Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00205
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: March 21, 1976
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00205

Full Text






AN Assembly of forces "genuinely opposed to the new
Constitution" has been summoned by the United Labour
Front. All parties, groups, Unions and Community
Associations have been invited. They mustbe in "declared
opposition" to the Government's Constitution Reform
Bill which aims to make a party-card Republic of Trini-
dad & Tobago.
At a Press Conference held at Paramount Building,
San Fernando, on Wednesday March 17, Mr. George
Weekes, Mr. Basdeo Panday and Mr. James Millette
issued a statement on behalf of the Labour Front. It
calls for the meeting to be convened at The House of

the People, 143, Charlotte
a.m. on Friday March 19.
A Circular Letter has also
been sent to organizations
denouncing the Constitution
Bill for "ushering in an era
of tyranny and oppression."
There is urgent need, says
the ULF, "to mobilise all the
forces into the broadest
possible political front for
the purpose of waging struggle
against this oppressive piece
of legislation."
Friday's meeting is aimec
to decide what sort of action
should now be taken to stop
the new Constitution from
being implemented. The Bill
was rushed through the House
of Representatives on Monday
March 15. It had been intro-
duced only days before, after
the reporting by the Joint
Select Committee shortly
before Carnival.

Twenty pages of Cabinet
Amendments to the Com-
mittee Draft were rapidly
made and at 6.20 p.m. orn
Monday, 31 of the 35 mem-
bers of the House voted in
favour. The Leader of the
Opposition, Mr. Roy
Richardson, abstained while
three members were absent
including Mr. Karl Phillips,
back-bench rival to Mr. Eric
Williams, Prime Minister.
Now the Constitution Bill
goes to the Senate on Friday
-March 19 where the Gov-
ernment must secure the
support of six out of seven
Independent Senators if the
Bill is to pass the 24-member
house by the required 2/3
The ULF is asking the
leaders of organizations to

Street, Port-of-Spain, at 10

attend Friday's Sitting of
the Senate; it has called on
all Independents and Opposi-
tion Senators to vote against
the Bill.
The ULF has expressed

particular concern over the
provisions regarding Funda-
mental Rights and Freedoms
and over the Government's
powers in respect of States
of Emergency. "The Bill, it
states," appears to take away
many of the rights and free-
doms which our people now

The authority given to the
Prime Minister in the transi-
tion period has also been
questioned. Like the Senate
Opposition, the Labour Front
fears that the Government
may use interim arrangements
to "postpone elections in-

WHEN the assembled opposition finally takes a joint
position on the constitution question, it will be a his-
toric if not revolutionary development for the entire
West Indian nation. It could be the biggest leap so far in
the politics of this region, a decidedly positive step to-
wards the consummation of the crisis.
In 1971, the necessary negative step was to stay away
from the elections. That ripped away the mask from the upheaval
that had been coming since 1966 when voter participation drop-
ped to an abysmal 66% from the 80% of 1956 and the 88% of
Already the people had embarked on a repudiation of the
old-regime of two-race politics, masquerading as two-party dem-
ocracy. Discerning the trouble from early, Tapia in 1969 defined
the trend as a constitution crisis. We posed the still awkward
question as to "Whose Republic" was Trinidad & Tobago to be?
A Republic for the Little People or a Republic for the Little
And now all of us know the answer, so late as to be almost
Perhaps we lacked the experience to appreciate it before.
In 1970, the February Revolution certainly brought to a head
the enduring crisis by confirming the people's opposition to the
parliamentary mockery and the yen of the newer generations for
Afro-Indian unity and other basic changes.
In 1971, we stayed away from the elections notwithstand-
ing the shrill cry of the Prime Minister for a "massive turn-out"
in defence of the old arrangements. What could conceivably
expose the constitution crisis better than a 28% Govermnent in
charge of 100% of the parliamentary representation? The contra-
diction was so patent that the Trinidad Guardian editorial called
for a Constituent Assembly of Citizens.
The Prime Minister said there existed no crisis and he antici-
pated none. -But it was we in the Opposition who may have
faltered at the crucial moment by dismissing reform as irrelevant
and devoting our energies to elections and to sectional agitation.
Perhaps the recent phase could not have been. avoided.but
the cost of it to the new movement is that we allowed the Gov-
ernment to concede the existence of a crisis by appointing the
Wooding Commission and yet to win all of five years of valuable

