertilizer.
Trials in southern Illinois with no-till
corn show the most efficient use of nitro-
gen is when half of the nitrogen is applied
pre-plant and half is applied later as a
side-dressing. Anhydrous Ammonia can be
used.
In recent Univ. of Wisconsin trials, the
way potash was applied was a key to top
yields. Band application of potash along-
side the row was more readily available to
corn than broadcast potash.
With double-cropped soybeans, many
farmers put on enough fertilizer when
planting small grains for both the grain and
soybean crops. Then they don't have to
fool around with fertilizer when the soy-
beans go in the ground the following June.
A number of farmers use a liquid nitro-
gen carrier for application of Paraquat. If
you do this, avoid slurry or liquid suspen-
sion fertilizers since Paraquat is inactivated
by the clay in these materials. These
growers broadcast phosphorus and potas-
sium early, then apply nitrogen at the time
of Paraquat application.


Keep pH up


Ask your
dealer


Feed and
weed combos


















Soil test








"What kind of planter do I need?"


Choosing a
planter


DIFFERENT SOILS, different climates
and different farms make it unrealistic to
expect just one no-tillage planting system
to fit all conditions.
So the choice of a planter that best suits
your farming conditions is an individual
choice for you.
While several planters seem more popular
than others, each of the major farm ma-
chinery manufacturers has a planter suited
for no-tillage planting.
A no-till planter must cut through
ground cover, open a furrow, place seed in
the ground, regulate depth of seed place-
ment, cover the seed and firm the covering
soil.
No-tillage row-crop planters are basically
the same as conventional units with only a
few exceptions. Most of these no-till


planters have a fluted or ripple coulter, to
prepare the ground.
No-tillage planters should also have a
heavier frame since weight must frequently
be added to the planter to get needed
penetration into the ground.
One word of caution: Don't try to
convert a lightweight conventional planter
for no-till use. It usually is not sturdy
enough.
Planting Here's a rundown on typical problems
problems farmers run into with no-tillage planters.
Improper soil penetration: In some clay
soils, the cause is that sufficient weight for
soil penetration is not always provided. A
minimum of 400 Ibs. is required on each
coulter for adequate soil penetration.
Trash accumulation: Shoe-type furrow
openers accumulate trash and moist soil.
Chisel-boot furrow openers accumulate trash
and move subsurface soil up to the surface,


which promotes unnecessary weed growth.
Obstructions: Double-disc openers are
better suited to rocky conditions. They roll
over rocks and other obstructions without
causing planting delays.
Depth control: Furrow depth is not
always uniform when a rear press wheel is
used for depth control. Depth control
gauge wheels mounted on either side of the
opener result in more uniform furrow
depth. Depth bands on double-disc openers
can also help solve this problem.
Seed placement: Erratic furrow closure
can result in seeds not being properly
imbedded in the furrow. Closing with
available rear press wheels does not always
guarantee uniform seed placement under
varying conditions.
Use of a spring-loaded seed firming
wheel attached between the furrow opener
and rear press wheel will solve this problem.
These are available as options for most
planters.
Unsatisfactory stands: This is often
caused by running fluted coulters too deep,
too wet, or too fast. Kernels fall into the
groove to various depths and the result is
a poor stand and irregular germination.
Fluted coulters should generally be run at
the desired seed depth.
Selection of various no-till planter op-
tions is an individual matter. There are
more than 4,000 different planter options
on the market today, so correct choice of
no-till planters and planter accessories is
important.








"What is a contact herbicide?"


MOST SUCCESSFUL no-till systems use
Ortho Paraquat CL to replace mechanical
tillage in the preparation of a seedbed.
No-tillage usually takes a combination of
a contact herbicide for quick burn-down of
existing vegetation and use of one or more
residual herbicides to provide season-long
weed control.
A number of systems have been de-
veloped for several crops using Paraquat as
a contact herbicide in place of tillage. And
How Paraquat more systems are under development to
works enable no-tillage to grow into new crops
and new areas of the country.
A rundown on basic characteristics of
Paraquat will improve the probability of
no-tillage success for farmers just giving it a
try:
Paraquat is non-selective. It kills both
annual broadleaf weeds and grasses.
Paraquat kills green plant tissue essen-
tially on contact.
Paraquat is fast acting. It works over a
wide range of temperatures. It's quickly
absorbed into plant tissue before rain can
wash it off.
Paraquat doesn't leave biologically
active soil residue. It is inactivated upon
contact with clay particles in the soil,
when applied as directed.
Paraquat is completely water soluble,
non-volatile and non-explosive.
A non-selective contact herbicide, Para-
quat kills vegetation through contact with
green plant tissue. It is absorbed rapidly
into plant cells where it interrupts the
photosynthetic processes. This causes plant
cells to collapse and the plant dies.
Upon contact with clay particles in the soil,
Paraquat is deactivated. It leaves no biologi-
cally active residue which could be taken up
by roots or damage succeeding crops, when
applied as directed.
Follow Because Paraquat is deactivited in clay-
the label containing soil,treated soil washing into lakes
and streams will not contaminate the water.
For maximum effectiveness, ORTHO
X-777 Spreader must be used with Para-
quat. Tests show the efficiency of Para-
quat is reduced 25% to 30% when
ORTHO X-77 Spreader is not used, par-
ticularly when plants are under stress. The
spreader should be used with Paraquat
whether you use water or liquid nitrogen
as a carrier.


