Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00240
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: November 21, 1976
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00240

Full Text

Vol. 6 No. 47

NEW YORK 21, N. Y.

30 Cents

Ole= BI-A


Lenny Grant

FOLLOWING yeoman ser-
vice as Manager of the Tapia
print shop during the recent
campaign, Lennox Grant,
Tapia Production Editor,
went abroad on leave of
absence last Sunday Nov-
ember 14. Grant will be
away for three months but
will remain a Contributing
Editor to the paper while
sojourning in Toronto,
Meanwhile Tapia has
been rejoined by contribu-
tors whose energies had
been devoted more to cam-
paigning in the run-up to
the September general elec-
Allan Harris, Lloyd Tayloi
Lloyd Best and Beau
Tewarie will again be in the
regular line-up.
Denis Solomon resumes
this week with the first
part of a full survey of
post-election politics under
the new Republican Con-
stitution. Entitled "Massa
Day Start", his article will
conclude next week.
Weekly Columnist Fillip
has also been taking strike;
Number three of his new
series appears this week.
Raoul Pantin begins a
fresh bout of investigations
with a scrutiny of the
dying fish on the North
West Coast.
back to

no rmal
TAPIA this week returns
to the standard 12 pages.
Business reorganisation fol-
lowing the dislocations of
the election campaign,
drove the paper down to
4 pages for a few wecks.
Now Tapia has moved
up from eight pages as the
recovery proceeds. On
average, once per month,
the paper will contain Sup-
plements bringing the total
number of pages to sixteen.

AS PTSC bus No. 3 over-
turned in Tobago last week,
neither the Government nor
the workers' representatives
,at the publicly-owned Cor-
'poration could shed any
light on what's really going
No one was injured in
the latest bus crash, the
third in eight days.
A three-man Commission
of Enquiry appointed by
the Government on Nov-
ember 12. when bus No. 2
ran into a wall in Arouca,
injuring 31 schoolchildren,
had not got around to inter-
viewing bus drivers last
The Commission was
given a 14-day deadline iE
which to report.

NO .3



But there was doubt last
week that the Commission
has even been appointed.
Senator Joe Young, Presi-
dent General of the Trans-
port and Industrial Workers'
Union (TIWU), said the
Commission had not yet
been gazetted which
means it does not officially
Asked what he thought
to be the cause of the
sudden spate of bus acci-
dents (bus No. 1 ran off
the road in Arouca, injuring
93 children, on November
8), Senator Young said: "I
am pretty much in the dark
Senator Young said he
n had tried in vain to find
out who the Secretary of






Minister in the Ministry of Finance, Errol Mahabir, is
responsible for finance.- Guardian Report
Senator Mervyn DeSouza, also Minister in the Ministry
of Finance is responsible for Insurance Guardian
Dr. Eric Williams retains responsibility for Public
Relations Guardian Report
Five years ago we had no money and no water, but
today we have money and no water". The Prime
"We are no longer dealing with an apathetic
community." The Prime Minister
90% of Texaco's operations depended on outside
interests and these were outside the control of the
Government of Trinidad and Tobago and, indeed, all
the Caribbean Government put together. Report
of Statement by Mr. Augustus Long, Texaco President.
"The end is not yet in sight" Prime Minister.

the Commission of Enquiry
was so he could contact
him and find out how they
were proceeding with the
Professor S. Satcunanathan
of UWI, Mr. Desmond
Crooks and Mr. Percival
Patience, former Transport
Commissioner, were named
as members of the Commis-
sion in the Press on Nov-
ember 13.
They were to enquire
into (1) the age of PTSC
buses; (2) their mechanical
condition; (3) the regularity
ivith which the buses are
inspected; (4) their suitability
and (5) qualification of
A meeting of the Umni-
bus Workers Branch (TRAF-



NEXT Sunday imovember
21, the Kairi Group will
hold a cultural fiesta to
raise funds for its Annual
Journal of The Arts, due
to appear end November
Venue of the fiesta is
the Tapia Port-of-Spain
Centre, 22 Cipriani Boule-
Andre Tanker, Lancelot
Layne and the Borachos
Parang Group will be on
hand to supply music.
The bIInyan Group and
Paul Keens-Douglas will
perform; and there will be
readings from poets aInd
writers. Abdul Malk. AlvinI
Massy, La rl Lovelace, Victor
Queslel are also down on
the Agenda.
A/\ arhectc Lunch will
be served I'lfrom nol on ll() 2
p.m. but a I'full slate of1
entertainment will run from
SI a.m. to 4 p.m. I1 lie l inte
is $6 per head.

FIC) of TIWU was scheduled
for last week and the
problem of the buses was
expected-to come up.
Senator Young said: "We
would like to know if the
Commission of Enquiry is
working. We may very well
be intending- to go before
them "
Acting P FSC Public Rela-
tions Officer Miss Viola
Callender said she could not
comment on the bus crashes.
Why not? "Because that
is now the subject of a
Commission of Enquiry",
she said.
But Miss Callender also
could not say whether the
Commission had got down
to work.

DR. KENNETH Ramchand,
literary critic and Univer-
sity teacher, will edit the
Tapia Christmas Literary
The Supplement will
appear either on December
12 or 19, depending on
when the Budget falls.
Contributors to the Sup-
plement will include Lloyd
King, Wayne Brown and
Gordon Rohlehr in addition
to Kenneth Ramchand
himself. Derek Walcott will
publish new poems.
A Supplement to mark
the 1977 Budget with a
Survey orf the national
economy is also now in

VENUE for the Third Sitting
of the Annual General
Assembly of Tapia will have
to be changed from the
Lion's Civic Centre, San
The Civic entiree i, not




IS there any hopes for Trinidad
and Tobago? Now. more urgently
than ever, that question presses in
on our people. What kind of country
can we expect to live in? The ruling
party's 1976 Election boast of
twenty unprecedented years of
stability stands exposed in all its
hollowness. A party which claims
to have won a "decisive mandate"
at the polls cannot provide the
most basic of services without re-
course to the most draconian of
measures. And this a mere two
months after its fifth consecutive
electoral triumph.
WHAT lunar madness could
have induced a majority of the
voting population to return the
PNM to office, only to turn on
the government of its choice,
immediately tnereaILer, m a pai-
oxvsm-of rage and protest? Is this
development susceptible of
rational explanation? What can
have driven the solid citizens of
Cascade and St. Ann's to the
militancy of their stana against
WASA? And what c6uld have
induced a neophyte Minister to
assert that complaints over the
water situation came only from
people with 3 or 4 bathrooms in
their houses?


