Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00254
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Publication Date: Sunday, May 15, 1977
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
sobekcm - UF00072147_00254
System ID: UF00072147:00254

Full Text

Vol. 7. No. 20

SUNDAY MAY 15. 1977

&EW YORK 21, N. y.

S: _.

EVEN AS plans are afoot
to remove the Drag
Brothers from downtown
Port-of-Spain, thus end-
ing their six-year stay
there, new small traders
are moving onto the city
The Drag Brothers were
inspired by and -found
their market as a result of
that historic season of
Black Power and African
culture consciousness that
we saw in the early 1970s.
These brothers, caught
by Gary Woo Chong's
camera on Independence
Square last Saturday, are
taking advantage of an
annual season of abun-
dance the mango


Helped on by this long
dry spell, tons of the fruit
are ripening on trees all
over the country.
Tons more will fall to
the ground there to rot,
unharvested, even as we
go on importing apples,
tinned pineapples etc. and
even as in fruit-poor
CARICOM states like
Antigua and Barbados,
mangoes fetch handsome
Soon after Lloyd Best
made this point in his

S .;

column-some weeks ago,
Caribbean CONTACT
editor Ricky Singh,
motoring through Tuna-
puna, dropped by TAPIA
office to see if the reports
of mango-abundance were
Alas, Singh was a bit
too early at the time, and
Best last week invitedthe
Guyanese editor to return

out of newspapers and the
formation of new news-
papers finds a parallel in
the country's advertising
Between 1973 and 1976,
three new agencies opened
in Port-of-Spain. At least
two of the new agencies
were started by former
employees of other
These are figures in a late
1976 paper by Gordon Draper
of the UWI School of Manage-
ment, entitled "Advertising in
Trinidad Structure and
Draper sees this trend of
advertising personnel walking
out and doing their own thing
as "evidence of a growing
restlessness within many of the
existing agencies, where creative

to the Tapia House
grounds any time now.
"Just remember to
leave some space in your
car trunk," Best added.
Meantime, Best said he
would welcome talks with
any well-meaning entre-
preneur willing'to under-
take the processing of
mangoes into punches,
jellies, juices etc.

staff are finding their creativity
trampled by traditional proce-
dure, and continued attempts
to impose foreign value sys-
It was in the mid 1940s
when Colonial Advertising
opened its doors as the first
.agency in Trinidad and Tobago.
There are now 13 agencies


Advertising is one of the
fields where multinational
firms have established them-
selves, having come initially
to service their multinational
customers operating branch
firms here.
The lack of creative opport-
unity which has led to the





a bow



of the

big bad


Paper office

moving to POS

exodus of advertising people
goes back to the early function-
ing of these branch plant
agencies here.
According to Draper, "they
were merely placement agen-
cies, responsible for checking
that pre-made advertisements
were run properly. The industry
has the beginnings of its
present lack of creativity in
this time.
"Creative work consisted of
adopting a foreign advertise-
ment, probably by dubbing in
local words, later voices."
In time the multinational
agencies entered partnerships
with locals in the firms, but
this localisationn", as it
appeared in advertising, did
not change either the manage-
ment practices or the "foreign
dependency syndrome".

THE Tapia print-shop and
editorial offices are to be
moved from Tunapuna to the
Port-of-Spain Centre on Cipri-
ani Boulevard.
This was decided by a May
8 meeting which also appointed'
a five-man committee to pilot
the party's publishing opera-
tions through all stages of a
complete reconstruction.


,-The shift of printing and
publishing activities to Port-of-
Spain will free the Tapia House
in Tunapuna of much unwel-
come industrial hardware and
,open the way to a revival of
the cultural and community
activity for which the political
headquarters came first to be
In the months following the
hectic election campaign of
1976, party Treasurer. Ivan
Laughlin has consistently can-
vassed for a return to the early
pattern of Tapia party life.

-5 (C I:,.



four roads 112, henry st. 42, eastern mn. rd. cross crossing

lI enwl'n u o
A s $ A11



De-'r Editor,
: find it dangerously mis-
lea ng to suggest, as Lennox
-; Grant did last week, that our
home-grown capitalists are in
any way scared of Panday and
the United Labour Front.We
refer to your front-page piece
entitled "MP Shah versus the
WI Erics".
The mere mention of Shah,
.- --- George Weekes and other ULF
"- names instils fear, you-say, in
the hearts of nervous capitalists
' -here. Is that so?
Maybe some were fooled in
S the very early days. But all
who took notice of the last
days of the general election
carhpaign soon understood how
the politics here really works.
Even-people inside the ULF
are now -understanding the
"realities" as they are so
sweetly called -these days. The
latest talk is that Panday has
-- -' now "shifted from the left."
-What the realities really
mean is that the ULF arose as
an overnight crowd-party based
.. on-'all the traditional emotions
Sof the Caroni sugar-workers.
The so-called left-wingers who
failed with the WFP found in
_. this new-styled DLP a conven.
.ient .horse to ride against the
equally traditional 1956 Move-
ment, _.which jives -by faring
the resentments of the black,
urban population.


It is now being frankly
admitted that the yeast of the
S -new Caroni Moviement has
S. been the Pandaymania wnich
:., -resulted from Panday's double-_
crossing bf All-Trinidad's Ram-
S: partapsingh. .-
i Once the All-Trinidad Union
c : ame alive.-the Bhadase-gap
w .. was filled. As Peter Farquhar
Slightly predicted, Williams then
s: tepped into action, gave-
Panday his 1QO%, 'and once-
S more created a Rudranath
What, Williams. understands
Sis that aniifer Caroni party,
another :Bhadase, another
S Capildeo, are all another road:



And General I
No.5 (oncessi

to Opposition' ruin, another
guarantee of enduring domina-
tion by the big-shots in'St.
George and, above all, another
easy way of guaranteeing the
:African vote for an iniquitous,
incompetent and discredited
administration. -
What Williams understands.
as 'Earquhar understands and
CLR J ames.understood, ii that
*you c-annot create a multi-
racial.party by biinging in the
POPPG or the Liberals or the
: Richardson and- Simbhoo-
nath and Lequay tried to entice
the Tapia Movement into just
that kind of arrangement but
Talia: politely declined the
offer and stayed in the Upper
House without any deals what-
Weeks and Young and
Lennox Pierre, Millette and


nis for: -

s Representatives
insurance Agents
or Rd. Sea Lots,

Jacobs- Alexander and Nunez,
and people like John Humphrey
-and Raffique Shah, for all their
reservations in private, have
publicly kidded themselves that
Panday could and would create
a multi-racial Opposition by
"the right nominations to.the
The hope against all hope
was that the black campus
radicals and the bladk lumpen-
proletariat and same 'of the
black power people would join-
up with the party and give class .
politics a-victory over racegive
Weekes, and/or Millette a powei
base at last, and of course, cut
the "cunning"; Panday, down -
to size in the bargain.


SThat was the thinking (and
Sthe whispering); those were the
calculations and projections of
real-politik, of the. practical,
political men of the le.
SWell, the realities -, r very'
different and nobody under-
stands that better than the
oligarchy of exploiters who
know that the true obstacle to
a radical reconstruction of our
economics ard our politics, to,
a more equitable social order
and to a fully valid cultural
revival is that yawning gulf of
suspicion that separates the
African from the Indian. .

Nobody --understands that
better than the greedy margin
merchants who have no. use
whatsoever for real freedom of
enterprise, oi for any breaking
of the bonds which shackle our
creative powers.
Nobody understands it
better than those of the bureau-
crats, the technocrats and the
professionals and, .the public
relations people who thrive on
this mindlessi~ulture. -
: Nobody understands it better
than that clique .of political
people who dominate and
manipulate the Government
machine. -
Nobody understands it
better than the Special Corres-
pondent himself, whose job is
Sthe dirty -little -assassinations
which appear in- the Trinidad
and the Sunday Guardian.
We draw your -attention to
the Trinidad Guardian on-
Saturday April 30, 1977 where
a review of the local-govern-
ment elections is entitled "A
Vote for -Freedom and Dem-
Reckless of contradictions,
the Correspondent celebrates
the PNM victory. A vote for -
democracy; for the "orienta-
tion of our leaders to the
economics of nationhood in
which private initiative must -
at all times be encouraged,
developed, protected.'. ."


