Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00245
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: December 26, 1976
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00245

Full Text


Mrs. Andrea Talbutt,
Research Institute for
Study of Man,
162, East 78th Street,
New York N Y-10021,
Ph. Lehi6h 5 8448,



Marlin Knott
(Guardian Art)
MERLE Hodge, Rhona
Baptiste, Valerie Belgrave
and Helen Timothy take
position on the cause of
Marilyn Knott. David
Marine reports.

Page 9

Mao Tse Tung
- left the stage


Page 2

N xt

IN 1976 we had hopes as Chr
big as a Christmas balloon bur
The Tapia Manifesto, for N
one, foresaw "a climax of barge
the present upheaval in the 197
fall of the present govern- yea
ment and the start of a ano
new beginning for Trini- tior
dad, Tobago and the for
Indies." (P. 20). tiol
lo such luck. Either we men
were wrong in estimating N
what was possible or in a
our political preparations dea
for making it come true. T'he
The old regime survives, onl:
trying desperately to sell thr
us the idea of a stable and inc(
workable two-party dis-
pensation. But already it
is very clear that that

THE price of Tapia is 45
cents beginning from this
Number. Sellers' Commis-
sion has been correspond-
ingly raised.
New annual subscrip-
tion rates will also come
into effect beginning
January 15, 1977.
Readers are invited to
take advantage of the old'
rates over the Xmas


istmas balloon will
Next year is the year of
gaining for wages like
'1 and 1974. So next
r will certainly be
Dther big year for infla-
n if the Budget's plan
spending on construc-
is in any way imple-
Next year could also be
year when we pay
rly for political errors.
Government is not
y crooked through and-
ough but irretrievably
competent too.


.1ll the signs point to
official Opposition un-
al to the task, straining
return to the more
niliar tactics of agitation
brinkman's confronta-
n 1977, the politics
force will take a new
n, a new turn to -old
recurring choices.
ese recurring choices

have never ceased to
punctuate the passage of
the February Revolution.
We have consistently
ducked the responsibility,
over and over again. In
1970 we needed an elec-
tion; in 1971 a conference
of citizens on the constitu-
tion; in 1976, February, a
united opposition.
In 1976, September, we
needed a permanent and
professional party. We
needed one with the
moral, political and cam-
paign resources to trans-
cend the electioneering of
now-for-now politics, so
easy and so necessary for
those who control the
hard-cash and the hard-
ware whether of the Trades
Unions, or of the State
Such a permanent, pro-
fessional party has always
been the Tapia promise.
Sadly it has proved to be a
promise that we simply
did not fulfil.
On that alone depends
the consummation of the

Literary Supplements
TO mark this year's Christmas Season, Tapia will present a
feast of literary offerings. Next week January 2, our New
Year Supplement will contain mainly originals.
Wayne Brown will present a short story, while Derek
Walcott and Mervyn Mcirris will publish new poems.
Kenneth Ramchand will offer a critical interpretation of
Edward Braithwaite's poetry.
The follownig we 1k, on January 9, we will present a study of
the Haitian writer Jacques Roumain plus more from Derek Walcott.
This week, we introduce the series with a centre-spread piece
from C.V. Gocking on "The Case for West Indian Literature." As a
lagniappe, we have two fresh poems by Raoul Pantin.
Written in 1932 and published in the September Number of
The Royalian of that year, the Gocking article is a treasure chest for
men of letters; it throws light on how the ancestors of today's
critics saw the options in those early days.
In 1977, Tapia will be unearthing more of these treasures. A
Literary Supplement for February is already in prepai a tioii.

m n

as oaf oo


Vol. 6 Ni:. 52

45 Cents

This Christmas Buy Your

Gift From


Quoy -



four roads 112, henry st. 42, eastern mn. rd. cross crossing

~~ _C_



February Revolution in
the fall of the old regime.
The end of the oil
bonanza, the stress on the
international economy,
the final shattering of
illusions in Jamaica and
Guyana and the domestic
confusions of 1977 will
make that very plain."
This means that for the
year nineteen hundred
and seventy-six, we need a
Merry Christmas.


ments on Budget proposals
for School Advisory
Boards. We reserve com-
ment on Agriculture, Con-
struction and Petroleum
for the New Year. P 5

Paper Closed
THE Tapia Office at 82,
St. Vincent St. Tunapuna,
will be closed until next
Wednesday December 29.
Our first New Year
Edition, Volume 7,
Number 1, of January 2,
1977, will go on sale on
Thursday December 30.

DJ Cool
supply music at the Tapia
Staff Party on Thursday
night, December 23.
The party comes off at
the Port-of-Spain Centre.
22, Cipriani Boulevard
beginning 7.30 p.m.


PAUl: e Z M I Ar J UNJ-'Y t:lV'b~t~r-MLb, ni/f

FOR those historians to whom
events and dates are of primary
importance in their historical
analysis the year 1976 will prob-
ably be largely ignored. For
among all the headlines which
captured the attention of the
world during the past year there
was nothing unique or stupend-
ous enough to stand by itself,
1976 contained no event
which determined the cast of
events for the rest of the year.
No new worlds were conquered.
No conflict erupted which em
broiled the whole world in a
spasm of destruction. No single
economic event triggered
any international depression. No
statesman of colossal capacities
emerged out of the mists to lead
the new renaissance.
What the events of '76 did was
provide us with a sharper and clearer
focus on the process of world change,
the various aspects of which have been
more and more visible since the decade
of the seventies dawned but the roots
of which are buried much deeper in


In short, 1976 served to advance
the process of dissolution in the fabric
of Western hegemony, to heighten the
tensions and frustrations which spring
from that dissolution, and to more
clearly separate the components of
the emergent international order from
that of the old.
Dominating the headlines of the
world throughout the year were the
wars in Angola and Lebanon, the
swiftly gathering stormclouds in the
rest of Southern Africa, the African
boycott of the Montreal Olympics,
ithe so-called North-South cold war,
and above all, the state of the Interna-
tional economy and, the sine qua non
of that discussion for the last three
years, OPEC.
Obviously these were not the
only considerations. After all the
United States celebrated its bicentennial
anniversary and in the process elected
a new President. Governments rose or
fell with the usual flurries of comment.
. In the process Sweden lost a socialist
Government and Italy almost gained a
communist one. Jamaica, Trinidad and
Grenada all retained their Governments.
Barbados and Antigua changed their
International terrorists struck on
a number of occasions and on one such
occasion Israel successfully sent troops

Chlailrt'an Mao
took his place
on the other side
with Engels,
Marx and Lenin.



into Uganda to rescue hostages and the
world applauded. And how could we
forget that Trinidad won its first
Olympic gold?
,The Angolan War of Indepen-
dence came at the nether end of the
process of decolonisation which has
been going on all over the world for
the last three decades or more and
which, as much. as any other historical
event, has helped to subvert the whole
pattern of international relationships
by subverting their economic and
political bases.


