Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00258
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Publication Date: Sunday, April 10, 1977
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
sobekcm - UF00072147_00258
System ID: UF00072147:00258

Full Text

'Vol. 7 No. 15



lMrs. Andrea Talbutt,
Research Institute for
Study of Man,
162, East 78th Street,
ew York, N,Y. 10021,
h. Lehigh 5 8448,
uJ. .S.A. ,.


Mass media I

talk fest at

$200 a head

WASTE OF TIME trying to phone you from Tunapuna so, Baptiste, Compton' Delph or
here goes. Patrick Chookolingo.
The one thing that's definite about your circular And if that's the way it's
announcing the Trinidad and Tobago Publishers and Broad- going to be, then I fear it will
casters' Association two-day June Seminar on "What Is just be another consumer
catesoccasion on which local journal
News" is the fee 'of $200 per person. ists will largely sit back, take
So we might as well start with that, in replying to your notes and now and then raise
circular letter inviting participation in the seminar. "questions of clarification."
Everything,else the "foreign and local experts", the venue, Knowing them as I db, I'm
the'actual dates, the programmie, the topics for discussion looks sure they will do their damndest
"tentatives", as you put it. to consume their $200 worth
Another definite thing is- that nowhere do you seek other of refr.hlment etc.
ideas onhow:it's to be organised. O LET Still, the more I think of it,
Ot ttheir $200. OPEN LETTER the piore I feel that your
k But I wortt-be put off by.. ~ T&T BA seminar isn't aimed at
"e 200 an w .. G _! u s*. your average "working oumal-
fcftcSff 1 8W ist" at all.,
., .,.- ,RIE. I ..R'c- AI M ,-,,,can see the hall'.rowded,.
-' O i b% all thds- F3t-cai Public"
Or is it that we have to pay T& TBA Relations officers and the like
S for the transport and upkeep who can-persuade less tight-
of the "foreign experts" CO-ORDINATOR fisted firms -than newspapers
three of Carl Rowan, column- to urderwrite- this $200 junket.
ist and TV commentator; Tom Of course, you will reply, Was the T&T PBA thing
Johnson, New York Times like Victor Bruce the other cleared with Jimmy Bain? It
Reporter; William Raspberry. day, that the outsider's view is seems to me there's a strong
Laureof thnce A. Still of Howard so much more refreshing. argument that if you can't
Laurence A.rsity's Still of Com- That we could learn a lot have the one TV station repre-
mnvication? from these guys from famous sented, then it mightn't be
In either case, the question American papers, and that our worth having.
In either case, the question .. ,. ., ,,
is: is it worth it? nationalistic ideals should And what about the GBU
Is the T&T PBA raising guide us not blind us to the and the Government's PR unit
funds for whatever might be possibility of learning some- at Whitehall? It might well
its worthy causes? Let- us thing from whoever can import require a Note to the Cabinet
know. it. to get approval for their partici-
If not, can't Trinidad and Sure, sure, sure. nation.
Tobago journalists find a These American guys are
Tobago journalists find a certainly primed to spew foth What I'd like to know is if
cheaper wayof getting together on the issues of the news etc. the CPBA hadassurances about
to discuss seous issues of in the USA. these things before proceeding
their profession? By holding it That's one thing about the with the seminar and inviting
And do we have ptohave journalists there: they're inces- down foreign experts at high
these Americanbig-names if santly talking about their pro- cost?
it's going to cost us so much? fession in seminars and lectures If- hot, with the price fixed
it'sgoin tocostus o muh? cte

This seminal on "What is
News" promises to be the first
big one of its kind in this


Yet I get the feeling that
it's predicated on the presence
and participation of foreign
"'expert s".
Of course, I can't wait to
learn just who the local experts
will be.
The tentative programme
has slots for four 40-minute
lectures. At least one then
must be given by a local
But I also suspect, from
watching the CPBA approach,
that the local "expert" is more
likely to be Dr. Everold Hosein
or some communications aca-
demic than any of George
Harvey. George John, John
Babb, Lenn Chongsing, Owen

at >zuu 0 anu me iinvitatios
apparently sent to institutions
as distinct from individual
journalists), we could well end
up with having a Press Club
kind of occasion in which
everybody but the press will
be there.
That I fear.

Women's Arm in San Juan

constituency party agredl
last Tuesday to start a
Women's Arm.

This is one of
sions taken at a
held at Lloyd

the deci-

The party also con-
sidered a programme of-
recreational, sporting and
political activity.
According to a release
from San Juan, Sunday.
.. ,, .- ..:...-- '',-

Auigust t '1 has eell
marked for the holdiing of
a picnic/excursion.
The group will take part
in an all-day sports rally
in Tu napuina schcliedutl
lor May 22.
On the political side,
top priority is to he given
to securing a meeting place.
and a Saddle Road unit of
the constituency party has
been formed. Ihie S.an
Juan parLt\ ill nMIt meet

on May 3.
Meanwhile. it w\as re-
vealed that thle Tapia
Council of' Representlatives.
Last Slunday rescinded its
decision of the previous-
week to reconvene the
Anlnutl G(eneral Assembly
of Tapia on lMay 22.
The meeting Sunday
also heard a brief report
ol lihe (Cai'paigtl Con- .-.

31A Erthig Road
- Wide Range of
Books, Stationery,

Ait Material.

-- ;~ ~; i~;~:~~aii~8b:~4~R'cap"3~j~;~~a~gi~ulF


"k, :




Sept. 13

PERHAPS on April 25 a greater percentagof the elector-
ate will go to the polls than the 20% wnicn did so the last
time we had local government elections, in 1971. But not
many of us would put our money on a larger turnout.
There is no gaiisaying the widespread ignorance
about the nature and -functions of local government.
Is it lack of appreciation of the role of local govern-
,ment which keeps us away from the polls? Or do we ignore
municipal and county council elections because those
agencies do not seem to matter to us in our day to day
In truth, it would seem to be the very feebleness of
local government which is the reason for both our ignor-
ance and our abstinence.
Why should we expect the ordinary citizen to be
capable of reeling off glib textbook formulations of the
role of local government?
That most of us can't say what it is all about attests
to the fact that it simply aoes not impinge on our lives to
any noticeable extent.
So we don't vote. For most of us, our notion of the
responsibilities of local government does not extend
beyQnd such matters as garbage collection and the main-
tenance of secondary roads.
But even such minimal expectations are often
honoured more in the breach than in the performance. So
we write off the local authorities as a total waste.
What is beyond our experience is the idea that the
purposeful use of political power at the local level could
effect significant improvements in the conditions of our
Few of us-realize that, emasculated as it is, the Port-
of-Spain City Council employs over 2,000 daily-paid

V . . ... +,. ? .

Keep abreast of the real

currents in the Caribbean Sea

with fresh commentary

Friday morning

Rates fo

Trinidad & Tobago
Caricom Countries
Other Caribbean
U. S./Canada
EE.C. (incl. U.K.)


r 1977

T1 $25.00 per year
US $25.00
Stg. 114:00

winner of

take all

on April 25?

". ^,. ,

I- f -

Can we conceive of the
:beneficial ends,. given the
interest and the imagina-
tion and the popular sup-
port, to which a city
administration' co uLI Id
deploy such a Workforce.
even within the limits of
its present budget'
So, as with the rest of
our politics, it is very
much a problem of chicken
and egg. Which comes first?
We show a low level of
interest in the municipal
and county councils
because in the light of our
experience we deem them
to be incapable of deliver-
ing the services we desire.
And as long as public
interest in their workings
is low, there will be neither
the stimulus nor the talent
to render the local authori-
ties capable of :!'fective
As a consqquen:ce of
the weakness 'of local
sentiment and loc.:. struc-
tures, our gaze .- fixed
steadfastly on thl centre
of the political, stage,
whence, we belie' Ilow
all benefits.
The petition. pro-
test, the march White-
hall are the more .Iramatic
manifestations our
instincts as to .',re the
power really lies .:::i as to
where the action there-
fore to be had.
What, in our inexpen-
ence, we fail to realize, is
that, despite their protesta-
tions to the mntrary.
nothing is more reassuring
to the men \\!'o hold
power at tm ini.: :.ii level
than that people Irim all
over the country feel
constrained to come to
.them for relief of' their

i 1 *t-"s I .