The Special Correspondent
felt that somehow PNM had
not been delivering enough 6of
such democracy. "There is still
too much government interfer-
ence in enterprise . and
-democratic leaders .. are
elected (as well) . to build
democracy and in so doing to
build personal- confidence and
On the other hand, the ULF
is attacked for its penchant for
state control. Ostensibly, the
Special Correspondent is afraid
of the "far left ideology"
purveyed by this vibrant new
Opposition party.
But we wonder. Not so
much because Special Corres-
pondent embraces George
Weekes for wanting to bring
efficiency to the ULF-control-
led County Councils. No not

that, but the indecent haste, -.
t- summary way in which
Correspondent just dismisses
the rest of the opposition.
"We are not prepared," it is
written,- "to commiserate
(sympathise) with the splinters
who-by now should realise
that they are not only wasting
our time when they keep trying
to resurrect the dead . ..any
remaining vestiges of these
splinters -should realise that
they are just that,..."
Bravo for democracy. Why
on earth should these insignifi-
cant little minorities seek any
political representation? Bravo
for'democracy again. Vote for
Democracy and Freedom.
Vote for money-spinning,
vote, for the two-party system
which keeps the races apart.
Vote, fer the theatrics which
.keeps injustice table and gives )
"us the rhetorical d6mocraqy off


Vote for the current. ULF
as the model ',Opposition
because, for all its workiig-class -
sloganeering, its chance bf
upsetting the ruling-pa#ir is the-
chance of a snow-ball in hell. .
Special Correspon'dent too,
obviously, is a-master of real 7-
politik. He- knows where his
bread is buttered. -
He sees -that among the,:
splinter-parties are forces which
are appealing to the individual
conscience and which therefore :
constitute ..the only" serious
imenace to the stability of the ...
racial regime.
It is therefore a very serious -
error for any one to buy'-the
easy interpretation that Special
Correspondent's "capitalist"
mnasters- are afraid of the.
' "socialist" -objectives .-set out -.
'by the United Labour Front. "
It is indeed a'_veryserious
-error to believe in the contexlt.,
of Trinidad and Tobago, that'-
capitalists and communists (or -
socialists) are necessarily differ.
ent breeds with contradictory
political interes~... ''.
In fact, wp see no usgfild :
purpose in distinguising
,between the two. At the
moment, thepimnary contradic-
tion is between hforces- which
may be found in the ranks of
either, whether communists -
and capitalists.


In other words, in Trinidad .-
,and Tobago, we need a new
classification to separate those -
who do not want a different
and better Trinidad and Tobago-
from those who clearly., do,
whichever Is the camp in which,
they currently are tapped.
This kind of understanding
of the politics makes it relatively
easy to forecast what our Eric -
would have done had a Shah
been invited here to speak on
a Bishop platform. We put our
neck on the block that the
colourful ex-lieutenant would -
have been accorded an easy
passage, infinitely more smooth
in fact, than was accorded-to .
Stokeley Carmnichael. "
A Black revolt against a
black government would upset
the model Athenian democracy.
But anything or anyone
who, whatever his intentions,-..
keeps sugar "in-politics", as it
was put in the Budget Speech
of 1958, is a godsend to those
who live by keeping the people
Uoyd Best & Lloyd Taylor-.

r----r--- 4--~~~,_

Your family

is well fed



on bread

---- I---~


ON MY OWN SCENE ... Lloyd Best

The age of the Julien

Super-Plan: How William

Demas must be laughing!

Dr. Ken Julien
THESE MUST be happy
days for civil servants. In
the current wage negotia-
tions, Mr. Manswell confi-
dently expects to have
most of his proposals
accepted. And then we
have it on the authority
of the Chairman of the
National Advisory Council
that "to reform the public
service is impossible."
Cause for rejoicing. But
none has better cause than
the leaders of traditional
planning, as Dr. Kenneth
Julien so rightly calls it.
Wherever he is now, Mr.
Demas must be laughing.
And Mr. Frank Rampersad,
Mr. Eugenio, Moore, Mr.
Doddridge Alleyne, Mr.
Harold Fraser, Mr. J. O'Neil
Lewis and the old-guard
of the five-year develop-
ment plans.
Their dreams have all
come true, for at last the
National Advisory Coun'cil
is ABOUT to deliver for
this country the plan to

to d9 is to assassinate all
the previous generations of
ivory-tower, planners, and
rationalise the chaos in the
public service caused by
the survival of crown
colony politics and crown
colony administration.
Above all, we intend to
whitewash the 'indiscretion
committed by the Minister
of Finance when in the
Budget Speech, he advanced'
all kinds of spurious argu-
ments in the defence of the
Government's failure at
planning. And wait till we
do all that!
"If we can do all that,
we may be able to switch
the emphasis from the
mere writing of plans, as
well written as they were,
to getting pr-grammes
implemented," said Dr.
Thankyou, John Babb,
for- such faithful and loyal
reporting. The incoherence
and the illiteracy have
come through loud and

We can now sit back
and feel the impact of
writing the Five-Year Plan
in a somewhat different
Parliament will now
have a document drawing
the programmes and pro-
jects together into a coher-
ent whole where the ups
and downs of Adhocracy
and Doctocracy will frus-
trate any rational adoption
of targets, sequences and
Parliament will now
have a document drawn
up, by independent-minded
people so that there will
no longer be any need to
find a system of govern-
ment, politics and admin-
istration which would
activate the civil servants,
the Business Advisory
Council, the Labour
Advisory Council and all
those carrydowners who
deliberately -sabotaged the
Demas plans.
-Parliament will now

have a document which
need, not take account of
the 'fact that the economy
is still highly open.
It is true that when we
established the plan for
the Special Funds, we
argued that we could not
know how the price of oil
would move and therefore
how long the oil bonanza
would last.
But now we can be
reasonably certain of
plenty of foreign exchange.
So never mind the open-
If the people are willing,
we can now have a surplus
of water by 1982; we can
now even have a humane
society, we can be "careful
that the old materialistic
approach does not dominate
our life-style."
This large flow of money
will now "end ip in the
system to help solve
major social problems."
Plan father, Dr. Julien.
Yes, if the people -are.

end all plans.
We know now from Dr.
Julien's interview with
S John Babb, the most faith-
fulreporter of the Trinidad
Guardian, that the various
sectors are "pretty well
down the road."
The NAC will now assist
the Government "in pitting
them in a form that is
almost one document."
That is the super plan,,
apparently, the answer to
Mr. Demas.
It might sound unbeliev-
able but this document
will "tell about the steel
mill and other eneT-y-based
industries plus the linkages,
which would dominate the
manufacturing situation."
It would also tell. of
precisely laid out education
proposals putting the Min-
istry of Education in a
position to "say what
would happen in the next
five years . the same
with Health."
And beyond Budget
time, the Government
"could see everyone's need
that were being projected."


In fact, added Dr. Julien,
"We feel that this should
be put together, discuss it
fully; see what the con-
straints are, and come up
with an action plan to
implement it."
You see, the NAC re-
cognises all these things
"happening in Health, Edu-
cation, the Transport sys-
tem; the Port, Electricity
Commission and the Water
and Sewerage Authority,"
said Dr. Julien.
Dr. Julien said there
were certain strategies
already "taking place."
Among them was "the
question of putting them
together, recognizing the
problems in implementing
the plan, and ascertain
where the money would
come from."
Action is now the thing,
a system of strategies,
because there was this
feeling that once a country
follows Demas into writing,
nice models, written very
scientifically and project-
ing certain behaviour in
the various sectors, -the
writing becomes the thing
You get in a mould and "a
tremendous amount of the
limited resources available
within the Civil Service was
usually tied down. ."
Yes, these traditional
plans were well written and
well intended. Now we are
going over wholesale to ill-
iteracy and to different
intentions altogether.
In fact, what we intend

With more than 50 years of service and exper-
ience behind us, we are identified today as Specialists
in our field in the Oil, Sugar and Petrochemical
We guard our reputation jealously. Yes, we
are big, but not too big to be of service to the small
man. The truth is, we are really equipped to do both,
to give service with equal satisfaction, to large and
small industries alike.
As we said before, we have a reputation built
on experience and know-how, and we aim to meet
and satisfy the requirements of our customers.

