Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00226
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: August 15, 1976
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00226

Full Text

Vol. 6 No. 33

SUNDAY AUGUST 15, 19756: ., t ,
^' t-m f ^s~ i'k r..,. '' '*


COME September 13, "we goin to waterline dey tail".
Five Tapia speakers at Independence Square Wednesday
night, made that election promise, and backed it up with a
scathing assault on the PNM.
"They crooked," Tapia Secretary Lloyd Best told a
crowd that filled a whole section of the Independence
Square Abercromby Street car park.
Amidst applause from the warmly appreciative crowd,
Best called the meeting the first session of the Constituent
Syl Lowhar, chairman of the meeting, said: "Hasely
Crawford was a nobody to this government and suddenly
he is a success overnight. That is how it is with them. You
either fail or you succeed. There is no development in
Arouca candidate Angela Cropper said people had
gone to Woodford Square to hear Williams, to hear some
kind of plan for the country.
But people had come away from that disillusioned by
"a movement breathing its last breath, decadent, degene-
rate and demnioralised."
Ivan Laughlin, St. Anns candidate, said the confron-
tation at this 1976 general election was between two views.
One view was that people can still be bought
by old politics. The other
view was a vote for a
Trinidad and Tobago
"where people can stand ,
tall and proud and say this
is our country, this is our
land and we love it ."
Elections, said Allan
Harris, the candidate for O
Port-of-Spain central, are
coming at a critical time
because this PNM republic
"is a prescription for one-
man rule and an invitation
to dictatorship."
Lloyd Best put the alter-
native in the election this
way: "There is only one
political issue in Trinidad
and Tobago today. It is the this government was pro-
issue of "Whose Republic?" missing full employment
"The republic of the in its five year plan, and
little king or the republic 1976, unemployment had
of the little people." leapt from 13 to 30%.
Tapia speakers traced a Some 10,000 children
history of rising opposition were coming out of schools,
to the government from as looking for jobs every
far back as 1961. Why all year.
this opposition? But look at what the
There were 80,000 government was promising
people without jobs in the -- to spend S2.5 billion
country, and 52,000 of dollars in Pt. Lisas to create
them were between 15 and 9,000 jobs. A drop in-the
24 the youth of the bucket.
country going to waste. Ivan Laughlin said the
Between 1968 and when only kind of employment




the government offers to
the mass of the people is
project work "and to
get a job on the project
you have to have a god-
This government, he
said, was taking big men
and making them boys.
He pointed to Laventille.
That area had been the
cradle of the PNM, had
backed it throughout the
years. And look at Laven-
tille 37% of the house-
holds there receiving less
than $50 a month.

"Sisters and brothers,"
Laughlin said, "we are
living in a dread scene."
And that was why the
people must make a break
for freedom, must stand
up and fight for freedom
in the '76 elections.
Allan Harris repeated
that theme: "Make bold,
Trinidad and Tobago, and
make a bid for freedom,
That is where Tapia is
going. We are freedom
For the past 20 years,

Lloyd Best said, the gov-
ernment had responded to
the people's needs with
repression "they killing
we softly Chirrip chirrip."
In 1976, Best said, there
two forces in the list of
history. The opposition to
the reigning regime was an
irresistible force. The gov-
ernment was behaving like
an immovable object.
"And when these two
meet on September 13,
something going to give."

* '4' A '.. '. ,. A'



THE Cipriani Boulevarde Campaign Head-
quarters will be' the venue this v4pekedd of
a campaign planning session involving can-
didates and campaign managers.
The meeting which will pian the rest
of, the campaign and put finishing touches
on election machinery is expected to last
nearly all day on Saturday, August 14.
Briefing on election procedures be-
gan several months ago with the circulation
of a paper on the subject prepared by
Augustus Ramrekersingh. Frank Solomon,
a campaign activist in the Port-of-Spain
region, is in charge of getting the managers



A MESSAGE has gone out, from
the Tapia campaign headquarters
to all Tapia members, friends,
associates etc.
The message: get in touch
with your constituency candidate
or campaign team, and put d lon
your name for election day
Tapia people who have cars
are especially canvassed in this
Lend your power to the

Section of the warmly appreciative crowd at Independence Square on Wednesday night.




