Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00253
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Publication Date: Sunday, May 22, 1977
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
sobekcm - UF00072147_00253
System ID: UF00072147:00253

Full Text
. -,# 1


TUNAPUNA TEL: 662-5126 AND 22 CIPRIANI BVD. P.O.S. 62-25241.

WHEN I WAS introduced to Olga Thomas, a shy-smiling
motherly lady in her early fifties, I thought, "Oh! She's the
mother of Shirley Thomas, the economist with the Develop-
ment Finance Corporation!" I thought I had her tagged.
Later in the day I noticed Ms. Thomas was a member of the
panel of women who-were about to share their business experiences
with over 200 other women gathered at the Hilton Ballroom last
Saturday for the 10th Anniversary seminar of the Business and
Professional Women's Club.
"I've been in business of one kind or another for over 34
years." What! She!? Softly, Ms. Thomas had begun a literally rags-to
riches story that is a triumph of achievement.
She had turned her sewing hobby into a business, supplying
ready-made clothes to stores. She then had every mother's aim in
mind: to provide a good education for her child. When this ceased to
return a satisfactory reward or personal satisfaction, she enterprisingly
opened one dress shop after another, three in Port-of-Spain and one
in Point Fortin.
After trying her hand at
Beauty Culture and Floristry,
Olga, if I may, joined her
brother's small construction
business as a purchasing clerk.
To the embarrassment of
.husband and friends, she some-
times climbed into the trucks
riding shotgun with the driver,
since large portions of sand or
bricks had been known to dis-
appear before reaching a
building site. A
All went well until Olga
decided to go it alone.
"As in all business, you
steal workers from one
another." Olga chuckled infecti-
ously as she recalled how she
successfully wooed away her
brother's foreman to be a pillar
of her own construction
business. can compensate for a lack of
With a firm and tactful academic training?" This ques-
handling of workers, she swears tion posed by the Prime Min-
she acquired this from ongoing ister in his feature address ot me
business as a mother, and a Seminar at its opening was
seamstress' eye for colour ironically answered by the
combination, business prospered. closing panel.
When Olga moved into land The hard-wuk-no-luck story
development, she had to go to of the elegantly grey and suc-
the banks for the first time in cessful Eileen Douglas of
her career. "I had to face the Brunetta and first lady of the
white foreigner, first of all as a Trinidad Manufacturers Associa-
black person, and then. as a tion, is a case in point.
woman. But I had done my For neither Ms. Douglas nor
home-work and they loaned me the earthly Tobago-born Maude
the money." Campbell who grew a condi-
Home-work for Olga was ment industry with her own
sitting up nights, herself draw- tough hands and bottled it "in
ing a plan of her land, marking her downstairs", have had the
out lots and working out what academic training in their
development could be made respective fields, which would
before a profitable sell over. have qualified them "tradition-
Today Olga Thomas heads ally and correctly", said the
her own Caribbean Construc- P.M., for higher wages: had
tion and has recently signed they lost their way in the
a multi-million dollar agreement Public Service, one assumes.
that puts her at the head of the The P.M.'s address sought
new Hyatt Hotel to be built at to refer particularly to women
Maracas. And that is another as the 21st. century approached.
story. Fantastic. He chose to look back one
"What practical experience century ago at a Western and








European tradition of educa-
tion wnich discriminated
against women.
He produced' a string of
statistics which' proved 'that the
West Indian woman at univer-
sity level concerned herself
with the Arts and General
Studies programme, bypassing
engineering and the sciences.

Admirable evasion of the
cause and effect theory: the
Universities receive only what
the Secondary School system
with its lack of Career Guidance
Programmes can afford to
feed them hence a perpetua-
tion of traditionally assigned
'o the tradition of business,
however, women are not new.
They have always been into
Household Management, Grace
Talma of the Management
Development Corporation
assures us.


This Sunday
THREE ITEMS are on the
Agenda of the Workshop for
Tapia party cadres this Sunday
May 22, at Cipriani Boulevard.
Top of the list is the matter
of party finances and it is
expected that a massive fund-
raising programme will be
articulated in detail following
discussion of the Treasurer's
Also to be discussed are a
progress report on thlereorgan-
isation of printing and publish-
ing activities and the final
programme for training party

41 UVW


~I I~



QUIETLY behind the
scenes, there have been
taking shape the prepara-
tions for a new offensive
against "guerrillas."
All the familiar signs are
appearing: the orchestration
of press reports; the sightings
of mysterious armed figures
(curiously enough, always in
military uniforms); the hints
that Asst. Comm. Burroughs is
onto something etc. etc.
The story soon to break is
that of a "shootout" between
the outlaw-guerrillas and the
forces of law and order.
And it's not as if, in these
times of peace, we are being
allowed to forget who have all
the guns.
Notice how much has been
made of the fact that police-
women are being trained to use
sub-machine guns.

In the years since the
slaughter of the last fighters of
NUFF, our police and army
rangers have had time on their
hands. They were able to tram
policewomen in the- use of
automatic weapons.
The have-gun-will-travel
raiders who gained notoriety
in the early 70s have had to
content themselves since with
the routine excitement of the
marijuana raid, coming down
to the least melodramatic of
all, the anti-corruption cam-
The police have even had
time to embark on campaigns
against children playing in the
The freeing last week of
David Michael, four years after
he was arrested and charged for
the murder of a young police-
Cont'd on P. 11.

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AT A TIME when the
former European colonial
powers are trying to gua-
rantee their presence in
Africa, US global corpora-
tions continue to use Brazil
in their plan -to effect
political and, economic
penetration south of the
Starting in the "1960s, a
decade which marked the end
of European colonialism in
Africa, US consortia began to
increase their influence in that
It was seen as an attempt
to fill the "vacuum": left
behind by the British, French
and Portuguese after centuries
of domination.
Thus, Africa occupies a
priority position in the global
strategy of the United States.
Official U.S. delegations began
to visit African capitals on a
scale never seen before.
This expansion, however,
could not ignore several reali-
ties of the socio-economic
system in the US.
The discrimination to which
20 million US blacks are sub-
jected; the "unavoidable com-
mitments" of Washington as
well as Paris, London and
Bonn to Pretoria and the
practical effects of these facts
in Africa, constitute natural

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restrictions to the advance of
the US south of the Sahara.
The United States has thus
sought Brazil as its "principal
South American ally", to con-
ceal its objectives ander the
appearance of an ethnic-cultural
affinity between Brazil and
Africa, as expressed in the
samba and exalted by Brasilia's
"new" African policy.
"We hope that in a few
years Brazil will enjoy in
Africa the same strong position
it now has in South America,"
said Lawrence Fish, vice presi-
dent of the First National Bank
of Boston.
Fish's "hopes" reflecting
those of important US power
groups, were explained by the
US magazine Business Week.
"Brazil's growing trade with

Africa", said the magazine last
October, "stems from that
country's desire to assume
political and economic leader-
ship of the Third World."


The above-mentioned quotes
seem to define, in general
terms, the present strategy of
the US transnationals and
Brazil's military technocracy
which projects that before the
year 2000 Brazil will achieve
something like a great power
status in regard to economic
For US political and econ-
omic sectors interested in
exporting capital and industrial
products to Africa, their confi-

* ,

dence in Brazil is, they say,
completely justified.
US investments occupy the
first place in the total of
foreign investments in Brazil.
In this field, the USis followed
by West Germany and Japan,
with foreign capital controlling
more than 60 percent of the
economy's basic sectors.
The Brazilian military
regime, in addition, is first
among the Latin American
loan-taking countries in debt
to the international Monetary
Fund and the World Bank
(both controlled by the United
States). Its foreign debt
amounted to more than $27
billion in 1976.
For the Brazilian military,
their penetration policy in
Africa is sustained by what

the magazine Jeune Afriquc
describes as the double face of
"responsible pragmatism"
applied by the Geisel govern-
Publicly, Brazil has made
many declarations against
South Africa and, to the extent
possible, the foreign ministry
has recognized the liberation
movement in southern Africa
and says it supports, verbally,
at least, some nationalist move-

However, Brasilia is conceal-
ing its vital commitments to its
"major partners," and speaks of
social equality in a country
where less than 20% of the
population lives comfortably,
omitting the development of its
economic and trade relations
with Pretoria4
Despite its growing trade
with black Africa (a billion
dollars in 1974 and 918 billion
in 1975) Brazil's trade relations
with South Africa (its third
most important client an
fourth' most important
fourth most important supplier)
have never been interrupted,
according to Jeune Afrique.

Cont'd on Page I1.