EATEN AI D.LA. 25311 358 SN ERADO65782

rl i g r I/


** L


US money men likely to press

for thaw in Cuba ties

The finest cuts
Gents Suitings

I --


Tapia House



is ready for


in addition
to the


I Magazines





has also




Visit or phone us at:
82-84 St. Vincent Street,
22 Cipriani Boulevard

Sunday Workshop

THREE ITEMS are on the
Agenda of the Workshop which
for Tapia party cadres on
Sunday May 22 at Cipriani
Top of the list is the matter
of party finances and it is
expected that a massive fund-
raising programme will be
articulated in detail following
discussion of the Treasurer's

Also to be discussed are a
progress report on the reorgan-
isation of printing and publish-
ing activities and the final
programme for training party
Last Sunday May 8, a meet-
ing accepted a proposal to
begin a Training Course for
party workers in the first week
of June.

Aqualife Systems
Queen ana Abercromby Streets
St. Joseph

Animal and Poultry Feed Depot

Local and Foreign Birds

Pets and Pet Supplies
Cor. E.M.Rd and Basilon St, Tunapuna
Telephone: 662-4039
_'7 -



serving Belmont



best selection in children's books,
stationery, and general reading.
Open to SIX p.m. Mon-Fri.

Ill Frederick Street


A venture counting on
a complete thaw is Orbitair
International of New York,
which in late May. will
begin to fly groups of
North American tourists
to Jamaica, where they
will then proceed to Cuba
with Cubatur.
Cuba could earn an esti-
mated $45 million in hard
currency if 100,000 North
American tourists visited
the island annually.


ThC businessmen were
royally treated to rum and
lobster and in return raised
no questions about Angola
or the current difficulties
of the Cuban economy.
Fidel Castro indicated
to Senator G e.o r g e
McGovern earlier in April
that the door would be
open for renewed relations
only if the "essential ele-
ments" of the trade
embargo were lifted -
meaning. presumably, food
and medicine.
(Courtesy Latin America).

For The Best
Men's Hair Styling

31A Erthig Road
Belm ont
Wide Range of
Books, Stationery,
Art trial.
Art Material.

Health Foods
Keate Street

For the most elegant
cuts in gents
and ladies suitings


1771 Belmont

II Al I. oes v.;, i,
c t ,.. [ p)Ioces', .) ( Ut j-
U[S :appro)l)Olcli'ct theL
next slop, .according to
one State Departiment sug-
gestion, would Ihc or
Cuba and thli Unitdl Statcs
to set up "intercsl scctions
in ach other's country.
This system has been
used previously hy the
iUnited States as a way of
iniLiating diplomatic rela-
tions before making the
total commitment.
I:ifty Minnesota busi-
nessimen, who visited Cuba
from April 18 to 23, were
the largest group of Ameri-
cans to go to the island
since tle Bay of Pigs.


Eager for the estimated
$300 million Cuban market
(the United States is ex-
pected to import the same
amount from Cuba), these
businessmen cannot com-
plete transactions until the
trade embargo has been
officially lifted.
But by talking about
their products and getting
first-hand exposure to the
Cuban market, they have
jumped the gun on United
States competitors and-
will probably press for
total normalisation of rela-




FOR WEEKS, the Port-au-Prince rumour had been that on the sixth
anniversary of his coming to power, President Jean-Claude Duvalier
would renounce the "for life" title inherited from his father, Papa
Doc, and set in motion various electoral exercises.
The Carter administration has been quietly pressing for such
cosmetic changes.
Senator Edward Brooke, whom the Duvaliers regard as a
friend, was despatched tc Haiti in February to press home the
message. Three weeks ago Duvalier himself heightened speculation
with a call for "out-of-date structures" to be changed.
A few days later the rubber stamp national assembly elected
Victor Nevers Constant as its
new president. -
This move, as the former
Port-au-Prince mayor confided
to friends, was the start of a
process conceived by the
palace to draft a new constitu-
tion restoring a six-year presi-
dential term.

But when he spoke, late in
April, the 25-year-old President
played his cards close to his
chest, perhaps because of the
overkill of the rumours and
the ascendancy of the hard
liners in the palace.

Speaking in Creole he told
thousands of peasants trucked
in from the countryside for the
occasion that "a good horse-
man doesn't switch horses in
midstream," and that any
change had to be gradual.
There were no direct refer-
ences- to the life presidency.
But there can be no ques-
tion that the Duvaliers-are
under greater pressure from all
sides now than they have been
for nearly a decade.
The four-year-old drought,
-assisted by the failure of the
regime to attempt any serious
reafforestation campaign or
any other kind of conservation
measures, has brought the
hydro-electric "plant at the
silted-up Peligre dam to a near'
halt, .cutting off much of the
capital's electricity,since early
The precious offshore North
American assembly plants,
employing some 30,000 people,
have been reduced to a few
hours of current daily.



Cor. Edward' e

Cipero Streets

Main Road



o ,N.GRE

The Pentagon has flown in
emergency generators, stipulat-
ing that they are f6r priority
use in the poorer sections of
the city during-their period of
loan, while the elite have been
scurrying to Miami to buy their
own equipment. .
However, even without the
drought there would have been
an energy crisis. Demand for
electricity, which has quad-
rupled since 1971, would have
outpaced Peligre's supply this
year, and official incompetence
has delayed completion of an
$18-million diesel plant north
of the capital. which would
have made up the shortfall.

The price of water in the
capital has, with the help of
racketeers, rocketed out of the
reach of most of the popula-
tion. In the arid northwest
famine has returned, with
reports of hundreds of deaths
from starvation, iost of-them
children, in recent weeks.
Some $8 million dollars'
worth of-rice, flour and maize
are being rushed in as relief
from the United States. For the
first time, the government has
begun to import sugar from the
Dominican Republic.
Despite the greater number

of technicians now in govern-
ment service, the regime gives

little sign of being any more
inclined or able to tackle the
country's basic problems than
in the past.
Duvalier himself is im-
patiently awaiting delivery of '.
a new custom-built 83-foot
private yacht from a Florida
boatyard at a cost ot $850,000.
The dream of an offshore oil
bonanza to solve all economic
problems has apparently eva-
porated after a fruitless four-
month search by a Texas
company, Crux International.


Pressure has also increased
from abroad. liberals and
religious groups in the United
States are discovering the
Duvalier regime again; more
energetic attention being paid
to Haiti by Amnesty Interna-
tional; a 2,000-strong demon-
-stration against the regime was
held by exiles in Washington
last month.
And as a rapprochement
between Washington and
Ijavana develops, the "red
menace" card of which Papa
Doc was so fond will lose its
(Courtesy Latin America).


Witi D itifnction

I j



By Keith Q Warner
LET US start by making two basic assertions.
The first is that the term "West Indies" in the
title covers principally, but not exclusively,
the anglophone territories in the Caribbean
area. Admittedly, this is an arbitrary distinc-
tion, made solely for the purpose of this essay.
However, the francophone and hispano-
phone territories have taken a slightly differ-
ent path into the twentieth century and, as
such, what is meaningful 4b the Martiniquan
or the Guadeloupean is not necessarily so to
the Jamaican or Trinidadian.
The second assertion is equally arbitrary
in nature, namely that there exists such an
individual as the "West Indian", except one is
speaking in purely geographical terms. Some
sociologists and area specialists will contend
that there are rather Barbadians or Grenad-
ians, who cannot all be lumped under the one
heading of "West Indian".
This may be so, to t'e same extent that
there are Ghanians and Nigerians, but the
common cultural and political histories do
lead one to think of a certain individual as a
West Indian, moreso when such an individual
is outside of the, geographical limitation of
the Caribbean Sea, in much the same way that
one sees an African in the United States of
America or Europe, rather than a Liberian or a
The point of these assertions is that the response
of the West Indian to certain situations will be
necessarily different from those of an individual of
another culture and geographical setting. As situations
vary, they impose upon both writer and reader differ-
ing interpretations, attitudes arid reactions- For
example, the author of Peau noire, Masques blancs
and Les Damnes de la terre (Black Skin, White Masks
and The Wretched of the Earth), Frantz Fanon, was
an antillais.
To ignore this fact is to misread a great deal of