_ ___




27, the candidate tor
Nariva, will bring to bear
the multiple benefits of
his training and experi-
ence in the field of busi-
ness management.
He holds a UWI St.
Augustine BSc degree in
Industrial Management and
a Master's Degree in Busi-
ness Administration from
the University of Toronto.
He has worked as a
trainee economist in
CARIRI, and is now a
manager/partner in the
family business, Crawford
Mar. and Co.
In Tapia Jeremy early
attracted attention as an
extraoramarnly enthusiastic
cadre who showed the
discipline and reliability to
perform a number of tasks
with unfailing regularity in
the Port-of-Spain office
and in the field.
His calm organised
approach to the business at
hand marked him as one
fitted for the burdensome
responsibilities that would
naturally befall a standard
bearer in the march to
Tapia's New World.
The choice of Jeremy
Mar for the Shadow Min-
istry of Agriculture reflects
a recognition of his poten-
tial contribution in this
all-important department
of the Tapia-reconstructed

"1 01 1 10T


TH E R ESA JAM ES, 22, the
candidate forTobago West
is a rising figure in leader-
ship circles of this coun-
try's youth organizations.
She is the President of
the St. Patrick Assembly
of Youth and has been a
representative abroad of
the National Youth Coun-


** * **

THEWS, 26, the candidate
for Fyzabad, is the essential
-self-made man.
He! lived the Tapia
lifestyle of enterprise and
-struggle, even before he
knew about the existence
of Tapia.
So it was he immedi-
ately felt kinship with the
message "take up thy bed
and walk" which came to
him through the TAPIA
Mickey joined Tapia
by mail in 1970, having
cut a coupon from the
For three years Mickey
had worked at Federation
Then he quit and
opened his own business.
A man with an eye for
growth, his Automotique
now has branches in San
Fernando and Fyzabad.
Since 1973 he has
been a member of the
Tapia National Executive,
and is now serving his
second term as Second
Vice Chairman.
Mickey reads widely.
He has a natural inclination
towards the discipline of
On the platform,
Mickey comes over with
strength and power as he
delivers the Tapia message.
In the field he is known as
a persistent and zealous

F~uv7t~ :''7 -,
i 2

M ar


~4J~ F

Trinidad & Tobago
Caricom countries
Other Caribbean
E.E.C. (incl. U.K.)


A school teacher
attached to the Southern
Central A.C. School, Anita
Patricia combines a
naturally outgoing disposit
tion with aflair for working
with people.

She is the "daughter
of the late A.P.T. James,
formidable Tobago legisla-
tor and politician.

$18.00 per year

Surface rates and rates for-other countries on
request The new rates are effective February 1, 1976.
Tapia, 82, St Vincent St Tunapuna, Trinidad &
Tobago, W.I. Telephone 662-5126. & 62-25241.

This study of India's development experiences and its
lessons for the future-has been in the making for
nearly six years. Its purpose is to sift the experience
of the past two decades and more and to present a
basis for a fresh start in planning for India's economic
and social development. In the course of the study,
several leading events and trends of development in
the fifties and the sixties and the relationship between
short-term and long-term economic policy take on
new meanings.
HOWE $15.00
The social and cultural elements, together with other
aspects of India, are vividly described in this book of
distinguished Indian, British and American writers.
This book presents a frank and affectionate portrait
of this great country, India. It ranges far and wide
across the subcontinent, covering history politics and
religion; there are lively articles on the Princess and
the Raj; evocative pieces on rural India and her
wildlife; colou rful chapters on costumes and tradi-
tional dances; descriptions of art and architecture that
leave the reader with a longing to see them.

Sn- s..i m

Anita P.T. James

Tobago West

Our coverage of


is unsurpassed anywhere

for focus and point.

Keep a breast of the

real currents in the

Caribbean Sea.
OWING to the recent increase in the postal
rates, the Tapia House Publishing Co., Ltd., has
found it necessary to increase the subscription
rates for TAPIA.
The new rates are as follows:



Mat he w-





E..IE- O ArIIE I Frm

IN TOBAGO, the village
is the thing. "I am from
Charlotteville or Castara,"
somebody says. And that
means something.
Eutrice Carrington,
Tapia Candidate for To-
bago East talks about village
life today in Charlotte-
ville, the place of her birth.

IN THE Tobago village
life starts even before
dawn. Those who work
outside must be up and
ready to go with the first
bus. -
In Chariotteville depar-
ture time is 5.30 a.m.
Already, the farmers are
on their donkeys going to
'the land in the hills.
On the beach the fisher-
men are bringing, in their
boats to deliver the night's
The labourers and skilled
workers are mostly em-
ployed with the Local
Health Authority or the
Works Department and, of
course, the Special Works.
They are getting organ-
ised to do the day's work.
By 9.30 or 10 a.m.
comes the end of all
manner of work.