The International system of today
is the legacy of the economic, political,
administrative and cultural conditions
inherent in colonialism which provided
the basis for the division of the world
into "rich and poor" or industrializedd
and non-industrialised" and determined
the distribution of power.
Thus it is not surprising that even
as Angola brings to an end the process
of political decolonisation which has
obviously destroyed one major political
element in traditional International
system, the other elements political,
cultural, social and economic should
show signs of stress.
The decade of the seventies has
witnessed the increasing disarray of the
Western economic system, the intensifi-
cation of the struggle of former "peri-

Under The


pheral" countries to achieve a radical
redistribution of economic power, and
as a result of both these, the search for
entirely new formulations of economic
theory and practice.
The disarray in the western econ-
omic system was apparent all through-
out the past year. It was characterized
in the first place by the continuous
"stagflationary" pressures in all the
highly industrialized economies and
by the continued failure of traditional
fiscal and monetary measures to allevi-
ate the enormous difficulties which
these economies are encountering.
Central to this economic disorder
is the final collapse of the International
Monetary system based on the Bretton
Woods agreement of the 1940's, a period
which marked a petit careme for Interna-
tional. Capitalism.
Within recent years all the bulwarks
of the system devised then have been '-
eroded. Indeed the erosion goes back
to that period after the second world
war when Britain began to experience
the series of balance-of-payments crises
which have continued unabated since the
then, and which, apart from the effects
on the British economy, have now
destroyed all confidence in sterling
as an International currency.
The clue to the sterling crisis and,
given the central role of the British Empire
in the Western International economy,
the key to the crisis in the whole
Monetary system, is to be found in the
decolonisation process itself.
As the former British colonies one

by one gained their independence and
began to embark on their own develop-
ment programs not only did they begin
to withdraw their balances from
Londonr but they began to shift,
gradually to be sure but continuously,
the pattern of their exports and
The British economy, ravaged by
the Second World War, could not find
the capacity to adapt to the rapid
breakup of the tightly integrated
system upon which its economic and
monetary pre-eminence rested. Now
1976 tolled the final knell. The
British Government, having to borrow
to its limit of Special Drawing rights,
found itself forced to re-assess many
of the elements of the welfare state and
to abandon the international pretensions
of sterling.


Callaghan's decision virtually to
declare the innings closed was only the
consummation of forces long at work.
Even the celebrated Yankee dollar,
forced to bear the burdens of a
weakened sterling, had jettisoned
automatic convertibility and devalued
the parity twice. In the accompanying
round-robin of adjustments, international
money has come to depend on a fuller
basket of floating currencies enjoying
more flexible exchange rates.
The effect of economic : instabil-
e Cont'd on Page 4


YO R K Commercial Air Conditioning

Sr 4W ngo Room Air Conditioning




Incremental Air Conditioners

Drinking water Coolers

Food store Equipment

Automotive Air Conditioning

ULF Rep. Nizam Moham-
med queries absence of TV to
cover opposition in Budget
debate. ULF stages walkout;
to file no confidence motion
against speaker. Rep. Kelvin
Ramnath charges Gov't losing
$79m via action of Oil Com-
panies. OPEC votes to hike oil
oil 10-15%; Saudi Arabia dis-
sents. Reo. Murray charges
Police are CIA agents.
ULF walkout in contempt
of chair says Speaker; Panday
says no apology. Gov't buy
Texaco gas stations for $20m.
TICFA calls for $60 a ton
interim payment. Gairy sends
apology to Tony Cozier.
PNM nominates Ellis Clarke
for first President. Saudi Arabia

rebels against OPEC decides
on 5% increase and no limit on
production. TT beaten 3-2 by
ICFTU to receive $50,000
in Union dues from Caroni Ltd;
big boost in their fight for
recognition. FPA says divorce,
mass media, affecting family
life. Mcrvyn Dymally visits
Trinidad on holiday: raps CIA
in the Caribbean.
Gov't holds back on Divest-
ment plan: DeSouza lells of
swing from small shanc holders.
Manlcy swo, n in tor second
term of Jamaic PM. Domiinki:
Independence Nov. 2, 1977.
Postal go slow cases postponed
ULF Alexander in Senale:
restructured education system
key to full employment.

62-54583 6581910;:11
6 9 S S S '


TRINIDAD and Tobago
will now definitely not be
represented in the World
Cup finals in Argentina (or
wherever) in 1978. The
C.A.C. Games in Colum-
bia is the next big tourna-
ment in which we shall be
This means that we have
18 months or so in which
to put our footballing
house in order.
In addition to the house-
cleaning at the level of admir
istration, there is need for us to
diagnose, analyse and eliminate
the weaknesses that have put us
out of the running this time.
We must now build on the
strengths which enabled us to
get past Barbados and to miss
passing Surinam by a kn. For
the fault, dear Edgar, is not in
our stars.
The TTFA must start by
taking another look at the
method of selecting the per-
sonell of national teams. It is
difficult to believe that the
present tandem is the best we

deo Panday was locked in
talks at the Ministry of
Labour four days before
Christmas last week amidst
doubts that the 1977 sugar
crop will begin as sche-
duled on January 4.
The sugar industry itself is
in a critical period, facing
both a steep drop in prices
(from $3,000 a ton in 1974 to
$456 a ton in 1976) and a
volatile industrial relations pro-
The talks at the Ministry
had to do with the firm state-
ment by Caroni Ltd. last week
that the company was not
paying a 10 per cent Christmas
bonus being demanded by
Panday as leader of the All-
Trinidad Sugar Estates & Fac-
tories' Workers Trade Union.


Panday has been insisting
for weeks that Caroni agreed
to pay the bonus when the
company and the Union settled
its last three-year industrial
relations agreement in 1975.
Caroni stated last week the
company had been run at "a
substantial loss" in 1976 and
could not afford to pay the
The demand for the Christ-
mas bonus for sugar workers
has been supported by the
Islandwide Canefarmers Trade
Union, led by Raffique Shah,
who has the title of "Chief
Whip" in the Parliamentary
Both the sugar workers and
canefarmers represented by
Panday and Shah, later joined
by oil workers, brought the
sugar industry to a halt in
1975, when prices were sky-
Although the 1976 sugar
crop fared better, prices came
tumbling down and would