Here are some tips for better chemical
performance with Paraquat.
Hit weeds when they are small. The best
control is obtained when weeds are actively
growing and from 1 to 6 inches tall. Larger
plants may not be controlled.
Know what weeds you are spraying.
Since all chemicals have limitations, iden-


tify the plants you need to kill and check
the label to see if performance can be
expected. While Paraquat is non-selective
for above-ground vegetation, it will only
burn back perennials growing from rhi-
zomes such as Johnsongrass.
Follow the recommended application
rates on the label. Use of larger amounts is
not only costly, but illegal.
Proper mixing of chemicals is a must.
Some wettable powders require pre-mixing.
Others do not mix well in cold water.
Check tank mixes for compatibility. Be
sure to mix thoroughly and use continuous
agitation with tank mixes.
Use only clean water with Paraquat. It
can be inactivated on contact with clay
particles present in dirty water.
When you switch to no-tillage farming,
you switch to an often total reliance on
chemicals for control of unwanted vegeta-
tion. This reliance makes it very important
to know your chemicals and what they can
do for you.


Use clean
water








"Are regular herbicides still needed?"


BASICALLY, NO-TILLAGE means sub-
stituting the contact herbicide Paraquat for
your plow and other tillage tools in the
preparation of your seedbed.
Tank-mix That is the main difference when switch-
uses ing from conventional tillage to no-tillage
cropping.
So if you are already using residual-type
herbicides for chemical weed control in a
conventional farming program as most
farmers are now doing, you will need to
continue using these herbicides in the
future.
Use of Paraquat contact herbicide simply
controls green vegetation growing on the
surface at time of application. It does not
control tough perennial weeds or weeds
that emerge at a later date.
Thus, residual herbicides are needed for
season-long control of weeds. So a combina-
tion of both Paraquat and one or more
Replacing registered residual herbicides is needed for
the plow complete, season-long weed control.
For good weed control in no-tillage crop
production, follow these basic guides:
Make sure you do not underestimate
the weed potential to your fields. Weeds
must be controlled regardless of the tillage


system used. Spray weeds when they are
small and easy to kill.
Selection of the proper herbicides or
herbicide combinations is essential-more
so than with conventional tillage. Thus you
have to know what weeds are present in
your fields and select the proper herbicide
or herbicides to control them.
Make sure you use an adequate
amount of water or liquid nitrogen as a
carrier for your herbicides. With the large
amounts of surface trash with no-tillage,
most agronomists feel you need 20 to 60
gallons of liquid per acre to insure that the
chemicals reach all of the vegetation. This
is especially important with Paraquat since
it must be applied through the trash and
reach the leaf surface of all weeds to work.
Use the proper nozzles at a height
which allows complete coverage of all
surface vegetation. Don't exceed 40" spacing.
Paraquat is now cleared for tank-mix use on
the label of the following residual herbicides:
AAtrex and Princep, atrazine, Bladex, Lorox,
Lasso, Sencor, Lexone, Surflan. Additional
clearances for use of this contact herbicide
with many other residual herbicides can be ex-
pected for no-till crop production sometime in
the future. Check and follow all labels for
specific combination uses.


Combination
needed


-~c~rs~s~s?-l~-~;


!a.
Ca
-~0c~.


I3PC--






"Can I keep insects under control?"


CERTAIN INSECT pests have to be
watched carefully for damage in no-tillage
corps.
But they can be controlled with little
difficulty if you take some precautions to
prevent unnecessary outbreaks and keep a
close watch for these pests.
Use of a planter-box seed treater, such
as one of the ISOTOX seed treaters, is
Use seed recommended for insect and disease con-
treaters trol. If corn rootworms have been a pro-
blem, then apply an insecticide recom-
mended for your area to control this pest.
Use of soil insecticide on no-tillage corn
has been a paying proposition in tests at
the Dixon Springs Agricultural Center in
southern Illinois. Application of a soil
insecticide gave up to 16 bu. more corn per
acre compared with check plots where no
insecticide was applied in recent tests.
There are pros and cons to using an
insecticide with no-till soybeans. Some
yield increases have been shown for band
application of insecticide, yet no insecti-
cide has yielded more in other trials.
Soil insects can be a problem in crop
production so monitor your fields.