THIERE have been protests over
schools, over water, over telephones,
over taxifares. There have been sick-
outs and strikes and resort to work-to-
rule. All in a bewildering concatenalton
of ahig-I and outrage. And as if to con-
firm our suspicion of cosmic disorder,
there have been fires which raged for
lack of water, fish which have died for
undisclosed reasons, school buses
which have crashed inexplicably, and
a plane which exploded in mid-air,
bringing us, wirm me arrest of two
Cuban emigres by Trinidad and Tobago
police, into the frighteningly new
world of international terror.
BATTERED on all sides, the
bewildered citizen may be excused for
preserving his or her psychic balance
by adopting an apocalyptic sense of
doom. The braver, or more cynical,
among us profess to see little more
than the pains and strains of a nation
growing up,the tensions of modern-
isation. Some pessimists even prophesy
the permanence of disorder as a feature
of late twentieth century life. Some of us
prefer to notice the disintegration of
institutions under the weight of
growing demands of a people yearning
for a life of freedom and common decency


WE see no cuLae oi uie Goas visited
on Trinidad and Tobago. What is apparent
to us are the halting efforts of a society
to respond tobly and creatively to our
own deepest yearnings; to turn our backs
on the degradations of the past, to possess
that faith which is the substance of
things hoped for, and to begin the build-
ings of a humane civilization as the only-
means of requiting thd injustices of
IN that context, the distemper of
the post-election period is an intensifica-
tion of tendencies long apparent, a
deepening of a people's disenchantment
with the existing regime, the most dra-
matic sign of which was the explosion
of lack Power in 1970, anticipated in
the skirmishes of 1968 and 1969. The

No Curse

Of The Gods

Vl/isited On



i rb~PPI

recurring cycles of protest since then,
and, even before that, the steep decline
in the level of electoral participation
and in the ruling party's voter support,
had convinced many that the PNMI
could not win another election. How
then explain the seeming contradic-
tion between the politics and the
polling, a contradiction only confirmed
by the events of the aftermath?
WE can begin to unravel the
mystery only if we appreciate that the
style of our politics and the manner of
our voting spring from identical causes.
That the same factors wimcn induce us
to take our politics out onto the streets,
drove a majority of those who voted to
return the PNM to office, andconvinced
large minority of the registered elector-
ate to stay away from the polls
altogether. If we fail to get to the com-
mon roots of our contradictory patterns
of behaviour, we may easily fall prey
to confusion, cynicism; defeatism and
the most abject apathy. Therein lies the
greatest danger of the times.
ItiAl danger is in no way dimin-
ished by the tireless trumpeting by the
established media of the rebirth of
two-party Parliamentary democracy.
Despite me claim of the ULF to be the
vanguard party of an insurgent working
class, the irrelevance of its theory and
the theatricality of its politics is
nowhere better illustrated than in its
chosen panacea for all ills national
SO that the ULF would offer the
illusion of national control at a time
when the PNM is already moving
beyond that to offer the illusion of
popular control, as witness its latest
magical promise -divestment. The
rapid evaporation of its post-election
euphoria is eloquent testimony to the
growing realization among ULF ranks
of the frustrations of politics in the
toils of Westminster, PNM-style, and
of the futility of their sacrifices to the
chimerir--' GoCd of class.
THERE is nothing new about the
nc.v Parliamentary opposition. There is

also nothing new about the old Govern-
ment. Nothing new in its determined
drive to totalitarianism. Except
perhaps, that it feels that by vanquish-
ing its opponents at the polls it now
has a freer hand to consolidate its
neo-crown Colony Republic, and to
reduce us completely to the status of
a nation of advisers, a stones-less
society of favour seekers.

EXCEPT tat the Kepublicani
Constitution gives the Prime Minister
even more scope for the turnover of
Ministerial "talent" and the preservation
of his own position inviolate. Except an
apparently greater readiness to reach for its
ftip-holster when trouble threatens.
Except that in that holster, there may
be, Burrough-ing to the top, a Godfather
who could one day bite the hand that
reached for it.
MEANWHILE, tie Government
continues to entertain only a primitive
notion of its duty to provide services
for the people, and labours under an
even more primitive notion of the means
of doing so. Moreover, it positively disavows
any idea of providing national leader-
ship, of directing the country towards
either the more noble ideals of life or
the longer term goals of survival. Its
only consistent practice is the piratical
politics of promising better to come,
while holding the rest of the country
to ransom.
THE question is,how are we to
break out of this seige? How to
extricate ourselves from the clutches
of a system that exists for the benefit
of the privileged elites in politics and
business and the Unions?
IF we know the answer we would
have done so long ago. The evidence for
that abounds. That we don't know the
answer is no accident. It is the intended
result of a deliberate conspiracy of
silence, of a calculated attempt to keep
us in the dark, withhold from us
information and greater self-knowledge
and thereby the means to our salvation.

THAT is why the media of com-
munication are in such a scandalous
condition. That is why the schools are
becoming black-board jungles, that is
why there are no places where we
may make our voices heard, and in Su
doing, inform our neighbours four
plight and learn of theirs and coam
to terms with each other.
WE are adrift in a sea of darkness,
able to turn for comfort only to those
nearest to.us. In consequence we are
each of us forced to register our
demands in terms of the narrow situa-
tion in which we find our separate
selves. The result is rampant individual-
ism anu the fragmentation of our
society into the warring factions of
occupation, locality, religion, race
and party. Thus divided ,we are
easy prev to those who rule over our
lives,themnelves acting only for their
sectional gain, albeit with the dreadful
resources of the State at their command


THE Government has abdicated

responsibility for the nation as a
whole. Divided as we are and devoid
of the means for reaching out to
each other, we lack any sense of com-
mon purpose. In that condition, we
either abandon ourselves to
desperate protest, or, abandoning our
better judgment,and manipulated by
those who claim to lead us, we assert
our narrow loyalties to our enduring
IF we are to be saved,we must
save ourselves. If we are to have effective
representation, we must create our
own agencies of representation. If we
are to build a nation, it is we who must
build the bridges across the chasms
that divide us. If we are to effect a
reconciliation between our loftiest hope
and the everyday reality of our lives,
between our politics and the way we
vote next time around, then the work
has to begin now, and begin with each
and everyone of us.


FORMALLY independent as a-
people, we have to make independence
a way of our lives. That begins with ou
minds and must end in institutions
appropriate to our status as a nation
of free and sovereign individuals. Ideol
ogical clarity and spiritual strength
giving rise to individuals and com-
munities and interest groups and
political part" vibrant and active on
behalf of themselves and the nation.
Every apparent setback is an opport-
unity for renewed dedication to the
task in hand.
FOURTEEN years after the with
drawal of imperial suzerainty, what
our nation faces is a crisis of responsi-
bility. Having initially entrusted the
task of nation building to a man and a
party for whom we entertained high
hopes, and having seen those hopes
betrayed by what has turned out to
oe a clique of manipulators and self-
seekers, hopefully we have learnt now
that the nation will be built, our
fortunes preserved, and our reputation
recovered, only if each of us, starting
where we are, in school, church,
factory, village, executive office or
postman's sorting room, assume the
responsibility that is rightfully ours:
to clear our minds, fortify our resolve
and take the lead in building a better
world in Trinidad :nd Tobago.
NOBODY else can do it for us. We
the people, are the only party of
national salvation.

Annual Assembly December 5

I -





I really could not let
another week go by without
adding my own wee voice
to the deadening chorus
of praise which has followed
the announcement by two
incomparable gladiators of
their retirement from the
field of political battle.
I refer of course to Simb-
hoonath Capildeo and Alloy
Lequay. The political careers of
these two man span the entire
history of our independence.
Indeed in the case of Smub-
hoonath Capildeo, it can truth:
fully be, said that he stood in
anxious attendance, one of the
political midwives at this Nation's
No words can adequately
express the debt that we owe
to these two men. Their vast
intellUcts, their indomitable
courage, their unsullied integrity
are all qualities which no honest
man would ever deny them.
They bestrode this narrow
World like benevolent Colossuses
and though they of times walked
with Princes and Kings they
never lost the common touch.
It has often been observed
that during their many cam-
paigns to the Parliament of the
land they never hesitated to
shake the hands of the meanest
amongst them.
They played the political
game hard but clean. In all
their years in politics no one
has ever accused them of back
stabbing or double dealing.
They kept faith with theL
people never going back on a
Their every action was
motivated by only the highest
considerations of loyalty to
their country and consistency
of ideological principles. Ex-
pediency was not a word in
their vocab ulary.
Ana when they opposed
the ruling party it was never
simply for opposition sake,
Indeed, on manyoccasions
they had the courage to
openly support the Govern-
It was indeed a fitting
climax to their illustrious
careers that they both had the
courage to stand up against the
Government despite the over-
whelming odds and manfully
abstained on the New Constitu-
They are gone now hut win
never he forgotten. The void
they leave in the political firma-
ment will take a long time to
fill. Let us prav.