what Fanon writes. This is not to say that he could
not appeal to readers who did not know of his back-
ground; however, one cannot fail to see that Fanon
was the product of a particular colonial system and
coloured his writings accordingly. Aime Cesaire says
of him: "Peutetre Fanon n'est-il monte si haut et
n'a-t-il vu si large que parce qu'antillais, c'est-a-dire
parti de si bas et d'une base si etrolte." (Perhaps
Fanon rose so high and had such a broad view of
things only because he was West Indian, that is to say
his start was so lowly and fromnso narrow a base.)l
Cesiare did not specify that Fanon was franco-
phone. He did not have to. The anglophone West
Indian would still understand the point Cesaire was
trying to make. Nevertheless, he would see both
Cesaire and Fanon through the film of a British-
oriented culture, which would make for a difference
of interpretation of some of the facts, although the
basis for the original statements would be similar in
both instances.
We are now led to wonder whether the writer
can in fact be expected to produce a work that is
truly universal or absolute. By the-same token, we are
also led to wonder whether the reader or critic
should expect the writer to create a situation which
says precisely the same things to everybody. For all
this, though, the writers who have withstood the
debilitating effect of time and constant critical atten-
tion are those whose works we have been able to
.interpret on the universal plane while at the same
time recognizing the local context to be of interest
on another.
This all seems so obvious when put in these
terms, but it is surprising how many readers and
critics continually attempt to read and interpret
authors as if they were all writing from the same
framework or background..There is usually a bias in
favour of norms, literary and otherwise, that direct
attention to certain aspects of the work of the
author in question, while overlooking others.
The present essay, while not advocating one set
of critical criteria for the African and another for
the non-African, proposes to put forward a counter
bias in its examination of Leopold Senghor. The
criteria remain rigid, only the'perspective changes.
What others have accepted as true for all black people
simply because Senghor says so in his 'voluminous

writing on negritude has to be re-examined.
Black people throughout the Black D. yura
are not all the same, despite the binding factor of
pigmentation. Cultural and other differences make of
Senghor's negritude an occasional burden without
the proper critical perspective. In dealing with
Senghor, therefore, it is imperative that that which is
specifically African or personal,because of his French
training, for example, be pointed out and appreciated
and not be confused with the universal. It is this
task that faces the West Indian as he tries to make
Senghor relevant to his own experience.


and thE

of negr

A view f


I,. -
4 3P i



HEAD OFFICE: 2''. St. Vincent St.. Porl of Spain telephone: 62-31421-7 with seventeen Agences throughout the nation and
offices in Antigua. Barbados, Guyana-. Lnninica, Grenada, Montslrrat. St. Kitts St. Lucia. St. Vincent and a
subsidiary !n London.


IT IS always a problem when an author finds
himself constantly thrust into the role of
spokesman for a particular cause. Such an
author finds himself speaking out for his cause
whether he wants to or not. Once the author
in question is mentioned, the cause which he
is wont to champion springs to mind, colour-
ing not only what the author had to say, but
also the reader's approach to the author.
For Leopold Senghor, such a cause is
negritude. From as early as the acknowledged




rom the

Ist Indies

coning of the term by Aime Cesaire, Senghor
has indeed been the main elaborator of negri-
tude as a concept, expounding its theories
wherever he has had the opportunity to visit.
His poems and essays clearly show that he
considers negritude a new humanism.
Why, then, speak of the burden of
negritude? Senghor obviously enjoys being its
official spokesman and ambassador. There is
no admission on his part of the concept being
a burden for him.
That negritude should be considered a burden
at all is in itself ironic. As expressed by Senghor, the
aims and themes of the concept seem beyond reproach.
Although many movements had preceded this one,
the negritude movement of Senghor and his contem-
poraries from the francophone West Indies justifiably
attacked fellow countrymen and metropolitan
counterparts for their complacency in accepting the
status quo, which relegated them to positions of
degrading inferiority,
Senghor's colleagues from the Caribbean were
particularly bitter because they had an additional
cause for concern. Not only had they been robbed of
their culture, they had also bebn robbed of the
ancestral home and further subjected to slavery. As
such, the initial candour in the attacks against all
forms of racism, the nostalgia for a land known but in
a dream and the subsequent re-assertion of human
rights fell neatly into place.
Senghor was then led to make his celebrated
definition of negritude as the sum total of cultural
values of the black world, as these are expressed in
the black man's life-style, his institutions and his
So far, so good. However, without expressly
intending to do so, Senghor over-simplified the racial
connotations to the detriment of the cultural. While
what he said of the blacl man may have been true
for the African he knew, it was not really feasible to
apply all of what he said to the American or the West

Indian black.
The term "negre" as used by Senghor many a
time should be "africain", and, moreso, "african" of
a certain culture, as the South African Ezekiel
Mphahlele has so forcefully reminded him in The
African Image. Therein lies the crux of the problem.
Are we to overlook the fact that we have evolved into
quite distinct beings, whose external pigmentation is
often the only true unifying factor?
Senghor is correct when he states that the black
man perceives things differently, only further specifi-
cation is needed to clarify the fact that the black
man in another cultural setting also sees things in
different light. Therefore the global lumping together
of all that relates to the black man under the aegis of
negritude is tricky at best.
Senghor's important essay "Ce que l'homme
noir apporte" ("The contribution of the blackman")2
is replete with references to what the black man (le
negre) is supposed to do or like. For instance, I am
more than surprised to learn that I have a certain
concept of God, the arts and family life because I am
black, Surely, this is over-simplification gone astray
or else further clarification is necessary.
The West Indian, with the pot-pourri of cultures
. which he is exposed, finds it somewhat difficult to
decide whether his feeling stems from his being of
African ancestry or from the multitude of other
influential forces. It is similarly surprising to be told
that V'emotion is black, just as reason is Hellenic."
One, can only attribute such an assertion to the exuber-
ance of the attempt to convince the Furopean reader
of the extent and greatness of the contribution of the
black since such a contribution was in doubt.
This grandiose statement probably said a lot tc-
the European audience at the time, but the West Indim
would find little in it to move him. He would in fact
have difficulty in accepting without question the fact
that reason is Hellenic. Such blanket characterization
seems but a short step from what he is constantly
struggling against, namely vicious stereotyping on the
S Cont'd on Page 9

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FPA President Ellas welcomes any
measure to take abortion out of backroom.
UNCTAD attempting to revive inter-
'national sugar agreement. Carib and L.
American nations wish price to at least 36 TT
(US. 15) cents per Ib.
Panday fed up. Thinking whether he
should give up seat and deal with Govt. by
other methods.
Karl Hudson-Phillips condemns Govt.
land policy on Chaguaramas at Tenants
Tunapuna Court House burnt;'arson
UWI confirms no strike-pay forworkers;
saves $80,000.
PTSC cannot find documents valuing
assets of railway.
Arima Council gives Mayor all its
Seven Carib hotels involved in $20m.
takeover bid by TT businessmen. Motilal
Moonan and Peter George among possible
buyers of Holiday Inn chain.
Govt. Oil revenue totals $8b. in five
years. Guardian editorial on petro-dollar
account: "in time the style of the presenta-
tion and the lucidity required will be
attained ..."
ULF releases Manifesto. To implement
four types of services: protective, communal,
socialland trading.
Padmore in Tobago: Rep. Robinsor
has misled people concerning Parliament's

Sen. De La Bastide joins Opposition in'
walk-out over insufficient time to study Bill.
Perez tours Middle East in search of oil
price unity.
Express Editorial on Barclays Share
Issue: Too much Govt. interference in capital
market can hurt.