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- Irru" i .~CL~-~ --~Y~'~ ~-~UIULLllil*I~Yllt -

SUNDAY MAY 22, 1977


S. '. .' .



SUNDAY MAY 22. 1977

ON MY OWN SCENE ... Lloyd Best

In The Game Of Politics

Barber Can Sew Clothes

Tailor Can Cut


Ask NAC'S Dr Julien

THE. extraordinary state-
ments made by the Chair-
man of the National
Advisory Council in regard
to development planning
by the present government
are not extraordinary for
what they tell us about
planning. It is simply
absurd to suggest that the
Government has aban-
doned planning and it is
neither here nor there to
say that they have aban-
doned five year develop-
ment plans.
The annual Budget,
which now always contains
estimates of revenue and
expenditure below-the-line
for development or capital
works is manifestly a plan
for one year, necessarily
located in the longer pers-
pective of strategies and
sequences dictated by the
capital budget.
So to draw a distinction
between a plan which sets
out the strategies in the
way that the Demas Plan-
ning Division did as against
the fashion now being
proposed by Dr. Julien on
behalf of the NAC is sheer
That distinction is no

distinction at all; all that
will differ is that the docu-
ments will come from a
different source, the
auspices will be different,
the form of the publica-
tion, its cover and so on.
The planning will still be
bad because the present Gov-
ernment is in no way commit-
ted to fuller employment, a
wider diffusion of business
control, a more equitable dis-
tribution of income and so on.
The only fixed target will
remain the target of winning
votes and from that point of
view the planning will be ruth-
lessly efficient in its use of
adhoc strategies. The plan to
stay in office will never ever be
Two things are therefore
truly extraordinary about Dr
Julien's declaration. The first
is that he frankly admitted
that the new planning agency,
the NAC, is made up of inde-
pendent people who do not
represent any political interests.
When they sit down and
decide around a table, it's a
case of one and done. No
question of running back to
consult the Chamber or the
Unions or any such democratic
This time the Executive is
going to be free, free from the


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Legislature's scrutiny, free
from the constraints of com-
munity interests, free as a bird
to impose all the priorities of
expenditure needed to win in
1981 with endless statistics of
schools built, roads constructed,
and (watch out) houses pro-
vided in Chaguaramas and
Waller Field with the help of
petro-dollars and imported
construction firms.
This time round, the Execu-
tive will take its political inde-
pendence. Dr. Julien, amidst
all his incoherence, was making
that very clear for those who
listen and look with political
ears and eyes.


The second truly extra-
ordinary thing about Dr.
Julien's statement is that he
did not even take the trouble
to disguise his own blatant
incompetence as Chairman of
the NAC.
I find it hard to imagine
what such Council members as
Dr. Spence, Dr. Gocking and
Dr. St. Cyr must have thought
when they picked up the Trini-
dad Guardian to read the
absolute nonsense spouted by
their Chairman about planning
in India, about fiscal policy
and about so much else includ-
ing the impossibility of reform-
ing the public service.
Why would Dr. Julien wish
to be so uncaring in this dis-
tinguished part? Why did he
not take Dr. St. Cyr and Dr.
Gocking to his interview with
the press?
Surely that is what a techni-
cally competent Chairman of
the NAC would have done, if
like Dr. Julien, he was an
ignoramus about economic
planning and had obviously
not thought about the arts and
their place in the planning
A competent Chairman of
the NAC, like a good Chair-
man of the Cabinet, would
know that he is only first
among equals. He does not
have to be an expert on every-

thing; his expertise, like that
of any decent captain, is to
know what the others can do
and to have the self-knowledge
to know what he himself can-
not and must not do.
One imagines that if the
NAC were dealing in matters
of engineering, Dr. Julien might
then be an excellent spokes-
man, one who has undoubtedly
had a vast experience in agen-
cies such as T&TEC where he
has been known to lead
decisions in regard to the
purchase of key equipment,
pitting his professional judge-
ment against that of the entire
resident staff.
But on the evidence of what
we have seen in the press,
which must be the crucial
evidence in respect of men
who opt to make their career
as men of public affairs, Dr.
Julien should keep his mouth
shut when it comes to develop-
ment planning.
Cont'd on Page 10



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El'hII]aijl [
IT was in Zaire in the early nineteen sixties *
that we saw Cold War considerations looming *
for the first time into prominence in an African
State and it is the same venue that is today
the scene of international competition. This
of course is in part because of Zaire's central
location in the continent and the fact that it
is probably the African State moSt endowed
with vast supplies of major raw materials
such as cobalt and copper. It is also because
Zaire is a very large state containing many and
contending tribal groups -thus the Central
Government of Kinshasha has as yet developed
neither the administrative or political party
framework to govern effectively nor has it .
engendered a strong sense of nationalism and
unity amongst the populace.
The current issue stems from an invasion .
of Shaba (old Katanga) province by an army"
of Katangese soldiers who had been living in
neighboring Angola since the defeat of
Tshombe, and who had served in the Angola t
war in support of the MPLA. The invaders
appear to be well armed with Soviet weapons.! I I i
and there is a Kinshasha charge that they .-
include Cuban personnel. .-, _l


Both Russia and Cuba have vehemently
denied any involvement. Be that as it may,
Zaire's Western allies immediately rushed to
give support and the spectre of a Cold War
confrontation loomed in Africa. So far, how-
ever, a serious confrontation has been avoided
as it is clear that neither Moscow nor Wash-
ington, for that matter, Cuba, wanted to
escalate this particular issue. On Washington's
side there is the memory of Vietnam and the
conviction that such entanglements should be
avoided; for Moscow it is an unsuitable arena
since there is no genuine liberation movement
in existence and, for both Moscow and Cuba,
it would be a diversion, an untimely one, at a
time when demands are likely to be made on
them With respect to Southern Africa.
Not much is known about the invaders
there are no strong identifying character-
istics by way of identity, party labels or
leading personalities. However it ,is. assumed
that the returned Katangese gendarmes have
linked up with the small resistance groups
which have operated in Zaire during the
Mobutu regime. The principal resistance
groups are led by old figures from the struggles
of the sixties such as Antoine Gizenga (Congo
National Liberation Front) and Pierre Mulele
(Popular Revolutionary Party) these groups
have been conducting random harrying opera-
tions throughout the seventies. Certainly the
Katangese force is armed with Russian and
Cuban munitions and do use Angola as a base.
There is reason to suspect that their

attack was encouraged by the Angolan regime
as a way of preoccupying Mobutu. For
Mobutu had continued his policy of support
for the opposition forces of the FNLA and
UNITA, and Zaire was being used both as a
retreat base and a supply source for these
two Angolan movements. It would seem that
it was a tactic of.the MPLA leadership to pay
Mobutu back in his own coin and to encourage
a rebellion in his own territory thus diverting
him from being a problem for the Luanda


Whatever the reasons however, it is clear
that a struggle in Zaire which had Cold War
overtones, has rapidly led to a mobilising of
international and regional support. The U.S.
rushed in aid while insisting that it had no
intention of getting militarily involved; another
Western power France always eager to
reinforce its influence in French-speaking
Africa, got involved by ferrying Moroccan
troops by air to the battlefront. In Africa
itself Morocco and Egypt, on the basis of
OAU links, offered direct aid; that of Morocco
being the substantial contribution of fighting
troops. This regional support which has come
so readily for the Arab States was based on an
assessment by conservative Arab leaders that it
was necessary to stop the spread of the Left
in Africa, particularly in the Centre.
The fear is that if Zaire fell to a leftist

government this would give opportunity for a
left thrust northward particularly since there
was already in existence the militant regimes
of Quadafi in Libya and the new Ethiopian
junta. What is significant here is that in effect
it was unnecessary for the U.S. to take a
leading role, since other anti-communist
regimes were prepared to take on responsibil-
The Zairean developments demonstrate
some of the characteristics of what might be
called "sub-imperialism", where middle or
regional powers take the lead rather than the
super powers having to intervene all over the
globe. Of course it is also true that Cuba's
initiative in involving itself across the seas in
Angola in 1975 set the scene for Moroccan
participation in Zaire. There are now no
restraints on regional middle-power ambitions
and the stage js set for adventurism tomorrow
by states such as Iran in the Near East and
Brazil in this hemisphere.


Black Afnca of course is not happy about
the Zairean developments. It represents an
unnecessary, diversion at a time when the
continent had reached a new level of unity and
purpose vis-a-vis Southern African. The focus
has to be on Zimbabwe, Namibia and South
Africa and this is an unwelcome crisis. The
majority of Black African states therefore
Cont'd on Page 9

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:L. I" fI I- -lU IIIL I H I l I I .. . I_-I I I-II11I 1III III II ,