"How critical
PROPER SPRAYING will have as much to
do with making a success of no-tillage crop
production as anything you do.
This means usage of the correct nozzles,
right boom heights, right sprayer speed,
right amount of water or liquid nitrogen
Get thorough carrier, proper mixing of chemicals and
coverage much more.
Many farmers solve the problem of
proper chemical application by relying on
custom applicators. They have experience
with various chemicals and the know-how
to insure that the job is done the right way.
Agronomists point out that a key to
no-till success is applying enough water or
liquid nitrogen to make sure all plants are
covered with herbicide. Since Paraquat kills
only what it comes in contact with, it is
essential that you get thorough coverage. In
extreme cases, this may require application
of as much as 60 gallons of carrier per acre
10


Some growers have been hit with out-
breaks of armyworms with no-till crops
planted into sod. If this happens, contact
local agricultural authorities for the best
way of combatting this problem. Toxa-
phene is registered for this use at a rate of
2-1/4 Ibs. of actual ingredient per acre.
(Follow label direction.)


Watch
your fields


is spraying?"
to be sure all vegetation is completely
covered. Again, we point out that you
should try to spray when weeds are small.
Spray booms must be high enough to
cover all plant growth. Use adequate
amounts of spray and enough pressure to
completely wet all vegetation.
Generally a flat fan nozzle is the most Spraying
desirable for Paraquat application, but is critical
other considerations frequently dictate
that flooding type nozzles be used. If
flooding type nozzles are used, spacing
should be no greater than 40 inches and
nozzle size should be no larger than num-
ber 20.
Remember spraying of chemicals is a
critical part of no-tillage. This has to be
done right if you are to be successful with
no-tillage. This is an area where it pays to
take your time and do things right.






"Can I keep insects under control?"


CERTAIN INSECT pests have to be
watched carefully for damage in no-tillage
corps.
But they can be controlled with little
difficulty if you take some precautions to
prevent unnecessary outbreaks and keep a
close watch for these pests.
Use of a planter-box seed treater, such
as one of the ISOTOX seed treaters, is
Use seed recommended for insect and disease con-
treaters trol. If corn rootworms have been a pro-
blem, then apply an insecticide recom-
mended for your area to control this pest.
Use of soil insecticide on no-tillage corn
has been a paying proposition in tests at
the Dixon Springs Agricultural Center in
southern Illinois. Application of a soil
insecticide gave up to 16 bu. more corn per
acre compared with check plots where no
insecticide was applied in recent tests.
There are pros and cons to using an
insecticide with no-till soybeans. Some
yield increases have been shown for band
application of insecticide, yet no insecti-
cide has yielded more in other trials.
Soil insects can be a problem in crop
production so monitor your fields.







"How critical
PROPER SPRAYING will have as much to
do with making a success of no-tillage crop
production as anything you do.
This means usage of the correct nozzles,
right boom heights, right sprayer speed,
right amount of water or liquid nitrogen
Get thorough carrier, proper mixing of chemicals and
coverage much more.
Many farmers solve the problem of
proper chemical application by relying on
custom applicators. They have experience
with various chemicals and the know-how
to insure that the job is done the right way.
Agronomists point out that a key to
no-till success is applying enough water or
liquid nitrogen to make sure all plants are
covered with herbicide. Since Paraquat kills
only what it comes in contact with, it is
essential that you get thorough coverage. In
extreme cases, this may require application
of as much as 60 gallons of carrier per acre
10


Some growers have been hit with out-
breaks of armyworms with no-till crops
planted into sod. If this happens, contact
local agricultural authorities for the best
way of combatting this problem. Toxa-
phene is registered for this use at a rate of
2-1/4 Ibs. of actual ingredient per acre.
(Follow label direction.)


Watch
your fields


is spraying?"
to be sure all vegetation is completely
covered. Again, we point out that you
should try to spray when weeds are small.
Spray booms must be high enough to
cover all plant growth. Use adequate
amounts of spray and enough pressure to
completely wet all vegetation.
Generally a flat fan nozzle is the most Spraying
desirable for Paraquat application, but is critical
other considerations frequently dictate
that flooding type nozzles be used. If
flooding type nozzles are used, spacing
should be no greater than 40 inches and
nozzle size should be no larger than num-
ber 20.
Remember spraying of chemicals is a
critical part of no-tillage. This has to be
done right if you are to be successful with
no-tillage. This is an area where it pays to
take your time and do things right.