Usually the LHA people
are the first ones to finish,
closely followed by those
on Special Works.
People say that as soon
as the foreman leaves. the
place, everybody is free
to down tools and go.
In Charlotteville, they
knock off and join the
unemployed in the village's
seven rumshops. They drink
ole talk and play cards
until the sun goes down
into the sea. Then the
journey home to retire for
the day.
This is the Tobago vil-
lage life. In Charlotteville,
Saturday is a day of
worship for a 'large section
of the villagers.
The rest take their turn
on Sunday mornings. Six
churches at the eastern end
of the village are filled
with praise and thanks to
the Lord.
The people of Charlotte-
ville should sing praises to
the Lord for such a beauti-
ful bay. The children can
swim without fear, the
little boys can learn to
row a boat so that they
can fish for a living when
they grow up.
For many Tobagonians,
the open sea is the only
real facility available for
recreation, even though
"money is no problem".
In Charlotteville, there
is no permanent cricket
There are no football
posts either. The boys are
not even practising.

No sign of a netball or a
lawn tennis court. The
open space with knee-high
grass is supposed to be
a savannah.
At the moment a pavil-
ion is being constructed as
an extension of the Com-
munity Centre but the
centre is being destroyed.
They are destroying the
one place-available to the
village t6 organise a fete.


At the Community
Centre people had organ-
ised classes for craft and
han dv-work.
For several months now,
the place has been out of
commission and it looks
as though it will be so for
several months still. The
talk in the village is that
money done.
Another sore point is the
beach facilities. At the
changing rooms, there are
about two dozen lockers.
But every four lockers
carry the identical key.
When you get a locker,
the caretaker opens the
door, locks your things
inside and keeps the key
When you are ready to
collect the things, you
must wait for him to
unlock. It is a good thing
that the doors are falling-.
from the hinges.
In the showers, the taps
are in need of new washers.
The -biggest thing of all is
that both the bar and the
cafeteria are still empty of
Against this beautiful
background, the people
lack medical facilities, re-
creational facilities, trans-
port facilities.
Most of all, they lack
any kind of serious and
uplifting employment and
jobs are almost impossible
to find.
Young and old are
saying we need a change.
TheV say things could not
be worse than they are
Time and hard work
must once again restore
faith and trust to the
Tobago village. But there is
a ray of hope emerging
from the darkness.



Charlotteville is the home town of Tapia
Candidate fobr Tobago East,
Eutrice Carrington.

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IT WAS the Englishman Waiter
Bagehot who, in his celebrated
exposition of the nineteenth cen-
tury British Constitution, warned
that to understand fully the work-
ings of that political system, it was
necessary for the discerning eye to
seek beyond its apparent "out-
ward sameness" in order to per-
ceive the "hidden inner change."
If the characteristic mode of
change of the British Constitution
has been the steady growth of new
conventions within an almost un-
changing formal framework, the
outstanding feature of newer and
less well-founded states is a pro-
pensity to alter radically the
formal framework, often with
such frequency as to render im-
possible the development of those
informal usages, or conventions,
which are always needed to breathe
the breath of lifeinto the inert
bodies of abstract constitutional
In these latter cases Bagehot
may have justly concluded, plus ca
change plus la meme chose.
It is in some ways ironic,
therefore, that the acquisition by
the Trinidad and Tobago Constitu-
tion of formal republican status
should have occasioned such wide-
spread popular apprehension.
Those apprehensions have
surfaced in contentions that elec-
tions might be cancelled as well as
in fears of increased powers in the
hands of the police, to mention
but two instances.


Nurtured in the popular con-
sciousness by lurid tales of repub-
lican life "down the Main", all
such misgivings centre on the
perceived threat to individual
security posed by unbridled power,
especially an unbridled central
power, which proceeds to trample
on individual rights and liberties
and to subvert the traditional law
and order.
Can the powerful grip of
such fears` on the popular imagi-
nation be attributed solely to
dated images of Venezuelan poli-
tics and society, or is there some-
thing in the contemporary domes-
tic environment on which they also
Nonetheless, the fears are
ironic. Ironic because "going
Republic" by itself represents no
change at all to the constitutional
condition we have enjoyed since
August 31, 1962.