Objections to "serious
deficiencies" of the Act are
also being voiced by the
Public Service Association. In
a last-minute letter to Senate
Leader Prevatt, Secretary
Manswell has called for new
provisions to protect public
servants against discrimina-
tion and the Auditor-General
against interference.
The Tapia House Move-
ment has also opposed the
Constitution Bill. In a Min-
ority Report of the Joint
Select Committee, Tapia has
denounced particularly the
method of present reform as
well as important provisions
of the Republic Act.
Following receipt of the
ULF Circular on Wednesday,
the Tapia Council of Repre-
sentatives met in emergency
on Thursday night to take
position in regard to Friday's
Assembly of Opposition


THIS weekend the Tapia
Campaign will move into
high gear,
Uppermost among the
topics for discussion is
"The Republic of Trini-
dad & Tobago" and "The
State of the Nation".
On Friday March 19,
at 6.30 p.m., meetings
begin simultaneously at
the Hi-Lo Roundabout in
Point Fortin and at the
Diamond Vale Co-op
Super Market on Diamond
On Saturday March
20, just one meeting is
scheduled for 7 p.m. at
the Corner of Belmont
Valley Road and Belmont
Circular Road.
Other topics to be dis-
cussed are the TT Dollar,
Comings and Goings in
the Public Service and
The Tapia Ten-Year Plan.
Speaking team will be
headed by the 12 mem-
bers of The Tapia Shadow
Cabinet and will also
include Arnold Hood,
Dalton O'Neil, Hazel
Brown, Gregory Byrnes,
Buntin Joseph, Augustus
Ramrekersingh and Dennis

political time before bringing the matter to resolution.
Moreover, by our failure to make politics out of the con-
stitution question, we have not thereby held up the reorganisa-
tion. Instead, we have allowed the process to be bureaucratic in
the service of the privileged oligarchy. There has not been the
slightest involvement of the sovereign little people who could
only have been motivated by the politics of responsible and
united opposition.
Above all, we have allowed the old regime to entrench the
most reactionary legislation in regard to fundamental rights, in
regard to accountability in government and in regard to continu-
ing Prime Minister domination of the country's political life.
The most nefarious feature of the Republic Act is that it
denies the Senate its rightful place as an assembly of valid com-
munity voices. Instead that Chamber will now be a source from
which the Prime Minister will be able to recruit a task-force of
trouble-shooting technocrats as a prop for one-man rule.
We will now have a Prime Minister who is in effect an
American President without any of the necessary checks while
the entire unholy dispensation will be disguised in Westminster
If allowed to come into effect, the Republic Actwould
finally destroy the senior Civil Service as well as the Parliamen-
tary party. In so doing, it would entrench (Bendevolent?)
Doctatorship based on Manipulative Meet-the People. We have
had glimpses of the scenario of Special Programme Works, Better
Village Circuses and National Consultations all a grandiose
Civic Crusade in the cause of the Political Leader.
On December 2 1973, the ruling party machine got the
shaft from this form of Doctor Politics when the elections
were summarily brushed aside and the Messiah returned by
simple acclamation. Now the turn of the country has come.
This is what all patriots have finally come to perceive now
that the hour is so desperately late. But better late than never.
Our people must have an alternative vision and a credible politi-
cal choice. The only possibleway to provide this other option
is by forging a united position in relation to the fundamental
reorganisation of the State.
When we take position on the Constitution, everything
else will fall in place.