*3 4s
1 A. ll


maanifold problems.
Conversely nothing
would be more subversive
of the authontarian politics
of fthe' PNM than the
growth of a genuine spirit .
of self-reliance at the local
It is true that the present
government have put local
authorities in a legal and
administrative straitjacket.
A thoroughgoing reform
of local government t.
effect a radical devolution
of power from the centre
is certainly needed.
But constitutional re-
forms can go so far and
no further. By themselves
they'merely create the
openings for real change.
In fact, the same spirit of
enterprise and self-reliance
which is needed to force
the constitutional reforms
in the first place, is also
needed to. make local
government effective.
The evidence of the
need for effective local
government abounds. And,
in the sense of people
being sufficiently dis-
enchanted with the central
government and sufficiently
confident in their ability
to do their own thing, the
pre-conditions for effective
local government obviously
exist in Tobago, and, no
doubt, in some places ir
Whether the political
inrfra-structure, in terms of
organizing and channelling
such sentiment construct-
ively. exists anywhere, is a
different question.
It is part ies which hla\e
to do tliat 'bI. If eC
peIrsist in ouh.r l I.h bitl ol
kowtow in I centrall
Spower. thle 'hlie -.uilts on

lk~. "~:::
. . r.
-;C ..~._::
~_...r-.. ..
,.'~-::::~::;:: i~
. .
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~' ~ ""'
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April 25are sure to reflet;C.
more or less. -:i'faiitlifti" '
those of September 13
In Caribbean political,
systems, as the results of
the recent local govern-
ment poll in Jamaica-
show. the winner at the-
national level takes all.,
The parties in Parliar
ment all asquiesce in that
system. Not even the
parties now on the opposi-
tion benches felt that con-
stitution reform, far less
the specific matter of local
government reform, was a
particularly important
In fact, from 1971 to
1976 the DAC called for
elections before constitu-
tion reform. It is in that
context that we must judge
their call in 1977 for con-
stitution reform for
Tobago before local elec-
tions there.
The parties in Parliament
are either hostile, or, what
amounts to the same thing,
indifferent to reform in
the interest of effective
local government.
That is only another in-
dication of their attitude
to what is of far greater
significance. the capacity
for self-government among
our people.
The. elections of April
25. for these parties, will
be less about that capacity
for self-government at the.
local level, than about their
partisan determination to
confirm their standing in
lthe national arena.
Ift April 25 is to mean
aunthing ;at all to the
people of Trinidad and
loharo. we will have to
pick up our own beds and
\ alk.



Surface rates and rates for
other countries on request
Tapia 82-84 St Vincent St., Tunapuna, & 22 Cipriai Bvd.
P.O.S. Trinidad & Tobago, W.I. Telephone 662-5126 & 62-25241.
L ! ] .. .

Literda turv


Public' Affairs

\^^ WW



ON MY OWN SCENE ... Lloyd Best


We're whistling like mad from

the pinkest of clouds

AS elections once again
approach us, the Petroleum
Minister has dropped the
information on new hydro-
carbon finds. He has
struck gold on the north
coast and on the south
coast by east at Pelican,
Keskidee and Ibis, even as
there are reports of output
expanding on the East
Coast at Poui, Samaan
and Teak.
We are considering a
new oil refinery, adds Mr.
Mahabir, ever so casually.
The Julien Task Force is
examining the future of
-our natural gas and even
the notorious LNG Pro-
ject may now be revived.
Matters not, it seems,
what happens to the price
of oil; larger production
alone will keep up the
bonanza: In short, we will
be zeroing in on those
polling -stations from the
pinkest of clouds.
Not for Trinidad and
Tobago, any of the stresses
-. and strains ofa Venezuela,
foolish enough, to have
4 targeted the growth of her
non-oil sector' at the
,. elevated rate of over 9%
.:' per year.-
Not- for ius any of the
S horrors of a Jamaica or
G4.uyana, Barbados or
E T ominica. Emergency con-
tions mean government
Sbiudget deficits, balance of
payments problems, con-
u"mption and trade restric-
t. y tions, careful prunings of
expenditure, rigorous
Srderings and re-orderings
.- of priority.
We are simply not taking
anything on; not the
opportunities of affluence,
-.... ot the limitations of
S indigence. Planning for us
::. is an- old-fashioned fad.
We din tell nobody to
give TT no oil. So if we
are lucky to get manna
from below, what you
expect we to do but to
blow it?
The demand for water,

I --- ---r --

a WASA official tells us,
runs between 98m. and
112m. gallons per day.

ing 71m.

we are produc-
gallons. The
Huge expendi-

tures on new capacity;
$83m. at Oropouche,
$300m. at Caroni-Arena.
But what is there to be
achieved by the optimum
SContinued ori Page 9

-s ----r~ru---.- - - -- -ZA


2'. St. Vincent St.. Port of Spain lelephonc: 62-31421-7 with seventeen Agencies throughout the nation and
offices in Antigua. Iarhadus, Guyana-,- Duninica,_Grenada, Monltcrrat, St. Kitts. St. Lucia. St. incent and a
subsidiary in London.

For Your Easter

Shop at


62 Queen St.



I r


- II ---~

ThePlae W I ere hrify PopleSho

I' - rir I -- i I' I


Wil the



do for us?

NEWS of the Nigerian gov-
ernment's decision to
.abolish the teaching of
modem mathematics in
primary schools and to
make the subject optional
in secondary schools has
brought to the surface
similar concerns of mathe-
matics teachers here.
Announcing the decision
recently, Col. Dr. A,A. Ali,
Commissioner-for Educa-
tion of the Nigerian
Federal Government, said
of the new mathematics:
"It does not appear to
be beneficial to. the
nation." He added: "Some
people have wondered if
the concept of modem
mathematics was not
another device to slow
our technological advance--
-- ment."
Skepticism a b out
modem mathematics, on
' which the Nigerian action.-
is ,based, echoes the'

doubts currently being
expressed by US educators,
according to the principal
of a Trinidad comprehen-
sive school.
And he predicted that
the questions about the
new mathematics will arise
here with more urgency as
the eight.new senior com-
prehensive schools get
At the moment some
15,000 students aged 14
and over in the country's
comprehensive and second-
ary schools are being
taught the modern mathe-
But this, say local
educators, is because text-
books and curriculum are
still externally oriented.
And both the London and
Cambridge syndicates
whose examinations are
taken here require the
teaching of .the subject.;
"There js tno. simple

answer to the question
whether the modem
mathematics is suitable to
the needs of Trinidad and
According to Keith
Holloway of the LUWI St.
Augustine Sdhoo! of Edu-
cation, "mathematics are
neither hew .nor old."
The so-called new
Mathematics, he claims, are
a, new method of teaching
mathematics so as to
make the subject more
,accessible to students.
"Mathematics have
traditionally been a specta-
tor sport for many stu-
dents who just sat back
and watched what was
goiig on. But it's like
learning to swim. Ybo
can't sit' at the edge of
Sthe pool and learn how to
do :it. You have to get