Since that time we have been,
in effect, a republic, if republican-
ism is defined loosely as a system
of government in which the com-
mon people are supposed to have
sovereign power.
In that sense, the United
Kingdom is in essence a republic
since the Monarch is subject to
the wishes of the people, or at
least of their representatives who
must periodically submit to the
will of the people.
There would have been less
misunderstanding and misapprehen-
sion on the point in Trinidad and
Tobago today, if we had assumed
formal republican status in 1962,
as properly we should have done.
Yet our failure to do so then
has given the present government
a smokescreen behind which to
effect certain fundamental changes


By Allan Harris, P.O.S. Central

to the Constitution.
And it is here that popular
fears ought to be focused. It is
here that apparent continuity, or
"outward sameness" may deceive
us about changes of possibly quite
far-reaching significance.
The specific matter at hand
. is the provision in the new consti-
tution which enables the Prime
Minister to select his entire
Cabinet, if he so wishes, from
among the members of the Senate,
who will be, in great majority, his
own appointees.


The 1962 Constitution strictly
limited the number of Ministers
who could be appointed from
such a source. As amended in
1970, it stated that:

If the. Attorney General is
appointed from among the mem-
bers of the House of Representa-
tives, not more than three Ministers
shall be appointed from among
the Senators, and if the Attorney
General is appointed from among
the Senators, not more than three
other Ministers shall be appointed
from among the Senators.

No such restriction appears in the
1976 Constitution.
Is this not a change which
portends inore for Trinidad and
Tobago than does any formal
change of name?
Dr. C.V. Gocking (in his
booklet "The Prime Minister and
the Constitution") has carefully
documented the strong reservations
of the present Prime Minister con-
cerning the quality of representa-
tives thrown up by the electoral
As far back as 1970, Dr.
Williams is on record as saying
that: "Sooner or later, and sooner
rather than later, we shall have to
,discuss the question of selecting the
Cabinet from all the available
talent and going outside Parliament
for this purpose."


And now the 1976 Constitou-
tion places at the disposal of a
Prime Minister for purposes of
selecting his Cabinet an almost
limitless cadre of technocrats over
whom he will have sole power, and
who will not be answerable either
directly to the people, or to their

representatives in -Parliament. In
terms of Executive power, a Prime
Minister would enjoy potentially
the same status as a President
under the US Constitution.
The system of Parliamentary
government Bagehot described in
his classic treatise has evolved a
long way from the days when
independent and independent-
minded MPs held sway and could
bring down an administration
almost at will.


It has been argued that the
growth of mass parties and the
dependence of the individual
member on the party organisation
for his political survival, have
created a situation where the
Cabinet reigns supreme over Parlia-
ment as a whole.
Fur other, olher developments,
especially in thie field of mass
communication, have enha nced the
power of thie Prime Ministe r over
his cabinet colleagues, so that some
observers now talk of Prime
Ministerial government.
In Trinidad and Tobago, as
Dr. Gocking has argued, we appear

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THIS is the undated letter of resignation which
.," .PNM nominees will sign today and hand to
i the Political Leader. It is addressed to the
Speaker of the House of Representatives from
Balisier House.
It reads:
Dear Sir, In accordance with a resolution
of a convention of the PNM of which I am a
Member, and under whose auspices 1 was
elected to a seat in the House of Representa-
tives for the ........... ..... area, I hereby author,
the Political Leader of the PNM to submit on
my behalf to you this my letter of resignation
from the House of Representatives in view of
the!' i 0 lfact no a
member of the said PNM and I hereby claim no
further right to the seat which I occupy in the
said House of Representatives as a'result of the
elections which I contested under the auspices
of the PNM.
Member of the House for................................

.LEFT: The public imagination has been nurtured on lurid
?. tales about goings on in republics "down the main".
-~~ .- .~ ,
L :.ABOVE: The signed undated letter of resignation from the
House of Representatives serves to make assurance doubly
... .. sure and to tighten the screws.

to have an extreme case of Prime
Ministerial Government, and the
authors of the Report of the
Wooding Constitution Commission
have suggested that such a deve-
lopment, is not to be unexpected
in cases where the so-called West-
minster system is imported into
"societies without political cultures
which support its operative con-

What we are faced with is a
constitutional arrangement which
seeks to institutionalize extreme
Prime Ministerial government.
In consequence, a Prime
Minister would tower over his
Parliamentary colleagues in termn
of influence and power; he would
be virtually unchallengeable by