~L-a --~ plr r~ -- ~ _I ~III I I

-~ Mi -- Lt dIP

Vol. 6 No. 12

30 Cents





That question will be
finally settled on Sunday,
April 11 when Tapia's
Third Assembly of the
National Convention
comes off at the SWWTU
Hall in Port-of-Spain.
For. that will be the
day when the Tapia
House Group formed in
November 1968 goes out
of existence and the
Tapia House Movement
comes into being. And
for this reason we are
calling it "The Founda-
tion Assembly."
The Change from
"Group" to "Movement"
is more than a change of
What has happened in
the period since 1968 has
been a gradual but con-
tinual evolution which
can be summed up in the
old Tapia phrase "organic
Tapia will on April 11
officially declare ourselves
a political party or politi-
cal movement
This is where we are at
now. It is not where we
And we can go back
right to the New World
"split" of late 1968 in
order to see more clearly
the stages of the develop-
ment over the years.
For it is precisely
because those persons in
New World who later
founded Tapia refused to
go along with the forma-
tion of a party at that
time that the "split"

Those others who
judged that a party had
to be formed then, as
quickly as possible to
fight the next elections,
adhered to the MOKO
newspaper. MOKO went
on to become the organ
of the United National
Independence P a r t y,
which was officially
launched in a Port-of-

Lenny Grant

Spain press conference in
January 1970.
The "associates" who
built the Tapia House on
St Vincent Street, Tuna-
puna and founded this
newspaper in September
1969, were anxious not
to be associated with the
term "party".
It wasn't for mere dis-
like of a word. Then as
much as now a political
party meant more to us
than a name given to a
quick, ad hoc getting
together of individuals in
order to fight an election.
We had first to find
out whether we wanted

to become a political
party. We had to find
out which of us wanted
to be in politics in the
sense of fighting elections
to win a seat in Parlia-
Because among our-
selves there were and
had to be different
kinds of people all of
whom shared the "Tapia
dream" and looked for-
ward to doing their bit in
whatever way they could
to make that dream come


And only time would
tell who was who. Time
and taking part in the
Moreover we had to
know what it was we
were about. "Clarity on
the issues. ." became
one of the most hard-
worked phrases in the
Tapia vocabulary because
of this need to work out
things for ourselves.
While all this was still
undone, or still being
done, we could not call
ourselves a political party
and make bold to offer
ourselves to the voters as
an improvement on the
The Tapia House Group,
as we called otwrsetzF-
from the start, was to be
more than a community
organisation and less than
a political party. "Inter-
mediate political institu-
tion" was how it was
styled in the first issue of

In that phase we were
to remain until the key
ingredients of the next
phase were added.
One of these ingred-
ients is more people.
Tapia's first Assembly
attended by the record
number of over 260
persons was in September
The period since then
has seen- the founding of
Tapia groups in different
parts of the country; the
establishment of local
offices in Port-of-Spain,
San Fernando and other
places, and a drive to
regularise membership
with the issue of cards
and the keeping of
Then there were the
public issues which gave
us the opportunity to
declare ourselves and to
state what our intentions
are. Issues like: the Con-
stitutional Reform issue
when we took advantage
of the Wooding Commis-
sion forums to promote
ourselves; Public Servants'
pay rises in 1974 which
led to "the Great Debate"
between Lloyd Best and
PSA head James Mans-
And then the sensa-
tional act of getting into
the Senate, in pursuit of
the constitutional issue
in November 1974, finally
clinched the point: that
these Tapia-people are "in
politics" in the sense that
we want to form the next
government, and are pre-
paring ourselves to do

.--.:, ''


So there has been this
happy coincidence in the
way people see us and
the way we see ourselves.
We have arrived at the
stage which in 1968 we
thought and said we
would reach.
Indeed for nearly a
year now the term "Tapia
House Group" has been
slipping out of our voca-
bulary being replaced by
Tapia House Movement
or simply "Tapia".
We have taken all the
agitations and strife in
the country over the last
eight years to mean that
the people want a new
regime. Not simply a new
government meaning new
names in the Parliament
The people want a new
order of things, changes
in all the areas where we
have become accustomed,
to dissatisfaction and


The Tapia House Move-
ment is therefore now
appealing to the voters,
as an organisation which
has grown, evolved, deve-
loped or whatever, from
the "Group" of 1968 and
the years that followed,
into a political party
founded to "deal in state
power", to quote how it
was put in '68.
And this is why this
Third Assembly of the
National Convention of
Tapia has been named
"the Foundation As-
For what we are mark-
ing on Sunday April 11 is
the foundation of the
Tapia House Movement,
the title under which
we'll he contesting the
coming general elections.
On that day will be
adopted the symbol of
the Movement the
Tapia House and its
motto "Building From
The Earth".
All Tapia members
will be entitled to
become "foundation
members" of the new
That will be a big day
for Tapia. It is the end of
one era; it is the begin-
ning of another.
What we are doing is
taking the old Tapia
dream one step farther,
nearer to- coming true.
So we hope, and pray,
and feel, and know and
tell the world.