Postal strike continues.
Attorney General may bring
Charges under IRA.
UWL Students hold talks
with PTSC. Request Bus
Service to Campus.
Mt. Hololo residents form
self-help brigade to fill pot-
FPA claims running out
of money; unable to carry
out programmes.
AG's Dept. not yet decided
to prosecute postmen.
School-bus runs off road
at Arouca; 93 injured, 11
hospitalized. No ambulance
available; taxis and private
cars pitch-in.
Fire at Grell and Com-
pany $3m. Warehouse,
Richmond Street. Release
from Fire Services. Low
water pressure; water bor-
rowed from Queen's Park
Hotel Pool.
Fish dumped at San
Fernando. Thousands of
dollars worth. Lack of
Storage; fear of contamina-
tion by dying fish at Cha-

Mail crisis deepens. Labouii
Congress asks Government
to get Army out of GPO
Asks that postmen resume
normal duties.
Workers on Churchill-
Roosevelt Highway dig up
large tanks of cyanide 4ft
underground. All work stop-
ped. Officials tight-lipped.

Residents of St. Ann's,
Cascade, Belmont wait in
vain to see Gov't Officials
about lack of water.

AG's Office ask police
for further information on
postal go-slow. Army still
Garment manufacturers
object to restrictions on
imports of materials from

State of Emergency at
GPO to be extended by 3
months today in House.
Essay passage, strong Oppo-
sition anticipated. ULF
Release: find solution in
Industrial relations context.
SGadraj Singh meets GPO
over 14 of 26 grievances.
Twenty-man Action-group
bid to take over Pan Trin-
bago. Roy Augustus, Peter
Aleong, UWI Students now
take Bus plea to Ministry
of Education.

Amusement tax on pool
tables mooted 6,000 tables
costing $2000 each; $350 per
day minimum take.
T&T Gazette lists Cabinet
responsibilities. Budget unde:
BWIA, workers give
$40,000 strike-pay to
Two-hour power-cut in
UK trade-team comes
George Weekes searched
'n Canada October 30.

Dow Village to complain
to PM about bagasse dust.
Longdenville asks for

DAC decides on emer-
gency regional congress at
Belle Garden Meeting last
Wednesday. Congress to deal
with Parkway and system of
Administration in Tobago.

PM order probe into
PTSC buses.
PM calls for removal of
un-named WASA Official.

AG: Emergency to end
when mail backlog cut.
Speaking in House. Three-
month extension passed.
Panday: More mail chaos
than before; 140 O'Level
postal jobs a red herring;
Govt using emergency to
intimidate workers.

Whole new WASA Board'
appointed. Joyce Alcantara,
PS Ministry of Finance,
New Chairman. Water win-
ning projects to get under-
way January. Meanwhile
$10m project to provide
5.2m gallons for,hard-hit

Cuba Attacks PM for
"unilateral" calling off of
Secret watch at GPO to
block mail sabotage.
Stiff Texaco resistance
to Govt majority participa-

tion. NP soon to take over
Texaco gas stations.
Opposition forces in
Grenada join up for elec-

PM lashes out at Whitehall
Protests: Don't come running
to me fon everything.
Attempt to break up pan
Movement: Bertie Fraser


Tobago School Bus
Crashes No children
Students to close campus
f bus plea unheeded

Manswell aenies move to
oust Postmen's Union. Post-
master says mail "moving
along nicely."
R.C. priest mugged.
Kwayana Goes on Hunger
Iraq to press for 25% price
hike at OPEC.

Fired WASA Board hits at
Govt policy
No Postal Lockout at
GG: Govt cannot do every-
Nkomo rejects British plan.
Caribbean Press Council
established. Inauguaral for
Trinidad Nov. 20.
Lion's Club Panel: Use
Army in Community

- I- -- `----~--~

F~rederick St. POS, 112 High St. Sarn F'do" Arima,

0-rand HARDWNARE & ELECTRIC: Kirpalani's R' undabout
~ c~c-~ -- LI I~ I I2 l



Bhoendradatt Tewaric

TODAY we near Jimmy
Carter speaking of making
America great again and
we wonder what he really
means. The United States,
like all the states of America,
was founded on violence
and developed on corrup-
Inevitably perhaps, these
institutions are as real as
the ideals of the American
Dream, making one tragic,
undivided chapter in
Columbus' Enterprise of
the Indies.
Violence and corruption
did not begin with Viet
Nam or end with Watergate..
The spate ot nostalgic
movies that have been
coming out of Hollywood
recently suggests that the
United States is not quite
able to face this truth
about itself, the truth
about the conquest and.
settlement of the entire
American continent, about
the Atlantic civilization as
as a whole.
The Trial of Billy Jack
is a study of violence in

the U.S.A., one of several
in the past ten years or so
seeking to explore the
phenomenon as a human
habit, as a hardening con-
dition of the contemporary
Director Sam Peckinpah
is noteworthy for the way
he has presented violence,
in such films as "The Wild
Bunch" and "Straw Dogs",
as inevitable unavoidable,
In the background, mug-
gings, rapings and violent
deaths in the USA have
become a way of life;
murders alone are esti-
mated at no fewer than
40 per day.
The. Trial of Billy Jack
forcefully poses the pro-
blem of violence in terms
of a confrontation between
the traditional protagon-
ists in Western movies;
Pale Face and Indian.
The film is a sequel to
Billy Jack in which the
anti-hero figure of the
same name had killed a
white man in defence of
an Indian community.
Identified as the ring-
leader, and tried for

murder, Billy was sentenced
to five years in prison for
involuntary manslaughter.
In the attack on the Indian
community, many had
died, both white and red.
The injustice of the
whole affair makes an
impact on a community
of young people that is
multi-racial and idealistic
and which believes that
something has gone wrong
with America.


To them, Billy, the
rebel, is the symbol of
the true American spirit.
As victim he is the symbol
of America's degeneration.
Following Billy's conviction,
they would put America
)n trial.
They attempt to estab-
lish a model community
around a Freedom School.
Is the American ideal
attainable in America after
all? The Trial of Billy Jack
faces the question in the
climate of Viet Nam and
SBilly Jack himself is in

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time freed after serving
his sentence and becomes
a Christ-figure in the com-
munity. lie has himself
been a Viet Nam veteran
who had been turned against
America by the atrocities
of My Lai.
As a soldier he had
personally refused the
order to lay waste a
village.. He had discovered
that the President's
(Nixon's) promised inves-
tigation would in fact
uncover little and that
Calley of My Lai had
become a kind of hero to
some Ameriaans.
Billy Jack haa become
an American dropout,
striving "to find his own
centre." He became in-
volved in the struggle of
his own Indian people,
their powerlessness in the
face of land-grabbers and
oil companies, etc.
Now the struggle esca-
lates. The Freedom School
comes increasingly into
conflict with the system.
The Indians become more
and more frustrated with
the injustice of their condi-
tion; and inevitably the
confrontation point arrives,
The militia are sent in and
it is Cowboys and Indians
once again.
Through it all, white
Middle America, the solid
citizens, the silent majority
refuse Onvolvement. Their
silence condones the racism,
the corruption, the bru-
tality, the decadence.
The politicians and the
media, as usual just come
out to play. The agitators
of the new politics live
out the futility of

strengthening the forces of
reaction and of frighten-
ing away even would-be
It is a complex game of
power and the majority of
the Americans are simply
(or not so simply) the
There exists a power-
elite, an oligarchy in busi-
ness, politics, amofig the
military. Powerful interests
keep the system going and
so do the solid centre.
Yet there is hope, there
is idealism, particularly
among the young. The
Trial of Billy Jack wonders
whether it will prevail
against the violence and
the corruption.
The film raises the oldest
social questions in the
context of contemporary
America. It attempts to
shatter the myth of a
modern American degenera-
tion suggesting that it has
always been a tale of Cow-
boys and Indians.
But the movie falls short,
because, being an American
film about America, it is
itself trapped by myths
about the Founding Fathers
and the early presidents.
It fails to see that com-
pared to the harsh realities
of slavery and American
expansion, the ideals of
the republic seem little
more than rhetorical florish.
The Trial of Billy Jack
suffers from a certain
naivite, and much of the
impact of the film is made,
more by what is left out,
than what is included; more
by the myths it takes for
granted, than the myths it
attempts to shatter.