If the American system vests
executive powers in one man, at
the same time it bestows the legis-
lative function on another agency
of government, at least in theory.
Congress may propose its own
legislation and it may also veto
the President's proposals. Its own
survival is not irrevocably bound
to that of the President.

them given the rigid disciplines (,
party politics. (Signed undatled
letters of resignation only tighten
the screw and make assurance
doubly sure.)
In fact the status of parties
would be greatly diminished, since
a Prime Minister would not be
bound to constitute his Cabinet
from among the ranks of party
The entire electoral process
would then focus entirely on the
selection of a Prime Minister from
among the leaders of competing
electoral machines. We would be
electing a President, American-
style, without acknowledging the
We would thereby have
arrived at that stage, much abhor-
red in democratic theory, of a
concentration of powers in one
agency, and indeed, in the hands
of one man.
Parliament would be a mere
rubber-stamp of the Executive, so
that in fact executive and legisla-
tive functions would be combined
in one man.

Congress has the power of
veto over Presidential nominations
to important national offices, and
may initiate inquiries into any
area of national life.
Under the 19,76 republican
constitution, and in our political
context, a Prime Minister will
enjoy all the Presidential powers
and will be subject to none of
the limitations.
There are no institutionalized
checks on his power, and, as we
know so well, the informal checks
of public opinion and strong
political rivals are woefully un-
developed, and even less likely to
develop in the prospective condi-
The Constitution is a pres-
cription for one-man rule and an
invitation to dictatorship.
There has been a widespread
opinion that it was the intention
of the. present Prime Minister to
set himself up as the first President
of the Republic or as President-


Naive as it may b-, this view
contains the hard kernel of truth:
that Williams is intent on enhanc
ing his personal power ano in
perpetuating his hold on tL state.
What the popular view does
not cater for is the conjurer's
trick whereby under a semblance
of continuity, vast "hidden changes'
have been wrought.
The final irony is that even
though popular opinion may have
focused on the most inconse-
quential aspects of the recent
Constitutional changes, yet the
unease generated may prove to be
a fatal political cost to the regime.
Our instincts may yet save
us. In our innocence we may be
very wise.

Duvaliers taking bribes to keep

water bad

HAITIAN exiles have
accused an American com-
pany of causing the death
of hundreds of children in
Haiti by bribing the
Duvalier regime to drag its
feet on water improvement
plans in order to boost
the firm's sales of purified
The Haitian weekly
newspaper in New York,.
"Haiti-Observateur," said

the firm, Culligan, of
Chicago, sold its water at a
price out of reach of most
of the half million im-
poverished inhabitants of
Port-au-Prince, the Haitian
capital, where, according
to the paper, daily, water
supplies have now become
so polluted and spasmodic
that tourists are avoiding
the country. '
Infant mortality in the

city, already among the
highest rates in the world,
had risen alarmingly in
recent months, it said.
The paperquoted "well-
informed sources" in Haiti
as saying that Culligan was
paying cash to encourage
the Duvalier family "to
keep the water crisis going.'
Life in Port-au-Prince,
one of the most pictures-
quely-sited cities in the
world, has become a night-
mare for all but the most
wealthy as tropical rain-

storms sweep tons of earth
and rocks through the
streets from the denuded
hillsides, and floods bring
disease and death to the
teeming slums which scar
the city.
There have been out-
breaks of malaria, typhoid
and even anthrax in recent
World Health Organisa-
tion, officials admit that
health conditions in Haiti,
revolving around malnutri-
tion and lack of clean

water, are the worst in
Latin America and deteri-
orating all the time.
Several million sterling
worth of international
loans in the past few years
to improve the city's dilapi-
dated water supply and
drainage system have Iad
no visible effect, owing to
governmental corruptionn
and inefficiency.
Fven the gagged daily
press in Port-au-Prine,. is
now calling for urgent
action over the water