3UINL/II % I.'11X....5I LI,,A1, 1 /


THE interpretation of the
Summary Offences
(Amendment) Act of
1972, Section 115 which
regulates the holding of
public meetings has
always been a source of
Recent events suggest
that things are becoming
curiouser and curiouser.
Especially curious in-
deed is the role of the
Police Commissioner, and
my own experience on
this matter just bears this
On Saturday March 13
I took a letter informing
the Police Commissioner
of a Tapia public meeting
the following week to
Police Headquarters in
In keeping with normal
procedure, I told the
constable posted at the
entrance that I wanted to
go upstairs to take the
letter to the Commis-
sioner's office.
Came the reply: there's
no one upstairs and the
Commissioner's office is
I told the constable
what the letter was about
and suggested that I leave
it with him.
No, he replied, he was
in no position to accept
the letter. Would I return
on Monday?
I protested that this
was unreasonable; that I
wanted to deliver the
letter just then; I might
not have the time to
return on Monday.
Nothing doing. The
Commissioner was absent
and the sentry could not
accept my letter to his
On his suggestion I
went over to the CID
and explained my busi-
ness again to a plain-
clothes officer who
listened politely and
repeated that nothing
coud be done since the
Conissioner did not
work on Saturdays. I
should come back on
I countered sharply
that this made no sense,
and that as far as I was
concerned, something was
wrong somewhere.
Under existing law, I
observed, a public meet-
ing could be held any day
of the week and all that
was required was a notifi-
cation to the police 24
hours in advance of the
time of the meeting.
So that it was quite in
order for me to bring in
the notification on Satur-
day for Sunday or Sunday
for Monday.
The officer was getting
impatient. Did I expect


to Mr. May following com-
plainants to this newspaper
by several members of the
public who claimed that
they were given "a run-
around" by policemen to
whom they made reports.
In all the cases, the com-
plaints said that on report-
ing to the policemen, they
were told that the station

were instructed that they
must take reports on the
"If any case cones to
my attention that a police-
man has violated this rule,
and there is evidence to
prove it, then that police-
man would be put on a
charge and disciplined."
Another senior police
spokesman said that part.

ANY policeman who fails
to take a report from a
member of the public and
ac' on it, will b" disciplined
if a complaint is made,
Police Commissioner, Mr.
Claude A. May, stressed to-
"No matter where a re-
port is made, a -oliceman
is in duty bound :to take it
and act on it," .said Mr.
May. "It is to the police
that people make reports:
not to a police station,
said Mr. May.
The Commissioner made
the statement in reply to
questions by the "Evening
News" regarding methods
by which members of the
public should make reports
to the police.
The questions were put



of a policeman's training
involves public relation-
ship. "We realize that good
public relationship is of
mutual benefit to members
of the Police Service as
well as to the community."
"The Commissioner and
senior officers have always
made this quite clear in
lectures to juniors," he

y night the meeting is
ing place.
Still, in the confusion
er this permission/
:ification issue, it is
citizen and the
intry that suffer
ile the police arrange
ngs to suit their own
vost people simply
ume that permission
necessary, for no one is

the Commissioner to be
there to serve me seven
days a week, 24 hours a
day? he asked.
To which I replied that
the Commissioner's office
should be at the service
of the public at all times,
even if the man himself
could not always be


In any case, I pursued,
the law governing thL
holding of public meet-
ings seems to assume
that the Commissioner
would be always on hand
so at least some agent of
his should be available at
all times.
But the plainclothes
officer ended the dialogue
there by repeating that
,he was sorry, but there
was nothing he could do.
Come back Monday.
So I left Police Head-
quarters holding a letter
to the Police Commis-
sioner which was required
to be delivered by law
but which no one would
Though the law re-
quires only that a notifi-
cation of intention to
hold a public meeting be
sent to the Commissioner,
the officers, at Police
Headquarters whom I.
saw certainly carried on
as though more than that
was involved.
Often it is Commis-
sioner C.A. May himself
who signs the reply to
the "notification", stat-
ing in his letter that he

COPS I w I mum MTM .. i" TAK L-

Our coverage of


is unsurpassed anywhere

for focus and point.