Joseph Sabga

& Sons




Con sult



71 Frederick St, Port of Spain; Phone: 62-37272- 3-4
137 Eastern Main Road STA: 662-4987-4418

-- I


RECENT statements by
Michael Manley and a rapid
escalation of both parties'
campaigns indicate the
likelihood of a December
election. Despite the
further extension of the
state of emergency, it
looks like being a violent
Two weeks ago, at the
end of an official visit to
Canada, Prime Minister'
Michael Manley put an end
to speculation by disclos-
ing that elections were
imminent and would be
held under the five-month-
old state of emergency.
At the same time both
the leader of the opposi-
tion, Ed/ard Seaga, and
members of the government
sitting on the congressional
committee which is redraw-
ing the boundaries of a
number of vital constitu-
encies, confirmed that the
election would almost
certainly take place on one
of two Tuesdays tradi-
tionally election day in
Jamaica either 14 or 21
This means that the
three prospective candi-
dates held under the emer-
gency regulations one
from the ruling People's
National Party (PNP), two
from the opposition
Jamaica Labour Party
(JLP) will not be able
to stand.


More important, says
Manley, is that 400 people
detained since last June,
many of them in connec-
tion with alleged opposi-
tion plots to 'destabilise'
his left-moving government
will not be able to subject
the electorate to 'massive
violent intimidation'.
Both the prime minister
and his national security
minister, Keble Munn, have
periodically produced
figures to show that the
emergency, which was
extended again last month,
has been successful in
bringing the crime rate
down by as much as 50
per cent.
Jamaica 'under heavy
manners', as the emergency
is called by locals, is the
best safeguard against a
violent election campaign,
the government claims.
Many local commenta-
tors believe, nevertheless.




Real Choice

in Jamaica

E elections
E~~~ lcin

that a higher level of
violence in the past month
or so has raised serious
doubts about the effective-
ness of the once popular
emergency legislation.
'Ihey suggest that the
government would have
benefited more from a
late summer election per-
haps after the highly suc-
cessful Carifesta celebra-
tions, when the state of
emergency was seen to be


Attacks on a number of
opposition candidates, as
well as last week's incident
in the Clarendon constitu-
ency, in which a JLP
motorcade was fired on, a
PNP office was burn
down and 10 people re-
ceived gunshot wounds,
showed the continuing
political nature of the
The rhetoric of party
leaders has not helped to
cool things down. Seaga
continues to describe his
party members in deten-
tion as 'political prisoners',
although it has not gone


unnoticed that the JLP has
never publicly denied last
June's allegations against
the party's deputy leader,
Pearnel Charles, and pros-
pective candidate Peter
Whittingham. ,
One of the two main
themes of the JLP's elec-
tion campaign is its
denunciation of the Manley
government as communist
influenced; this denuncia-
tion is based on Manley's
attempts to forge closer
links with Cuba and on
such limited reforms as
cheap housing projects,
crash programmes to create
temporary employment,
land taxation, rent restric-
tions-and sugar industry

Sir Winston Churchill wrote these four books while he was a
serving soldier. They consist largely of eye-witness accounts
of actions in which he took part. Edited into this single
volume they show in full measure the splendid march of the
narrative and the force of the author's style. 'The Malakand
Field Force was an expedition sent in 1897 against the tribes
in the Swat Valley, and in the frontier land between India
and Afganistan, and it was Sir Winston's first experience of
active service.
Outstanding political success has rarely been achieved as early
as Churchill achieved it a Cabinet Minister at 33, Home
Secretary at 35 (in 1910). Yet for twenty-four years, from
1915 to 1940, the triumphant climax eluded him. Office and
advancement were denied; mistrust and dislike prolijfrated;
and, by 1939, the erstwhile heir-apparent of national politics
had held no public office for ten years.
Five eminent writers explore five diff,rcl(' aspects of Winston
Churchill's life to compose a thorough assessment of his
remarkable career.

St ph ens

,: *

'. ,. -- *4. ,,
-*_ - -,

There is little doubt that
for the first time since
the thirties the Jamaican
electorate is being faced
with a genuine ideological
choice. The JLP is.,com-
mitted to diverting public
funds back into the private
sector, and strengthening
ties with the United States
at the expense, if necessary
of the links that Manley
and his foreign minister,
Dudley Thompson, have so
assiduously built up with
Cuba and the third world
in general.
The left wing of the
PNP, represented by such
men as housing minister
Tony Spaulding, party

chief Donald Duncan and
Arnold Bertram, Manley's
private secretary, has the
support of perhaps 10-15
percent of party members.
There is a strong possi-
bility that if Manley gets
back next time it will be
without the support of the
large middle-class vote
which ensured his sweep-
ing victory in 1972, but
with the votes of the
young poor blacks, part-
icularly in the Kingston
area, most of whom are
voting for the first time,
and 80,000 of whom have
benefited from the govern-
ment's welfare and work
provision programmes.
The left hopes this new
mass backing will be
reflected in a cabinet with
a more uniformly radical
bent. Most Jamaicans,
however, still see Manley's
presence at the head of the
PNP,, despite his fondness
for left-wing rhetoric, as
their best guarantee against
any drastic move in that
direction if the PNP gets
back in.


Seaga is on much
stronger ground when he
concentrates on the other
main election issue, the
parlous state of the econ-
omy. Finance .Minister
David Coore said- last
month that Jamaica had
lost some 185 million
dollars since August last
year in earnings from
bauxite, sugar and tourism.
The most recent bank
of Jamaica figures showed
the country's net foreign
reserves were still over 48
million dollars in deficit.
Unemployment in some
of Kingston's poorer areas
is running as high as 50
per cent.
Continued on Page 8








and other Household items.



. II L .. .


EDUCATION SECRETARY Lloyd Taylor reports
that Tapia's new Thursday Night Series at the Port-
of-Spain Centre on Cipriani Boulevard, is still only
warming up. Following on the panel discussion on
Sport of November 20, last week Denis Solomon
addressed a small audience on current political events.
Solomon told the gathering that one of the
most important duties of a Movement such as Tapia
.was to assist the country to take stock of itself and to
recognize clearly the road on which it was.
He hoped that the discussion would point to
conclusions about the philosophy of government and
politics to which the country had committed itself.
Part One of Solomon.'s statement is published
below; Part Two will follow next week. The Tapia
Education Series will continue and statements will
be published in these pages when appropriate.
FOR both Government and Opposition there
are clearly discernible moments in the recent
past when vision might have triumphed over
expediency; when statesmanship might have
overcome sectional interest. A process might
have been set in motion that might have freed
the nation from the vicious circle of authori-
tarianism and impotence in which all evidence
now shows-us to be closely trapped. But in
both cases the challenge was unanswered, the
costs could not be faced.
FOR the Government that moment came
with the disturbances of 1970 and the Consti-
tutional crisis which broke upon us in that
year. Had the PNM been able to recognize, or
force their leader to recognize, that the only
way tB regain the trust of the country was to
openly acknowledge the breakdown of the
system and seek the help of the population
in charting new constitutional directions,
they might possibly have recouped themselves
morally as well as ensuring their retention of
office. But all the methods open to them
entailed one laige cost the necessity to
place themselves in a position where they
might be rejected by a newly-politicised country.
This was a cost they were unable to accept.
They might have gone to the people immedi-
ately instead of a year later, on-a platform of
reform that either anticipated people's desires
for change or set up a coherent PNM view of
reform, albeit conservative, in competition
with the views of the interests; they might
have summoned a Constituent Assembly and
agreed to participate in it as a party alongside
other parties; and they might, in anticipation
of one or both of these measures, declared
themselves an interim government, with or
without inviting (perhaps through the Senate,
perhaps directly into a 'national adminiStra-
tion) the participation of other interests.