8,000 phones cut by roadwork.
AG rules out Arima Mayor one-man
West Indies wins Test series against
Ministry official says Extension work-
ers will spend more time with farmers. New
incentive scheme for fertilizer.
Guardian editorial again on petro-dollar
accounting: TT is "an oasis of propertyy"
Senate walkout: Express hopes Govt.
has learned its lesson.
Gadraj Singh: postmen prepared to help
speed up mail.
Romesh Mootoo: Country needs DLP's
Carter presents energy policy to Congress
McClean: Businessmen lack drive in
finding Carib markets.
US proposes maximum sugar price of
.10 cents US. EEC reject quota system. '
Bhutto gets tough; introduces martial

US Kingston Embassy denies negotia-
tions over $200m. loan for Jamaica.
Muriel Donawa warns Tobago voters
this is "the last train". Make Robinson and
Murray secede. .
Zaire forces poised for final assault ir
Shaba province.
Renwick column in Express reports
Tapia in local elections "to keep in trim."
Industrial relations climate "unbelievably
cool," notes Labour Ministry official. Reason?
- scores of agreements at expiry dates.
BCIWTU workers get/118% increase.
Shearer: Jamaican jobless now 236,000.
New LNG project under consideration
with Occidental eli.

Japanese experts coming to aid Govt.
farm programme. Nariva reclamation study to
:cost $1m.
Robinson attacks Govt. for campaigning
in Tobago at public expense. Panday attacks PM
as "petty, vicious, vindictive" as House rejects
Opposition bonus motion and motion seeking
change in election laws.

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THE ONE thing more bitter
than the French-English con-
flict which has been threaten-
ing to divide Canada, is the
racist attitudes towards blacks.
And in Montreal, in French-
speaking Quebec, where a party
devoted to independence of the
French-Canadian province is
now in power, black people
are watching the ups and
downs of the conflict with not
a little uneasiness.
Some of this uneasiness was
reflected recently in an editorial
of The Montreal Oracle, a.
paper "serving visible Canad-
The Oracle noted that a
recent Quebec government
white paper setting out "the
absolute primacy of the French


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Santa Flora

language in every walk of life".
was ambiguous about a defen-
dant's right to trial in his own
The paper had in mind the
thousands of anglophonee"
immigrants, mainly from the
English-speaking Caribbean
who, in the French milieu of
Quebec, would face the double
jeopardy of being English-
speaking and of being Black.
"There have been cases of
anglophone Blacks who, accused
of crimes and traffic violations,
were summarily taken to the
police station, their queries met
with the words 'I don't speak
English'," the Oracle reported.
While recognizing their right
to cultural sovereignty, the
black community paperwarned
that the "oppresseid"uebecois
would themselves become
"oppressors" of Blacks if laws
drafted to ensure the exclusive
use of the French language in,
the courts of law could be so
operated as to obstruct justice.
If indeed, non-French-speak-
ing blacks did not get the right
to trial in. a language they
know, then 'in a world as
racist as today's is, non-white
minorities could then find
themselves inhabitants of a
police state, "the Oracle

McClean says TT will use NAMUCARI
DAC's Marabella Candidate Mrs. Holder
says confrontation seems only way of getting
things done.
Justice Evans Rees tipped as first
Express Editorial: Low campaign excite-
ment is because "most people either do not
know or do not care what local government
is all about."
There is no sugar shortage says Ministry
of Commerce official in theface of complaints.
WASA bans all sales of water.
Guardian Correspondent: Country is
fed up with the University.
Jamaica adopts dual exchange rates.
Guardian editorial: Barclays feels the
big stick on share issue.
Guardian Editorial: "looming poor
turnout of voters."
Express Editorial: Councils no longer
providing future candidates for parliamentary
Pakistan Opposition plans long march.
LDC's want CDB to help farmers.

Ruling party wins 68 local seats; ULF
27; DAC 4 (all in Tobago); Independents 1.
PNM won 22 without contest, ULF, 1. PNM
fielded 75, ULF 56, DAC 28, Tapia 2, DLP b.
PNM controls all 3 Municipalities; .and St.
George, Tobago, St Patrick. ULF controls
Caroni, Victoria, Nariva/Mayaro.
Dead heat in St. Andrew/St. David.
US sends team to Cuba. Under Secre-
tary of State for Latin Affairs Todman heads
diplomatic talks.
McPetrie, Law reform Expert, talks
with AG Richardson.
Minister Joseph: Trinlidad way ahead
in education compared with Third World.
Black footballer Cunningham of Wet
Brom picked for England under 21.

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4 From Page 7
part of -the outsider or even on the part of other
islanders in the West Indies.
Still, one cannot escape the fact that there are
common traits that unite peoples. There is no dispute
about that. What is being questioned is the fact that
the racial bonds have been taken as the sole element
of cohesion, to the exclusion of important cultural
and historical values.
How can the West Indian respond to what'
Senghor has to say concerning family life of the,
"negre", when he has in all probability not known
that type of life of which Senghor speaks? There can
be no reproach when what he writes is presented as
something of interest to the West Indian for a variety
of reasons. However, when it is presented as an accurate
account of the West Indian's life-style,,when he knows
otherwise, he has ho alternative but to reject it..
One can easily see that much of Senghor's early
writing on negritude was based on racial or biological
grounds. The black human being had to react in a


given way simply because he was black. Senghor
actually tried to describe a universal black essence,
which would unite black men throughout the length
and breadth of the black world. The problem he
encountered, without seeming to realize it at the
time, was that not all members of the said black
world could follow the intricacies of his existential
It may seem unflatteringly anti-intellectual to
say this of the West Indian, but he tends to be more
pragmatic in his daily goings-on. The West Indian
perceives himself as being different from -the African,
but in practical rather .than philosophical terms. As
the late Professor George Coulthard has said: "the
affirmation of a Negro "essence' may .at first sight
attract many ... thanks to its apparent simplicity and
novelty,, but it soon slips into mystification, and very
dubious intellectual gymnastics are required to justify
Senghor, then, took what he thought to be the
simplest route, only to have us find in later years that
such a route was full of pot-holes. The negro essence
has precious little to do with the fact that the West
Indian or the black American has developed a life-
style all his own. If it were so, then the West Indian
and the black American would have evolved into the
same type of individual in all respects, one who was,
moreover, African or "negre" by Senehor's definition.
What similarities there are can be explained
otherwise. Predominantly racial characteristics in the
guise of a black essence are therefore not enough for
the West Indian to lay claim to any one way of think-
ing, along the lines originally outlined by Senghor.
To be quite fair to Senghor, on the other hand,
it must be noted that he modified his stand over the
years. He adopted a far more practical approach,
since it must have been awkward to continue to
champion his pet cause from a purely theoretical and
abstract base. It must surely have been difficult to
Speak always in metaphysical abstractions about
everyday realities.
Whereas he had spoken of the psychophysiology
of the black explaining his metaphysics, this latter
being an existential ontology,4 Senghor began to talk
of the importance of cultural cross-breeding: "I also
think that all the great civilisations resulted from
miscegenation objectively speaking ... this cross-
breeding is necessary. It springs from the contact
between civilisations.'5 The West Indian is only too
aware of the importance of such cross-breeding and
therefore can more readily go-along with Senghor
-when he makes that type of statement.
At the Colloquium on Negritude held in Dakar
in 1971, Senghor restated what he termed the
problematics of-negritude." He began by posing the
following question: "Are there, for Blacks, specific
problems deriving from this sole fact that their skin
is black or that they belong to a race different from
that of the whites or Asians?"6 Once he had asked
this question, Senghor went back to his favourite
theme of negritude, describing it, firstly, from an
objective point of view: "Negritude is a fact:\ a
culture." Secondly, he described it from a subjective
point of view: "Negritude is the 'acceptance of this
fact' of civilisation and its projection, in prospective,

into History that must be 'continued, into ti
civilisation to be re-born and Tulfilled."'
He further returned to the idea of cross-b
by stating that, if need be, one should enr
values of the civilisation of the black wor
"foreign grafts." One gets the impression t
burden of negritude lies heavily on Senghor;
him to constant re-defining and interpreting,
situations Where others, like the West India
since gone on to other concerns. His later stat
though, are a welcome shift from the previous
and metaphysical orientation.
The change to a more broadly cultural
makes it easier for the West Indian to follow
Senghor is saying. Yet, there are other sti
blocks that bestrew the path to total under
and appreciation. One such problem is the fa
Senghor is a cultural metis, a description he
gave. Here again, the West Indian knows only b
what it'means to be a cultural metis. In fact,
even consider himself more so than the A
because the latter at least had his African cul