"What about double-cropping?"


80 bu. grain,
40 bu. beans


DOUBLE-CROPPING opportunities are
practically unlimited today. While soybeans
behind barley or wheat has been the big use
of double-cropping to date, many other
combinations of two crops are also being
grown where only one crop grew previous-
ly. No-tillers may take off a crop of forage
in early May before planting no-till corn
into sod for the first time.
Other combinations include corn after
corn, grain sorghum after small grain, corn
after barley, corn after peas and so forth.
However, do not plant soybeans into
forage or sod. There is practically no
limit as to what can be done with double-
cropping today. Many no-tillers say double-
cropping lets them practically grow one
crop free each year.
The biggest benefits come from spread-
ing the overhead costs over two crops
instead of just one crop. Some growers
have found that soybeans planted after
small grains can rival-or beat- a good crop
of corn for total profits. While an 80-bu.
barley crop and a 40-bu. soybean crop are
not outstanding by themselves, they cer-
tainly are profitable when you harvest both
from the same acre in a year's time. Don't
plant soybeans in any sods.
A number of no-tilling double-croppers
have even gone to aerial seeding of small
grains into standing corn in the fall. This
gives the small grain a longer growing
season before fall frost and increases the


yield. Then they come back and double-
crop soybeans or another crop into the
small grain stubble the following year.
Check with the extension service in your
area for the best grain varieties for use in
double-cropping.
To get a longer growing season for their
second crop, some no-tillers artificially dry
the small grain at harvest time. This allows
them to get as much as a one week longer
growing season for the second crop they
plant. No-tillage is the reason double-
cropping has grown so fast in recent years.
You can see farmers harvesting one crop
and planting a second crop in the same
field on the same day. Such a situation
certainly is not the time or place for
conventional tillage since speed is of the
essence in making full use of all available
moisture. During most summers there isn't
any moisture to waste through straw burn-
ing or turning up the soil with tillage.
While most of our double-cropping is
done today in the South or the southern
Corn Belt, no-till today knows no geo-
graphic boundaries. No-tillers as far north
as Wisconsin are making the concept work
with various combinations of crops.
However, if you are north of an east/
west line drawn through Springfield, III.,
check with your local farm advisor to learn
if double-cropping can succeed in your
area by giving you a no-tillage jump on
your planting dates.


Imagination
is key




















Longer
growing
season


4-'







"Is no-till really the way of the future?"


NO-TILLAGE is definitely going to con-
Only 5% tinue to grow in the future. It is a proven
plowed in practice that farmers can use to save time,
year 2010 save costs, save soil, save moisture and
much more. With so many advantages, it is
bound.to -catch on in a big way in the
% of acreage

90% % of cropland
planted via
80% reduced tillage

70% -

60%
50% -
% of feed grains,
40% wheat, rye, soybeans
planted via no till /
30% ------ / -
/ % of cropland
20% planted via
no till
10% --
0% L-


future as farmers get concerned with costs.
A recent United States Department of
Agriculture study indicates that less than
7% of all cropland will be planted via
conventional tillage just 35 years from
now.
This study shows that 77% of all corn,
grain sorghum, wheat, rye and soybeans
will be planted via no-tillage by that time.
A total of 54% of all U.S. cropland will be
farmed without tillage by then.
It is estimated that no-tillage will enable
farmers to trim production costs by nearly
$5 per acre by the year 2010, according to
the USDA study. Fuel costs will also be cut
by better than $1 per acre. Besides the cost
savings, conservation benefits due to less
tillage will also be easier to sell in the
future as our country gets more concerned
about various types of erosion and pollu-
tion.
All in all, there is a bright future for
no-tillage. Many farmers are already making
no-tillage pay off in a big way. How about
you?


DANGER: Paraquat is highly toxic if swallowed and should be kept out of reach of children. To prevent
accidents, never transfer to food, drink or other containers. Read the label carefully and follow all direc-
tions, danger statements and worker safety rules. Restricted Use Pesticide. Use all chemicals only as
directed.

This information is correct as of the date of publication but is subject to change. Therefore, always refer
to the label on the product container before using.
Chevron


w ORTHO
CHEVRON CHEMICAL COMPANY
575 Market St., San Francisco, California 94105
Helping the World Grow Better











TM'S ORTHO, CHEVRON AND DESIGN HELPING THE WORLD GROW BETTER, REG. U.S. PAT. OFF. X-7T
TRADEMARK OF KALO LABORATORIES, INC. AVOID ACCIDENTS, READ THE LABEL AND USE ONLY AS DIRECTED
PRINTED IN U.S.A. PROJECT NUMBER 8016P-19. 10/79


77% no-tilled








Save $5
per acre




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