Keep a breast of the

real currents in the

Caribbean Sea.
OWING to the recent increase in the postal
rates, the Tapia House Publishing Co., Ltd., has
found it necessary to increase the subscription
rates for TAPIA.
The new rates are as follows:

has "no objection" once
certain stated conditions
are met.
But the Comtmissioner
apparently considers it
imperative that such a
reply should be in the
hands of the party wish-
ing to hold the meeting
before the event actually
takes place, for his own
communication has on
occasion been delivered
by police officers on the


Maracas Valley
Luengo Village
Bus Stop Junction
5 p.m.
La Seiva Village
Ranjag's Shop
6.30 p.m.
Caiman Road Corner
St. Joseph
6.30 p.m.
Frederick Settlement
6 p.m.
Delhi Road
5 p.m.
Pepper Village
7 p.m.
Quarry Village
5 p.m.
Curepe Car Park
5 p.m.
Fyzabad Market
4 p.m.
* Thick Village
Siparia Road
6.30 p.m.


$18.00 per year

Surface rates and rates for other countries on
request The new rates are effective February 1, 1976.
Tapia, 82, St. Vincent St. Tunapuna, Trinidad &
Tobago. W.I. Telephone 662-5126. & 62-25241.

!age 16 EVBNING NEWS Monday, March 15. 1976


Trinidad & Tobago
Caricom countries
Other Caribbean
E.E.C. (incl. U.K.)


Recently in the Scar
borough Court Magistrate
Kamalud Dean ruled that
a mere notification 24
hours in advance is all
that is required by law,
and he emphasised that
permission is not required.
The Magistrate also
suggested that the term
"Police Commissioner"
could in practice mean
any police officer dele-
gated to represent the
The police have
appealed his decision, so
clarification is still to be
A related area of con-
fusion is the advertise-
ment of public meetings
by loudspeaker.
It seems that the law
requires police permission
to be got before one can
use a loudspeaker for this
Yet every Tapia applica-
tion to do this has been
In fact the holding of
a public meeting seems
less of a problem.
What is the meaning
of all this?
Simply that this un-
necessary source of con-
fusion should be removed
from the statute books,
to restore freedom of
speech and of assembly
to our citizens.





"DON'T worry with
those people who say
NJAC dead and NJAC
this and that. When we
sting, we sting! Power to
the people!"
The speaker was Geddes
Granger, now called
Daaga. The platform was
that familiar rostrum in
Woodford Square. The
ooccasion was an NJAC
meeting on solidarity
against Rhodesia and
South Africa on Friday,
March 12 and left to
the daily press, the event
never did take place.
If the Press reaction
was based on the belief
that NJAC is a spent
force, the crowd that
spent some four hours
listening to NJAC spokes-
men and artistes rally
round the struggle in
Africa obviously didn't

share that belief.
Cries of "Power to the
People!" from NJAC
spokesmen brought thun-
derous responses from
the crowd. The clenched
fists that daily punched
the airin 1970 were there
again. And when Daaga
came on to "break my
silence", he still had that
"charismatic" power.
Daaga's oratory was
also consistent He des-
cribed Prime Minister Dr
Eric Williams as "an
idiot" who had allowed
British troops to train
with the local Regiment
in 1965 in preparation
for the landing in Anguilla.
"He didn'tknow about
intervention then", Daaga
thundered. "Buthe knows
about it when Africa is