WHAT in fact they did we all know. Denial of
the existence of a constitutional crisis; then an
emasculated exercise in constitutional consultation,
repudiated in any case in an eight-hour Parliamentary
diatribe of unparallelled viciousness; courts martial; a
series of laws, each more repressive than the last,
designed solely to strengthen the hand of the executive
and entrench the Government as "an embattled
fortress against the people"; and after five years of
energetically downplayed constitutional deliberations,
Constitution reform by the executive to set up, under
the guise of a Republic, an eighteenth-century
monarchy, an elective dictatorship, a presidential
system without the checks balances of independent
legislature or even independent judicature.
FOR the various forces of the opposition. thele
were various moments. For NJAC, it was the opening
of the "People's Parliament" in 1970, which, if it had
been allowed to, might have turned into a Constituentl
Assembly and at the same time might have constituted
a fruitful source of ideas for social action Itha could
have rendered the official government largely irrelev-
ant, and mobilised the population Irr the all.
important final thrust, bul which was closed hv
NJAC to all but their symlpathisers. Tih resell
crowds without direction, agitation withlouit ilal:.
c3nnoll fodder asscr nh-lctl (:is onct ; aaill ill the ,;il-

Politics since




and-sugar "religious march" in 1974) to be dispersed
with a whiff of grapeshot.
FOR the conventional opposition, particularly
for the newly-formed ULF and to a lesser extent for
the DAC, the moment came with the move toward
opposition unity culminating in the formation of the
ULF. BaSdeo Panday, having emerged as the unques-
tioned leader of Central Trinidad, had the opport-
unity to create a truly multi-racial party while at the
same time satisfying the hunger of the population for
opposition unity: instead the ULF held secret talks
with the DAC which predictably broke down, and
settled ultimately for the traditional DLP seats in
Williams' parliament.
SO both Government and opposition have
refused to incur the cost of statesmanship and have
settled for power or the appearance of power: the
Government for one-man rule at the expense of an
electoral support even more reduced than in previous
elections. Their'very campaign showed this -the
TV appearances that made no attempt to inspire or
rally the nation; a largely mendacious reference to
civil liberties in the context of stability, and no
effort to win new voters, but rather an intensive
election-day concentration on getting out the old,
hard-back, hard-stones PNM know-nothings, many.
of whom, as they staggered to the polls, led one to
doubt that they would last the five years even if the
PNM did.


IN a full appreciation of the cours-e iovnhich
we are embarked it is necessary to examine events prior
to September 1976 in other areas too. The signs,hav,"
been there in all areas of national life. In the provisions
of the Republican Constitution; in the attitude of
Williams to the Civil Service; in the Budget speeches;
in the internal affairs of the PNM; in Williams' state-
ments on the machinery of government; in the issue,
or non-issue, of integrity in public life.
FOR Williams has never made any secret of his
aspirations to unfettered executive control, or of his
contempt for the population. The signs have been
clear to read, and for that reason it must be said
that the population must have its share of the blame.
It is true that right up to the election the population
was systematically denied the opportunity io evalu-
ate any other possibility of organisation, anld that
events just before the election placed a premiunl
on attitudes of reaction. But in the final analysis it
was not only government and opposition but the
country as a whole that settled for second best. We
must all bear our share of the blame.
IN order to understand precisely what we have
settled for, let us examine each of the areas I mnen-
tioned. First, the Constitution. After five years of
appraisal, the only ways in which the Republican
:o)nstitulion differs from the previous one are several
provisions designed to increase the power ol Ilhe
executive, among (lhem:

a provision redducing the majority required I'0o
certain amendments to tlhe CotisltlutionI

a )pr-ovisionl allowing an;l y lnmllll c: of' Ililiisters
to be appointed fol ithe Sencate

a Iprovisionli allowing Minlismris wlho ae Sellallo( s
to lake 1pa) in dclbaltes in I e lowecl IloiuIs

a IllllibI.er i l )ro, isisor ill ihr I)e'l;ll;r:rtol r 1
Rights reducing pcll r .lllr l Ie...l| irnlld |ilt.d t,
a Il (li 1Cm 1 l icru which _, Jvc', C', iti'i li1iN .'

freedom to the police and other forces of order
to kill with impunity.
In addition, there is the provision setting up aiL.
Integrity Commission and requiring declaration of
assets by MP's, a provision by which Williams has for
a long time set great store, for reasons which we shall
NEXT, the Civil Service. We all remember the
unseemly abuse and the largely false accusations
heaped by Williams on "an ambitious minority' of
civil servants in the matter of the Petroleum Secre-
tariat and the ERAP pipeline agreement, or his
callous abandonment of his onetime favourite over
the stadium and the Convention Hall. But not only
did he show that he was at loggerheads with the
senior Civil Service after twenty years of responsibil-
ity for its work and structure, but he joined the rest
of the nation in criticising the operations of WASA,
T&TEC and TELCQ as if he were not responsible for
them either. He also made it clear to all and sundry
that in his view efficient government was possible by
means of the recruitment from outside the Civil
Service an.d the Parliament of advisers supposedly
competent in various fields and operating under his
direct control. He announced his intention of
reducing the size of his cabinet and relying on a
"secretariat" of technical advisers.
IN fact he had already appointed such a panel,
under Professor Kenneth Julien, to direct the utilisa-
tion of petroleum resources, and received from it an
interim report in September 1975. This is in addition
to the other, totally abortive, specialised Commis-
sions such as the National Scientific Advisory Council
The National Planning Commissions; the Business
Advisory Council, the National Cultural Council. In
addition to these we have to remember the National
Consultations on Education, Agriculture, Prices, on
Oil and Food, and on Mobilisation of Local Financial


The evolution of the PNM during the few years
preceding the election reached a point where the
party, virtually ceased to exist as a force apart from
its leader. By riding rough-shod over the party's
electoral procedures when he was returned as leader
over Karl Phillips, Williams reduced it to a nullity, a
troop of political zombies held together by the cement
of office.
ANY conception of Phillips as a force for
reform, a champion of democracy or even a rallying
point for dissidence of any kind is laughable, and
tenable, il'at all only in the context of the most inspis-
sated political ignorance. First of all because the
objective fact is tlia Phillips is a marrn xvilli all
Williams colonlialistic instincts and absolutely none of
his brains; secondly because ncithe over lihe Cdele..l
of his leadership bidl nori iin lIhe conItI't of lihe
undated letter did he have lthe flainl l eNt a \\11hat 1 i0
do (if indeed :lllnyhinlg \\as possible) to bIiild sliip
poi t lo' hillisc l', aIs hlie Aboi- 'e i.11.1.1i.1ic of lUs. \\i,
fo Id S t ni l a c ii cl nll;, i'.'i : il'c I j ,id illl ii. ii i.-
il lie is a, chIamll pion of deliiocl icv eli is tIl'e lttosi
antediluvian one that ever existled. 11inc1c. :Is I e\lxplined
in il an liicle in llhc Trini id:id ( ;uia .lialn ,ilat Ihi elll .
lie filly supports Williams' pr oposals to I.likei, lle
('moistliliilito i irliair cll'e the tilli\ ol poll teal ait eis".
tills rmlakiug a i ickelI \ of lhe b.ac col,'Ipt <,- n., 1 l -