Dr. C. V. Gocking

candidate for, St. Anns, is the tireless candidate for Diego Martin West, is a care- is the 30-year-old housewife who in a
organiser whose efforts contributed enor- ful organiser and a man with significant matter of months has become a dynamic
mously to the countrywide development experience in leadership. platform personality and an allround cam-
of the Tapia movement. A positive thinker, an unflagging paign livewire.
Much of this work was undertaken in optimist and a natural diplomat, Winthrop, The mother of a boy and a girl, aged
the years 1972-73 when Laughlin developed popularly known as "Junior", can be five and four respectively, Gloria married
what came to be known in Tapia lore as depended upon to approach all situations into Arima and has settled in the Borough.
"the south run" an almost 200-mile swing with tact, enterprise and confidence. She was born Gloria Springer behind
every Friday morning from Tunapuna to Currently employed as a Caribbean the bridge in Port-of-Spain.
the farthest flung areas of the south, dis- Industrial Research Institute (CARIRI) She attended St. Joseph's Convent,
tributing the TAPIA newspaper, making Industrial chemist, Junior has a doctorate Mausica Teacher's College and then did
many political contacts and doing vital in chemistry from the University of part-time study at tne University of the
groundwork for organisation building. Toronto and a BSc in chemistry from the West Indies, St. Augustine.
Laughlin has discharged with unfailing UWI, Mona. Gloria and her husband, Dr. Ralph Henry,
efficiency the many tasks laid upon his At Mona he captained the UWI table now an economist in the public service were
shoulders over the years. tennis team. In Toronto he was President both associates of the New World Move-
He has been Chairman and Corn- of the International Student Centre and ment.
munity Relations Secretary. President of the Trinidad Community Self After New World split into Moko and
He is now Assistant Secretary acting Help Association. Tapia, the- Henrys went abroad in 1969.
as Treasurer of the Movement. He was first president of the CARIRI Gloria missed the 1970 youth revolt,
Ivan went to the Abbey School and Staff Assoc o, a is d ra union- bt she aid susLainso much of her interest
the John S. Donaldson Technical Institute. Junior Wiltshire now acts as vice- that she resumed her involvement in Tapia
He is a Land Surveyor by profession who chairman of Tapia and is a member of the immediately she returned in 1972.
runs his business as a co-operative with the National Executive. He has been named She has also devoted much effort to
staff. Minister of Health in the Shadow Cabinet. the enterprises of the Housewives Associa-
A former associate of the New World Born in La Brea, Junior went to Brighton tion of Trinidad and Tobago.
Group, Ivan is a foundation member of E.C. School and later to Harrison College, Gloria has been named a member of
Tapia. Barbados before going to UWI, Mona on a the Tapia Shadow Cabinet with responsibili-
He was one of Tapia's four representa- government Scholarship to study chemistry. ties for Family Rehabilitation and Social
tives in the Senate. His work experience includes a period in Welfare. She has also been the advertising
He is known on the platform for the the Chemistry/Food and Drugs Division in representative of the TAPIA newspaper.
passionate sincerity of his delivery. the Ministry of Health. Gloria Henry, the Arima candidate, is
Ivan is married to Thora Chariandy Winthrop "Junior" Wiltshire is married to an example of the kind of person being
with whom he studied Economics and Faith, a women's rights activist, former put forward by Tapia: young, resourceful,
Social Sciences at UWI, St. Augustine. Housewives Association executive and a ready to accept responsibilities and chal-
leadership development consultant. They lenges, and capable of growth and develop-
have two daughters. ment.

110 Eastern Main Road 662-4087

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If you can't see them to believe that they exist in all their squalor, just look at the official figures.

"THERE ARE no ghettoes.'
So said the erstwhile
Prime Minister, a man who
is either blind or needs
to change his spectacass.
That's the c. reason.
he can't recognize that the
teeming slums in this
country are rapid!v p ro-
ducing ghetto-type condi-
Or it may be that .-e
hasn't seen Trinidad and
Tobago; that he only just
landed and was driven by
night to St. Anns without
getting to see East Port-of-
According to the Central
Statistical Office report
entitled "Social Indica.-
tors", 40% of the homes
in the late sixties were
That means- four or five
persons in a bedroom.
Furthermore, 62% of
the households endured
substandard conditions.
As TAPIA has been at
pains to point out, there
has been a serious and
increasing gap between
the need for housing and
the supply of housing in
the country, especially
housing for the lower
income groups. in the
For the first six years
of the present decade,
there were about 6,500
marriages a year.
Assuming, and this is
being conservative, that
only four-fifths of the
newly married couples
need dwelling units then
we would have needed
about 5,200 new dwellings
just to take care of new

S19i70 2,122 6,416
S1971 2,645 6,752
i972 2,797 7,307.
|973 3,112 7,807
1974 2,995 5,557
1975 2,322 7,334