SUNDAY MAY" 22, 1977

The Plce Whee Thrity Peo le Sho

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I Al A, i k .> 3

Late one afternoon, bored and all alone in Mr Biswas's newly-built
house on the Shorthills estate, Anand goes through Shama's bottom
drawer, finding in turn his parents' marriage certificate, the birth
certificates of his sisters and himself, photographs of Pundit Tulsi
and the Tulsi family, and finally a bundle of letters saved from
Shama's early abbreviated attempt to make contact with the out-
,ide world:
The letters were neatly written and said little at great length.
Ihey spoke about letters received, about school, about holidays;
they thanked for photographs. Abruptly they were touched with
feeling; they expressed surprise that arrangements for marriage
had been made so soon; they attempted to soften surprise with
congratulation. Then there were no more letters.
Anand closed the drawer and went to the drawing-room. He
rested his elbows on the window-sill and looked out. The sun
had just set and the bush was turning black against a sky that
Svas still clear. Smoke came through the kitchen door and win-
dow and Anand listened to Shama singing. Darkness filled the
valley. (p. 425)
The incident is one of several showing the novel's concern with
the development of Anand, and illustrating how the narrative
method of A House for Mr Biswas is modified as Anand becomes
more important to the author: with the increase in the number 6f
scenes involving Anand, or Anand and Mr Biswas, the reader is
made to see not only what Mr Biswas sees, but also from Anand's
point of view.
Naipaul's special interest in the figure of Anand declares itself
even more directly in Part Two, Chapter 3, 'The Shorthills Adven-
ture', where the author's voice breaks from a description of the
nightmare existence of the Tulsi children on their new estate to-tell
Though no one recognized his strength, Anand was among the
strong. His satirical sense kept him aloof. At first this was only a
pose, an imitation of his father. But satire led to contempt, and
at Shorthills contempt, quick, deep, inclusive, became part of
his nature. It led to inadequAcies, to self-awareness and a lasting
loneliness. But it made him unassailable. (p. 372)
The artist's interest in the development of the young man ex-
presses itself less directly but more continuously in the account of
Mr Biswas's attempts to establish a working relationship with his
son, based upon the father's early recognition of an affinity between
them beyond conscious willing.
When Mr Biswas discovers the solace of Dickens (p. 374) and
shares the discovery with Anand he makes the youth write out and
learn the meanings of difficult words because '"I don't want you to
be like me"'. And when Mr Biswas answers a request for cinema
money with the apparently unfeeling '"When you get to my age you
wouldn't care for Westerns"', Anand loses his temper to declare
"'When I get to your age I don't want to be like you"' (p. 465).
The tension between father and son, based upon a mutual under-
standing is usually, as the author's voice explains, under better
control: 'Father and son saw the other as weak and vulnerable and
each felt a responsibility for the other, a responsibility which in
times of particular pain was disguised by exaggerated authority on
the one side, exaggerated respect on the other' (p. 374). The relation-
ship that develops between father and son is a difficult one marked
by periods of involuntary emotional blockage and deliberate with-
drawal; periods of togetherness and seeking out each other's
approval, interrupted by retreats, each into his own loneliness. Just
before the final break with the Tulsis, when Anand comes in to be
comforted, Mr Biswas does not give him time to tell about the slaps
received from Owad; instead he asks the boy to help with the calcu-
lation of travelling expenses:
'Just a minute, boy. Ought oughts are ought. Two fives are
ten. Put down ought. Carry one.' Mr Biswas was relaxed, and
even clowning; he knew that his method of multiplying always
'Pa. We must move.'
Mr Biswas turned.
'We must move. I can't bear to live here another day.'
Mr Biswas heard the distress in Anand's voice. But he was un-
willing to explore it. 'Move ? All in good time. All in good time.
Just waiting for the revolution and my dacha.'
These happy moods of his father were getting rare. And
Anand said nothing more. (P. qTI)

The most startling development occurs in the Epilogue, however,
where Mr Biswas's correspondence with his son who is at a uni-
sersity in England seems to come up against a brick wall. When
Anand's letters are not rare, they are gloomy, self-pitying and 'tinged
with a hysteria which Mr Biswas immediately understood'. Mr
Biswas turns comforter, and the letters become rare again. To the
continuing letters and despatches of articles published, Mr Biswas
receives either 'impersonal, brief, empty, constrained' replies at long
intervals, or no acknowledgement at all. Mr Biswas seems to die
from within. After a second heart attack and a notice of dismissal
from The Sentinel, he again touches despair: 'And now Mr Biswas
needed his son's interest and anger. In all the world there was no
one else to whom he could complain. And at last, forgetting Anand's
own pain, he wrote on the yellow typewriter a hysterical, complain-
ing, despairing letter, with not a mention of the shade or the roses or
the orchids or the anthurium lilies' (p. 588). A brief reply is even-
tually elicited, and then Anand changes his mind about returning to
be a comfort to Mr Biswas. These are the final tokens of Anand's
own pain tKat Naipaul chooses to deposit in the novel, before
turning to the happiness coming to Mr Biswas with the return of

In' '

Photograph Courtesy New Voices
To begin like this is to hint at a significance in the character of
Anand which colours the novel more deeply than his prominence in
the actual presentation might suggest. In the exploration that
follows, one is not denying the validity of those interpretations of
the novel in which the West Indian significance of the work or what
it says about descendants of Indians in Trinidad are given emphasis.
It is proposed here to move through the particulars of Mr Biswas's
experience in such a way as to underline the lack of parental care
which so much of the novel desolately reflects. By so doing one hopes
to give support to a feeling that A House for Mr Biswas is essentially,
and in surprising ways, a novel about the relationship between
father and son.
As even the too, too solid Tulsi body melts in the later stages of
A House for Mr Biswas, the hero's struggle is gradually revealed for
what it is: 'How terrible it would have been, at this time, to be with-
out it [the house]: to have died among the Tulsis, amid the squalor
of that large disintegrating and indifferent family; to have left Shama
and the children among them in one room; worse, to have lived and
died without even attempting to lay claim to one's portion of the
earth; to have lived and died as one had been born, unnecessary and
unaccommodated' (pp. 13-14, my italics). Mr Biswas's ,ill to build
or acquire his.own house, and to install his own family in it, is not
always lucidly sustained by this various, petty, impulsive, impres-
sionable, ineffectual figure of a man. It never flags so badly,
however, as to be incapable of being revived by spite, malice, envy,
a new inconvenience or a remark by a Tulsi; a passing sound; or a
memory. At his lowest moment, however, when 'he had begun to
consider himself old, his career closed and his visions of the future






1961 novel




An Introduction
To The
Study of
West Indian
The Author

LNDAY ;;AY 22. r^/7i

became only visions of Anand's fuLure'; and when, recognizing that
he 'had lost the vision of the house' he permits himself to sink night
after night into despair (pp. 494-5), it is a totally unexpected event,
an offer of a post in the newly-established Community Welfare De-
partment that revivifies Mr Biswas. But if external agencies and the
dross in his own nature help to keep Mr Biswas at his lifelong task,
it is neither vindictiveness against the Tulsis nor a materialistic/
acquisitive strain that drives him.
With the triumph of a recent skirmish with the Tulsis fresh in his
mind, a chastening depression still falls upon him:
The campaign against the Tulsis which he had been conducting
with such pleasure, now seemed pointless and degrading. Sup-
pose, Mr Biswas thought in the long room, suppose that at one
word I could just disappear from this room, what would remain
to speak of me? A few clothes, a few books. The shouts and
thumps in the hall would continue; the puja would be done; in
the morning the Tulsi Store would open its doors. (p. 131)
It becomes Mr Biswas's purpose to lay claim to his portion of
the earth, and to leave something that would speak of him; his mood
or feeling is a persistent angst about the relationship between self
and not-self:
He decided to cycle to Hanuman House.
Every man and woman he saw, even at a distance, gave him
a twist of panic. But he had already grown used to.that; it had
become part of the pain of living. Then, as he cycled, he dis-
covered a new depth to this pain. Every object he had not seen
for twenty-four hours was part of his whole and happy past.
Everything he now saw became sullied by his fear, every field,
every house, every tree, every turn in the road, every bump and
subsidence. So that by merely looking at the world, he was pro-
gressively destroying his present and his past. (pp. 269-70)
It is this existential angst that underlies the social realism of A
House for Mr Biswas, allowing us to understand Mr Biswas's
efforts as something other than a bourgeois striving after property
and comfortable domesticity. And it is this angst which is reflected
in the novel's preoccupation with a world devoid of loving care,
especially parental care. The hero's achievement (for he is indeed a

hero in spite of all his apparently unheroic qualities) lies in the
attempt, made with faith and ever-returning courage, to interpose a
human institution (the family) and a humanised object (the house)
between himself and a universe threatening annihilation on every
Having failed as a shopkeeper at The Chase, Mr Biswas takes on
the even more implausible role of sub-overseer on a Tulsi estate at
Green Vale. His wife and children are based at nearby Hanuman
House, and for long periods he is left alone. At The Chase, Shama
had shown herself capable of fitting into any established role, pro-
ducing a meal on their first night and, by her loud assertive actions,
winning Mr Biswas's gratitude for banishing the silence and loneli-
ness of"their derelict house. Throughout the marriage indeed,
Shama develops into something more like a wife than Mr Biswas
could have expected of a Tulsi daughter, so that in his assessment of
his fortunes he can feel that she has learnt a new loyalty to him and
their children which she is capable of expressing without shame
once away from her mother and sisters. Both to the reader, and to
the hero, nevertheless, events at The Chase had made it clear that
the spiritual aloneness of the man is heightened rather than relieved
by the solid presence of his conventional wife:
For there was no doubt that this was what Shama expected
from life: to be taken through every stage, to fulfil every func-
tion, to have her share of the established emotions: joy at a birth
or marriage, distress during illness and hardship, grief at a death.
Life to be full, had to be this established pattern of sensation.
Grief and joy, both equally awaited, were one. For Shama and
her sisters and women like them, ambition, if the word could be
used, was a series of negatives: not to be unmarried, not to be
childless, not to be an undutiful daughter, sister, wife, mother,
widow. (p. i60)
Yet it is the physical absence of his wife and children that exposes
Mr Biswas to the full terrors of isolation at Green Vale.
Naipaul presents Mr Biswas's terror and isolation at Green Vale
in such a way that we are forced to associate this period with the
period of his nervous childhood. The smell of damp and soot, old
paper and stale tobacco in the barrackroom remind Mr Biswas of
the smell of his father's box under the bed where, as a boy, he had
crept after losing Dhari's cow. The menacing sounds of disgruntled
labourers outside the barrackroom and later under the house built