I.- -`

your feet wet."
The new metliod of
teaching mathematics,
then, vas aimed at getting
greater participation of
students. And though
there haven't been any
reliable surveys, several
teachers say. children are
happier with the new
Holloway observed that
the new ,mathematics are
still "shrouded in mis-
He explained that tradi-
tional mathematics had
been devised to service the
needs.of Victorian England,.
at a time when there were
no cash registers,. no cal-
culators, no gas pumps etc.
Ten to 15 years ago,
however, technological
.developments which ,'led
to -the spread. of .corn-
,puters and calculators in
the industrial world, called,
f6r a "radical change in
the teaching of mathe--
In Trinidad,, now, Dr.
Holloway estimates, there
are at least 40 computers,
and calculators are wide-
spread. '
But he doubted that
reliance on Vcalculators-,
would necessarily lead to
placing less emphasis on
the teaching of basic
arithmetic to children, and
to the creation of "mere
robots and cripples", the
\ expressed fear of, the
Nigerian education min-
"Calculators don't solve
problems.' They can open
Sup a new range.of possi-
bilities. Using a calculator,
a student can perform his
arithmetic with speed and
accuracy, leaving more
time for problem-solving,"
he said.
Nobody looks forward
to the day when children
will whip out calculators -
to do simple sums of
addition and multiplica-
tion and substraction.
And the association of
the new mathefnatics with
modern gadgets and gene-

rally with a kind of
process by which children
will bypass basic arithmetic
'and tables that their
parents learnt "the hard
way", is a frightening
enough prospect for a
Trinidad and Tobago
-where large scale.emplpy-,
ment 'in high-technology
industry is still only a
As a Trinidad com-
prehensive school principal
observed, even in the'
industrialized countries,
the new mathematics were
intended for the "top ten
per cent" of students.
He saw a real problem
in applying to children of
"the entire spectrum of
abilities". But this is what
is likely to happen with
the "democratization" of
secondary education and,
the bringing into junior
and senior schools of
larger numbers of children.
"In theory it's possible
to devise a new maths
syllabus .that emphasises
traditional maths topics.
But all these things make
sense in the context of
repatriated curriculum
development, and if the
impulse for change starts
For his part, Dr. Hollo-
way has scathing criticism
for a widely used mathe-
matics textbook sees
said to have been adapted
to Caribbean needs from
an original Scottish text.
But an examination of
the original reveals that
the adaptation went little.
further than the blacken-
ing of faces used in illus- ,,4.
trations..-In, shpoit, says"s- Y
Holloway, people he'e '
were taken by the "rhar- .
keting technique".
When is it all going to.
stop? *
For the maths class, Dr.
Hollowav thinks it will'
Sbe when sufficient teachers
get competent to teach
the new mathematics in
the new way. The Mathe'-
matics Teachers Associa-
tion of Trinidad and.
Tobago has sponsored a
project aimed at producing
materials locally for
mathematics teaching in
the Junior Secondaries. He -
talks of an encouraging
project going in Rio Claro
Government Secondary
undertaken by a mathe-
matics teacher there.
The comprehensive
school principal looks to
the start of the prepara-
tion of syllabuses by the
Caribbean Examinations
Council. But the first
examination under, that
scheme,won't be till 1979.
And meantime, the
children induced to take
the plunge into the new
mathematics little suspect
that, for their teachers
too, it's a sea of uncharted
waters. (L.G.)

A- N." ':

~C~- ~


WHEN the show started, half an hour late,
there weren't more than 30 people sitting
in the audience. Towards the end, some
two hours later, there were just about 75
No, it wasn't a political meeting but
opening night, last week Friday, at the
NUGFW Hall on Frederick Street, of "A
Man And His Culture", second show for
1977 staged by the People's Kaiso Court.
The first was just before Carnival. The
audiences then were only slightly, larger.
Small audiences have been coming out
to PKC shows ever since the Court was
launched in November last year. Partly
because one of PKC's biggest weaknesses is
But more largely because the People's
Kaiso Court is onto something new, some-
thing different, something that could give
back to calypso its real significance as
serious social commentary.
Imagine staging a
calypso show the weekend
before Easier!
As Stalin explained it
on stage the other night:
"We don't believe in a
'calypso season' What we
saying is that we preparing
a listening audience. We're
taking the show around
the country. We say in the
calypso tents, you don't
hear us. But we're going
to keep doing it until
people hear us."


As he was. talking,
Superior sat in the front
row, nodding seemingly
undiscouraged by his own
recent failure to run an
all-year Calypso Tent in
SNeither Stalin nor
,;Valentino, leading lights.'
:of .the PKC, appeared in
calypso tents during the
Carnival of '77. Quietly
but. surely over the last
,five years or so, both
singers have disengaged
from the calypso "rat
race", the hustle that
Valentino describes; "in
this Road March town."
They have now thrown
all their energies into the
Court, backed up by some
younger calypsonians, who
are not quite good enough
yet but are composing
and learning and seem
committed to working at
the calypso "new wave"
-which the PKC represents.


There is Warrior, with
"Santa Claus Is A Rip-Off
Man", a calypso that
reflects that NJAC poster
campaign of Christmas
'75. The calypso, which
sounds like an up-beat
Christmas carol, details
the economic mess Christ-
mas can create and
suggests that Santa Claus
and Burroughs should have
a chat in these "anti-
corruption" times.

A -

The finest cuts
Gents Suitings

Warrior's second song,
"Fix The Road Mr. Min-
ister", makes a direct link
between the awful state
of the roads and the soar-
ing "road deaths" statistics.
Following him is Com-
mentator, whose first song
"Anywhere you turn
today my people ketching
real hell."
The chorus on Com-
mentator's song sounds
like a stick fight chant:
Thousand more to come
The struggle ain't done
Thousand more to come
Thousand more
Thousand more
Thousand for liberation.







,' i

Stalin... no calypso season

appeared at his own show
in Queen's Hall two years
ago, the anger was blunt,
straightforward, strong,
but at times confusing.
His trust of the "brother-
hood" he was defining
appeared naive.
Last weekend, Valentino
was growing:
''Don't call me a brother
if you just come out to jester".
A lot of people, Valen-
tino said on stage that
night, had put their
"mouths" behind the
PKC at the beginning. A
lot- f it had turned out
to be just mouth.
SWhen Stalin, sang, it
was about / ,
'"a cut up, cut up, cut up ;
cut lip world that we living in."
-In "King Carnival",
Valentino subtly attacks
the commercialism as
caused by a King, whose
"Palace is the savannah
and office down on
Queen Street", and who
parades, 'once a year,
"through this Road March
It is Stalin, again, who
pinpoints the focal point
of the People's Kaiso Court
a part of Trinidad's
cultural identity is dying.

Steelband to Canada,
calypso to Antigua, limbo'
to Grenada.
Stalin sings:

'One morning when you wake up
you will hold your head and bawl
If I did know
I would hold on to meh steelband
and calypso."
On stage with Stalin as
part of the ,orchestra is
Boogsie Sharpe, "panist",
as Valentino introduced
him, for Phase Two Pan
Groove which, like The
Pandemonium, composed
its own tune for Pano-
rama- '77.


Stalin, Valentino, the
organizers and younger
,singers in the People's
Kaiso' Court are trying toX.-
rescue not just these
national arts,, calypso and
steelband, from perdition. '
They know that if these'.
arts die, a Trinidad spirit,
their own,dies also.

Raoul Pantin

Rootsman and Explainer
also appear and their songs
reflect the same anger,
protest, love that Stalin
and Valentino keep refin-
ing in their calypsoes.
W h e n Valentino


Valentino... anger was blunt







-.. : ~ *t:1 .. .

ONE way in which Spanish American writers
have addressed themselves to their history is
by an invocation of their ancestors. To
identify with one's grandfather or with a
"race" becomes a way of placing oneself in
the time-continum, and in the processes of
one's country or continent. Among the poets
who have done this are the poets. Pablo
Neruda, Nicholas Guillen, and Jorge Luis
Borges. What one perceives by an examination
of various poems by these writers is that
poets are often no more exempt from partisan
postures than other men.
Pablo Neruda wrote his General Song of
America over a number of years in the forties. He
was commissioned by the Communist Party of Chile
which he had recently joined to write a series of
historical poems about America which would render
an account of the struggle and situation of the
masses for a better life. The poem was also a personal
challenge to Neruda, in that his earlier work was
considered difficult poetry, both in style and subject
matter and therefore lacking in appeal to the com-
mon man. This was the formal problem Neruda
The historico-psychological problem he also
had to deal with was the problem of identification.
Like many creole nationalists, Neruda when he
looked back far enough into the past found that his
past started with the Conquistadors from Spain. To
cut the Gordian knot, he sought, like others before
him, to resolve the .matter by symbolically identify-
ing with the indigenous pre-Conquest peoples of
Neruda dramatized his quest into the past in
the form of a pilgrimage to an Inca fortress in Peru
called Macchu Picchu. This section, called "Heights
of Macchu Picchu" is considered by some critics as
the most interesting part of what is a very long
One problem posed for rile by Heights of
Macchu Picchu is that it is historically inaccurate.
SNeruda, writing not too long after Macchu Picchu
had been discovered, decided to hail these important
ruins as
Mother of stone, spume of condors
High reef of man's dawn
Lost jewel in the first sands.