a West

turn to.
Consequently, the West Indian can hardly
to criticize Senghor merely because he is the
of two cultures. However, what the West I
within his right to do is to try to interpret
in the light of what he knows of the cultural n
and to.decipher that which is of genuine imp
because it is universal as opposed to tha
Senghor offers as important simply because
French training.
For all that Senghor said about the
assimilating rather than being assimilated,8 i
clear example of the assimilated African, train
French. As such, when he, indirectly, claimed
to be totally African, after once maintaining
had two countries, Senegal and France,
retained many attributes of his French trai
cultural orientation. He championed franc
almost as ardently as he did negritude. He en
even led him to refer to French as the langua
Gods (the African's or the European's?), wil
like diamonds and rockets that light up the
~Here was an obvious cage of over-exi
and highly personal taste, due'entirely to the
of colonization and metropolitan don
Senghor's personal taste is not in dispute.
right to savour whatever language he pleases

being questioned is his wanting to have us
loose generalizations as axiomatic deduction
The very couching of the various deo
of negritude in the type of terms he used is
characteristic. Negritude became another
fitting neatly into the multitude of schoc
dot the course of French civilisation. The
-phone West Indians, for example, who hav
similar background, would certainly apprec:
understand Senghor more easily than the angi
One finds this particularly so in the use of philo
In general, the French study more phi
than the English, whose system of education i
in the anglophone islands. Thus, the avera
Indian with an English-type education is
left unmoved when Senghor moves from the
to the highly philosophical. Again, this is not 1
that the West Indian is anti-intellectuallor sin
But the problem is that Senghor passes his
French-type philosophising on negritude off
thing that the black man, wherever he happen
can immediately grasp.
Senghor's whole intellectual attitude,
very French in tone, and this despite the fact
may protest that it is Africanr. The prose
belie Senghor's intentions as they are closely p
after those of other French essayists and hu
The question that immediately springs to
whether there is such a thing as an African
writing essays. If all that Senghor has said o
tude is to stand up, then the answer for him
be an unqualified "yes". However, his writing
Thus, those West Indians who once thou]

he Afro

rich the
Id with
hat the
even in
n, have
is racial
d aspect
w what
act that
too well
he may
Iture to

British was automatically best cannot but proceed
with caution as they read the prose of one who once
thought that French was best. What Senghor has to
say makes more sense once the reader is aware of his
In the domain of poetry, Senghor's French
training betrays him even more overtly. Written
almost entirely in French, save for the African
words and phrases that are utilized, the poetry
depends heavily on our familiarity with modern
French poetic techniques for its effectiveness, despite
all that Senghor says to the contrary. The poems
were obviously conceived in French, even when the
subject matter was totally African. That power of
the word that is supposedly the exclusive province of
the black African is difficult to comprehend when
presented in the same type versification used by Paul
Claudel and St. John Perse.
These were not negritude poets. However, they
used basically the same form of poem as Senghor.
What is there to make negritude the exclusivity of the
one to the exclusion of the others? Naturally, I am

Indian view

not naive enough to want to see a poet of negritude
y expect each, time there is a resemblance between him and
product Senghor. On the other land, I do not want to see
Indian is Senghor claim as a black man's exclusivity some-
Senghor thing that is the net result of a French culture.
netissage It is evident that Senghor would not have
portance attracted the critical attention he did if he had not
t which produced poetry that was indeed different. For
e of his example, he used rhythm and musicality to great
effect. What must be determined, however, is whether
African what he was doing was faithfully recording the
he was a African by means of the French language or whether
ed to be he was using the musicality of the French to express
I himself African thoughts. After all, he did describe French as
that he being flute, oboe, trumpet, tom-tom 'and eve"
he still cannon.10 The West Indian reader risks finding
ning and himself without precise answers to such queries,
:ophonie especially in the light of other ambivalences noted in
thusiasm Senghor's poetry.
ge of the Senghor seems unable to break with France and
th words its culture, at least such is the impression- left in
e night.9 many of his poems. The present position he holds
uberance should have forced him to modify his original stand
accident considerably. In the poems, we find him making
nination. statements about France and its culture that can only
It is his be supported through sustained intellectual gymnastics,
.What is In fact, he does admit that: ".. j'ai une grande.
faiblesse our la France."-(I have a great weakness for
France.) 1
Iow does one judge one who, while in France,
longs to return to Africa and who, as soon as he sets
foot in Africa, longs to return to. France? Judgement
is all the more difficult for the West Indian who has at
times experienced the same type of ambivalence of
feeling with regard to a foreign' country. Thus, he
recognizes some of what Senghor says for what it is -
a type of anti-exotica exotica written to satisfy the
poet's nostalgia and the Frenchman's curiosity. To
S have /some of this type of poetry come under the
-banner of negritude and commitment is a disservice
to both Senghor and his reading audience.

It should not be construed from what has gone
before that Senghor is not relevant to the West
Indian. While all that he says cannot be taken au pied
de la lettre, it would be dishonest and grossly unfair
to dismiss Senghor out of hand. In the first place,
Senghor has helped to focus the black West Indian's
attention on Africa and its vast culture. This he did at
a time when the West In4ian would have Idone any-
s accept thing in his power to dis-associate himself from
ons and Africa.
Secondly, his basic stance on negritude and the
finitions importance of the rehabilitating of the black man is
a French sound. The West Indian cannot honestly reject the
school, fundamental premise from which Senghor built his
ols that arguments, namely that black people were not the.
franco- inferior beings they had always-been thought to be..
'e had a Thirdly, Senghor's advocating of cultural cross-breed-
iate and ing is of special import to the West Indian, in the
phonen. light -of the latter's own patchwork of cultures.
sophical Therefore, Senghor can say a great deal to the
West Indian, once he is read with discernment. One
ilosophy can only hope that the present essay has made such
prevailed discernment easier not only for the West Indian, but
ge West also for the reader of Senghor wherever he might be.,
at times
to imply
as some-
ns to be,

then, is
mind is
way of
)n negri-
gs prove
ght that


I \ST WEEK, our cricket reporters, Earl Best

Tour of the West Indies. They conclude this

week with a survey of the batting, the

captaincy and other aspects of our performance.

AN examination of the batting
over the past three series reveals
that. there has been inordinate
dependence on too few of the
batsmen. Against India last year
Richards and Fredericks alone
together contributed 758 of the
1348 runs scored, almost 60%.
Against England, Richards (829)
Greenidge (594) and Fredericks
(517) together accounted for
about 56% of the 3216 runs. This
series' contribution from this trio
was 1250 out of 2657, just under

For Greenidge the last 20
innings have yielded 1128 (4 100's
and 6 50's); for Fredericks 27
have yielded 1176 (3 100's and
9 50's) while Richards' 22 inn-
ings have brought us six centuries,
5 half-centuries and an aggregate
of 1642.
The rest of the batting has been
Kallichaian (836 vs India, Australia
and England and 258 vs Pakistan),
Lloyd who, after his 636 in 9 innings
vs India in 1974-75, has scored 1016
vs India, England and Australia and a
further 336 against Pakistan. Murray's
contribution (706 and 218 vs Pakistan)
is not really accurately reflected by
any quantitative analysis.
The quantitative analysis also
conceals a very important factor viz
the manner of dismissal. Loyd remains
in the record books a successful
batsman, one- who on his day can tear
an attack to-shreds. The records will
also show that in this series of the 25
days of Test cricket only one was
Lloyd's: the third day of the First Test
wnen he waded into the Pakistani

bowling to blast a fine 157.
The books do not however show
that he almost invariably batted as
though he were taking up where he left
off in Barbados and very often gave
his hand away.
The same is probably true of
Wasim Raja but he, unlike Lloyd,
neither got out in the 20's 30's and
40's nor is the captain of his team.
Only once did Lloyd's approach
accord with his responsibility as skip-
per and on that occasion the first
innings of the Fourth Test he
silenced those who would urge us that
he simply cannot wait, a' la Richards,
for the bad ball and punish that.
Nor do the records show how
Kallicharan had to struggle to score the
258 runs that his 9 innings yielded.
The "left-handed Kanhai" who tamed
the feared Lillee in the Prudential
cup, who scored 124 in India on a
turning wicket against Bedi, Venkat
and Chandrasekhar, who went to
Australia with the tallest reputation of
all the West Indian batsmen, must
have come very very close to being.
dropped before the end of the series.
If the problem, as is being
mooted, is that he has not fully
recovered from the bursitis that put
him out of the last Test in England
last year, would the selectors really
have continued to play him? Some of
the old flair surfaced briefly in the
2nd innings of the Fourth 'Test arid
again in Sabina so that it might well
have been a bad patch, not unusual
'for great batsmen.
Of the others, we have probably
now seen the last of Foster and,
hopefully, King who really is not in'
the big League. Shillingford (199 runs,
ave. 39.80) begam well but his dismiss.