18 Months Of Work Next

can do.
It is beyond dispute that
this year's team has been play-
ing as well as or even better
than mzny of the previous
However, there are clear
technical defects to which we
owe our continuing failure to
finish and to win.
The national coach has
invariably attributed our de-
feats to luck with nary a men-
tion of possible shortcomings.
Is it of any significance that
Vidale has never produced so
much as a paragraph on foot-
Then the TTFA officials
must prepare themselves to
work just as hard at laying the
foundation in the coming off-
There can be no doubt ahal
they worked for so when it
seemed that we retained a
chance of making the finals of
the World Cup.
It is too much to expect the
National League to grow in a
year to the point where it can
easily absorb the ever-increasing
list of foreign-based profes-
However, the same energies
that were used to find sponsors

for all kinds of largesse when
the team was doing well should
be turned to finding sponsor-
ship of a more durable sort.
We must ensure that every
team which represents Trinidad
and Tobago, whether amateur,
pro-am, or professional, enjoys

largely account for Caroni's
claim of a "substantial loss"
this year.
Echoes of the 1975 strike
are in the air, however, with
reports of a threatened "don't
cut campaign" by canefarmers
and possible industrial action
by sugar workers.
The 1977 crop may also be
held up by the fact that recon-
struction work at Caroni's two
largest factories, Brechin Castle
and Usine Ste. Madeline, is
incomplete and Panday has
charged the company with
trying to blame the workers for

a real chance of performing with
We have just got to make
serious efforts to acquire proper
amenities for the game. There
is simply not enough conviction
in our current attempts to
persuade the authorities to
yield us some ground.
It must now be clear to all
and sundry that the training

camps are very useful for team-
building in the short-term.
In the long-term, however,
they can.hardly be economic-
ally viable besides which their
use will show diminishing
But remember, we are deal-
ing in the first instance with
an 18-month span.
Earl Best

I I I i i ii

Toe-to-Toe In Sugar

Brewing Again







PHONE: 62-54113



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%mo Hi A



e From Pg. 2
ity has been even more disastrous for
the non-industrial countries. The
fundamental inequality in the terms of
trade between manufactured goods
and primary products, the chronic
instability in prices and markets, the
devaluations of major currencies and
the alternatiorf of inflation and reces-
sion have created havoc with their
economic plans.
We do not have to go far for the
eivdence. For all the countries of the
Caribbean except Trinidad, 1976 was
a year of economic disaster. Rising oil
prices, spiralling inflation, sluggish
tourist demand plummeting prices in
sugar, bauxite and agricultural
products generally caused countries
like Jamaica, Barbados, Guyana, Puerto
Rico, Santo Domingo and even Cuba to
impose austerity measures even as un-
employment kept rising.


Under similar conditions every-
where in the primary-producing world,
countries have been desperately seeking
adjustments in their own economies
and in the structure of the interna-
tional economic system. Inevitably for
many countries adjustment Is proving
extremely difficult. The repercussions
on political life are not very hard tc ind.
In some ways, OPEC has been, of
course, in the vanguard of the movement
for change. In 1973, these oil exporters
succeeded in securing sufficient power
over the oil market to force a substantial
improvement in their terms of trade
and to effect a massive transfer of
Imancial and real resources from the
industrial countries to a sector of the
"developing" world.

Understandbly however, tne very
success of OPECl-as created great pro-
blems for the other non-oil producing,
primary exporting countries. Since no
group of these has been able to dupli-
cate the OPEC success by forming
effective cartels in other strategic
commodities, they have been faced
with massive balance-of- payments
problems, curtailment of standards
of living and reduced economic
The industrial countries have
not missed the opportunity to stress
this fact to the non-oil producers
refusing in the meanwhile to make a
single concession to their demands for
adjustment in the International system.
The Paris North-South Trade Conference,
which was heralded by primary producers
as one of the positive achievements
of 1975, dragged on through 1976 with-
out a single substantial decision being
OPEC has all along recognized the
burdens which their own success placed
on the other primary producers. They
have tried to redress some of the
imbalance through a programme of
loans and grants. In 1976 OPEC gave
more financial assistance to the rest of
the "developing world" than all the
industrial countries together. Yet they
never succeeded in finding a form of aid
which would protect the recipients from
the inflationary increases which inevit-
ably followed the oil price increases.
By the end of 1976 the internal
contradictions which have always been
present in OPEC rose dangerously to
the surface. At the December meeting of
hde Oil Ministers, they were unable to
agree on a price increase. Saudi Arabia
and the Emirates opted for a 5%
increase while the others agreed on a 10%.
This was the first major breach
in the solid front which OPEC has
presented to the world ever since
1973 and it clearly marks the end of
the most militant phase of OPEC. This
end, together with the inability of

other commodity producers to mount
effective cartels, would suggest that the
struggle for the adjustment of the
international economic order must now
seek other strategies and tactics.
If economic disarray and uncer-
tainty were the dominating character-
.stic of 1976 it was not the only one.
The overtly political events of the
year also played their part in contribu-
ting to the reconstruction of the
International order.
Here too, Angola was of impor-
tance. On the one hand, it brought the
curtain down on the process of
decolonisation with all that implied
politically and economically. At the
same time it opened up the door to an
even more dangerously charged issue
than the final demise of Empire. The
liberation of Angola has turned the
whole of Africa to the burning question
of Southern Africa and particularly
South Africa.


The process of decolonisation,
whether it proceeded by constitutional
or military paths has been a battle
between colonial powers on the one
hand and nationalists on the other. In
almost every instance, it was also a
battle opposing black to white.
Where whites were transient
colonisers, they could always pack up
and go. But the whites in Rhodesia and
South Africa are "home" and there is
no way that any confrontation in that
context could be anything but a racial
It was undoubtedly this fact, above
all else, which in 1976 suddenly put
Africa at the top of U.S. foreign
priorities and sent Kissinger shuttling
to talk to the African Leaders.
In me case or Knodesia Kissinger.
in one of his final acts, managed to
hold out a slim thread of hope for a
peaceful solution by getting the parties
to agree that Rhodesia was still a colony
of BriLain.

There is no such loophole in the
case of South Africa. Any confronta-
tion between Black Africa and white
South Africa will undoubtedly effect
the relation between all black coun-
tries and all white ones as well as the
internal situation of countries in
which there are racial divisions.
The year gave us a preview of
the possibilities. Many of the African
countries boycotted the Montreal
Olympics in protest over the participa-
tion of New Zealand which had
maintained sporting contacts with
Sniutb Africa. The boycott threatened
to turn the Olvmnics into a "white
man s attair" and there is little doubt
that race for a long time simply
wished away, has emerged to take its
place as one of the most explosive
factors in international political rela-
Along with race, 1976 has also
brought firmly to the forefront the
related questions of nationality and
cultural independence. Countries have
on many occasions been torn asunder
trying to contain different cultural
entities. British India is a good example
in point.
But the question takes on
increased significance in countries
where national integration seemed to
have been completed a long time ago.
In the U.K., the agitation of the Welsh
and Scottish nationalists has borne the
first fruit in devolution.
In Canada, the Separatists have
achieved what all observers describe as
a stunning victory in the recent
provincial elections in Quebec.
Where all these nationalist tenden-
cies will lead it is difficult to say. Yet
what they point to is destabilisation in
the foundation -f the status quo. There
are other countries with significant
racial or cultural minorities and we
can expect the rise of other separatist
movements. Tobago may be a laughing
matter to some but it is an important
sign of the times.
e Contd on Page 8