Macchu Picchu. But arclieological findings indicate
that Macchu Picchu was built late in Inca times and
was only one of a string of fortresses which the Incas
erected as to house garrisons for protection against
unsubdued tribes. Next, Neruda addresses a question
to the ruins, taking them to represent American pre-
Conquest civilization
Macchu Picchu, you put
stones on stone, and at your base, a rag.
Hunger, coral of man
hunger, secret plant, root of the woodcutters
hunger, did your reef-like boundary
rise up these tall climbing towers?
These questions about hunger and deprivation in pre-
Conquest America are relevant to the general inten-
-tion of Neruda's poem because the poem was
intended to chronicle the injustices and oppression
suffered by American Everyman from the earliest
times to the present day. It is at the same time
noticeable that Neruda does not answer his own
question, although he proceeds as if the answer would
be affirmative:
John Stone breaker, son of Wiracocha
John Cold-and-Hungry, son of a green star
John Barefooted, grandson of the torquoise
Rise and come to life with me, brother.
The truth is that Neruda, in posing his question
specifically to Inca civilization, was embarrassing
himself. The Incas may have kept large numbers in a
state of regimented subjection, but the evidence
suggests that they- ook care to provide an adequate
diet for their subjects. It was the Spaniards who
destroyed the ecological balance in the areas formerly
controlled by the Incas and created economic pro-
Neruda, in fact, had hunger on his mind. When
he turned to the Conquistadors, his forefathers he
saw them among other things as hungry men.
The old hunger of Europe, hunger like the tail
of a death-dealing comet, peopled the ships
Beyond, beneath, far beyond the lice,
the feudal whip, the jails
the galleys full of excrement.
SNeruda also wanted to make a specific claim
to speak for the indigenous peoples, as their voice and
No one could
remember afterwards: the wind

forget them, the language of Water
was buried, the keys were lost
In other Words, he attaches ia myth of .origins to or were drowned in silence or blood.

The writer



The case




Although Neruda's claim is partly true, the extent to
which it is not true makes his attitude questionable.
If he had in fact visited Peru, and he surely did,
Neruda ought to have noticed that the Indian
population spoke Quechua and not Spanish,-and
more generally that Indian languages are spoken'in
many countries"of Spanish America, apart from the -
availability of records of the Indian past, both -
written and in the form of surviving objects. Poets,
like other people, ought to beware of talking, for ;

.z --- ;- ~-.PI:r- _- `i'.i--- '";~_.; -


"Like many creole nationalists, Neruda when he
looked back far enough into the past found that
his past started with the Conquistadors from Spain..
To cut the Gordian knot, he sought, like others
before him, to resolve the matter by symbolically
identifying with the indigenous pre-Conquest
peoples of America."

those about whom they know little or nothing.
Something similar, except more fatal, several
idealistic young Peruvian creoles in the sixties who
went into the mountains as guerrillas to "assist" these
same quechua-speaking ndians.' The creoles could not
speak quechua, and the Indians saw- no reason why
they ought to .trust these white creoles more than
anyone else. The Army therefore had no difficulty in
S -tracking the young idealists and either shooting or
imprisoning them. Much the same fate befell Che.
Guevara in Bolivia.
With the post Conquest period, Neruda on safer
ground dramatizes the image of the Indians as victims,
and the Spaniards as wild beasts with crosses in their
. hands

The butchers laid wastethe isles
Guanahani was the first

in this history of martyrdom.
The children of clay had their smiles
broken, their fragile deer-like
statue battered.
They were bound, and pierced
they were burnt and roasted
they were savaged and buried.
And when time had danced
its turning waltz among the palms
the green ballroom stood empty

Only the bones remained
rigidly fixed
in the form of a cross for the greater
Glory of God and men.

Only when he deals with the Araucanians of Chi
who fought the Spaniards fiercely does he offer
different image of the Indian, one with which 1
vicariously identifies: Referring to the capture as
ritual slaughter of the Conquistador Pedro de Valdivi
he writes:

Then we shared out the bleeding heart
I sank my teeth into the corola
fulfilling the rites of earth
Give me your coldness, wicked stranger
Give me the courage of the tiger
Give me the violence in hour blood
Send your death with me
to bring fear to your kind.
. Nevertheless is really not on a "rejection c
Europe" scene, although he starts off by taking
stance we associate with negritude. The great qualil
of the indigenous peoples was their closeness to 1
S earth, their sensitivity to the instinctual:
Man was earth, a vessel, the eyelid
of the quivering mud, a shape of clay,
Carib spout, Chibcha stone,
imperial chalice or Araucanian silex.
STherefore Neruda, in this tradition Neruda credits h
. European forebears with "cold intelligence".
Intelligence with a frozen thread
came after the slaughter, threading the day.
Beyond the flames and trampling horses
like to a spring illumined
by darkling blood
and together with the sword sadistically blandished
a light fell on the land:
number, name, line and structure.
. ....... .............
not only blood, but wheat blossomed.

Neruda ends up in the happy position o
denouncing the "colons" and accepting orie of th
defenses of colonialism: that it brought benefits t
the natives. The mention of wheat as one of th
benefits of civilization is worth noticing. Not so lon
ago, a governmental report in Mexico sought t
measure the extent of that country's development b
using as an index the percentage of the population
who used wheat floui. As is well known, the stap]
of the population is corn. But since the nineteent
century when evolutionary explanations were bein

sought for the supposed natural inferiority of native
American men as compared with Europeans, one.
explanation offered was that the European had
developed a superior brain and physique because of
his wheat diet. Neruda could have mentioned the
wheel or horses it is curious that wheat is .what
occurred to him.
Neruda has spoken of the writer in America
having an Adamic task: "It is easier for us to be sur-
realistic because everything we know is new. Our
duty, then, as we understand it, is to express what is
unheard of. Everything has been painted in Europe,
everything has been sung in Europe. But not in
America. In that sense Whitman was a great teacher".
e One must, however,indicate that if Neruda sees
e the creole writer as having an Adamic task, it is
he because he sees the creole writer as heir to the
a original colon from Spain. That is, he sees the original
Spaniard his forbear as two men bestial exploiter and
man taking possession of a New World.


This is well illustrated in two peoms he
,f devoted to Balboa, the first Spaniard to look upon
a the Pacific. In the first poem, Balboa is pictured as a
y wild beast "among the killer pack, your dog was
the your soul" whose fate is to be torn apart by another
group of mad-dog Spaniards, so that beheaded, his
dead eyes "fell along the lance/a blob of filth/which
disappeared into the earth". In the second poem
called "Homage to Balboa, the poet speaks for him
because. "in your eyes the marriage of extended
light, and the small heart of man was consummated,
is a cup never raised before wasfilled". Balboa, the
jaded adventurer, is the first poet of the Pacific, the
same Ocean to which Neruda has sung more than
any other poet.
Like some of the negritude writers, Neruda
rejected the Spanish past using the Spanish language.
and with less need of tension perhaps because his
forbears were Spaniards. As a creole poet, he only
put himself in problems by a too easy assumption of -
empathy with, an Indian past about which he knew '
little and an Indian present about which he seems to
have known almost nothing.
The truth is that the cultural framework within
f which most Sparish American writers operate is
e covered by the concept ofthe Latin diaspora. Within -
o this framework,"the Latin American remembers not
e only the hated. conquistador but the beloved-
g Quixote. And he affirms himself not only as heir to
:o Spain, but to the wider "Latin" world of France
y Greece and Rome. If the Spaniardis the father, the
n truly loved faster father lives in Pails, the cultural
le Mecca.
Sbe Continued
o To be Continued.