Every night he bolted himself in his room. As soon as he was still
he felt the stillness around him and he had to make movements
to destroy the stillness, to challenge the alertness of the room:and
the objects in it. He was rocking hard on the creaking board one
night when he thought of the power of the rockers to grind and
crush and inflict pain, on his hands and toes and the tender parts
of his body. He rose at once in agony, covering his groin with
his hands, sucking hard on his teeth, listening to the chair, as
rocking, it moved sideways along the cambered plank. The chair
fell silent. He looked away from it. On the wall he saw a nail
that could puncture his eye. The window could trap and mangle.
So could the door. Every leg of the green table could press and
crush. The castors of the dressing table. The drawers. He lay
face down on the bed, not wanting to see and, to drive out the
shapes of objects from his head, he concentrated on the shapes
of letters, working out design after design for the letter R. At
last he fell asleep with his hands covering the vulnerable parts of
his body, and wishing he had hands to cover himself all over.
(pp. 229-30)
Once reduced to this condition of weakness, and consciousness
of weakness, Mr Biswas's final collapse is inevitable. Taken away
from Green Vale, out of the wind and rain and the imagined terrors
of the night, Mr Biswas rests in peace in Hanuman House:
The darkness, the silence, the absence of the world en-
veloped and comforted him. At some far-off time he had suffered
a great anguish. He had fought against it. Now he had sur-
rendered, and this surrender had. brought peace. He had con-
trolled his disgust and fear when the men had come for him. He
was glad he had. Surrender had removed the world of damp
walls and paper covered walls, and hot sun and driving rain,
and had brought him this: this worldless room, this nothingness.
(p. 299)
Mr Biswas's nervous breakdown, and the recovery in Hanuman
House, of all places, are crucial because they remove the hero's
struggle from being an instinctive attempt to preserve a social
identity, as in his campaign against the Tulsis, onto another level
altogether: a man's attempts to shore up relics and ruins against the
encroaching darkness. As Mr Biswas concentrates, every object in
the warm closed room in which he is swaddled acquires solidity and
permanence: 'That marble-topped table with the china cup and
saucer and spoon: no other arrangement of those objects was
possible' (p. 296). What Naipaul describes in this and in the passage
above is a translation of all Mr Biswas's previous morbid yearnings
for a return to the womb. And it is here that the hero has to make the
most difficult, perhaps the first real choice in his life. He can turn
this womb into a spiritual grave and count his earthly blessings:
The second to second agony and despair of those days at Green
Vale had given him an experience of unhappiness against which
everything had now to be measured. He was more fortunate
than most people. His children would never starve; they would
always be sheltered and clothed. It didn't matter if he were at
Green Vale or Arwacas, if he were alive or dead (p. 303)
On the other hand, he can turn his back upon this enticement to
rest, and face again the challenge of the world outside, a challenge
to accept responsibility and find meaning even when immersed in
the destructive element.
The following extended passage allows us to see how the starker
theme of the novel underlies a comic and realistic surface. Mr
Biswas's first child has just been born and the father has cycled from
The Chase to see his offspring. As he is leaving Hanuman House he
s ambushed by his mother-in-law. The passage, incidentally, shows
:he unchanging but cunning Mrs Tulsi in operation upon her most
aliant and at the same time most resistant victim. The irony lies in
Mrs Tulsi's unknowing references to large issues preying upon Mr
3iswas's mind:

SUNDAY MAY 22- 9~T!/
Mrs Tulsi patted the bench. 'Come and sit here Mohun.' He
sat beside her.
'The Lord gives,' Mrs Tulsi s, id abruptly in English.
Concealing his surprise, Mr iswas nodded. He knew Mrs
Tulsi's philosophising manner. Slowly, and with the utmost
solemnity, she made a number' of simple unconnected state-
ments; the effect was one of puzzling profundity.
'Everything comes, bit by bit,' she said. 'We must forgive. As
your father used to say'-she pointed to the photographs on the
wall-'what is tor you is for you. What.is not for you is not for
Against his will Mr Biswas fou d himself listening gravely and
nodding in agreement. Mrs Tuls sniffed and pressed her veil to
her nose. 'A year ago, who would have thought that you would
be sitting here, in this hall, with t ese children, as my son-in-law
and a father ? Life is full of those 'Arprises. But they are not really
surprising. You are responsible fpr a life now, Mohun f She be-
gan to cry. She put her hand oni Mr Biswas's shoulder, not to
comfort him but urging him to Comfort her. 'I let Shama have
my room. The Rose Room. I knqu that you are worried about
the future. Don't tell me. I know' She patted his shoulder.
He was trapped by her mood. He forgot the children eating
sulphur and.condensed milk, and shook his head as if to admit
that he had thought profoundly Jnd with despair of the future.
Having trapped him in the mood, she removed her hand, blew
her'nose and dried her eyes. '1thatever happens you keep on
living. Whatever happens. Until the Lord sees fit to take you
away.' The last sentence was in English; it took him aback, and
broke the spell. 'As he did with your dear father. But until that
time comes, no matter how they starve you or how they treat
you, they can never kill you.'
They, Mr Biswas thought, % h,,'i re they ?
S ( (pp. I65-6, my italics)
The experience of Green Vale jits Mr Biswas's struggles with
Hanuman House into perspective Before Green Vale it is just a
group of people seeking to bind' in a way of life that threatens
his individuality. Its physical,'r >is always as solid and as op-
pressive as that of Melville' ,--it it is its symbolic character
that gradually establishes it- ': reader's consciousness. Mr
Biswas's surrender to-the dO..ess and nothingness in the Blue
Room at Hanuman House is a s i under to death. Yet his will to
live, which Mrs Tulsi speaks so k- -,*igly but un-knowingly about,
his responsibility for other lives fo,' which she has the right phrase,
and his worry about the future, 'e him to emerge out of that
cradling house with little more tn.n a few crumpled clothes and
battered paint brushes to a meeting with a bus that is to take him
to a new life in Port of Spain: 'He 'as going out into the world to
test it for its power to frighten. The past was counterfeit, a series of
cheating accidents. Real life, and iis especial sweetness, awaited:
he was still beginning' (p. 308).
On his rebirth, Mr Biswas leavs Hanuman. House unencum-
bered, and with no plans for his family. But after a fortnight of sur-
render to the bustle of the city and iis call to the senses, he begins to
be burdened by his freedom. 'He vas no longer content to walk
about the city. He wanted to be p rt of it. .' (p. 312). Naipaul
traces in this period the winding sta s by.which as the wholeness of
his mind returns, the hero has to fa e the world again. The need to
belong which he seeks to fulfil in h:s job as a journalist, leads him
slowly back to the wife and childiin (package deal) he has tried
to cut loose from; and to an understanding of the past, arriving
one day as he looks at the statue o a belligerent soldier in the War
Memorial Park: 'The past could not be ignored; it was never
counterfeit; he carried it within hin self. If there was a place for him;
it was one that had already been hal owed out by time, by everything
he had lived through, however imperfect, makeshift and cheating'
(p. 316).
The returning mood of Green V le, memories of the journalism
on the barrackroom wall and a sud en awareness that he isstanding


before the very newspaper offices out of which the breathless line
'Amazing Scenes Were Witnessed Yesterday When' had once come
to help unhinge his mind, now propel Mr Biswas through a hurried
and hilarious interview to a job first as a sign-painter and then as a
journalist specialising in fictional shock reports for The Sentinel.
Fame in this macabre trade permits Mr Biswas to stage a magnificent
return to Hanuman House where Shama introduces him to his
fourth child:
Shama came closer but did not raise her eyes. 'Who is that man ?'
she said to the baby. 'Do you know tha: man '
Mr Biswas did not respond. He felt suffocated, sickened by
the picture of mother and child as by the whole furtive domestic
scene in this room above the hall; father, mother, children.
'And who is this?' Shama had taken the baby to Anand. 'This
is brother.' Anand tickled her chin and the baby gurgled.
'Yes, this is brother. Oh, isn't she a pretty baby ?' He noticed
that Shama had grown a little plumper. He relented. He took a
step towards Shama and immediately she held up the baby to-
him. (p. 331)
The incident is rich. Naipaul uses stock words and gestures not
only to characterise Shama but to bring back to Mr Biswas.his worst
fears, and his most persistent anxiety 'Who is that man ?'. And Mr
Biswas's new courage and incipient resolve to lay claim to the part

of his past that his family represents is implicit in his relenting, an<
in the step he takes towards the plump baby-bearing figure that i:
his wife. The parental gesture is something new, and uncompre
ended in the Tulsi household.
The lack of parental care which is evident in the impersonality
and herding within Hanuman House is echoed in the imagery o:
blight and arrested growth in the external world. The leaves of the
trees at Green Vale are a dead, green at the top, but yellow anc
drooping lower down, as if 'death was spreading at the same pace
from all the roots' (p. .o6). The new leaves which came were 'as
sharp as daggers, but there was no freshness to them'; they come
into the world, the reader cannot help realising, like the children of
the living dead of the novel, 'old, without a shine, and only grew
longer before they too died' (p. 206). When we read of the excemas
and lice in Hanuman House, the listless stragglings of hordes of
children on the Shorthills Estate, and Mr Biswas's own survey of the
weaknesses and dispersal of his children on the new estate (p. 412)
and of their afflictions in the Tulsi house (p. 437), it is to the descrip-
tion of Mr Biswas's rose garden that our minds return: 'Untended,
the rose trees grew straggly and hard. A blight made their stems
white and gave them sickly, ill-formed leaves. The buds opened
slowly to reveal blanched, tattered blooms covered with minute in-
sects; other insects built bright brown domes on the stems (p. 376).
By associating lack of parental care with a sense of disorder in
Nature, Naipaul enables us to understand Mr Biswas's increasing
concern for his family as a human attempt to arrest the desolation.
And so we come to the apparent comedy and satire of Mr
Biswas's strict efforts (pp. 337-40) to establish a domestic tyranny;
to impose 'training' upon his children so that they do not become


to forget his disappointment and complaints, and restore the truth
of his mother as she would have liked to be.'The radical importance
of the parental figure, and further signs that Mr giswas is learning
to control his morbidity even while understanding his losses comes
out in Mr Biswas's self-communing when Bipti dies:

Mr Biswas went past Dehuti to look at the body. Then he did
not wish to see it again. But always as he wandered about the
yard among the mourners, he was aware of the body. He was
oppressed by a sense of loss: not of present loss, but of some-
thing missed in the past. He would have liked to be alone, to
commune with this feeling. But time was short, and always there

by Mr McLean recall to Mr Biswas the nights of hushed talk, danc-
ing shadows and hysteria when those other.labourers in his child-
hood had menaced the mother and her three sons. The fear of people
(pp. 266-7) and objects which comes upon Mr Biswas without
warning at Green Vale is the sign of a return of childhood insecurity
in a most acute form:


straggly and hard (to Shama: 'Your family is tough'); and his
efforts to improve upon the educational system by setting himself
up as a teacher in the home ('But what is happening these days?
They are not teaching as they used to when I was a boy'). The
allusion to Lal's 'Ought twos are how much?' shows us how the
most casual or comic incident in a Naipaul work can have surprising
resonances; and more immediately it reminds us'that Mr Biswas's
past haunts him, even when he himself is hardly conscious of it. The
black comedy and fantasy of Mr Biswas's journalism are used by
the author to reveal indirectly the character's most deeply felt
deprivations. The story of the baby found on a rubbish dump, sub-
titled 'Did Not Win Bonny Baby Competition'; touches a memory
in the reader's mind of the unprepossessing Mr Biswas's own virtual
abandonment as a child. The DADDY COMES HOME IN A COFFIN
scoop does not only make cruel, self-lacerating fun of a loss sus-
tained by Mr Biswas himself; in the plaint 'Mummy, when is Daddy
coming home?', by the explorer's four children, housed in a neat
little red-roofed cottage that is certainly not Hanuman House, it
also suggests the homeless Mr Biswas's present separation from his
children, and his own desire to be needed by them.
Mr Biswas himself imagines the utter desolation implicit in a lack
of parental care in a memory-picture of something seen from one
of Adjodha's country buses, of 'a boy leaning against an earth house
that had no reason for being there, under the dark falling sky, a boy
who didn't know where the road, and that bus went' (p. 19o). This
unsettling image returns to him from time to time (once, signi-
ficantly, he sees Anand in that light p. 237), as a reminder of-the
orphan-like state of desolation.
But an even more pervasive influence flowing in and out of Mr
Biswas's consciousness is the forlorn figure of Bipti, his mother. To
his guilt about the part he had played in his father's drowning, Mr
Biswas adds the consciousness of not having done anything for his
mother, see, for example, the anguish of SCARLET PIMPERNEL
SPENDS NIGHT IN TREE (p. 329). His need to claim a parent, leads
him to bring Bipti to his house at Shorthills for a fortnight, so that
the memory of her help with the housework, but more particularly
on the land, allows him to create an image that gives continuity and
root to his life: 'In the setting sun, the sad dusk, with Bipti working
in a garden that looked, for a moment, like a garden he had known
a dark time ages ago, the intervening years fell away.' And in the
prose poem he composes (p. 484), Mr Biswas's fiction enables him


S.,..^ ; 22, 1977


was the sight of Shama and the ch. Iren, alien growths, alien
affections which fed on him and called him away from that part
of him which yet remained purely himself, that part which had
for long been submerged and was now to disappear. (p. 480)

Wresting his family from Hanuman House, and making them
want. the order of the new life he has created for them in Port of
Spain, is the external form of Mr Biswas's drama of learning to face
an alien world whose force he has fully felt. The humiliation of
Anand by the boorish Owad, and Mr Biswas's growing irritation at
this last Tulsi assertion suddenly throws him into the fulfilment of
his grandest, if long procrastinated design.
'"I am going to get a job on my own. And I am going to get my
own house too. I am finished with this." He waved his aching arm
about the mud walls and the low sooty thatch' (p. 67). To follow the
successive descriptions of houses in A House for Mr Biswas, and
the character's attitudes to them over the winding course of the
novel, is to give ourselves up to experiencing the depths of a man's
darkening world-weariness, and to surface again with illumination:
Mr Biswas's protest against social conditions refines itself into some-
thing more subtle and gets expressed paradoxically in the acquisi-
tion of a material object. The house in Sikkim Street is charged with
the fighting will of its master:
Downstairs the doors of che house were open. The door that
couldn't open had been made to, and its hinges dislocated. The
furniture was pushed to the walls. All that day and evening well-
dressed mourners, men, women and children, passed through
the house. The polished floor became scratched and dusty; the
staircase shivered continually; the top floor resounded with the
steady shuffle. And the house did not fall. (pp. 589-90)
With the house that comes to mean so much spiritually, we come
to the climax of a skilful and moving use of inanimate objects in
A House for Mr Biswas.
On a first reading, the sentence in the Prologue that introduces the
catalogue of objects being itemised in Mr Biswas's recollecting con-
sciousness is strange: 'Every relationship, every possession'. But
once we have read the novel, it is the bold accuracy of the equation
that impresses us. The objects listed speak of the process of decay
and of the futile human effort to arrest it (the progress of the kitchen
safe); and the heroism of the increasingly frantic, sometimes slap-
dash but persistent Mr Biswas is figured in the protagonist's atten-
tion to the kitchen safe. The lack of opportunity and the absence of
standards in Mr Biswas's society as well as the indifference of the
Tulsis are implicit in the bookcase made 'by an out of work black-
smith-who had been employed by the Tulsis as a cabinet-maker'.
The stages in Mr Biswas's inner life are contained in these objects
too. Nothing from the Green Vale period is listed except the type-
writer, bought in a hopeful period of self-education, then neglected,
and later used to compose the 'Escape' stories and the letter to the
doctor who signed Bipti's death certificate. It stands out in a bright
yellow, which speaks of the hero's impulsiveness and eccentricity.
The glass cabinet, still dainty and practically empty, an object asso-
ciated with Shama, tells of the marriage relationship between a
man, whose living aim is to make his presence felt, and the wife,
who hopes to pass unnoticed in the established grooves of ritual,
gesture and empty token. The whole catalogue evokes the chron-
ology of Mr Biswas's life, and the nomadism of his dozen or so
changes of address, as he seeks a home. We might note here that
Naipaul repeats the catalogue, with additions, every time Mr.
Biswas moves, so that each repetition in the body of the novel is an
inventory of accumulating experience waiting to fall into order.
The build-up in the list to the climax of the house gives to that object
the status of an ordering principle: the long paragraph in which the
definite article is used, is succeeded by one, of ten words, confined
to the house; and in the middle of this sentence the definite article
gives way to the pronoun that marks possession: 'But bigger than
all was ;he house, his house'. Naipaul is able to attach significance
to the house, in spite of all its defects, because it is the object in
which all the other objects Mr Biswas has possessed come to life to
speak of him.
It is because of Mr Biswas, that after the cremation, 'Shama and
the children went back to the empty house'. But in facing up to that
'empty' in the last breath of the novel; to the objective description
of the house in the Prologue; to the unsparing account in the Epi-
logue of Mr Biswas's dying, 'a darkness that seemed to come from
within, as though the skin was a murky but transparent film and
the flesh below it had been bruised and become diseased and its cor-
ruption was rising' (p. 588); and to the unexpected way in which
things turn out right fof Mr Biswas at the very end of his life, with
the return of Savi, we are forced to recognize that Mr Biswas's
heroism consists primarily in struggling at all against forces that
inevitably have their way. The message of the house, then, avoids
any possibility of sentimentality. It is just the fragile symbol of the
hero's refusal to fall under the weight of his society, his personal
relationships, the soil in his own constitution, and the weight of the
pain of living itself.
Naipaul's consciousness of the pain of living is nowhere more
starkly expressed in this novel than in the figure of Anand. When
Shama and the children go back to the empty house, Anand is not
among them. To explore the significance of this it is necessary to

return to the relationship between father and son with which this
chapter began. At Green Vale, the mutilated body of the dog,
Tarzan, is flung out of the darkness and rain by the villagers. The
cruelty of which that body speaks produces hysteria in the boy, and
a shrieking demand to be taken back to Hanuman House. In spite
of Mr Biswas's desperate pleading and bargaining, Anand refuses
to stay at Green Vale although he accepts that he must wait until the
rain is over. In the ensuing period of stalemate between father and

son, Mr Biswas's mounting anguish is cruelly ignored, or so it would
seem, by the boy. Anand's attention is occupied by the remorseless
destruction on the floor beside him, at the foot of the bed, where his
father is rapidly disintegrating physically, of one type of ant by
another variety more fitted to survive:

The procession of ants continued. Anand began killing them
with the walking-stick. Whenever he crushed a group carrying
a living winged ant, the ants broke up, without confusion or
haste, re-formed, took away what they could of the crushed body
and carried away their dead. Anand struck and struck with his
stick. A sharp pain ran up his arm. On his hand he saw an ant, its
body raised, its pincers buried in his skin. When he looked at the
walking-stick he saw that it was alive with biting ants crawling
upwards. He was suddenly terrified of them, their anger, their
vindictiveness, their number. He threw the stick away from him.
It fell into a puddle. (P. 291)