with mirror
without mirror

a.*'*" .. a s ,

7.30 a.m. to 7.00 p.m.
7.30 a.m. to 8.00 p.m.
7.30 a.m. to 12.00 noon

Now $360.00
Now $299.00

$999. NOW $89.1 5 PC. WROUGHT IRON SET' -
$265. NOW $199.,


REG. PRICE$670.00 NOW $570.00

REG. $365.00 NOW $295.00




$39.5. per sq. yd. INSTALLED

-- --

I ~Lae~La ~sasarp ----------.---~IB~&e~ls~8s~cs~- -- 'L -I,




Card Board For

Bhoendradatt Tewarie

THE Prime Minister in his
1977 Budget Speech has
proposed establishment of
School Advisory Boards
which will have "a direct
responsibility for monitor-
ing the results of this new
system of maintenance as
well as the following addi-
tional areas:
Security of School Complex
School transport and safety
Canteen Services
Sport and Cultural Activities
Fund Raising
Extra-Curricular Education
Use of facilities by the
'"These Boards", the Prime
Minister continues, "comprised
of Community representatives,
will be introduced into a few
selected senior comprehensive
In that short exposition by
the P.M. there are many limi-
tations, many loopholes, many
innuendos. One is moved to
view it with suspicion, to con-
clude that the statement has
been made only for its political
impact, its announcement


The first thing to' notice is
that strange word "monitor-
ing". The Advisory Board is to
monitor the results of the new
system of maintenance which
is to be handled by foreign
agents who have been hired to
manage and organize.
The agents are to be given
a three year contract so pre-
sumably the Board will be in a
position to comment on the
results of the new system after
three years.
The question arises: to
whom is the board advisor? -.
Education Innovations Inc? The
Minister of Education? The
Prime Minister? Or whom?
As soon as the questions
start the School Advisory
Board, is seen for what it is:
nothing but a' big 'sham -
another label for doing nothing.
It seems that the Board will
function as custodian of the
school plant in so far as it will
regulate the school's use by
the rest of the community.
The very idea of community
participation in the context of
the present arbitrary system
of student placement is a joke.



Cor. Edward Lee
Cipero Streets
Main Road

The schools are not com-
munity schools, since the
children come from all over
the country by bus, spend five
hours and return home by bus.
The fact that the School
Boards will be comprised of
community representatives
* alone is certain to generate
* conflict with the principal and
staff if the latter .are denied
representatives too.
If the staff is independent
and conscientious they will
ignore the board. If the Board is
assertive and acts independently
of the staff, more and more-
teachers may well take less and'
less interest in life at the school
and will merely do their job of
teaching in the classroom.
The proposed School Ad-
visory Board is only more talk
about involvement without
meaningfully involving anyone.
It is merely another attempt at
"controlled participation".
The whole scheme of school
boards, in any case,.is totally
infeasible in the absence of a
workable system of local gov-
It is unrealistic to believe
that you can move from a
highly centralized Ministry of

L; -- ----- s-

Education to School Boards in
one shot.
A Regional Council for
Education would be able to
co-ordinate education in any
given region, supervising and
inspecting transportation and
learning facilities in the interest
of the local people.
A school board will be res-
ponsible to such a council but
could have power and finance
to run any given individual
But once again the govern-
mnent has frustrated all attempts
at involvement, participation,


The School Advisory Board
will have no authority and will
therefore be frustrated in
carrying out its responsibility.
Once again the government
has taken a golden opport-
unity and snuffed it. They are
fundamentally opposed to any
meaningful participation.
That is why the Government
cannot see that the education
system will begin to provide
solutions only when the com-
munity, the parent, the teacher
and the principal all have no



choice but to face up to the
The School Boards must
embrace them all, and they
must have a real say in running
the schools: in budgeting, in
developing curricula, in select-
ing teachers, in allocating com-
munity facilities, in managing
the school plant.

Then who could afford not
to become interested in the
whole exercise when the future
of their children and their many
other interests start a jumping
up in steelband?
When that interest becomes
a bushfire among the people,
that is what meaningful parti-
cipation is.



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--Jmlmllmnf A



)A o.Hin6 anFrad



I THINK that you will all agree
with me when I say that the
possibility of a West-Indian
literature, with distinctive cha-
racteristics, pre-supposes a certain
degree of uniformity in race,
outlook, and language among the
people of the West Indies, as well
as a certain distinctness in spirit-
ual make-up between ourselves,
as a people, and the English in
whose language we must neces-
sarily express our thoughts. If we
do not possess that uniformity
and that difference a national
literature is impossible. The
question is "Do we?" Naturally,
it is a very difficult subject for
laymen to tackle, but if we can
prove that the West Indian people
are a race, or, if not, race in
the making, then we -can look
forward with every confidence to
a national literature, for it cannot
be but that we shall stand for
something distinctive. Such a
literature, worthy of its name,
may not come to-day, or even
to-morrow, but it is bound to
come-in time.
Now it is veryobvious what
we mean when we speak of
English literature; we mean the
literature created by the English
people; and we recognize it as
being typical of that people. It is
also obvious that West Indians
are not yet a people in the same
sense in which the English are;
for whereas the English are a
distinct race, there is still a great
diversity of race among those
who are quite prepared to
identify themselves with the
West Indies.
Yet we possess very much
in common. For generations the
vast majority of our people have
known no other physical or
spiritual environment than a West
Indian one. The customs, tradi-
tions and beliefs of our negro
ancestry no longer play an active
part in our conscious life, though,
perforce, no doubt, they still
influence it. In their stead we all
partake of English education and
of the religion of Western civil-
isation. Moreover, the vast majority
of West Indians possess, in vary-
ing degrees, a negro ancestry.
Unfortunately, through subtle
inevitable forces in our social life,
this common characteristic has
been the cause of discord instead
of a bond of union.


Yet, as the ye4rs pass by, there
-is dawning upon our people the
realisation that, so far as the foreigner
is concerned, we are regarded as a
people apart no matter how much we
may vary in our complexions. We are
being forced to realise by pressure
from without that we are all more
alike than unlike, and, what is still
more important, we are becoming
ever more willing to accept this fact.
Furthermore, there is already a grow-
ing measure of uniformity, in race
tradition, and religion, a:'complete
similarity in environment, an identity
of language, and an ever-developing
community of outlook, and purpose,
and consciousness. In short, we are in
the process iof becoming a nation. We
are becoming politically alive. We are
seeking self-expression, Under these
circumstances, I think we can confi-
dently expect our literature to become

in the process of time a truly national
There is another circumstance
which should lead us to expect at
tids time, the birth of a literature. It is
a matter of historical fact that a
period of political and nationalist
awakening, such as is being experi-
enced to-day throughout the island
communities that form the British
West Indies, is generally accompanied
by one of creative activity among the
Arts. It was so in Greece of old.
"Down to the time of the legislation
of Solon (594 B.C.) and the brilliant
court of Peisistratus and his sons
(560-509) Athens was merely a
county town of little importance. It
was with the great successes of the
Persian Wars (490-479) that, combined
with a fully justified self-consciousness,
first stimulated the rich intellectual
talents of the little nation. Thus
Athens, the chief city of the great
Attic Naval League (477-404) became
a rendezvous of choice spirits, the
"School of Hellas" in the words of
Thucydides, indeed of the whole
world." The appearance in England,
too, of the great Elisabethan literature
was also coincident with a great out-
burst of national life, and I see no
reason to doubt that with the dawn-
ing of West Indian nationalist feeling
we should not expect the rise of a
literature in our midst.