Iast ail 11r C ll .' I oN M I tl'l i ]:,'p ti' 0 .; i,
Iic' clcd 11 t1 o1k i s, c iicltclktlc' ,a "' l ;'.i i .:; ,

I r~ I~CI"Lc~ -~1`~1-~ -8~d2aklllL--- c"P--~-e~gsll



issued a "me-or-them" ultimatum. It is true that
eighteen of the incumbents who were not wanted
were re-nominated by the party; but this is not
terribly significant because in the nature of things the
PNM could not produce the youth and women
Williams called for, and in fact Williams did not
support or assist the candidacy of a number of his
colleagues, and in forming his cabinet after the
election dumped Robinson, Barrow, Campbell. Gomes
and Mohammed.
THE important fact is that Williams served
notice on the country that even if these millstones
were re-elected on Williams' coattails, which is what
in fact happened, he would not consider himself
bound to include any of them in his cabinet.


IN addition to appointing Senators to is cabi-
net in the persons of Richardson, Donaldson & Cartey
as he warned the nation he was going to do, he has
appointed someone who is not even a Senator -
Basil Pitt. In this context it is interesting to note
that while Williams' criticised the opposition by
saying that the Senate is not a place for people
rejected at the polls, he seems to think that the
Cabinet is and in addition to Pitt, who was
rejected at the polls, he has-appointed a Senator-
Minister, Desmond Cartey, who was rejected even
earlier that is to say, by PNM Party groups, so that
he didn't even reach the polls.
I SAID earlier that the issue of integrity has
for Williams been a very important issue, or non,
issue. Let us consider why. It has been an important
part of Williams' programme of political education -
by which I mean public political stultification to
induce people to believe that bribery and corruption
(for which, incidentally, no one is ever prosecuted) -
are a cause rather than a result of bad political
organisation; that he, Eric Williams, could govern
perfectly well if his entourage could be purged, their
political bowels kept open by strong Constitutional
and statutory laxatives.
THIS concern of Williams nas taken various
forms. He attempted to inject the issue of corruption
into the Dodderidge Alleyne affair, until he was
brought up short by the PSC daring to require him
to testify before it in support of his accusations. He
declared his own assets (but not his daughter's).
He called upon his colleagues to declare theirs. He
insisted on an Integrity Commission being in the
Constitution, ana he announced in the PNM manifesto
his intention of strengthening that provision.


WILLIAMS also sought to make his control
aver his elected colleagues absolute by the device
of the undated letter'of resignation, which he intends
to replace with the Constitutional ban on party-
jumping with which that ,champion of individual
freedom, Phillips, is in full agreement. These are in
the PNM Manifesto. In the same place he pledges;

"Continued consultation on national issues
with citizens' groups and organizations, especi-
ally sportsmen and steelbandsmen, parent-
teacher associations, village councils" and to
"encourage formation of county citizens'
committees for responsibilities in maintenance
of government buildings, as visiting committees
for hospitals, for submitting regional planning
priorities to government."
CONSULTATION, not representation in
other words, no alteration in the mechanism of
power. It is, incidentally, in the light of these Mani-
festo promises that we should evaluate the genuine-
ness of the study at present being carried out of tnc
possibility expanding tlc powers of local government
councils (and also the proposal for a "National
Garbage Authority").
WE are now in .. position to evaluiatc wlha the
country has accepted in putting the PNM back into
power, or in allowing lie PNM lo be put back into
1). That the Primie Min Mstr shtll rctlaiu lnot only
full power to govern ihut have considerable
power to decide upon. cven to create, the
organs and instruments through which he shal;

govern, regardless of the theory of collective
responsibility, the wishes of the people as
expressed in the electoral choices of the.
constituencies, or of existing civil service
2). That there shall be no popular representa-
tion or participation in the ongoing process of
government at any level, except as shall inter-
mittently and sporadically be decided by the
Prime Minister.

3). That, consequently, the only recourse the
public shall have for grievances arising from
maladministration, in a context where all mal-
administration stems from the PNM govern-
ment, shall be demonstration and protest,
placard carrying and petition-writing:in other
words, political mendicancy.

THIS means that the residents of St. Ann's,
Cascade and Belmont now begging for water outside
Whitehall, aided by the-good offices of Alfonso B.
delimna (who incidentally was not identified as a
millstone) accepted that thisis what they would have
to do and that it was likely to be unsuccessful, -
First, because you can't get blood out of a millstone
(i.e. WASA and the government were inefficient
before and they are inefficient now). Secondly,
because it is obviously impossible to bring political
pressure on a government whom you have just
overwhelmingly voted into power as the only option
when political pressure consists precisely of the
threat to a government o other options, and when
the chief plank in that government's platform is that
you shall have us power.

Trinidad & Tobago

Caricom Countries

Other Caribbean


E.E.C. (incl. U.K.)

Hudson-Phillips Shah
WHAT are they threatening the PNM with?
Voting for the ULF? It would take more than dry
taps to give the ULF any purchase on the electorate
as a whole. A strike'? Who ever heard of a strike of
consumers of a public utility? In any case, it was the
PNM they supported who made strikes practically
illegal. Armed revolution? With Ellen Drew in the
lead platform?
SECONDLY, the acceptance by the population
of PNM authoritarianism has vastly increased the
likelihood that intractable political problem will be
"solved" by the imposition of force from above, the
logical path for a government to take which has been
the author of the IRA, the Firearms Act, the Sum-
mary Offences (Amendment) Ordinance, the Sedition
Act, two courts martial and four states of emergency. ,
but whose potential for repressive measures was,
however slightly, mitigated until September 1976
by the dour persistence of political life in the
country Tapia in the Senate, the prospect of
opposition unity, the memory of the 1971 election
SO we are now in a position to evaluate events
since the election, and of course we can see that
they are entirely in keeping with the portrets we
have just examined,
'nntinued Next Week












other countries on request.

Tapia, 82, St. Vincent St. Tunapuna,
Trinidad & ToDago, W.I.

Telephone 662-5126. & 62-25241.

Our coverage of


is unsurpassed anywhere

for focus and point.