Top Left: Lloyd will he __
be reinstated?

Top Right: Roberts-
pace bowlers have short
Bottom Right: Green-
idge Near top of
averages last two series.

Bottom Left: Kallicha-
ran still suffering
from bursitis?

sals in the Fourth Test following on his
apparent inability to do more with the
seamers than keep them out of his
stumps must relegate him once more
to the status of contender for any
places created in the batting line-up
by injury or indisposition.
Garner held out early promise of
batting talent but his growth here was
presumably stunted by the heavy.
bowling burden. Like Richards and
Fredericks, Garner must be urged to
develop the other half of his game to
Test standard, thereby creating more
elbow room for the selectors.
The cupboards, therefore, are
by no means bare for Rowe will be
fighting fit again, we hope, and Jim
Allen and Larry Gomes, and for later
use, Lockhart Sebastian the Islander,
a couple of Guyanese (Bacchus +
Harper), two Barbadians (Haynes and
frotman) and two Jamaican youngsters
(Campbell and Austin) are all there.
What with two subsequent victories

". I '


under our belts, the slower West
Indian wickets and the greater
impartiality of our own umpires, one
can reasonably expect us to score
bigger totals than -we did last year
provided that the middle order can
iron itself out early.
On the subject of umpiring,
Mushtaq was not the only one to
express nis displeasure openly. Richards
and Kallicharan in Bourda, Fredericks
in Port-of-Spain and the whole Pakis-
tani team on occasion made no
attempt to conceal their dismay when
decisions went against them. There
can be little doubt that there were
decisions which could easily have gone
the other way Fredericks' run out
at 99 in the Second Test was "fraction-
ally close," Lloyd was "within a
whisker of being out lbw to Imran in
the first innings of the Fourth Test.
What must however, be stressed is that
O Continued on Page 11

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I -


and Owen Thompson, began their final assessment of the recent Pakistan

Leadership still wanting

9- From Page 10.
Gosine and Sang Hue apart, we seem
to have little Test match quality among
oui umpires.
Mushtaq, forever the psychol-
ogical agitator, also hit out at the Oval
wicket in the wake of his Second Test
defeat and after winning the Fourth
he insisted that it "is still too low and"
too slow and not good enough for Test
cricket." The West Indian captain
endorsed this view and explained that
the wicket gives an' unfair advantage
to spinners, For the records, of the
73 wickets to fall in the two Tests in
Port-of-Spain 43 fell to the quicker
But-to complete the-picture it
must be said that in addition to the
30 in the two Tests, 31 of the 34
wickets in the pre-Second Test terri-
torial game fell to spinners who have,
traditionally, been in their element
here. Here it was that Jack Noreiga got
his record 9 for 95 and in the Fourth
Test of this series Mushtaq captured
S8 wickets with his leg-spinners. But it
-- was here too that in 1973 Wallers
blasted 112 between lunch and tea,
that Rowe sculpted his masterly 123
vs England in 1974, that Richards
-r :delighted us with two splendid cen-
turies vs India last year and that just
recently first Fredericks and then
S-- -Mushtaq carved out match-winning
So that spinners and pacemen
alike can do-well on this wicket while
batsmen who are prepared to digtheir
S heels.in and wait for the bad ones can
-and do get big scores here. It is thus no
accident that the Queen's Park Oval
wicket has produced far fewer stale-
- ;-: mates than the Bourda and. Bffdge-
S-' --town featherbeds as well as the
Sabina strip which hag only recently
changed character to be, at least at
the notorious southern end, a near

-. - .

".. ,-, ?',1 .... :


batsman's nightmare.
What is perturbing is that ou
groundsmen, in Kensington and in Kin
Stone, in the Bourda Green as in th
"Queen's Park Oval all are, as far a
predicting the behaviour of thei
wickets goes, far less articulate an
seem to be far less knowledgeable
than their counterparts in Australi
and England. One really wonder
whether they can produce on deman
wickets that behave in a manner tha
differs from the norm. All in all, how
ever, even Mushtaq can have n(
serious beef with the wickets on which
- this series was played.


Murray, however, may well hiv
another opinion on this. In the 2n
innings of the- First Test he concede
29 byes and dropped three catches
because of. he might argue, the uneve
bounce of the pitch. Allowed b:
Lloyd's injury to assume the.mantl
of leader in the Third Test, a rejuvel
ated Murray conceded not a bye, too
-5 excellent catches and, communical
ing a-new sense of urgency to th
whole team, had Pakistan shot out fo
194 inside the first day on an ea
paced wicket. It was easily his fines
performance behind the stumps sine
1963 when, in his first series, h
equalled the world record for th
highest number of dismissals. Ther
can be little doubt that the assumption
of the captaincy had transformed hin
but he reverted to his normal un
obtrusively efficient self for the las
two Tests.
The team, so effervescent ii
Bourda. reassumed its usual mien i
Port-of-Spain and ended the last Tes
manifestly more despondent than a
any stage previously. ,At any rate
Murray has kept in every Test since h
replaced Findlay for the Second Tes
vs Australia in 1973 and. despite th
relative success of 14 catches and
stumping, he ma) simply not want t

play after Australia next year. If, of
course, the -rejuvenation can be
effected on a less temporary basis ...
It was clear from the criticisms
that flew thick and fast in the wake of
the mauling Down Under that the
leadership had been found wanting.
But the questions about the inade-
quacy of the leadership went unvoiced
in the euphoria that followed the
humbling of an ordinary English team
by Richards and Greenidge and
Roberts and Holding.
But can we really avoid asking
them now-although we eventually got
the better of Mushtaq and co? Can we
avoid talking about the irresponsible
approach to batting, the often peculiar
field arrangements, the puzzling
handling of the bowling in general and
Roberts in particular, the continuing
absence or sensitivity, the repeated
Ir demonstrations that our skipper is not
gs- a serious student of the game?
a One cannot say for certain that
rs Lloyd does not really understand the
d game but one cannot say for certain
it either that he does. One feels that there
V- are few Test captains around who
o would have persisted with Holford on'
h .the fourth afternoon at'"Sabina or
been able to score 157 in the manner
that Loyd did in the first innings of
the First Test.
But are there many captains
*who-would allow the left-hander Raja
to survive for so long so often with a
e young, enthusiastic,_successful 6' 8"
d quick inswing bowler .at his disposal?
d .Or allow the righthanded Mushtaq .
s and, to a lesser extent, Majid, with
n their evident vulnerability outside the
Y offstump, to defy for so- long an.
e. attack containing a young,-.ebullienf,
n- successful 6' 5" fast medium bowler
k who gets deep away swing? Who can
t- -honestly say that he was often able to

St .t.



st .


discern in action some plan to dismiss
a particular Pakistani batsman as was-'
only too often the case when we
batted (Remember Shillingford's dis-
missal in the second innings of the
Fourth Test?) -
Whichresponsible captain would
set all of five men in close catching
positions with a deficit of 187 otnfirst
innings and the score 63 for 3? Or get
out as Lloyd continued to do in this
series especially on the last morning
of the Fourth Test? Which captian._
whb really understands the game
would bowl Inshan .Ali as much~as -'
Roberts in the second innings of the-'
-Fourth Test, on the 4th mornmg in
particular? Which thinking captain '
would take the new ball when hei diid'-'
in the first innings of the same Test?
Are there any West Indiai cricket'
fans who have yet been able to forget ..,
what happened when Lloyd claimed
the new ball on the last day of the last
Third Test vs India in the Queen's
Park Oval last year? Or any schoolboy,
captain who has ever forgotten Sir -A
Frank Worrell's views on the'subject.
cited by C.L.R. James in The Great -
Captains: "I'll leave well enough "''
How often, under a sensitive
captain, would we see a bowler arrive
cap in hand at the wicket only to
discover that his spell was over -
"Ah-ha! Don't worry, Thanks'" and :
be sent back to his place in the '
field? .-