Yet, if it is necessary to emphasise
the need for a West Indian literature
with characteristics of its own, it is also
necessary to point out that, a literature
which will of necessity be written in
the English language by a people con-
siderably influenced in education by
English sentiment, English traditions,
and English public opinion, will have
to be in many ways regarded as an
off-shoot of the literature of the
English people. What, however, must
never be lost sight of is that we are
sufficiently unlike the English to
justify our looking forward to a
literature distinctly West Indian in
spirit and subject matter in many
ways. In reality, it is only where these
two peoples the English and the
West Indian come to the parting of
ways, that we can expect to see the
appearance of something unique in
literature, something typically West


These islands possess a wealth of
associations. Not a few men who have
helped to make the history of recent
centuries have visited these waters.
There is a wealth of romance associ-
ated with the Caribbean sea, tales of
pirates and treasure trove, and what is
still more important for West Indian
purposes, there are the myths of the
Caribs, our own folk-lore and supersti-
tions, our native customs and peculiari-
ties all inexhaustible sources of
inspiration. Nor should we feel we lack
sources which may supply us with
inspiration for nobler and deeper
themes. The lot of our people for the
last hundred years has not been free
from suffering and thwarted hopes,
and there lie everywhere around us
here in the West Indies sources which
are only waiting to be tapped, and
which are capable of inspiring a
literature which may touch the hearts
of all humanity.
The problem of introducing
West Indian subj'ect-matter into
literature does not present great
difficulty.Natural scenery in tropical
countries is not over-represented in
English literature; and West Indian
history, West Indian customs, West
Indian hopes and aspirations, are not
represented at all. We can make our
contribution to literature by treating
these subjects, even if, in doing so, we

model ourselves on English masters.
We would at least be adding something
to English literature which, but for
our efforts, would not have existed
at all.


It occurred to me, when reading
the comments in the various West
Indian newspapers on the Ottawa
Conference as it affected the poorer
classes in these islands, that the author
who set himself the task of writing a
book in which he endeavoured to
show the reaction of West Indian
nationalist feeling to political questions
could find ample material for such a
work. The remarks of the Grenada
West Indian in particular, on the
subject possess great literary value.
They are written in splendid style. The
best speeches of those who have
espoused the patriot's cause at various
periods of West Indian history, of those
who have opposed it, speeches made
by able members of the Government
could also be made to serve this
purpose. And, that justice might be
done to the West Indies, selections
written in the spirit of the editorial of
the Daily Mirror of Friday, 28th
October, could also be selected to
show that, though nationalist feeling
may be awakening, and though all
West Indians hope the day may soon
come when they will have control
over the destinies of their native land,
a condition to which they may
reasonably look forward because it is
the ultimate step in the process of the
development of the British Common-
wealth of Nations, there is still a
body of responsible opinion which
realises that before such a develop-
ment is to be completely realized, we
need intensive education of the
Personally, what I am anxiously -
looking forward to at this time is
West Indian nature poetry; and, what
is even more necessary in these days, a
social history of our island communi-
ties, especially' the period covering the
last hundred years since the emancipa-
tion of slaves. It is during this period
that the people who are really the
West Indians have been developing a
sense of political and racial identity.


These green islands set in a silver
sea are among the most beautiful in
the world. Our flowers, our birds and
our hills, our bays and our rivers, our
sunsets and our moonlight nights must
by our own hands be set in a literature
of our own, and we must do this well
so that the day may soon come when
we shall enjoy the privilege of seeing
poetry and prose on West Indian sub-
jects by West Indian authors taught in
our colleges and schools. To our
youth our own beauties are of far
greater importance than those of
foreign lands, and ours will be the joy
and privilege to create a literature
worthy of playing a most important
part in the education of our children.
Such a literature would help to westin-
dianize their minds, and make them
proud and conscious of a common
This is what the poets of England
have done-for her children. They have
glorified her country-side and her com-
mon sights in their art. They have
rivetted her natural beauty into the
imaginations of Englishmen of genera-
tions past, and will continue to do so
for, those to come. England of the
Lake Country, of the violets and the
daffodils, England of the mountains,
England with all her historic traditions.
is ensouled in the heart of every edu-
cated Englishman. She is part of his
being. Why, even we, who are only
colonials, can never look upon Winder-
mere with the eyes of those who lived
before Wordsworth came. The same is



true of Stratford-on-Avon. England is
hallowed ground. And those of us in
these island-homes of ours who aspire
to poetry must endeavour to do the
same for our sons and daughters; we
must strain every nerve to divert the
current of their emotions which have
known only English channels into
channels of our own as well.
like Nathaniel of the Gospel
story West Indians are wont to ask:
"Can any good thing come out of the
West Indies?" and like that other
disciple I answer: "Come and see".
The time is come when we must cease
to speak slightly of our native land. It
is our duty, and it should be our
privilege to turn our eyes within,
upon ourselves, upon our island
homes, to think deeply and lovingly
upon them. If we do this, then the
inspiration will come, and the literature
we shall produce will be genuine and


I remember reading the following
passage in the 'Beacon' of September,
1932: "And be it also remembered that
the prejudice between, black and
coloured in Trinidad will progress
more incisively as time goes on, due
to the mixed nature of the community."
If this be true, then the future history
of this island will be a terrible one.
But I feel that there may be a remedy.
The predominant influence in West
Indian life to-day is a political one,
and that gives us reason to expect
political and social literature. If it were
possible to produce a social historyof
the people, and teach it in our colleges,
if they were taught to know themselves
for what they are, if they were taught
to be citizens not only of an empire,
but also of islands with race composi-
tion of their own, then a great deal
would be done to eradicate this canker
in our social life. This may not be
orthodox, but I feel that something
like it is necessary. The West Indian is
very much an individualist in his out-
look, and anything that might tend to
foster the gioup spirit should be
encouraged by those whose duty it is
to look after oni education.
To write such a history, of
course, will ileuitic scholarship, and
will entail a tremendous amount of
work. The hisloiiain of this people of
mixed blood will htve to go far beyond
the few hiundrted years of West Indian
history, back io the story of the
original peoples who helped to briiin
about this cosmopolitan race. It is
only in this way that we shall be able
to uinderst:ind wlihl the forces ane
winch lie behind our lives. It meini
work. but it has to be done. lot 1,c
cannot go on drifting forever.








C.V. Gocking Writes In THE ROYAL IAN ( 932J

C..LR. JAMI 1.