It is useful to compare this experience with one from In A Free
State where, in the Journal that opens and closes the volume,
Naipaul describes in the first person what happens on the sands of
a rest house near the temple of Karnak in Egypt. One of the duties
of the attendant is to keep at a distance the desert children, who lurk
in the hummocked sand for such scraps of food as may be thrown
by tourists on the terrace. Every time the children come too close
to the terrace, however, the attendant would run among them beat-
ing the sand with his camel-whip and shouting the creatures away.
A cruel game develops when an Italian visitor takes out his camera
and sets a sandwich as bait well within the prohibited area. The
attendant brings down his whip on the backs of the children,.not on
the sand; and what begins as playing to the tourist camera ends in
the rhythmic violence of a mood that startlingly overcomes the man
with the whip. Pained by the unnecessary cruelty and by the in-
difference of those around him, Naipaul finds himself intervening:

I saw that my hand was trembling. I put down the sandwich I
was eating on the metal table; it was my last decision. Lucidity,
and anxiety came to me only when I was almost on the man with
the camel-whip. I was shouting. I took the whip away, threw it
on the sand. He was astonished, relieved. I said, 'I will report
this to Cairo.' He was frightened; he began to plead in Arabic.
The children were puzzled; they ran off a little way and stood up
to watch. The two Italians, fingeringcameras, looked quite calm
behind their sunglasses. The women in the party leaned back in
their chairs to consider me. (p. 243, Penguin edition)

Although he feels .that the gesture is only a gesture, and that he
has made himself vulnerable, 'I felt exposed, futile, and wanted only
to be back at my table', the writer of the Journal is strengthened to
stand by the compassionate action his humanity had surprised him
into: 'But I was indifferent to them now as I was indifferent to the
Italian in the cerise jersey'. What kind of growing point this may
represent in Naipaul's work is not our concern here. But the ex-
perience does throw a light on the paragraph quoted above from
A House for Mr Biswas. It is not difficult to see that Anand's dis-
turbance at the fate of the winged ants is the form that his suffering
for his father takes. The experience in In A Free State, however, con-
firms us in feeling that when Anand flings the stick away in futility
and with a sense of bringing the danger upon himself, he is really
discovering the pain of a compassion that can be futile, especially
when the weak tries to help the weak. It is this discovery at the height
of the storm that binds the father to his son, and this paralysis that
years later prevents Anand from responding to Mr Biswas's plead-
ings for comfort as death approaches.
The form of In A Free State-the use of a Journal (the author
writing in the first person) to frame the fictional stories which appear
in the volurie-encourages us to see Naipaul's work as one long
effort to reconcile the aesthetic demands of the thing created and
detached with the need to express private suffering and growth. The
passage from A House for Mr Biswas quoted below would appear
to be an early intimation of this process. Ostensibly it summarises
the effect of Mr Biswas's life and house on his children, comes to
suggest Anand's particular pain and his disturbance 'in a northern
land' by memories of his disjointed and Tulsi'd past, and closes with
his arrival at some kind of order:
Soon it seemed to the children that they had never lived any-
where but in the tall square house in Sikkim Street. From now
their lives would be ordered, their memories coherent. The mind,
while it is sound, is merciful. And rapidly the memories of
Hanuman House, The Chase, Green Vale, Shorthills, the Tulsi
house in Port of Spain would become jumbled, blurred: events
would be telescoped, many forgotten. Occasionally a nerve of
memory would be touched-a puddle reflecting the blue sky
after rain, a pack of thumbed cards, the fumbling with a shoe-
lace, the smell of a new car, the sou:.d of a stiff wind through
trees, the smells and colours of a toyshop, the taste of milk and
prunes-and a fragment of forgotten experience would be dis-
lodged, isolated, puzzling. In a northern land, in a time of new
separations and yearnings, in a library grown suddenly dark,
the hailstones beating against the windows, the marbled end-
paper of a dusty leatherbound book would disturb: and it would
be the hot noisy week before Christmas in the Tulsi Store; the
marbled patterns of old-fashioned balloons powdered with a
rubbery dust in a shallow white box that was not to be touched.
So later, and very slowly, in secure times of different stresses,

when the memories had lost the power to hurt, with pain or joy,
they would fall into place and give back the past. (p. 58r)
It is a most hazardous practice to equate an author with his
fictional character, but can the final sentence of this paragraph not
also be about the therapeutic effect of the making of A House for
Mr Biswas, the fulfilment outside the novel of that arrested relation-
ship between fictional father and son?


a From Page 4
have worked hard at not escalating the problem
and Nigeria has been encouraged to play the
role of mediator.
Mobutu is not a particularly popular
leader in the continent but his problem is one
on which the position of the OAU is firm and
well established it does not approve of seces-
sionist movements since all African states are
vulnerable to that disease. The OAU principle
is a pragmatic one the inherited boundaries
of the post-colonial states are not rational and
the states include many peoples who are not
naturally a "nation" in the modem.sense. To
attempt to meet the conflicting desires of the
many groups for independence or for rearrang-
ing borders would be to invite chaos thus

the rule is that the boundaries d6 the states
are inviolate.

It is striking that, despite the eager com-
mitment of conservative allies to the support
of the Mobutu regiiie, the Russians and
Cubans have so far refused to get involved.
The Zaire imbroglio has many lessons about
the present state of international affairs. It
demonstrates that we are no longer in a tight
bipolar international system, that regional
issues are likely to remain contained, that the
West is not "retreating"but operating flexibly,
that the leading Western power, the U.S. is
prepared to allow her allies to take initiatives
in their own regions, indeed, is out to
encourage second-rank powers into undertak-
ing such responsibilities, and that in the search

to ensure reliable raw material supplies con-
siderable sums would be put out by the
Western controlled international economic
system to bail out the economies of ineffi-
cient regimes such as Mobutu's.
For Africa it would seem that the conti-
nent might well take over from Asia as the
No.1 centre of international great power
competition, although the competition need
not reach the intensity of actual all-out con-
flict. Whether it be Southern Africa, Zaire or
the contending states in the Horn of Africa
there are many areas pregnant with problems
which are likely to flare up in the next few
years. The onus is on the African leadership
to ensure that their regional issues do not
become pawns in the game of the great

Black Woman

NAKED woman, black woman
Clothed with your colour which is life, with your form which is beauty!
In your shadow I have grown up; the gentleness of your hands was laid
over my eyes.
And now, high up on the sun-baked pass, at the heart of summer, at the
heart of noon, I come upon you, my promised Land,
And your beauty strikes me to the heart like the flash of an eagle.

Naked woman, dark woman
Firm-fleshed ripe fruit, sombre raptures of black wine, mouth making
lyrical my mouth
Savannah stretching to clear horizons, savannah shuddering beneath the
East Wind's eager caresses
Carved tom-tom, taut tom-tom,muttering under the Conqueror's fingers
Your solemn contralto voice is the spiritual song of the Beloved.

Naked woman, dark woman
Oil that no breath ruffles, calm oil on the athlete's flanks, on the flanks
of the Princes of Mali
Gazelle limbed in Paradise, pearls are stars on the night of your skin
Delights of the mind, the flinting of red gold against your watered skin
Under the shadow of your hair, my care is lightened by the neighboring
suns of your eyes.

Naked woman, black woman,
I sing your beauty that passes, the form that I fix in the Eternal,
Before jealous Fate turn you to ashes to feed the roots of life..
Leopold Senghor Translated by K.Q. Warner

Prayer to Masks

Masks! Masks!
Black mask red mask, you white-and-black masks
Masks of the four points from which the Spirit blows
In silence I salute you!
Nor you the least, Lion-headed Ancestor
You guard this place forbidden to all laughter of women, to all smiles
that fade
You distil this air of eternity in which I breathe the air of my Fathers.
Masks of unmasked faces, stripped of the marks bf illness and the lines
of age
You who have fashioned this portrait, this my face bent over the altar of
white paper
In your owh image, hear me!
The Africa of the empires is dying, see, the agony of a pitiful princess
And Europe too where we are joined by the navel.
Fix your unchanging eyes upon your children, who are given orders
Who give away their lives like the poor their last clothes.
Let us report present at the rebirth of the World
like the yeast which white flour needs.
For who would teach rhythm to a dead world of machines and guns?
Who would give the cry of joy to wake the dead and the bereaved at
Say, who would give back the memory of life to the man whose hopes
are smashed?
They call us men of coffee cotton oil
They call us men of death.
We are the men of the dance, whose feet draw new strength pounding
the hardened earth.
Leopold Senghor



Agents for:

Manufacturers Representatives
And General Insurance Agents
No. 5 Concessiont Rd. Sea Lots
Phone: 62-37813

1Quoted in A.C. Bourgi and J.C. Williams, "La pensee
politique de Frantz Fanon," Presence Africaine, No. 88
(1973), p. 140.

2Leopold Senghor, Liberte I: Negritude et Humanisme
(Paris: Editions de Seuil, 1964), pp. 22-38.

3G.R. Coulthard, "Negritude-Reality and Mystifica-
tion," Caribbean Studies, Vol. 10, No. 1 (1970), p. 43
Emphasis added.
4Senghor Liberte I, p. 203.
5Quoted in Claude Wauthier, The Literature and
Thought of Modern Africa (London: Pall Mall Press, 1966),
p. 106.
6Leopold Senghor, "The Problematics of Negritude,"
Black World, Vol. XX, No. 10 (1971), p. 5.
71bi ., oo. 6-?.
8Cf. Senghor, Liberte I, pp. 39-69.
91bid., p. 226.
11Leopold Senghor, Poemes (Paris: Editions du Seuil,
1964), p. 95.