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Real Choice in amaica

Continued from Page 5
The JLP has alleged
that the government's high
expenditure and high tax-
ation policies, as well as
its left-wing image abroad,
have brought the business
community to the verge
of bankruptcy.
The PNP's response has
been to accuse the business-
men backers of the JLP
of economic sabotage.
According to mining min-
ister Horace Clarke, over
200 million dollars have
been taken out of the
country illegally in the
past two years.
Carlton Alexander, presi-
dent of the Private Sector
Organisation of Jamaica
(PSOJ), has said that
manufacturers will not
increase production until
after the election, as there
is 'grave uncertainty' about
the government's inten-
tions towards private busi-

Several business leaders,
such as the president of the
Jamaica Manufacturers'
Association, Douglas Vaz,
and PSOJ executive direc-
tor Anthony Abrahams,
have been named as JLP


An opinion poll pub-
lished in last week's Daily
Gleaner showed a five per
cent swing to the JLP
compared with thh 1972
election results, putting the
opposition party only two
per cent behind the PNP.
Academics from the
University of the West
Indies who conducted the
poll attributed the swing
to abstentions among dis-
gruntled PNP supporters
and the harder work and
better organisation of the
JLP campaigners. One con-
clusion is that a low poll


would seriously damage
the ruling party's chances
of being returned.
Meanwhile, suspicions
of United States involve-
ment in efforts to 'destabil-
ise' the Jamaican political-
and economic system in
order to ensure the return
of a JLP government have
been reactivated by the
allegations of ex-CIA agent
Philip Agee in September,
and Ctban and Guyanese
accusations of CIA conni-
vance in the Cuban and
plane explosion last month.
Agee alleged that a new
CIA station chief, Norman
Descoteaux, was appointed
to Kingston in December
last year, a month before
the IMF riots, and at the
same time as Henry Kis-

singer was in Jamaica -
ostensibly on holiday -
to try to persuade Manley
to withdraw his support for
the Cuban intervention in
Angola. Descoteaux had
previously spent two years
,in Buenos Aires and five
years in Ecuador.


Reliable sources in the
security forces reported
that at least three United
States Vietnam veterans,
all of them black and two
of them Jamaica-born,
were known to be organis-
ing gangs in the volatile
slums of West Kingston,
most of which are repre-
sented in parliament by
Edward Seaga.

Also in September, the
Co-ordinacion de Organ-
izaciones Revolucionarias
Unidas (CORU), the Miami-
based Cuban exile group
which claimed responsibil-
ity for both the bomb
discovered on a Cuban
plane at Kingston airport
in July and the explosion
off Barbados last month,
held a congress to plan
attacks on Caribbean coun-
tries friendly to Cuba.
The group is understood
'to enjoy the tacit support
of some branches of the
United States intelligence
.community. Three weeks
after that meeting the
PNP's annual conference
was bitterly attacked by
Seaga, who alleged that
the number of Cubans
attending made it 'obvious
that the Cuban Com-
munist Party was now
involved in the PNP's
election campaign'.

Big Discounts on revalued prices

*... it's like Ole Tiimes again


S -

eT H7E Ptllr L A C OE H sBE % 'E J 'H ~iz.FTY -- i I O 'L SHOP



7Tpia \cwsdclsk
MORE than two weeks
after thousands of fish
mysteriously started dying
in the Gulf of Paria, the
cause is still officially un-
known. Which means
nothing is being done about
it. And the fish are still
Reports reaching the
Fisheries Department last
week said dead fish are
turning up now on beaches
on the Five Islands, off
Trinidad's Northwestern
The Coast Guard launched
a clean up and ferried
Fisheries Department offi-
cials out in the Gulf of
Paria to take samples of
the sea water and dead
fish for testing.
The Department con-
tacted Dr. Julian Kennyv.


Summit Fair
THE St. Ann's Key Club
will hold a Summit Fair on
Hololo Mountain Road on
Sunday December 6, at 2
p.m. Right at the top of
the climb will be games,
stalls, a bar, etc. Inside
Info from Gail DeLima at

Professor of Zoology at
UW1, and asked him to
prepare tests for the
But last week, Dr. Kenny
said although he personally
made arrangements with a
laboratory in Miami and
the Environlmental Protec-
tion Agency (EPA) in
Georgia, "the samples have
not yet turned up."
Mr. Hugh Wood, Chief
Fisheries Officer, said: "I
don't know how that hap-
pened. I will be looking
into this."
Mr. Wood said "only a
small sample" had been
collected by his Depart-

THERE will be a jumble sale at
Greyfriars Church, Frederick
Street, Port-of-Spain come Satur-
day November 20; 1976.
This will be the first of a
series of events organised to
raise funds by the San Juan
Constituency Party, On hand
will be Valerie Harewood,
Ruth Rodriguez, Cynthia Jack,
Judith Taylor and Lena Beckles.
Forthcoming fundraising -
events are a cake sale at Disko-
mart on December 1-1, and a
Christmas party on December
18, 1976.


Agents for:
Manufacturers Representatives
And General Insurance Agents
No. 5 Concession Rd. Sea Lots
Phone: 62-37813

J [D7 LI I b S
ij NHIOrif

ment, some of which had
been held and the rest sent
on to Dr. Julian Kenny.
But if never reached.
Suspected cause of the
fish kill is an American-
imade vessel, the JURA
which collided with another
ship just off the Five
Islands and sank on her
maiden voyage from the
U.S. for delivery to her
Brazilian owners.
Ownership of the ship
changed hands shortly after-
wards when a local com-
pany reportedly bought the
sunken vessel for $2V/2
million. Since the JURA
was brand new when she


went down, the market
value of the ship is some-
where near $80 million.
The JURA's cargo was a
deadly mixture of cyanide
and caustic soda. The day
after the ship sank, the
Coast Guard lifted about
100 barrels of cyanide from
her hold.
But the caustic soda is
still in the ship's hold and
lesions on the bodies of
the dead fish suggest that
the caustic soda is slowly
dissolving into the water.
Most of the dead fish
are of a type known as the
plateau, which does not
have high commercial value.

But as Dr. Julian pointed
out last week, coupled with
oil spills and general pollu-
tion, the Gulf of Paria
itself is being threatened
by this kind of wanton
The subject of marine
pollution in the Caribbean
is soon coming up for
international scrutiny.
A United Nations-spon-
sored International Work-
shop on that topic begins
in Trinidad on December
13, with some 40 partici-
pants from the FAO,
UNESCO and United
Nations Environmental Pro-
tection Agency.

Angostura Old Oak Rum
A mellow blend of light
Trinidad rums. Smooth.
clean tasting

15 Henry


still cares for you



Lovely lounging dresses; foundation dresses;

Sandbags; (in many different A '
A 'S colours) "I U1N M

WORLD OF FASHION New arrivals in Pleasure Wear Pants; Wrangler Skirts WORLD OF FASHION
in Calcutta Denim and Cross-stitch jerseys FIME PLALA

S~t. r







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more economically with THE WORKERS' BANKthan anywhere

1st Option Land:
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Now you have land through the facilities of the first option. After
six further monthly deposits, we will lend you the balance up.to
a total of 90% of the value of the property to build your home.

3rd Option Furniture & Appliances:
Now that you have arranged financing for house and land,
you'll need furniture and appliances, you'll be able to furnish
your home completely, all for one monthly payment only a little
more than what you would normally pay for. a mortgage loan.

4th Option Conventional Mortgage Financing:
If you own a parcel of land and need finance to build and fur-
nish your home or if you have cash, or interest in land equal to
10% of the value of the home you wish to acquire and furnish
Options 2 and 3 again including all closing charges can be
available to you.


$62.500 to $140.000
The Workers' Bank Trust Company (Trinidad and Tobago) Ltd.

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SapieBilig abetSreSaroogoag. 345


RASTAFARIAN motherhood first sprang up in Jamaica
-n the 1930's during the wake of Marcus Garvey who
fought for the upliftment of the black society.
The Rastafarians in Trinidad & Tobago make one
bart of the society but the people tends to shun them. We
should put a policy towards them where they will get to
realize that they also make part. Likewise everyone else.
Now why should the Ras so that he can develop more
tafarians in T&T help to self-culture of ancestral
uprise a society that thinks Africa; he wants wherever
he or she is just some stinker he is to be like home in
with no education or just Zion.
some dope-headed punk? He wants rights so he can
We the Rastafarians of have no false witness. He
Trinidad & Tobago begin to wants brothers and sisters
realize that the people are not to play the part of
scared of us because they Judas because they will be
feel sooner or later the only hindering another
Youths will begin to see brother or yourself.
truth in what we are We find some false Rasta
saying and they don't want which we call Voop Rasta.
that. Voop Rastas are Rastas who
What they want is for mingle with meat, inform
us to continue working for to the Babylon on brothers
them and not for ourselves, and sisters.
The Rastafarians take it Would you suggest the
from the Biblc that they are solution is to take the .
true Jews of the living-Pro- Crown of Jah from upon
phecy. That is why what his head, he is unworthy
the Rasta says he wants is of it? It is high time to get
simple enough. rid of all Voop Rastas in
He wants land sufficiency Trinicad & Tobago.