(Extract from "Douens")

ForAileen Goddard

... to walk across
a bridge of transparencies

step by step
like thumb and finger
a little boy
expounds in marbles
an infinite crossroad of crystals...

Just a spider
in its beginning unthreads
its house
to extend himself
makes breath a tangible river
of work words in silence
pass habit and finger
at the curve of the age old eye
crusted by too many suns...

stealthier. ..
even pollen was heard
to creep into their clove
with a thunderous dew
but not him...!
reaching under his.years
to feel the egg
still safe from slander and mud.
here too, a scorpion
trapped with tiny fish in her soft mouth
whose was I...
he was born in Gonzales
after a long night of quarrels...

next day with their hands akimbo
legs paced wide with gossip

like the old ravine
choked by the baptism of her waters...

they said more than they knew,
said less than what happened ...

old leather boots
outstretched by too many bunions
hoarse throat of rust milk tins
partly full with sand ....

by stone
knocked over
to settle with patient moss...

no more to say ..?-
no more than the owl
to a sling-shot

toting rab..
spider and snail retreat
with interiors..
so too the old door closed shut
quietly ...

the mouth with a religious oath
bound by one finger
said no more .. no more
than the solitary moon
left astrayin' in the dawn-teeth ..
no more than the initiate's
mock death.
where her seminal blood
shed its skin .-.

the morning mist
unlaced mount Zion
on the mourning ground.
but the rains
did bring mangoes...
listen with a dog's nose
gathering blood from dirt ..
amid her dancing blades
a voice of fingers flutes his ear
surrounds the kernel's eye
to break each seal
within its private thunder..
O ear, nose, eye, tongue, precious finger!


_I" i-c
:; f~"-,t '

-" I. -;



62 -22175


1: rd~-~t~Sirbic'f~~
: ~~~-C~ 'CIWC-
"' ''"' r. . \-* C


How about it for a Festival Seeson?



NEW umm Y
Tic rind %ind
II f' ,p

7~I K4-

~- L Ii *iAIIiAk.Ai.l:

Carapichaima residents find water for toilets and
dishes by re-opening wells from pre-tap days following stop-
page of pipe-borne since Feb. 10 and truck-borne since
beginning March. WASA spokesman says truck water due
every other day.
Two Trinidad-based Taiwan trawlers seized by Vene-
zuelan Coast Guard on way to fishing grounds in Guyana last
Friday. Crews identify their location as Trinidad waters.
Boats among'nine trawlers operated here by a Taiwan Co.,
employing 30 Taiwanese; they operate out of. National
Fisheries dock and supply shrimps for packaging and
export to National Fisheries Co. Ltd. Reportedly the first
time foreign boats seized; Trinidadian boats regularly
Pan Trinbago to ask Govt for more aid than-the
$115,000 allocated earlier this year, President Melville
Bryan reveals.
Guardian editorial sees upcoming elections as opport-
unity to streamline process of voting.
Letter to Guardian: Why can a Postman not head the
post office? -
Tony Cozier: West Indies must include spin bowler
S- in'4th Test. /
John dohn Youth Basketball. site td be demolished to
make way for Eastern Corridor.
S"Meals Out" included in C.S.O. Price Index.
SExpress Columnist: Opposition has brought new life
into IHouse.
S Union Park Race Club to operate off-track betting.
City Mayor Shivaprasad agrees to talk with business-
meni on parking meters.
Price of daily Guardian and Sunday Guardian go to
30 and 50 cents from April 1 & 3.
Parliament passes Bill establishing new W.I. Shipping
Business Senator Mouttet claims that recent CARI-
COM trade restrictions could cause TT to lose between
3,500 and 7,000 jobs. Tells Upper House that total grant to
Jamaica was actually 464m. to other CARICOM countries
$92m. proving commitment to regional body; in contrast,
Jamaica's 1975 trade fell by 58.6% to $69.5 in 1976,


"Escenas Antillanas," a
112-page Caribbean
Spanish Reader written '
by Hazel Moss of Barba-
dos and illustrated by
LennOx Honeychurch of
Dominica has just-been
released. It is published
jointly by --Columbus
Publishers Ltd. of Trini-
dad, and University
Tutorial Press Ltd.
The reader contains -
14 stories each set in the ,
Caribbean. They are -,
graded according to i
difficulty and include
many Latin American
words, structures and
ioioms. 1

.* :-

petroleum imports by 79.3% from $55.5m. to $11m. He sees
"a terrible risk" in supporting CARICOM with loans; warns
Ja. that a mad scramble for oil "could happen again" and
points out that the dollar value of licensed trade in 1977
meant lower real imports by Jamaica.
Mahabir reveals that AMOCO able to handle 300,000
barrels per day since 37m. investment in complex. Poui,
Samaan and Teak Fields now yield 130,000 barrels per day,
well over half national output. Govt. discussing with AMOCO
an ammonia plant and greater uses of natural gas.
27 Trinidad stamps expected to yield 81,600 in
London sale on April 21. Involved is the celebrated 5-cent
stamp of 1847.
STATT hopes to negotiate with CPO for salary
increase to 12,000 teachers in Easter vac. Seeking 60%
increase, 20% less than rivals (PSA and TTTU). Secretary
Mervyn Austin criticises Govt. for the habit of late negotia-
European Fund aids drought-ridden Jamaica baftana
industry 3.2m. loan for a 2,000-acre planting/project;
repayable in 40 years, with 10% grace period and 1%
interest per year. Another 700,000 to individual planters;
220 mini-dams to be built.
International. Bauxite Assdoiation of 11 member
countries meeting in Kingston. New pricing formula may be
considered and recommended to Council of Ministers. Sierra
Leone meeting last November sustained the then existing
minimum price formula. Each member has two reps. on
Board plus non-voting experts and advisors.
Spokesman says Guyana food shortage on the wane.
Food crisis committee headed by Consumer Minister King
still on the job.
Barbados sugar producers hopeful that bagasse may
be turned to synthetic gas and then to fertilizer ammonia
and other products following Conference on research results.

Express Opinion: Caribbean people need reassurance
that there is strength in unity; time for summit conference
on the new.economic problems.
Fred Mallalieu, outgoing President of the Trinidad
Chamber of Commerce, urges that Govt. revalue dollar to

$2 to US $1 to reduce imported inflation tor a penod ana
neip to reduce local inflation by way of "unrealistically high
wage increases."
IDC General Manager Warner replies, wondering how
revaluation would relate to the drive towards greater manu-
facturing exports.
Mahabir announces oil find on L-shaped block off,
south-east coast. Claim comprises 181,662, acres allocated
in 1971 to consortium of Trintoc (37 O%%).
Tesoro (25%) and Texaco 3712%%). Open to Govt to
take up 20% leaving Texaco 30%, Trint,- 30%, Tesoro 20%
to yield actual public holding of t0%. Govt. to take up
option only after petroleum found in commercial quantities
as defined in the licence. At Pelican 3 Field individual daily
rates of 14-18 m. cu. ft. of nat. gas, 730 to 1,020 bbqs. con-
densate; at Keskidee 16.2m. cu. ft of nat gas and 138 bbls.
of liquid hydrocarbons: finds at Ibis too.
Govt. to consider new refinery, Trintoc being unable
to input AMOCO crude. Piping natural gas to housing also
under consideration.
Dr. Oswin Rose appointed Director of Consumer Pro-
Rep. Fraser, PS for Culture, tomeet CDC: early start
-on 1978 Carnival problems. Chairman Lewsey calls for
Festivals Authority instead of mere Carnival Board.
-Nigeria Govt to shift back trom "new maths" in
school certificate after 1978. Commissioner for Education
Col. Dr Ali calls for appropriate Nigerian maths; sees danger-
of enslavement to computers.
S Jamaica Budget deficit in 1976 J556.4.;n financed
by borrowing from C. Bank (338), stock issues (105) and
foreign borrowing (97). Expenditure bPtween Apr. and Dec.
32.5% higher than 1975-76. Revenue 12.2% less despite
63.8% increase in consumption duties. Customs duties fell
by half from 66.5m. to 30.5m.
Venezuelan economy strained by simultaneous increase
in consumption standards and heavy public investment.
Massive investments in roads, railways, power stations, steel
mills, and petrochemical plants. Partly financed by foreign
loans. The target is a 9.2% increase in non-oil GDP. The
result a deteriorating balance of payments, due to imports
pnd debt. service and leading to reserve loss.