South Chamber to invest $50,000 in
feasibility study of new TV station. No Govt.
response to licence application.
Express Editorial: Days of wine and
roses over for DAC. Tapia must take stock
having failed to generate any significant sup-
Procope quits as Workers Bank Chair-
man: Govt. and Unions give mere token
support, he says.
$20m. Holiday Inns deal clinched;
awaits official approval from 5 Govts.
EEC offers $790 per ton of sugar to
ACP countries.
Trading resumed with Jamaica dollar
at $1.91.
US outlines stockpiling plan to stabilize
sugar prices (at 10 cents per Ib.)

DPA McKell circularises public servants
on May 31 deadline for declaring their
private investment interests to the Service
Demas tells CDB meeting that greater
emphasis on meeting the needs of the poor
would ease balance of payments problems.
Soviets favour sugar price stabilisation
mechanism based on export quotas.

Guyana seeks more balance of payments
support from TT; Jamaican request to be
considered first.
NAC no miracle team says Chairman
DAC blames fraud and intimidation
for its Tobago defeat in local elections.
Bhutto: an international conspiracy
against Pakistan.
Harmony groups see racial violence irl
UK shifting from random attacks to organized

Eleven new secondary schools by 1979,
announces Ministry of Education.
Express Editorial: NAC's top priority
should be reform of the public service.
Council suggests scrap 5-year Development
Plans and adopt strategies to meet national
objectives. Strategies prepared by different
agencies should be made into a comprehensive
document and become the basis for budget
planning and other major government actions.
Report laid in House.
House passes Bill to ease housing short-
age. Directed at families with income not
exceeding $650 per month.
Local elections a vote for freedom and
democracy: Guardian Correspondent. .
Dunlop to undecake $4m. expansion
plan; businessmen call for tyre import licences.

Ministry of Finance to study role of
giant firms as part of the exercise to upgrade
the Company Law. Both growth and potential
for horizontal and vertical integration will be
Selwyn Ryan discussed "the (local)
election that meant nothing." -uotes Panday
as saying that winning or losing would iake
no difference in terms of commitment to the
Guardian investigation into port reveals
that the country's import-export life is fast
grinding to a halt. Container congestion;
equipment down; sheds piled high; custom
red tape.
Jamaica and US In wide-ranging taks.
Rochford discusses NCB in Sunday
Guardian interview.
*Continued on Page 10


SU N i,Y MAY 22, 19/i

From Page 3
Clearly it would be an
impertinence to assume that a
Professor of the University, a
former Dean of the Faculty, a
Doctor of Philosophy, too
besides, is not himself aware of
his limitations. We must there-
fore repeat the question as to
why the NAC Chairman gave
such a disgraceful statement to
the press?
As always, the answer is a
-political one. Dr. Julien is not
NAC Chairman for any con-
ceivable technical reason. In
other words, nothing could be
more misleading than to regard
Chairman Julien as technocrat,
engineer, scholar, and not as
politician. To do that would be
to attack the integrity of the
man for which there is no
warrant whatsoever.

Once you see him as a politi-
cian, Dr. Julien's position
makes sense. His role as NAC
Chairman is to make the
politics clear. Dr. Gocking, Dr.
St. Cyr, Dr. Spence are on an
entirely different scene; what-
ever their technical credentials,
they are no substitute for the
Chairman, who, necessarily in
the current dispensation, is the
Chief Executive's man. When
therefore he elaborates the
current concept of planning,
he cannot help but echo the
1977 Budget Speech.
I find this a perfectly valid
concept of political administra-
tion, so long as we do not
delude ourselves that we are
running anything but a Doctor
party, a Doctor Government
and a regime where the win-
ning party takes all.
For those who support this
lop-sided regime it is perfectly
valid for all the public agencies
to be preserves of the Doctor
and Chief Executive, play-
grounds of the ruling party.
The Tapia Manifesto envisages

SU N AY' VAY 22, 1977

In The Game Of Politics

Barber Can Sew Clothes

Tailor Can Cut


Ask NAC'S Dr Julien

an arrangement which would
seek toplace Opposition people
on the Boards of the Corpora-
tions. We think that would be
good politics since it would
give the Government a more
direct line to alternative think-
ing and would also hare
the responsibility for failure.
We also think it would be
good for administration since
non-Government people are
more likely to be technically
competent (and therefore not
afraid to turn down politically
subservient jobs).
In particular, we think that
the public service would be
able to enjoy open political
appointments where they are
now badly needed at the top
of many Departments. If these
political technocrats could find
slots in the corporations, their
heads could more easily roll
with that of their Governments
or their Ministers or their spon-
sors in the Executive Branch
of the State.
But all these practical pro-
posals are now in the realm of
day dreams. In the present con-
stitutional dispensation, all the
Chairmen of Boards, and some-
times all the members, are
necessarily government spokes-
men. Their job is not so much

to make things work as to lay
down the political perspectives.
Mr Alan Reece used to do it;
Mr. Bernard Primus; now it is
Dr. Julien.
Here lies the explanation of
the otherwise strange tendency
for experts in their own field to
take on such a large number of
Board assignments and Chair-
manships as would make it
definitively impossible for
them to accomplish any com-
petent technical work.

If the task is political, there
is no limit to the individual
capacity to perform. If we
respect these men therefore,
we must absolutely concede
their political role. That is
what I mean when I say that
their integrity .depends on it.
If we persist in the error
of regarding them as politically
neutral, professionals then we
are likely to expect them to
make technically defensible
statements and decisions; we
are likely to anticipate the
proper functioning of IDC and
T&TEC and TELCO and
Tesoro and TRINTOC and

and all the other utilities and
But their job, I repeat, is not
to win efficient functioning
from the great Agencies and
Departments of State. Their
job is to make the present
political system work, to prop
up the Chief Executive and
service a party/system which is
incapable of producing align-
ments in the legislature
appropriate to the real demands
of national planning and
efficient administration. An
entirely different ball-game.
When you locate Dr. Julien
and Mr. Reece and Mr. Primus
and all the others in this part-
icular constitutional picture,
they probably come out with
flying colours as men who are
giving a certain kind of national
Dr. Julien now holds no
fewer than 5 Chairmanships,
two Deputy Chairmanships in
addition to being Professor of
What a tremendous burden
of responsibility for one who,
on the evidence, disposes of no
special gifts!
The NAC Chairman must
surely merit our commenda-
tion 'for displaying so much
courage especially when the

hazards of the occupation, on
the evidence, are very risky
indeed, and when the saying
goes, bigger they are, harder
they fall in the end.
A great risk, all these res-
ponsibilities, in case the whole
regime somehow is a gigantic
petro-dollar hoax, a sham and
an imposture heading for
disaster. And n these days of
inflation, international econ-
omic crisis and threatened
political upheaval, well, you
can never really tell.
Another final thing. When
academics as a class become
,open political trouble-shooters,
there can be unintended conse-
quences when they fail openly
to declare themselves as dip-
lomats or publicists, or politi-
cians or what-have-you.


They may be valid props to
the stability of the political
order but then unscrupulous
University people may try to
use them as inside-dopesters
who can win an easy patronage
from the almighty political
And once that starts, next
you get Professors oemg
created because the only thing
they profess is an abject poli-
tical allegiance to the party
and the powers that for the
moment happen to be.
In other words, you get
political professors whose
technical competence in the
University is that they are
politicians who are always
working outside.
And then the University
becomes a wholly political
question. I think the press
should interview Dr. Julien in
his capacity as Chairman of the
NAC and askhim quite directly
what plan they have for that.


MP Shah not allowed to land in
Grenada for May Day Speech on Bishop's
Express Editorial: powerful county
councils a pipe dream.
New Mayors: Clyde Mc Collin, Port-of
Spain; Mrs.Gertrude Kirton, San Fernando;
Alfred Thompson, Arima.
Mini-buses placed on Matelot run.
Over 8,000 applied to NHAfor building
Teachers call for right to contest polls
as Teachers' Union conduct referendum for
58th Annual Conference.
Trinidad artists Ralph and Vera Baney
plead for Chang's Piarco mural.
Compensation from NIBfo~ job-injuries
soon to be implemented.


Joint Select Committee on Local Govt.
to meet Monday May 9.
Local Councils get down to business;
ULF Councillor Indra Rajbansee, 29, becomes
Chairman of St. Andrew-St. David.
CPO Cupid to meet Postmen's Union
to finalise return to seven-day week and old
shift system, to increase staff, and to end
chaos in the mail.
Guardian Editorial: Maximum speed
needed in dealing with NHA's 8,000 applicants.
Secretary-Gen. McIntyre reminds LDCs
that the real test of CARICOM is whether
they have more opportunities in than out.
Montserrat's Bramble to chair crucial Council
Meeting on May 4.

I Import prices upped by air-freighting.
because of port congestion, complains Cus-
toms and Brokers Ass'n (CCBA).
Trintoc to drill near Arima. lThree wells
to cost $2.25m.
Minister Mohammed assures that
Ministry of Local Govt. will not discriminate
against any County Council.
Twenty doctors go into caucus as
hospital operations postponed by water short-
Car sales zooming. Series "W" to be
exhausted in record October-May time; 8,594
local assembled cars sold last year.

OAPEC meets today to co-ordinate oil
Mclntyre defends Carib Food Plan.