But it is not sufficient that the
subject-matter of our literature be
West Indian. It is necessary that much
of the spirit of it be so also. Only in
this way can it be unique. Mr. James'
story of "Mamitz" to take a simple
example possesses this quality.


We can readily recognize the
characters and the dialect as being of
Trinidad. It has been said that this
story and others of its type are immoral,
but that is somewhat beside the point.
The fact remains that the author has
painted in their true colours people
that exist. When we admit this, it does
not follow that we approve of the
characters from a moral standpoint. It
has also been said that the writing of
such stories does harm to Trinidad.
There is a measure of truth in that.
People abroad who know little of local
conditions, and imagine a great deal
that is not true, will not be inclined to
think any the better of us. Yet that is
not the fault of the authors. It is due
to the fact that no one has yet arisen
capable of treating the more complex
phases of West Indian social life.
Yet if that type of story were to
be the only thing that we were going
to produce, then there would be no
future literature. Such stories will
hardly live: for one thing, the .dialect in
which they are written is not a step in
the process of the development of a
language, but simply a corrupt version
of a fully developed one. With the
progress of education, this dialect will
pass away, and when you consider the
form and subject-matter for what they
are worth, it is very probable that the
only interest they will nave for ages
come is an historical one.
This last point raises another very

interesting one. It would 'seem, some-
one may argue, that the more educated
West Indians become, the more English
they also become; the inevitable con-
clusion is that with the passage of time
we shall find in these islands an
inferior version of English people, for
no one can quite expect to enjoy here
the advantages of education, environ-
ment, and opportunity that one can
expect to find in England. Further-
more, systems of education and institu-
tions that have developed in England
through a natural process of evolution,
and which, coming from the heart of
the English people, are very likely
admirably suited to them, can never
be expected to do for the West Indian
what they will do for the Englishman-.
That is just the reason why we should
inquire into the history of our people,
into their origin, into their psychology,
and try to discover their particular
needs. There is room and there is need
for every branch history is not the least important.


There remains for consideration
a very difficult, but important, pro-
blem. It may be that, when our authors
have begun to look into the hearts of
our people, and come to the work of
expressing what they find there, they
may decide that modification of
literary forms known to them, and
perhaps creation of new ones, may be
necessary. They may find that the
poetic- forms which are suited to the
expression of English sentiment, may
not always be quite appropriate for
expressing the feelings of a people who,
though very English in feeling, must
inevitably through differences in blood
and environment, possess characteris-

tics of their own. But questions involv-
ing future possibilities are always
difficult even for the most capable, and
it may be that only creative genius can
really answer such questions by solving
them. It is the man with creative
power who generally places before a
people sentiments they dimly feel and
vaguely suspect.
At present we must be content
with clearing the ground and prepar-
ing the way for the literature that is to

be, I read in the Forum, a Barbados
magazine, that an anthology of Jamai-
can verse had been published. Mean-
while magazines are springing up in all
the islands seeking to bring a com-
munity of outlook and to awaken a
sense of identity among the people of
the various island communities that
form the British West Indies. To the
members of the Queen's Royal College
Literary Society I would say this: It
is your privilege to live in the dawn of
a new age in West Indian affairs. Yours
will be the joy, if you are prepared to
identify yourself with your people, of
seeing that new dawn break over the
beauteous hills of West Indian horizons.
Yours is the task of making tradition.
The very fact that you are devoted to
the task of promoting the interests of
literature will itself mean a great deal
in the development of your own lives;
for unless a man's life be devoted to
some great cause be it religion, or
politics, or science, or literature -
his life remains a fragment.
I have endeavoured to-night to
show in some measure that the birth
of a literature in our midst is possible,
I have also endeavoured to indicate in
what direction nur efforts should be
concentrated. If at times I have seemed
rather too inclined to stress what
advantages are likely to result from
our literature, it is not because I do
not appreciate the fact that creation
will be regarded by the creator as an
end in itself. Much of what I have said
you may consider unsound, much you
may think will need modification and
supplementing, yet, if I succeed in
doing nothing but awakening interest
in the subject, I shall not have spoken
in vain. It is my opinion that the men
who are going to count for anything
in the future history of the West Indies
are not those who contemplate work-
ing out great individual careers for
themselves, but rather those who make
up their minds to help in whatever way
they can in the work of developing the
life of their people. To those who are
willing to make their people's welfare
the words of the great English poet,
Wordsworth, will surely find an echo
in their hearts in after years:
Bliss was it in that dawn to be
alive, But to be young was very

at i -4~11PF 'P~~~p~~aP I~a~aPssp~-~L19~aaws~~

Our old men crinkle
their eyes brinrrivulets
on desert's edge again:
dry land. Parched sand. Sun
scorched the horizon quivers.
Quiet. A baked rock explodes.
Our priests don't pray
for rains anymore. They grow
not to believe miracle again.
For courage to crossover.
Our women go to bind children
to their backs. Young girls soak
our clothes and refill gourds
at the last waterhole.
They smile little though
young boys wrestling on the rim
retell how their fathers fought
dragons and mothers bathed fire
How in lush foothills they swam
nearly drowning in green rivers.
Home. Not this heat-warped plain
where iguanas laze and tarantulas
thread dry webs in dark crevices.
Our leaders huddle closer
to the truth: the race is
growing older. Another crossover
may strand us out there.
The sun sinks its sting
deflected by a distant outline,
of hills invisible until night
falls. A hollow gong. Brave shout
pelted at a vast silence. Moonrise:
a straggling column lowers
its head into the howling wind.
Raoul Pantin


And as corn sheaves
as leaves are scattered
in dry season's winds
we become like chaff. Even
the way we laugh changes.
No longer do we decipher moon
sun and stars. Unknown tides
rise and fall beyond us.
Few call on the elders for
a sign: our lies and all are
without imagination.
Nor will any crop take root
here on Shinar's fallow plains
Our spirits lock against us.
For already the children of Shem
are building their city's tall tower
and our voices are confounded
in their raucous din.
In no time at all we begin
to lose the ancient secrets.
Raoul Pantin

7he Moon and

My Roses

It was full moon
That night
When I walked in my garden of roses.
Some were red,
White were some,
And their hearts stained pink.
And again there were petals
Of a colour not yellow, but rose-
Stately they nodded to me,
Lowly they bowed,
As softly I stepped, oh, so softly ....
With my roses around me
And 1, ruminating.
Scent on scent laid siege on me,
Breaching my thoughts;
Breathed 1 deep.
Leaf-spray reared up boldly.
And Bearuty, sweet lly Beauty, 'twas
I fell on my knees
On thIe moon-ie Illowved earth,
Bland whiteness of moon,
And my roses......
It was full moonI
That night
Wren I \\alket in my glrlten of ro'sc.
R ior n.j ling.
C.A. Arch ilbaI
(IFr' ,n Tin' R, vnilian