.Tony Cozier in The ;est Iidiesi-
Crieket Annual -1976'editibin.dQcbes_
the situation in the 5th ies-ii ,
t Australia thus: "The fielding was.
-shabby,- loyd was -at his wit's end,
Sdejectedly surveying the.scein-'
sli as his team appeared down 4
out" (pg. 40) Luckily theiPaldssi
-batsmen rarely devastated-our bowig ~g
and the ground fielding Of both s es'.l .
was of the highest class throughout
this series with Intikhab'an exception
and Haroon outstanding. --
However, on that fateful fourth
morning of the Fourth Test one got a"-
glimpse of the situation described by.
Cozier. And "unfortunately, Lloyd did -
Snothing as a captain to inspire his l '
team ... He appeared as psychologic-. "-
ally shell-shocked as anyone else by ,'.
the course of events; a sid cor-'- .:.,
mentary on his leadership." (pg. 31). c-
Fortunately for lUoyd, Richard .
has emerged as a serious rival for is- .., -
title of best cover fieldsman and -he -' -
(Lloyd) could with'.impunity iemin-. %.
in the slips where many vital chancesi .
went, as in Australia; abegging.
In this department as a whole, -.,
the West Indian performance fell well

SCont'd on Pagel2 12

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Action last week as National YouthTeam played Defence Force at ag. (Express ctureby Joe Francis Lau).

IN what turned out to be
.a very disappointing game,
the Trinidad Youth Team
on Monday .afternoon
defeated their Mexican.
,counterparts 1-0 down at
the Queen's Park Oval.
. There was very little
excitement for the fair
crowd that turned up to
watch the battle between
the robust Mexican profes-
sionals 6-0 victors in the
last encounter in Puerto
Rico and our lighter,
locals amateurs who had
the advantage this time of
playing at home.
One early began to
suspect that the game would

get out of hand as the
visitors, apparently used
to a more rugged,,bruising
type of game, never seemed
willing to avoid physical
That it didn't was due
mainly to the fact that
the local boys seemed
intent on avenging the
defeat sustained in Puerto
However, the game never
quite attained the standard
that the reports of the
proceedings in Puerto Rico
had led us to expect.
S The game was 20 mins.
old even balanced and
without close shaves for
either team when a "pull-
back" from the right wing

caught the-Mexican defence
going the wrong way and
striker Norvie Denoon was
on hand to .convert the
Previously both Denoon
and Nancoo of the Trinidad
forwards had been con-
sistentl guilty of giving
away the hard-earned balls
served up to them by
wingbacks Michael Hackett
and Derek Lewis who had
been working very deli-
gently in midfield.
The Trinidad linkline
remained virtually inopera-
tional throughout the first
half and it was left to the
back four, stoppers Denis
Puckerin and skipper
Carlyle Andrews with the

ever-present wingbacks, to
foil the frequent thrusts of
the Mexican forwards.
Most of the play thus
being in midfield, neither
goalkeeper was-offen called
into serious, life-saving
The second half began
with an all-out blitz by
Mexico but though this
lasted for 'the better part
of 15 mins. it failed to
produce any goals.
The shooting was never
brilliant, the defence stood
up well under pressure and
Maurice showed a safe pair
of hands.
Gradually, the local boys
came into 'their own and
midway through this half,

after each team had made
three substitutions, the
best scoring chance of the
match came to Gary Evelyn.,
A right side cross eluded
the entire defence and
found him unmarked inside
the area but instead of
driving into the far post
with his left foot he hooked
the ball towards the near
post with his right only to
seeit go wide.
Shortly after this,
Mexico's best chance came
when a long right side
centre dropped onto the
head of the Mexican-striker
who, jumped high and
headed goalwards over the
head or so it seemed of
an advancing Maurice.
The Trinidad custodian
leap cat-like into the air
and impossibly came
down clutching the ball.
Whatever other excite-
ment there was in the
game came when Evelyn~
Haynes and Woods made a
couple of 1-2-3 combina-
tions down the.left wing
that literally left the Mexi-
cans standing.
The two teams meet
again on Wednesday and
it seems that a smaller
crowd will be on hand to
witness what is likely to
be a better game.
The. Mexicans are cer-
tainly a better team than
the result may suggest.
Their striker whose rough
and tumble style frequently
displeased Monday's crowd
looks the type of player
who, when' the ball is
running for him, can score
many goals with his feet as
well as his head.
The result is likely to
be different this time and
tore goals should be
scored; the game, at any
rate, ought to. be a far less
scrappy affair.

I iwi-

0 From Page 11
below the required standard and
crucial dropped catches might easily,
indeed, have affected the outcome'of
a couple of the Tests. One easily
remembers Raja's four chances in his
vital 69 in the second innings in
Barbados, Greenidge's dropping Majid
at 76 during his, 167 in Guyana,
Fredericks' putting- down Haroon in
the 12th over of the Fourth Test and,
for Pakistan, Mushtaq's giving Lloyd a
life at 42 in his 157 in Kensington.
Hear Cozier again: "In addition .he
lacked the backing of a strong, com-
manding personality as manager ."
(pg. 31).
Foolhardy it will certainly be to
continue to leave Clyde Walcott and
Sir Gary and Wes Hall out in the cold
when the Aussies arrive and run the
risk of long the series through poor
catching inter alia.
Anyway if we are looking seriously
at all of these things, the captaincy
must come uo as a real issue in 1978.

Leadership Wanting

With the present problems in the.
middle order we should not realistic-
ally expect in the early Tests the
huge scores that make Loyd's particular
brand of captaincy he prefers to
outwait batsmen rather than outwit
them not patently, pathetically
ineffectual as was the case in Australia
last year. That peculiar combination
of unimaginative orthodoxy, im-
patience, deliberate disregard or
ignorance of the psychological dimen-
sion and a near contempt for dialogue
which we have elsewhere styled "Ah-ha!
captaincy" cannot be relied upon to
pull us out of the straits into which
the failure of me batting has not
infrequently in the past plunged us.
In the 27 Tests now played with
Lloyd as captain, only 12 times have
we managed not to lose after scoring
less than 250 in a completed innings.

Of the 11 Tests he. has won we have
scored over 450 6 times in one of
the innings. While acknowledging the
inadequacy of these statistics, we
advance that with the rest of the
evidence already adduced there is
justification for at least taking a look
around to see if we can find anyone
who can improve, on his showing.
When Loyd acquired the cap-
taincy in 1974-75, the WICBC stated
that "the time had come for younger
players to lead the West Indies team."
For this reason, Deryck Murray at 34
and David Holford at 37 seem to be
non-starters despite the well-known
leadership capabilities.
Andy Roberts' understanding
of 'the game as evidenced by 4his
'approach to both bowling and batting
may give him some sort of claim but
quickies are very rarely made captains

because of their relative lack of career
The responsible approach to bat-
- ting by Roy Fredericks, Alvin Kalli-
cnaan, Vivian Richards and Lawrnce
Rowe makes them all contenders but
Fredericks, 35, seems disqualified by
age and Rowe's reported faint.
heartedness in Australia wil: surely
militate.against his selection.
Kallicharan captained the Presi-
dent's XI to a completely unexpected
huge victory over Pakistan; Richards
was seen as captain for the Leewards
in this year's Gillette Cup Competi-
tion and the game vs Pakistan.
But let us not forget that Uoyds -
experienced incompetence brought us
victory over Pakistan and-ah-ha -
congratulations are due to him. The
selection can hardly be expected to
take a chance on the two-birds in the (
bush, at least not while the taste o
victory is still sweet in their mout.
But what sweet in goat mouth sout,
they say, in he behind.


I 1 I' I I


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