A placard stuck up on
the rostrum indicated the
tone -of the meeting:
"Shut up Ford & Kis-
singer. Leave Cuba and
Angola alone."
Daaga also introduced
several resolutions, each
of which was passed with
a chorus of "Power!"
from the crowd the
resolutions indicating sup-
port from "the people of
Trinidad and Tobago"
for the MPLA in Angola,
SWAPO in Namibia, the
whole e revolutionary
struggle against white
The NJAC meeting
was a mixture of culture
and politics. Two poets,
Cetewayo and Lasana
Kwesi, delivered their
work to the sound of
drummers backing them.
Then Sister Kilibigule, a



/ Ste hePns

South African, was intro-
duced and the crowd
moved closer to the ros-
trum to hear two songs in
the language of the
Sister's South African
There was instant res-
ponse in the crowd, clap-
ping and dancing with
her. And Daaga came on
right afterwards, dancing
to the drums still, chant-
ing into the microphone:
"War! War! War!"
Brother Aiyegoto Ome,
talking on behalf of the
National Action Cultural
Committee, the culture
arm of NJAC, announced
to the crowd that permis-
sion to use to the Square
was limited to 8 p.m.
because the Chamber of
Commerce had a meeting
at the Town Hall.
"And so it is he raged,
"that black people can't
even get time to talk about
their own affairs in this
In the same way that
NJAC tied the Sir George
Williams University Affair
in 1970 to local politics,
the NJAC spokesmen
now connected the
struggle in Africa with
the local struggle and
the crowd got the mes-
Andre Tanker came on

next, blowing his flute,
backed by drums and
then, surprisingly for the.
usually cool Tanker, he
ended his song with an
upraised fist and the
battle cry: "Power to the
Then it was Brother
Mudada's turn, singing
"No Use" so that the
Square suddenly began to
sway and sing, confirming
the popularity that
Mudada has achieved as a
calypsonian in a compara-
tively short space of
At 8 O'clock, Tanker
was back, winding up the
evening's programme,
singing the popular
"Come Back Home"
when the rostrum lights
dipped twice, cutting off
power from the micro-
phone. At the Knox
Street exit from the
Square a police squad car
was parked with an officer
and several of his men
standing there, looking
hard at the crowd.
People began to drift
out of the Square, clap-
ping and singing.
Daaga promised the
crowd that they would
hear from NJAC again -
no doubt as the situation
in southern Africa gets
worse. (RAP)

San Fernando


8 Mon Chagrin Street

* Bookstore
* Information
* Downtown


* Reading Room

* Meeting Place

* Regional Headquarters

* Donations of
* furniture $ Equipment

Contact Beau Tewarie 662-3920





"LET THEM put light
on we! It will only
help we to see we way
better. Fiery! That is
how we coming!"
The crowd laughed
as Tapiaman Michael
Harris commented
on the lighted candle
that suddenly
appeared in front of
the parked Tapia van on
Harris Promenade.
If the message of
the mysterious candle
was not as light-hearted
as that of the hecklers,
it did not deter the
Friday evening crowd
in San Fernando last
week when the Tapia
campaign set up at.
Library Corner for a
four-hour meeting.
The large crowd
heard five Tapia
speakers Beau
Tewarie on Constitu-
tion Reform, Junior
Wiltshire on the
programme for health;
Michael Harris dilating
with eloquence on
the state of the
country; Denis Solomon
on the public service
and Lloyd Best
outlining proposals for
reorganising the state.
No let up is
promised in the "con-
stant jamming" of
political activity, as

the Tapia election
campaign accelerates.
The previous night a
meeting had been held
in Besson Street,
Already handbills
have been printed for

a series of public
meetings in all parts
of the country.
In anticipation of
the need to hold more
than one public meeting
a night in different
places, Tapia recently

acquired an additional
public address system,
bought from funds
subscribed by well
Among the highlights
of the Tapia agenda
in coming weeks are

the Bar-be-que and All
Fours games scheduled
for Lions Civic
Centre on April 4 and
the "Foundation
Assembly" on April 11
at the SWWTU hall.