,, s -~-p~ ~- F- Ls~ ~a 91 ~PPP IC--- --L re ~r--P~-7aP~sassr~i~



* From Page 4
Finally, the tired debate of
socialism as against capitalism continues

to roll on. While 1976 brought no new
advances in clarity regarding the
choice between lifeless orthodoxies,
we did witness a wider spread of

passion for the first time in relation to
In a polarization reminiscent of
the Spanishcivil war, Angola became a
cause celebre in which the Caribbean
did not play an insignificant part.
Cuba's decision to send troops pitted
a new force against the globe-trotting
marines, defenders of democracy at

Meanwhile in Jamaica and
Guyana, Manley and Burnham con-
tinued to tout the transition to
socialism while the actual results of
their stewardship remained remarkably
akin to what had gone before.
In Latin America, Venezuela
Cont'd o,1 Page 9

EVEN the presence of
members of the national
squad on both teams
failed to rescue Monday
night's F.A. final from the
scrappiness that character-
izes end-of-season match.
- in the N.S.L.
Although both teams
managed to create a few
scoring chances the game
lacked real excitement
throughout the first half
an hour.
Essex were showing signs
of being able to produce good
football. But it was the
TECSA pattern of kick and
run that predominated.
And even as I mused aloud
about reversion to the days of
two concept football, a TECSA
defenseman yelled into the
night "Anywhere! Eh-nee-
ware!!". His teammate happily
Suddenly, .as if he'd over-
heard the remarks about the
extreme vulnerability of the
TECSA wing-backs, 'Sammy'
Llewellyn moved out to wing
and thrice dribbled his way
down the flank onto the re
treating stoppers.
For the rest of the first half
it was a battle of nimble brains
against frustrated brawn as
Figaro and co. resorted to
fouling Llewellyn, Najjar and
company to stop their advance
It was in this period thai
national defenseman Steve
Pierre was shown the yellow


Yust before half time, Essex
won a left-side corner and as
Najjar hurried off to take it, he
was summoned for a hasty con-
sultation with Sammy.
The kick dropped right onto
the head of Sammy, standing
unmarked on the first post and
he screwed a header into a
chink between the defender
and the post.
The evidence of the rest of
the game there were, for
instance, very very few occasions
when the Essex goalkeeper's
goalkicks were not collected by
an Essex forward running a
diagonal in front of the station-
ary 'TECSA defencemen sug-
gests mat the goal was by no
means a matter of luck.
The second half began with
the whole Essex team being
assembled in midfield for a
brief harangue from their pro-
fessional Sammy Llewellyn.
He continued to keep a
tight rein on the team through-
out the second half setting up
a defensive barrier here, casti-
gating aloud a disgruntled
defender there and the scurry-
ing off to inspire the whole
team by dribbling cleverly
through a cluster of opponents.
However, their midfield
superiority never translated

itself into goals although quite
a few shots went past the
TECSA upright.
Where I sat, it was taken
for granted that Kelvin Barclay
would have replaced Michael
"Trabosky" Celestine in goal
for TECSA shortly after the
start of the Match.
The national goalkeeper had
crossed the field in mufti and
then disappeared into the dress-
ing room whence he emerged
in full football togs five
minutes later.
That he did not is, some-
how reassuring.
At any rate, the TECSA
performance in the second half
was far better than the first.

Steve Pierre and Renwick
Williams managed to assert.
themselves quite often in mid-
field and Godfrey Harris and
Marlon Charles put the Essex
defence under pressure for
longish periods.
Too often, though, they
failed to accept the half chance
and only once did Bain have to
extend himself to prevent a
high drive from Harris from
entering the net.
TECSA's best chances came
from their corners which Kenwyn
Cooper contrived to drop
agonizingly close to the goal-
keeper but never near enough
for him to make his.
The Essex defence held
firm although for one period
they were themselves content
Cont'd on Page 9

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HARDWARE & ELECTRIC: Kirpalani's Roundabout


Fr-om Page ,

emerged as the dominant diplomatic,
force whose endeavors w%.'
consummated at the end ol ile yca* iNy
the mission abroad of President
Carlos Andres Perez. Mexico. also a
beneficiary of the oil bonanza, also
showed evidences of diplomatic
aggression; she was certainly active
at the United Nations and in the
Caribbean Basin.
Argentina, Brazil and Chile
enjoyed differing economic fortunes
but shared the familiar mix of political
passion and militarist discipline. Peru
lived a year of shattered illusions

and duly withdrew from experiments
in radical change.
In ihe Middle laist, the bloody
ararcide in the Lebanon finally
camIe ri to alnenl through massive
militaryy mntervention: in the process
Syria was careful to destroy much of
ite iJganised Palestinian movement.
But the problem is still there and
the Paletinains have nothing to
In India the ghost of democracy
still wanders in the land of Indira
Gandhi who insists that her state of
emergency is still valid and still
necessary. So in 1976, she simply
postponed the selections to a more

propitious time.
Throughout the 1976 World,
communications brought peoples
closer together while race and
ideology and culture probably drove us
further apart; while the gap between
nch ana poor opened wider and
wider and the best efforts to bring a
more stable order to the international
system failed to have any reassuring
Unruffled by all the movement,
Chairman Mao duly took his leave and
his place on the other side with Engels,
Marx and Lenin.

a From Page 8
to "get rid, get rid!" without
seeking to start the attack from
defence as they had been
doing before.
The eventual result -
TECSA 0 Essex 1 is an
accurate reflection of the stand-
ard of play as well as the
relative strength of the two
Essex will certainly be near
the top of the Championship
Division' standings next year,
all things being equal.
Earl Best

Marilyn Killed in Defence of her Property

David Marine
defending her property
and must not hang. That
was the unanimous decision
taken by a panel of four
at the JFK Lecture Theatre,
UWI, on Monday evening
December 13.
Rhona Baptiste, Merle
Hodge, Helen Timothy and
Valerie Belgrave were
appearing under the aus-
pices of Students for
Change in the midst of
mounting protest at the
sentencing to death last
month of a mother of
A jury of seven men and
five women had found Knott,
a prostitute, guilty of murder-
ing a client Randolph Slater
in a down-town hotel in August
Dealing with "Women and
the Press", Helen Timothy felt
that the media did not concern
themselves with social questions.


Women are cast almost ex-
clusively as social butterflies,
elegant wives, beautiful crea-
tures and decorative frills,
appendages to men.
She thought the Express was
more disposed to present
women in a purely frivolous
role and in the weekly press,
women were often scandalized
particularly in relation to
Ms. Timothy deplored the
absence of day nurseries
which might well have freed
Knott to look for other em-
ployment; she did not think it
useful to adopt a stance of
disdainful morality towards so-
called.sinners who in fact were
largely victims of social and
economic disadvantage.
apeaming on "The Woman
and Her Family", Rhona
Baptiste saw in the sentence of
Knott proof that "in the eyes
of the law women are equal
where capital punishment is
She wondered how the jury
could have meted so swift a
judgment on a peer; only 1 hrs.