Still there would have
been need for rebuilding
large numbers of existing
dwelling units, given their
sorry state and the overall
need for the clearance of
those slums which fail to
catch the eye of Dr.
The National Housing
Authority has a backlog of
some 25,000 applications.
Quite likely, given .?.7.
corruption, some propor-
tion, perhaps about 10%,
would be the multiple
applications of PNM big-
wigs who get houses for
speculative purposes.
There is the notorious
case of one party-man who
got at least one house in
every NHA estate. He
modifies them then rents
them out at an exorbitant
The sordid state of the
NHA is as much a symp-
tom of the corruption of
the regime as of its ineffi-
A great demand exists
for housing to cater for
the backlog of over 20,000
existing households, and
the 6,500 new -households
created annually through
We are i:- ..: -'..: here
the single-person. bahelor,
households and householders
formed throu-h "shacking

up" which could amount
to another 3,000 additional
households annually.
The supply of house-
holds for the same period
I1970-75 has averaged no
More than 2,700, which is
perhaps less than half of
the annual need generated
by the newlyweds alone.
In other words, we add
to the backlog every year.
and never build in any one
year enough just to keep
the position stable.
But only about one third
of- the units over the
1970-75 period were built
by the NHA.
The rest were e-:.7 by
private individuals us'I.---
bank loans and by rea:
estate men.
At present the lowest
quote on a new two-bed-
room house on one lot of
land in the private sector
is over $40,000.
To purchase such a
house through a mortgage,
a householder must pay
about $400 a month, and
have a gross monthly in-
come of over $1,000
which with all the indica-
tors on income distribution,
inequality and poverty, is
beyond the reach of most
SMore and more people,
hen,. can't find decent
n homes, and you can see

them not only on the hills
of East Port-of-Spain
Cocorite or La Brea, but
also in the rural areas from
Matelot to Icacos, and of
course, in Tobago.
And if you can't actually
see them to believe they
exist in all their squalor,
just look at the official
Tapia's plan to build at
least 10,000 new housing
units a year through the
mobilization of the un-
employed, would bring
immediate but not total
relief to the problem of



in our first term.

programme would

be the redirection of the
banking, system so that a
much larger percentage of
the loanable funds 'would
go into housing construc-
tion than at present. Then
we' must control land
speculation in the private
Less than four per cent
of, loanable funds go into
construction, including
construction of commer-
cial buildings.
So it's obvious that on
September 14, the first day
of a Tapia government, we
would need to take our
former-Prime Minister on
a familiarisation tour of
this country.


t6 Le -P r L

,-. r T4j

We hope to return to our normal 12 pages next week.


THE speculation went
back and forth ahd round
and round, ever since
'selection year' began.
For months as things
went on, more or less
normally, the elections
seemed a distant enough
Yet there were clear
signs that the government
had its eyes on the polls.
"Public funds," Selwyn
Ryan observed in May this
year, "are being spent
shamelessly to bribe the
And then there came,
Dr. Williams' celebrated
"millstones" address which
rejected the election nomi-
nees thrown up in the
course of the normal func-
tioning of the party
machinery, and demanded
candidates who would
presumably be more
attractive to the elector-
ate, youth and xyomen.,
The question then was
whether Dr. Williams could
get away with it this time.
He was repudiating the
party in word and in deed,
openly criticising its Gene-
ral Secretary, and insisting
on the signed, undated
letter requirement. .
A shudder of panic and
resentment appeared to run
through the party, throw-
ing up Karl Hudson Phillips
as a leader of the "rebels"
whose prospects so fasci-
nated people that a large
crowd came to hear "Karl"
in Woodford Square in
early July.
But soon the "rebellion"
was all over. Williams had-
been able to flush out all
the deadweights, or had
got clearance to do so, and
Karl Hudson Phillips,
having cited lofty principle
in declining to sign
"The Letter", went the
way of all flush.
There remained only
for Williams to get the
party to produce candi-
dates according to his,
In the meantime, with
such uneasitss prevailing
among all tiac incumbents,
senior and junior, the
PNM's campaigning, as a
party, lagged well behind
that of the opposition.
As with the Wooding
Commission, the PNM
would speak with one
voice. And The Voice was
ceaselessly campaigning,
not as Political Leader, a
designation that since 1973
Dr. Williams has wanted
to shun, but as Prime