Chamber requests explanation from Ja.
on exchange policy before considering aid.
Oil hike this year unlikely: Perez.
Seaga finds Manley emergency plan
Panday: need for more co-ordination
in the ULF. Reports of a split are "wishful
Bramble tells CARICOM Council politi-
cal will needed to solve problems. CARICOM
urged to buy as a group to cut costs.
WASA signs contract for Caroni-Arena
first phase. Joint venture with Chin Lee and
P.Rican Coys. Only 140 days' water in Navet,
Hollis 60, H'brough (75).



ur family

s well fed



on bread


With Distinction


Animaland Poultry Feed Depot

Local and Foreign Birds

Pets and Pet Supplies
Cor. EM. Rd and Basilon St, Tunapuna
Telephone: 662-4939


1~ .




A A lA




From Page 1
Shirley Rudd-Ottley adds:
"There have been mothers who
supported families on a black
pudding and souse tray or a roti
And if you yourself wanted
to "take the plunge", get into
your own business and needed
guidelines on how to start tnd
manage it, then Saturday's
Seminar provided expert
Grace -Talma opened the
workshop session with a point
by point formulation of the
human characteristics neces-
sarily found in any business
entrepreneur. She examined
factors which were likely to
hinder the prospective business
woman: repressive training in
Education; conceptual blocks
such as those which defined
woman in terms of helplessness
and dependence.


If you then decide that you
had what it takes to be a
woman of business, Shirley
Thomas, economist at the
Development Finance Corpora-
tion, and Angelita Charles,
Advisor on Small Business at
the M.D.C., wrapped up with
advice on the successful func-
tioning of Management.
In what was probably the
hilight of her segment, Ms.
Charles offered for considera-
tion Ten Commandments of
Small Business with a notable
first Commandment: "Thou
shalt not worship graven images
of thyself or thy ego, but know
limitations . .. Thou wilt
never go broke understanding
thine own abilities."
There were some who came
to share and some who came
for hope and an assurance of
sisterly understanding and
assistance should they venture

31A Erthig Road

Wide Range of
Books, Stationery,
Art Material.

into a world of business previ-
ously marked by a dog-eat-dog
approach to competition.
The Seminar was a success,
if you could judge from the
satisfied smiles and the hands
that held a treasured clutch of
notes eagerly accumulated
during the Workshop.


One thing was certain,
though: that the women at the
Seminar had long gone past the
Stage of accepting traditional
roles for themselves, that the
Seminar was only a glimpse of
one kind of woman ready for
the twenty-first century.

From Page 2
Of course, in diplomatic
contacts or at-international
meetings, such as the Festival
of Black Arts held in Lagos,
Nigeria, Brazilian representatives

are ever prone to speak of their
historic ties with Africa.
But their offers of aid and
co-operation to the young
African states, recently liber-
ated from colonialism, mean

Look out for shootout

From Page 1
man must have the effect of
re-opening old wounds.
A policeman died, gunned
down by a murderer, and
nobody has been made to pay
for it. Well, not yet.
What clearly operated in the
long months of 1972-73, as the
police and army relentlessly
stalked "guerrillas" and gunned
them down, was this mistrust
of and impatience with the
process of the court.
The authorities even took
their time to hold inquests into
people shot by the police.

The forces weren't taking
any chances: not for any fast-
talking defence lawyers to
argue fine points of law and
make the man get away.
And if the hunted were
prepared to exchange fire with
the hunters, then what could
be more efficient than the
rough and ready justice in the
bush with only dead men to
tell the tales.
The fact is, that in the most
celebrated of the politically
overtoned trials undertaken by
the regime in the post-1970
period, the state has lost.

that these new states now
threatened by a new and subtle
form of penetration which
enters the country with every
product "made in Brazil."
(Prensa Latina)

The Regiment mutiny was
the most outstanding example.
And it is not surprising that
Serrette, reflecting later on the
1970 episode, seemed to regret
his not having put the guys up
against the wall. One time and
So that all these alarums -
bandits in the hills; arsonists at
large; bombs under police
stations; suggestions of a local
"dreads" cult; army-police joint
exercises are leading up to
Listen for it and duck if
you can.

7 days/6 nights
l it

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. ,"-

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SUNDAY MAY 22, 1977



(sb@ su~sit

Mrs. Andrea Talbutt,
Research Institute for
Study of Man,
162, East 78th Street,
New York, N,Y. 10021,
Ph. Lehigh 5 8448,





THE Crix Goodwill
Youth Series between
Mexico and Trinidad
ended last Wednesday at
the Queen's Park Oval.
The Mexicans turned
the tables on their hosts
and avenged the 1-0 defeat
suffered at their hands
earlier in the week.
The crowd was only
slightly smaller than for
the first game and, though
there were no more goals
this time, they did witness
a better game of football.
The visitors abandoned
their roughhouse tactics
and played good, clean,
positive football.
The easy fluency of
their positional play and
the crisp accuracy of
their passes bespoke an
understanding of each
other that can only be
born of long, long hours
of practice together.


It proved extremely
difficult for the local
boys to win the ball in-
midfield and they seldom
However, the standard
of the midfield play was
belied by the very lack-
lustre showing up front
where it really matters
and the 20 or so tries at
goal in the first half
yielded only one goal.
This came midway
through the first half
when one of the Trinidad
stoppers attempted to
intercept a right side pass
intended for the Mexican
The ball flew off his



outstretched leg into the
near corner of the goal
and the diving Maurice
never had a chance.
The home custodian,
the pick of the players
Son view, was equal to the
few of the other tries that
did not go high or wide.
His opposite number
was never tested and the
only real snot at tus
citadel came just before
-half-time when Gary
Evelyn climaxed a fine
diagonal run by picking
up a forward pass just
inside the right boundary
of the 18-yard box.
He cleverly eluUded two
defenders and shot power-
fully into the side of




the net.
With Crix underwriting
the cost of the series, the
TTFA is unlikely to have
lost anything financially

in its attempt to discover
just how we have
improved if at all --
since Puerto Rico.
But Coach Roderick

-- p r or e s si e 'si


saso oaonu

LAST week Wednesday
Progressive completed a
memorable season when
they beat Presentation
(Chaguanas) in the
national final for the
Cadbury-Fry's Cup.
They have thus main-
tained their unbeaten
record for the 1977
season. They will leave
the League's presentation
function,scheduled for
6.00 p.m. on Saturday
2nd. July at Presentation
College, Chaguanas, with
an impressive haul of 4
They are North -and
national, Intercol knock-
out and League Champ-
In last week's game,

Presentation could only
manage 153 in their first
innings after winning the
toss and deciding to bat
before a large "home"


Skipper Rudi Persad,
among the runs all season,
topscored with 31 while
Denzil Regis captured 5
wkts. for 16 runs to take
his overall tally of wickets
in Colleges' League com-
petitions this season past
the 50 mark.
The Progressive bats-
men approached the task
of over-hauling this
modest total very cau-

tiously and by the end of/
the first day had lost
only 3 wkts. for 128
They went on to total
251 with useful knocks
from G. Kelly (59), Regis
(28), C. Joseph (28), G.
Darceuil (26) and skipper
Joseph Bacchus (25).
P. Sieulal was Presenta-
tion's best bowler with 4
for 27 and he got good
support from skipper
Persad (3-57) and K.
Jagroop (2-47).
Left with:just under 4
hours of play on the last
day, Presentation made
no bid for an outright
win. But they found
themselves facing defeat
at 98 for 5.

Warner is -out of the
country for the next six
weeks on a Government
coaching assignment in
Montserrat; it will prob-
ably be a while before
the Youths get back into
training with a view to
bringing our football up
to the level that we saw
their opponents produce
last Wednesday.

K. Julien came to their
rescue with a fighting
knock of 66 which ended
when he drove tiredly at
a ball from Bishop and
lobbed into the hands of
Ruskin Mark at cover.
Sieulal made 26, Jag-
roop 24 and Presentation
reached 188 for 8 at
For Progressive G.
Darceuil scalped 3-48 and
H. Murray 3-41.
This weekend the cur-
tain comes down on the
Colleges' League season
with two League teams
opposing teams from
The Under-19 combi-
nation, to be led by either
R.Mark or R. Deonarine,
will host the Tobagonians
at Fatima Grounds.
-The full team is: R.
Deonarine (Naps) K. Jag-
roop (Pres), S. Sieudass
(Couva Sec.), S. Manrdray
(Naps), L. Copeland and
G. Seymour (Q.R.C.), B.
Gittens (Fatima) Kerron
Elder (C.I.C.), A. Dharson
(South/East Sec.), R
Green and K. Lynch
(T.T.E.C.) and E. Jack-
man and R. Mark (Pro-
The Under-16 combi-
nation journeys over to
Tobago where they will
play their hosts at Shaw
Park on Saturday.
The full team is P.
Sieulal (Pres), J. Khan
(Eire), S. Ramparass (St.
SThomas Aquinas), R.
Boyce and .R. Ramdath
(Couva), R. Moonesar
(Pres), S. Garcia (Holy
Cross, K. Elder (C.I.C.),
S. Pragg (Q.R.C.), H.
Julien and C. DeSouza
(Fatima) and K. White-
head and D. Regis (Pro-
This team will- be
managed by Paul Clarke,
the man responsible foi
the successes of the Pro-
gressive Championship
Division conquerors.


four roads 112, henry st. 42, eastern mn. rd. cross crossing

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