CAMPUS agitation is
making news once more.
'On' Wednesday Novem-
ber 17 some 200 students
marched from the PTSC
Compound to Whitehall
where a three-man delega-
tion spoke with Mr. Isidore
Rampersad, Permanent
Secretary to the Prime
The march was under-
taken in groups of four,
to get around the Sum-
mary Offences Law,
passed in 1971 following
the repression of t the
Black Power Movement.
The day was reminiscent
of the October 1968 march
over Walter Rodney. At
that time, students went
to the Jamaican High Com-
mission. Failing to get
satisfaction, they proceeded
to Whitehall, led by James
Millette and Geddes
The present rumblings
reflect a changing mood,
following on the General
Elections. Agitation is
finding more fertile grounds
possibly because the Parlia-
mentary Opposition is
feverishly busy at St.


A DAY of hang-jacks is on
in South this Sunday Nov-
ember 21. Seeta Brown is
raising funds-for the San
Fernando East Constitu-
Pay five dollars in advance
and get everything or pay
your way on the spot.
Venue is the Tapia San
Fernando Centre, 8, Mon
Chagrin Street, Starting
time is 10 a.m. Full details
from Gail DeLima 62-25241
or Beverly James, 65-79293-.

The future of Rastafarians
depends on his part. There-
fore he must discover his
African inheritance and seek
his culture. Rasta says
smoking ganga is religious
to them.
Don't you find we should
investigate whether or not
there is any way to make
an exception for the Rastas
have always been the chief
suspects of the police. They
suffer from a complex so
like rass grass.
But the day will come
when all manner of man will
be free in thought, word
and deed in Jah Almighty
whose name you know. In
this body there is life
which means death does not
But how could humanity
obtain knowledge which
comes only when the soul
is free?







PHONE: 62-54113



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k-"' I V.


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91;7k s gockrp

N EAL a MF SY RiT ealing T D.lool 0

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11 A-

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I I i" ~P~.~ csa l~a~u~aenrmasR'al$$~L~B~i~s~CB~'~ga~$~k~







lirs. Anurea Talb-L Nt
Research Institute e
Study of Ma,
2 East 78th Street,
i0ew York, NY. 10021,
h. LehiDAh 5 8448 I
C S A. .. ... ..



LAST Sunday The Tapia
House Movement cele-
brated its ninth Anniver-
sary at the Tapia House,
Tunapuna, with the Second
Sitting of the Annual
General Assembly of 1976,
Secretary Lloyd Best told
the gathering that on
November 14, 1968, Tapia
was formed "on this self-
same piece of ground."
Starting at noon, the
Sitting was locked all
afternoonin tense delibera-
tion of competing propos-
als for party reform
following Tapia's perform-
ance in the September
general elections.
A document prepared
by Chairman Denis Solomon
was tabled at the opening
of proceedings. It contained
the text of detailed amend-
ments to the Tapia Constitu-
tion, result of three years
of tough debate mainly at
the level of the Movement's
Council of Representatives.
The Assembly decided
to debate reform of the
party and the state of



Tapia's politics before
turning to consideration of
specific amendments.
Sweeping changes in the
organisation of Tapia were
mooted on all sides to
convert the machinery of
the Tapia House Group
into the apparatus of the
nationwide party which
first emerged at the end
of 1973 and actually
formed itself into an elec-
toral party on April 11,
Three main sets of ideas
for reform came' before
the convention. Secretary
of the Constituency Party,
Fitz Baptiste, put forward
a case from Tunapuna.
That Constituency was
supporting the amend-
ments ..put before the
Council by Party Secretary
Lloyd Best.
Tunapuna wanted a
small, effective Executive
instructed by a strong
'Council and supported by
a professional staff, paid
by the Central Office. It
wanted sovereignty in the

party to rest with the
General Assembly.
A Group, its spokesman
being Frank Solomon, put
forward proposals for a
party focused on the
Council Of Representa-
tives. The General Assembly
in this scheme would be
simply an occasion for
rallying popular support.
Wary of a strong Execu-
tive and of a professional
Central Office, this C.oup
favours a system of Com-
mittees, the Chitirmen of
which would make up a
certain .kind !f Executive.


The third set of pro-
posals came from a Group
centred on Port-of-Spain
West and speaking through
Michael Harris. The Group
acknowledged a practical
need for a strong Execu-
tive but wanted to make
it accountable to the party
by setting out in the Con-
stitution, detailed party
relationships and a fully-
articulated set of fine-print
Skilfully handled by
Chairman Denis Solomon,
the debate continually

drew applause from the
partisans of particular pro-
posals. The day was thick
with the ingredients of a
developing politics of
participation, a departure
from the old civil-service
Highlight was a suave
and brief but devastating
intervention by Administra-
tive Secretary Allan Harris,
supporting the Tunapuna
proposals. .
Towards the end of a
tired day, in the half-light
of the Tapia garden, the
Assembly grew restless as
to how late the voting
would finally come.

Secretary Lloyd Best
urged that winning or losing
the vote would not resolve
the political crisis in the
party which lay behind the
demand for comprehensive
The Secretary warned
that the rank and file
people of Tapia needed
to be educated by expo-
sure to continuing party
debate. It was the way he
saw us forming sane judg-
ments about personalities,
leaders, spokesmen; about
one another in a serious
and enduring party.


Waving a paper put out
by the Tunapuna Constitu-
ency to mark the occasion,
Lloyd Best pointed to a
headline Tunapuna wanted
to borrow from an old
paper put out by Tapia'on
the St. Augustine Campus.
Tunapuna opposed
"smartman politics". We
wanted to re-state the case
for "honesty in politics."
If continuing debate,
the Secretary concluded,
could aid honest education
of the assembled' Tapia
people, then let us put off
the December 5 elections
and talk about the party
that Tapia wants to build.
The Secretary's resolu-
tion to that effect, seconded
by Baldwin Mootoo, was
accepted. The Annual
General Assembly was
adjourned to its next Sitting
on Sunday December 5
Starting time will be
10 a.m.


THE present violence and
political unrest in Jamaica can
be said to be one year old this
Exactly a year ago the
South West St. Andrews Citi-
zens' Association, made up of
supporters of the People's
National Party (PNP) in one
of Kingston's poorest areas,
put out a pamphlet accusing
the opposition Jamaica Labour
Party (JLP) of planning a cam-

paign of violence to demoralise
grass-roots support for the PNP
in Kingston.
More specifically it accused
Senator Pearnel Charles, a
deputy leader of the JLP, of
giving out guns to his sup-
porters and being behind a
'death list' containing 105
names of local PNP and other
left-wing leaders.
According to spokesmen for
the association, 30 of the

people on that list have since
been killed, the vast majority
before the declaration of the
state of emergency by the
government in June.
The pamphlet is now the
subject of Jamaica's first ever
criminal libel action, taken by
Charles, who has been detained
under the emergency regula-
tions for the past five months,
against the officials of the
association. (L.A.)



four roads

112, henry st.

42, eastern mn. rd.

cross crossing


SINCE 1901



Tpl- (668-2523



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-- L~--OPI~II IIII 1- I-- I- i