The Party in the gov-
ernment, then, carried on
with the campaigning, with
the Prime Minister in the
The Williams campaign
will be remembered for the
brazen way in which he
has sought to take the
fight to the enemy.
What we saw in 1976
was the refinement of a
technique of taking from
in front, conceding many
points, and seeking to dis-
arm the enemy.
Dr. Williams, as Prime
Minister, used all kinds of
forums to make astound-
ing remarks about the
party and its stewardship
in government. He gave
notice of an intention to
campaign on the issue of
a stronger Integrity Com-
mission, a reaffirmation, in
effect, of first principles -
morality in public affairs
- at a time when people
take for granted the cor-
ruption in' those who hold
public office.
His championship of
such devices .as declaration
of assets, sworn statements
of indebtedness etc can
only be regarded as an
admission that there is
need for such things in a
party which has held gov-
ernment power for 20
unbroken years.
He has asserted that the
values discipline, political
good sense and integrity -
aren't shared by his
colleagues so that he has
himself to legislate such
values into being.
So last Sunday's meeting
in Woodford Square, fol-
lowing the second PNM
election convention was
expected to be the fruit of
this strategy.
It represented Williams
at the height of his powers
in the party. He held aloft
that afternoon a package


filled with the signed un-
dated letters, affidavits,
declarations of assets, etc.,
all of ; which he had
demanded and got.
He introduced the team
which must be the best that
he is able .to assemble.
He had stopped the
whole process, upbraided
the General Secretary 1mr
his complacency, and gene-
rally shook up things.
Williams, by Sunday,
then, had achieved a 50%
change in the original
nominations. Eighteen new
faces appeared.
The 18 new faces in-
elude four women,
four "youth", and seven


Of the 18, 10 are for
seats that the PNM had
lost in 1966, the last year
in which there was any
contest in the election, in
those areas where the
DLPs have traditionally
So that if the PNM is
trying new blood, it is
playing safe by running so
many of the new faces in
areas where they have
been accustomed to lose.
Remember that Williams
admitted he didn't object
to Horace Charles' nomi-
nation for Siparia in 1971
because he didn't think
Charles would win.
Inr most of its traditional
"stronghold" areas, the
PNM is running tested
There is no plausible
"new brigade", then, to
be thrown up by a party
which can attract only
hapless opportunists like
Bertie Fraser and Hugh
So much for the new
faces, the result' of Wil-
liams' loud rejection of

"millstones" etc.
Williams. the only
speaker in the Square on
Sunday, 'poke on a few
areas .',f the party's mani-
festo and spoke on them
with a view, not to point-
ing to new directions, but
to justifying those taken
in the past.
So there was the stress
on "stability". This Wil-
liams declared to be the
enduring fruit of the PNM
"We have been not too
adventurous," he said. "We
are if anything a little on
the slow side, ready to
pay attention to some
modification. No adven-
turism until the matter is
That might take two
years, he noted, but no
matter. It was the PNM's
way and it had proven
itself in the test of time.
The PNM way had been
far from perfect, Williams
said. But, curiously, lie
seemed more concerned
with the demonstrations
protesting the failure to
deliver the goods than the

The great

gamble in

failure itself.. ;
So. hle -could, shrug off
the pr6test5.;"You demon-
strate. You object. You
are entitled to do that.
(But) by and large a cer-
tain calm, a general deve-
lopment organisation of
the society. inefficiencyy
here, bureaucracy there...
(but) by and large, a
certain freedom, a certain
stability which no other
country has (exists)..."
Williams and the PNM,
standing up to look the
country in the face, ack-
nowledge all the failures,
the incompetence, the cor-
-ruption, the inefficiency,
the stagnation and back-
wardness, and ask: "So
This is the fantastic.
gamble being played out.
They just hope to stare.
the country down, and in
Williams' case browbeat
the country into stupor
with fast-talking. There's
nothing to boast of, they
It's just a cynical asser-
tion that the country can't
do any better. Wouldn't
even recognize the possi-
bility of better. So it's no
change from 1971 when
the PNM campaigned on
"PNM or bacchanal". The
1976 election slogan is
equally simple: "THEY are
Or hear it in Williams'
own words:
"If one has to guarantee
the continuation and ex-
tension of that stability, I
put one question on behalf
of the team and the party:
which party could be
trusted to do that better
than the PNM which has
had 20 years of bringing
you where you are today.
We can't guarantee that
you'll go with us to heaven,
but we're certain that
you'll go with them to

Aspirations '76





2pm to 2pm

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PAGE 3 I-P,. I A