Thank you for your
A Happy
Prosperous New Year
PHONE: 62-38011

say Women Panelists

in all of deliberation.
To what extent, she asked,
was the verdict influenced by
Knott's being a prostitute?
Ms. Baptiste reported on
.he finding of a Save-Knott
Committee that Knott was
looked on as "bad-from-small."
How did her early family life
affect the full-grown woman?
Merle Hodge talked of "The
Domestication of Women."
Society regarded women as "an
imperfect version of men," she
The house roared when she
suggested that male prejudice
caused the breasts and the
belly of women to be regarded
a: compensation for deficient
Ms. Hodge criticised both
the present Western family
structure and the "old com-
munism". Neither liberated the
woman but the old arrangement
was better for the child, she
Motherhood, in the West,
Ms. .Hodge thought, over-
emphasised the role of the
biological mother; she stressed
the harmful effects of over-
Valerie Belgrave did not see
"Women in Politics" as an
oppressed group butas a power
behind the throne. She argued
that the movement for the
emancipation of women was
technically a type of oppres-


mETRIC now

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the mass of water that would

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victim and accused.
Sex for money; money for
sex. What mutual hostility? A
type of violence from the word
go. And then, what of the
private prostitution found in
numerous marriages?
How could a Court take so
inhuman a view about so obvi-
ously human a situation? Is the
cold letter of the law not, in
the last resort, a form of
"They won't hang her," I
put to a friend."
"No, boy, they might do it,
we are a Republic now", she

sion as well as an advance.
Capitalist society had freed
women from a purely passive
role in production, she con-
tinued, and in socialist society
women are equal.
All the-speakers on the
panel made impressive presen-
tations and they provoked a
great deal of interesting discus-
The consensus was that
Marilyn Knott had killed in
defence of her property; that
she is a direct product of
capitalist society; and that pros-
titution is the result of econ-

omic oppression. For these
reasons, the condemned woman
should be freed.
I left the hall thinking of
the small but interested aualence,
staying late in solidarity with
the cause. I thought on the
iniquity of the entire system
but I wondered whether pros-
titution was solely the response
to economic factors.
I thought of -Randolph
Slater who had lost his life in
that unfortunate encounter.
What indulgence can the dead
man claim of us as victim of a
system that humiliates both




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song goes, Christmas is here
once again and I feel the
need to write something
appropriate to the occasion.
Yet I cannot bring myself
to join in the traditional
hypocrisies. These days the
true image of Christmas is
that of Santa Claus ripping
out your guts while sleigh
bells ring and he sings Ho,
Ho, Ho.
Not for me. Not for me
either the hallucinogen of
endlessly repeated pieties
about "Peace on Earth and
Goodwill towards all
For their are those to
whom my spirit feels
absolutely no goodwill and
for whom I pray each day
that there be no peace.
Nonetheless, I shall yield to
the so-called spirit of the
season to the extent of not
mentioning the negative.
Today Fillip wants to extend
his love and his blessings to all
those, whoever and wherever
they are, who dream and work
for a world in which Peace and
Goodwill shall cease to be the
empty slogans of charlatans.
Blessed be they who do
struggle in the lists of freedom.
Let them understand that there
can be no guarantees of suc-
cess. That their fellowmen shall
ridicule and revile them.
But as they walk the hard
and lonely road let them never
lose their faith that Freedom
is a precious thing and worth
fighting for.
Blessed be they who in the
midst of corruption and iniquity
refuse to sell their integrity for
any amount of silver.
Let them remember that
none of the expensive facades
of materialism can hide people
from themselves.

May they never lose the faith
that self-respect is the most
priceless possession of all.
Blessed be they who defend
the sanctity of the earth from
the ravages of the despoilers.
They must not lose faith in
the belief that the responsibility
of each generation is to leave
the earth a little better than
they found it.
Blessed be they who in their
art, their literature and their
music seek to widen the spirit-
ual horizons of their fellowmen.
Let them remember the old
adage that man shall not live
by bread alone. Their's must
always be the faith that all
revolutions must begin in the.
souls of men.
Blessed be they who judge
their fellowmen on the basis
not of race, sex, colour or creed
but on whether their words and
deeds contribute to the dignity
of humanity.
Let them remember out of
the dust came we all, and to
the dust shall we all return.
Unshaken in their faith, let
them continue to preach the
brotherhood of men.
Blessed be they who have
the courage to defend what is
right and the humility to ack-
nowledge their own limitations.
Let them remember that in
all men inheres both the divine
and the profane. Their con-
tinued faith is necessary if the
former is to triumph over the
Blessed be they finally who
have known what it is to love
and be loved. For in the dark-
est hours of despair and hate
and confusion love is a spark
of light that can never go out.
The faith of true love is suffi-
cient unto itself.
A Merry Christmas to all
those above and to the rest,
Fillip, like history, will never
absolve thee.

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A FEW days ago, if you had to do
some business with a bank, like getting
a loan to buy a car, or trying to secure
adequate overdraft facilities, or even
just looking for the best fixed deposit
rates, you had eight banks from which
to choose.

AND most of the time, you'd
know beforehand, exactly what type
of service to expect.

IT was either the "friendly" bank.
Or the "helpful" bank. Or the bank
"for everyone". Or the bank that
"works harder for you". Or the bank
that "you can depend on". And so

AND you'd walk into these huge
buildings and you'd meet charming
tellers, polite loan-officers and very
serious-looking armed guards. And
you'd see people just like you, either
queuing up or waiting for appoint-
ments, and all looking for the same

THEN the thought might occur to
you, "Maybe, I'm just another cus-
tomer. Just another number on a

BECAUSE, after all, a bank is a
bank. Just four walls with people either
putting in money or taking out

THEN what makes our bank dif-
ferent from any other bank?

WELL, to begin with, we're the
newest bank in town. A brand new
indigenous commercial bank. And as a
brand new bank, we want to offer you
the best service you can get in the
banking business. If we can't please
you, we don't have a bank. It's as
simple as that.

IF you need a checking or savings
account. Or you need Letters of Credit.
Or Trustee services. Or fixed deposits.
Or you want to send some money
overseas. Whatever are your banking
problems or financial needs, we are
prepared to go all out to help.

HOWEVER, if you're satisfied with
the service and facilities that you're
now enjoying elsewhere, then take our
advice. Remain there. That's good
banking sense.

IF, on the other hand, you want
to deal with a bank that you can walk
right in, lay your problems on the
table and get the service you want,
probably we're just the bank you're
looking for.

IF we are, come in and see for
yourself. We might surprise you.

OUR telephone numbers are 35330,
37372 and 38494, and we're conveni-
ently located in the newly-modernised
building at the corner of Charlotte and
Duke Streets. Right where, for a
generation, the old "Penny-Bank" has

AND our affable Manager, Mr.
Pegus and his courteous staff will be
delighted to show you how easy it is to
do business with us.


- 0 r