* '. .* .,






For The Best
Men's.Hair Styling


Whistling from

,' ,

-"Does the construction capacity exist for a simul-
taneous attack on housing, on water, on schools, on
telephones, on sporting facilities, on hospitals and
clinics, on the libraries and the public buildings
Which have bden recurred as, top priorities fbr over
ten years?"

Allrounder- paces N.E College

NORTH Eastern College
beat Progressive in the
Secondary School Com-
petition last week, thank's
to the allround perform-
ance by Andre Dasent.
Scores North Eastern 197
fot 5 dec. A. Dasent 95
n.o. D. 'Conally 29, D.
Singh 20, D. Negis 3 for
"62. Progressive 115; D.
S-Gangadeen 24, A. Dasent
7 for 27.
Other scores: Guaico
Pres 21 and 36; L. Bobb
11 for 25;J. Alexis 7 for
,24 Mathura Govt. 109;
C. Matthew 24, J. Alexis
18, L. Bobb 12; G.
Lochan 5 for 22; R.
SRamsingh 4 for 28.
S North East .College
124: V. Geelalsingh 36,

B. Maraj 20, E. Graham
22; N. Joseph 6 for 49.
TTEC 161 for 9; K.
Lynch 65, L. Dolabaille
37, O. Ramnarine 4 for
27, L. Blaize 3 for 24.
Village Council 109; L.
-Maraj 36, C. Mangra 20;
C. Daniel 2 for 2; R.C.S.
' 110 for 4; N. 'Goysine
26, S. Rampersad 24,
O Ramnarine 26 n.o.
Parkites 130 for 4 dec.
B. Clhatee 58 n.o., T.
Ramcharan' 32 Happy
Wear 88 for 8; S. Chatee'
4 for 18.
Enfield 54; F. Hosein
-22; R. Persad 7 for 1,6.
Bamboo No. 2 115; K.
Persad 31, Z. Mohammed ,
36; T. Smaroo 4 for 36,
- S. Paladee 4 for 30.


the pinkest of clouds

f Irol age 3
The waiting list lor tcl -
phones carries fully 30.000.
We have it on the autilhritl
'of the TELCO GM himself.
Relief will come when
S191m. have been spent
on 99,000 lines by 1980.
in time for the General
Elections. of course.
But what couldn't we tdo
to improve the .function-
ing of what we have now?
The waiting lists for
houses and playing fields
and gymnasiums are no
longer within the realm of
calculation. But there is
that famous S100m. for
sport and there will in
time be magic figures for
When was it that the
Special Correspondent of
the Sunday Guardian anti-
cipated the likely solution?
If the Government of
Trinidad and Tobago today
announces that it has
reached agreement with a
consortium of large-scale
builders to start immediate
construction of the 8,000
houses that Chaguaramas


is capable of holding, then
A' emrnight there would
h ....."(April 3. Page 3)
Yes. instant, magical.
apocalytic government is
the watchword. What you
can't produ-ce. just buy.
lasy come, easy go.
Butl what valid solution
is here involved? Does the
construction capacity exist
for a simultaneous attack
on housin*i, on water, on
schools, on telephones, on
sporting facilities, on hos-
pitals and clinics, on the
libraries and the public
buildings which have been
recurred as top priorities
for over ten years?
Do we have the engi-

i -,-


Animal and Poultry 'eed Depot

Local and Foreign Birds
Pets and Pet Supplies
Cor. E.M.Rd and Basilon St, Tunapuna
Telephone: 662-4039

Angostura Old Oak Rum
A mellow blend of light
Trinidad rums. Smooth.
clean tasting

..:r. ~ A wI~-''''

i <


Ibuiillcis. tie masons,. the
carpenleis: the tinker, and
tail,)rs andt candle.ltiik-
'And if we did spend
those huge sums on all
"those projects. what would
we generate in the way of
consumer spending. im-
ports, prices, traffic con-
gestiqn, the demand for
holiday facilities, the com-
petition for business
control, etc.?
Perhaps nobody can
even guess at valid Tore-
casts, estimates and
answers. But -at least a
few of us should come
down from the cloud and

-~- --ii

Bright star

CRICKET fans in
Sangre Grande are
singing the praises of
a new talent that they
say is a real prospect
for the Benson and
Hedges Youth Com-
His name is Andre
Dasent and he is 15

years old.
Dasent is a student
at North Eastern Col-
lege. He also plays for
Young Progressive
Sports Club in the
Championship Division
of the St. Andrew
County Cricket Com-
In the Colleges'
League this year,
Andre scored 95 n.o.

rises in the

against Progressive
Institute of Port-of-
Spain, and 41 against
San Juan Secondary.
In the St. Andrew
Competition he has so
far hit 32 against
Invincible, 89 n.o.
against Dreadnaught
and 34 against All
In addition to having
such an appetite for
runs, Dasent is also a

shrewd spin bowler
who has already taken
20 wickets this season
with chinamen and
The reports are that
this young star is
improving every match
with bat and ball.
Andre Dasent hopes
that scouts will- soon
give him an opport-
unity to demonstrate
his promise as an all-

Bogart Permanand
In the first-round games of the 1977 Progressive Youth
Movement Season on March 20 and 27, honours were
even between bat and ball. Top performers were Horace
Bogart with 63 n.o. for Lower Mt. D'Or vs I.Y.M., and
Naresh Permanand who returned 14 for 45 for York-
shire vs Victorians.
Detailed scores were:
MELBOURNE 106 and 78 for 4;R. Seebrath 41; J.
Thomas 5 for 63 Mico E.Y.M. 159; A. Morello 34, R.
Cassim 3 for 19.
. HILLTOPPERS 77 and 88 for 9; W. Barker 42 n.o.
R. Gookool 6 for 27.
ARANGUEZ 153 for 5 dec. V. Bhaggan 60.
VENUS 151; L. Motilal 41, S. Singh 3 for 21.
BLACKPOOL 68; D. Gomez 6 for 17.
VICTORIANS 84 and-85 S. Gunpat 33 and 21, M.
Permanand 14 for 45.
YORKSHIRE 156; N. Permanand 46, S.-Gunpat 6

top in PYMleague
for 63.
MALICK 158 and 67 for 5; H. Mannah 36, B.
Alfonso 7 for 95.
SILVER MILL 230 for 9 dec. G. Dharson 56, A.
Morreia 39, A. tumberbatch 3 for 66.
HOLIDAY GARMENTS I.Y.M. 86 and 56 for 4; J.
Mohammed 35 n.o. B. Williams 6 for 30, J. Wilson 4 for
LOWER MT D'OR 167 for 2 dec. H. Boggart 63
n.o., D. Pirtheefingh 44 n.o.
METRO 133 and 79 for 8 dec. B. Sookram 46, S.
Sookram 39 and 28, S. Daniel 6 for 32, F. Khan 5 for
WILTSHIRE 98 and 97 for 7; S. Daniel 42, J.
Sookram 4 for 33.
EL SOCORRO SOUTH 35 and 60; J. Abdool 5 for
17, S. Maharaj 3 for 16, B. Boodoo 4 for 37.
SOLO PIONEERS 121 for 6 dec. N. Samai 38 n.o.


111 :lfl I!~IFI t

been selected for special
coaching and -for pos-


AL Personial Productive Loans
A Personal checking accounts
A Bankable business loans
A Business checking accomur.-
A Savings Account, from $1
A Fixed Deposits from $100
,A.Chaconia Accumulator Plan
a type of "Sou-Sou" from
Rank Nati'nal (Corrim c iaI Bi anlk

$40 per month o T I I i l,
of Trinidad & T
A Travellers Cheques
4lmport Financing We Bank wit
A Export Financing Nation's Inte
Your Interest-In r
SLetters of Credit
.A.Personal Financial Advice
A& Business Finance Advice
A All other commercial banking
services B ank


N.C.B. of T & T.60 Independence~ : latll building: Ridgewood naza. rm; Cor. High GPeni tene Sts..San Femando..


h the
rest -


sible selection on the
Wes Hall Team for the
North/East Zone.
Hopefully some of
them will also make the
Trinidad Under 16 Team
later this season.
The special coaching
will begin on Thursday
April 7 at the Ojoe
R o a d' Recreation
SGround, Sangre Grande.
After a screening of
55.youngsters last Mon-.
Sday, the 30 wre'pladed. .:;
in the care of-'Coaches.---
S Cecil Rampersad' and
David Muffet. -
The list is as follows: -
S. Rambaran, A. Dasent,
D: Conally, M. All,.H. "
Murray, .G. George, A. .
Ramnarine, M. Chait-
ram, B. Alexander, K.
Smith, R. Guevara, D.
Finch, C. Joshua, P.
Lee, L. Charles, R.
Goysine, B. Cassa, D.
Hosany, A. Beharry, J.
Singh, L. Ramlogan, J.
Ali, L. Marin, J. Cook,
M. Campbell, R. Mungo,
S., Mitchell, S. Gyan,L.
Aberdeen, and J. Ram-



Cor. Edward Lee
Cipero Streets

Main Road



Phone 649-5847
Santa Flora

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Memories of a bygone era when Trinidad sent some of its finest stars to the
West Indies team Constantine, Stollmeyer, Gomez.
(Picture courtesy PEOPLE magazine)

TWICE within recent times
against Pakistan and
against Barbados in the
Gillete Cup final we
saw indifferent batting
from the Trinidad players.
All cricket fans were left
to gaze, in a daze, and
Against Pakistan, the
"spin" in the pitch was
given as the excuse and
against Barbados the
Fielding of the Bajans,- a
View expressed by none
other than the President of
- the West Indies Cricket
Board of Control, Jeff
The fielding of the'Bar-
badians was indeed superb
only excelled perhaps by
the field placing of the
Barbados captain.
But this cannot excuse
the indifferent showing of
the Trinidadians. Some of
the most atrocious strokes
and pathetic run-outs ever
seen took place during
these games.
An ex-West Indian in-,
temational and Trinidad
player for many years
-describes batting as 30%
technique and 70% applica-
tion, and he should know.
This formula should be
modified to read 30%
technique, 65% application
and 5% inspiration.
Lack 'of application,
which is just another word
for self-discipline, was
largely responsible for the
down fall of most of our
batsmen. Very few are
really physically fit -part
and parcel of self-discipline
and above all seem very
content to get 20 or 50,
then chuck it.

To a great extent local
sports writers contribute
to this approach, as any-
one who makes 40 in a
trial game is generally
praised far above what his
actual performance merits
- and gets his picture in
the papers to boot.
In effect, they accept
and praise second-rate -
performances. No wonder
the newspapers themselves
find it necessary to have
foreign correspondents re-
port even on matches
played here.
But isn't this generally
true of our society? Lack
of respect for, authority
and for our fellowmen and
a total lack of application
to the job have 'become
the norm. These were
evident in the approach
to their tasks of most
Trinidad batsmen.,
To crown it all, one
player received his medal,
dressed like a cheap chorus
girl with a sweater on and
nothing underneath.
This lack of respect for
the representative of Gil-
lette in Trinidad, the
President of the West
Indies Cricket Board of
Control and the President
of the Queen's Park Cricket
Club is again symptomatic
of the general malaise and
discourtesy for those in
Managers and captains
of teams seem unable to
cope with this sickness.
The paucity of reserves-
and we are scraping the
bottom of the barrel -
makes the enforcement of
discipline difficult.
"How you played the
game"no longer matters.

The fighting spirit so
characteristic of the Andy
Ganteaume, the Gerry
Gomez, the Rupert Tang
Choon are- now merely
memories of a bygone
era. The team no longer
S The monetary allow-
ances, the cheers from the
crowd for.the odd good
stroke and the occasional
visit to one of the terri-
tories- competing in the
Shell Shield competition
seem to be all that Trini-
dad cricketers want out of
the game.

And that 5% inspira-
tion. Our present captain
was an absentee landlord
and could hardly be ex-
pected to mould the team
in order to ensure acute
physical fitness and to
develop the team spirit
necessary for self-discipline.
I. do not know whether
he will be playing first-
class cricket next year. If
he does, and now that he
no longer has. overseas
commitments he may be
able to rectify these short-
comings for the- Shell
Series in 1978.

But Murray cannot do
it alone. He must have the
help of some of our more
recent Test "heroes" who
must give something back
to the game which gave
them so much
They must assist at net
and fielding practices.
They must impart to the
Trinidad team the know-
ledge and experience gained
on playing fields all over
the world.
Tn short, they are the
ones who must inspire.
They owe it to themselves
and to- Trinidad aind
Tobag) cricket.

I .

--;,. .i- at F-I C~-6_r T?-;~~:





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( i




LLO1 and his men have
an opp :rtunity to demon-
strate to their detractors
that the performance in
England last year which
prompted some comment
tators to dub them a
"great" team was no mere
flash in the pan.
So far in this series they
have at moments lifted
their supporters to ecstatic
heights and at others
plunged us all into the
depths of dismay.
Impossible, it seems, to
put a binding classification
on them..But now with
two days left to play in
this the penultimate Test
of the series, only a great
team, it. seems, can wrest-
victory away from' the
increasingly confident
Pakistanis and prevent the
final Test in Jamaica from
being scheduled for six
Pakistan grabbed hold of
this Test by the scruff of the
neck thanks mainly to a stir-
ring allround performance by
their skipper.-
Coming into this Test with
only 96 runs from his 6 Test
innings so far and a bag of five
wickets Mushtaq scored an
unspectacular but thoroughly
efficient 121 to see his teina
from a shaky 51 for 3 to 341
all out halfway through the
second day.
Then, while at one end his
Fast 'bowlers -provided an
object lesson in thoughtful,"
effective seam bowling in con-
ditions tailored for it, he at the.
other spun his, way through
the gingerly defenses of the
W.I. middle and lower drder to
finish with 5 for 28.
Those who would still argue
about who is and who is not a'
Genuine Test allrounder will
Snote hat this was the second
time he had scored a century
and taken 5 wickets in a Test,
a feat equalled only by the
peerless Sir Gary Sobers.
The Pakistan second innings
i,. as yet incomplete but
Miahtaq (44 n.o.) seems cer,
tain to get at least a half
Century here. The evidence
:of the first innings suggests,
that hell be among the wickets
in the 2nd innings as well-
which means that, whatever
the. result, this is going to be
an unforgettable match for, at
least, Mushtaq Mohammed.
When the Pakistanis shall
have completed their second
innings, the W.I. batting
phalanx is likely to find itself
faced with the task of scoring
some 450-500 runs in about
10 hours, a task unenviable
enough to make the pundits'
facile prognoses about defeat-
We will doubtless be
reminded that only three times
have 400 plus been scored in
the fourth innings of a Test
and only twice -as victory
thus achieved, a statistic that's
fast becoming as cliched as the
adage about the game's
"glorious uncertainties" and
which, like it, conceals at least
as much as it reveals.
The boot, however, might
well have been on the other

foot had Lloyd, having won
the toss, opted to do no more
than, as W.I. Grace, I think,
counsels, "consider" putting
the opposition in.
True enough, all that has
been said about the fate of
teams batting first in this
season's games at the Oval;
true too what has been said
about the team that has batted
first in the series so far; also
true that there was moisture
in the air and moisture in the
wicket, exploitable by quick
What, less mentioned,
is also true is that this early
pace in the wicket is exploit-
able by batsmen who like to
drive through the ball; true too
that the opposition's spin
department has shown itself
capable of exploiting a wearing
wicket as have their pacemen;
also true and this, in our
view, is the clincher it is they,
the opposition, as we pointed
out in these pages last week,
who are one down in the
series and must therefore go
for broke.
Surely it was defensible to
bat first and that, in the cir-
cumstances, was reason
Still,/having been put in,
they ought not to.have scored
341 after Roberts had dismis-
sed both Sadiq and Zaheer
with only 19 on the tins. But
Fredericks dropped a crucial
catch as-did Lloyd twice in
the 2nd innings in the gully
from Haroon off Roberts.
Roberts, luckless as ever,
was visibly-disappointed and
Pakistan were let off the hook
by this delay in the entry of
the struggling-for-from Mush-
Curiously, when he did
come, in half an hour or so
later he was not asked to face
Roberts who despite his early
successes did not have a second
spell.before lunch.
Lloyd clearly intended to
justify the inclusion of Inshan
One wonders what had
happened between the end of
the First Test and the start of
the Fourth to account for the
selectors' change of heart).
Playing in the 12th Test of
his career (7 times at the
Queen's Park Oval!), Inshan
indisputably, bowled better
than he's ever done in a Test
here. Absent was'the generous
serving of long hops and full
tosses as he spun his way to
Absent too, however, were
the unplayable googlies spin-_
ning across the defensive for
ward prod of the nonplussed
batsmen and bringing an audible
gasp from several thousands
throats in unison.
In short, Inshan demon-
strated that he is resolved to
sacrifice the "extra" spin for

greater control which, in the
light especially of his desultory
success in his "old" style, is
Ultimately, however, it may
work against.him for one gets
the impression that he is
developing tidiness as an alter-
native to penetrativeness rather
than as its inevitable compan-
ion. The genuine Test spinner
must perforce be able both to
keep his end tight difficult
as that may seem for the wrist
spinner, it is eminently feasible,
as Mushtaq nas demonstrated
more than once in this sees
and to skittle the batting as
the need arises.
Speculating on the reasons
for the change in style, one
cannot but feel that at the
root of it lies a basic insecurity
born of so many rejections
after one or two Tests and
nourished latterly by the
totally unexpected omission
from the second .Test.
Be that as it may, it was a
perplexing decision to claim
the new ball on Saturday
morning at the outset of the
68-run eighth wicket partner-
ship. Inshan had bounced
back from an early trouncing
by Raja to claim his and,
shortly afterwards, Imran's
Mushtaq was clearly not at
ease against him. The only
explanation that occurs to me
is that Lloyd suddenly remem-
bered Mushtaq's earlier vulner-
ability against the quickies and
said to himself "ah-ha!":
Ah-ha captaincy, character-
ized by its almost total depen-
dence on tactics without any
informing strategy, by the
absence of thorough thought
and, therefore, a manifest lack
of patience, explains too
Saturday evening.
Kallicharan. still struggling
to find himself and un-
characteristically overly
cautious about leaving his
crease to the spinners, finally
succumbed to Mushtaq's
subtle pressures at 5.20 p.m.
Instead of coming to the
wicket himself what better
situation can there be for a
captain to show his mettle? -
Lloyd asked-ah-ha! Garner
to go in as nightwatchman.
A nightwatchman is, almost
by definition, expendable;
Garer, as a cursory look at his
scores this season, will attest
(10 for the President's XI, 43,
0, 36, 4 in the Tests) is good
for 30 or 40 runs on his day.
Inshan Ali who knows what
a straight bat is and is good for
at best 20 runs was the obvious
choice for nightwatchman if
nightwatchman there was to,
Unwittingly, Lloyd himself
underlined the unsoundness of
the earlier decision when two
balls later at the fall of Garner's
wicket he and not another
nightwatchman strode to the

All in all, though, Lloyd's
captaincy was better than in
the previous Test. There was
so far been far greater sensitir-
ity to the needs of the situa-
tion, more judicious use of the
bowling resources and rather
less slavish orthodoxy in the
disposition of the field.
It never quite, however,
earned the epithet 'imagina-
tive' although the catch for
which silly mid-off has been
patiently waiting since the
Second Test is surely 'imagin-
Another area in which
Lloyd continues to fall short
is with regard to guidance and
instructions for the two green-
homs, who for all their success
in terms of wickets so far this
season, are but recruits against
the professionalism of Majid,
Zaheer, Mushtaq, Sarfraz and
Imran and Fredericks, Kallicha-
ran, Lloyd, Richards, Murray
and Roberts.
How often have we seen
both Croft and Garner bowling
their hearts out in search of a
wicket when to have bowled
a maiden was an achievement?
How many times have we
seen them bowl to Raja, the
left-hander, exactly as they
had been bowling to Majid
dnd Mushtaq, right-handers?
Have we ever got the impres-
sion that they were attempting
to set -up the batsman to be -
slaughtered at the other end?
Is there anyevidence that, in
lieu of the necessary first-
hand experience garnered over
many years in the craft, the
leadership is supplying them
with the. vicarious experience of_
alien conditions and new con-
Is there evidence, indeed,
that the concept of foils, fun-
damental as it is, is understood
by the leadership? Oh for
Clyde Walcott, Wes Hall or Sir
Gary as manager/coach!
Our batting looked woefully
unable to cope with the unusual
conditions existing in this
match. By the time we got in
to bat, the pitch had lost its-
early life.
Once the early sheen was
gone off the ball as well,
Imran Khan began to get pro-
gressively more difficult to get
away, concentrating as he was
on nagging accuracy and
length and using the seam to
Greenidge did not, as might
have been expected, fall prey
to the swinging ball (as did
Fredericks and, later, Richards).
But his dismissal did not do
anything to scotch fears about
his vulnerability against it.
Shillingford was less impres-
sive than on his debut and
seemed quite unable to do
more with the seamers than
keep them out of his wicket-
Doubtless convinced that all
his runs would have to come






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our rod 112 her st. I

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off the spinners, he quite
injudiciously ran down the
wicket to' Mushtaq and, like
both openers before him, gave
his wicket away.
Lloyd played an uncharac-
teristically restrained knock, as
much the result of the weight
of responsibility on his
shoulders as of the bowlers'
He seemed surprised that
Gosein did not give him the
benefit of the doubt for the
second time Sunday morning.
Neither Murray nor the
bowlers could moun fL`tie --
hoped-for resistance this time
and the innings folded at 154,
the lowest total of the series
so far.
Needless to say, this does
not augur wellTor our chances
of saving the game winning
it can only be realistically
countenanced when it is safe.
On the credit side, there's
the ever-increasing maturity of
approach by the batsmen in
general and Fredericks in part-
,Richards must now be due
for a big score; Lloyd may
choose this-innings to produce
another of his 'magnificent'
On the credit side too, is
the fact that in the Prudential
Cup series ii England, Murray
and Roberts defied this attack
for a sustained period as did
Murray, Roberts, Garner and
Croft in Barbados in February.
To balance the accounts,
there is Greenidge, who for
all his recent bluster in Bourda,
really lacks the wherewithal to
do well against this attack with
his back to the wall.
Kallicharan's leader-footed-
ness has been construed by
some as bespeaking more than- -
just a lack of fori.
Still, the sword hanging over
him as well as what failure
means in terms of bread and.. -
butter may just, together, cause W '--
the penny to drop for him now.
Thus, i saving the game-
deperids to a large extent on
Fredericks, Richards and Kalli-
charan and, to a lesser extent,
Murray, Roberts and Garner.
If we are to have any chance
of winning it can we even
think about after seeing
Imran's, Sarfraz's and Mush-
taq's 1st innings spells? -
Lloyd's uncanny flair for rip-
ping an attack to shreds is our
only trump.
Unless the rest of the Pakis-
tan batting collapses dramatic-
ally tomorrow morning, well
have little choice but to save
this trump to make game
instead of using it to try to
hang Mushtaq's jack.
Of the other factors, the
pitch with its progressively
lower bounce is going to help
Pakistan more than it helps
The rain can help either
team depending on whether it
falls steadily or intermittently
over the next two days.
For as long as the threat of
rain remains a threat it will be a
boon to Pakistan for surround-
ing gloom nurtures a sense of
inner gloom, certainly not an
asset to a team struggling to
bat for 10 hours to save a
The final factor is the
umpiring. Well, the pitch i
favours Pakistan and the
weather is both-sided.


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