Beau Tewarie describes the big maco Senate


A section of the crowd at busy Library Comer last week Friday


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Cu 1INOi



IN contrast to nearly all
other petroleum producers,
Venezuela has been a signifi-
cant exporter of oil for
more than half a century.
For more than a quarter
of a century oil has been,
the prime mover of the
Venezuelan economy.
To say that oil provides
more than three-quarters
of the current foreign
exchange receipts, or one-
quarter of the national
income, understates the
degree of reliance. Most
of the other activities rely
to a large extent on
petroleum, which has sti-
mulated a growth rate of
more than 7% a year over
the past 25 years.
The petroleum sector
purchases in Venezuela

Vene uela oil

boom turning



The stout wire fence symbolizes the exclusion of the masses of the Venezuelan population from participation in the
petro-dollar wealuL.

some goods and services
and pays for labour, which
in turn buys consumer
goods and services. But
petroleum extraction and
refining together employ
less than 1.5% of the
labour force..
By far the most impor-
tant channel by which
export earnings penetrate
the economy is through
government revenues
(which used to account for
about two-thirds of all
revenues, but in 1974 87%.
These are transmitted
via the salaries and wages
of the civil service (includ-
ing the armed forces and
all the other agencies
financed out of the budget)
and public works expen-
ditures, though there are
in addition loans to pro-
ductive sectors, subsidies.
The relatively fast growth
of the Venezuelan economy
has been largely due to the
rises in both volume and price
of petroleum, which have
taken it in turn to carry the
economy forward.
During the 1960's there
was a fast rise in the volume of
output, to more than 3 million
barrels a day.
Though this could hardly
be maintained indefinitely,.in
view of the limited reserves, a
decline in the volume of out-

put in the early 1970's was
more than compensated by
the fast price rise as OPEC
began to use its collective bar-
gaining power (See Table 1).
The internal economy had
expanded rapidly, with even
agricultural output rising at
about 5%. By 1973, on the
eve of the big rise in the price
of oil, the average income per
head in Venezuela was already
over $1,000. This was higher
than in the poorer countries
of Southern Europe, such as
Portugal and Greece.
Although imports followed
exports upwards, there was
little strain on the balance of
payments. The bolivar remained
firm and exchange controls
were not thought necessary.
The growth in agricultural
output was largely due to
mechanisation but the rate of
urban expansion was fast
enough to make it possible for
the surplus rural population
to migrate to the cities. There
(after a time) people.become
assimilated into the urban
economy, in some cases climb-
ing rapidly into the top social
Open unemployment re-
mained moderate, at 6-7%
(though twice that among
those aged under 25). There is
a chronic shortage of experi-
enced, skilled personnel of all
But the oil revenues had by
no means been spread evenly

through the country. Much of
the government bureaucracy
had been created in Caracas.
Government spending on
education and health was in
large part focused here (and
in a few other large towns
such as Maracay); and a high
share of public spending was
in urban areas or on highways
connecting them.
By 1973 immense gaps
(perhaps the largest in the world
apart from the Middle East)
had opened between living
standards at the top and at
the bottom of society.
On the one hand, officials,
private contractors and im-
porters pay little income tax
and enjoy a living standard at
least comparable to (and
largely modelled on) that of
their opposite numbers in the
United States.


On the other hand, one-
quarter of all dwellings are
"ranchos" or shacks (about
half of these in urban areas).
Some 20% of the population
have had less than 4 years'
primary schooling, 8% are
illiterate. Social security only
covers those in employment,
and less than half of these.
Problems of homeless children
are severe.
About 20% of those in work
earn (in 1974) less than Bs.
450 a month. The contrasts are
evident to the eye of even the
casual visitor travelling up the
expressway from Maiquatia

This whole-mechanism i:.
ceived a sharp impulse from
the more than trebling of the
price of oil at the end of 1973
(See Table 1 again). A large
surplus (Bs. 25 bn) appeared
in the balance of payments.
There was naturally an
intense struggle over the use
of this windfall. One view was
that it should be saved until
the country was ready to
spend it. The other was that it
should be largely spent at
once, to help raise living stand-
ards, creating a momentum
that would be self-perpetuating
and solve the country's social
In the event, a mixture of
strategies was followed. A
Fondo de Inversiones was
created to sterilise part of the
surplus. Bs. 14 billions were
paid into this fund in 1974
and reserves also rose.
The fund was used in fact
as a source of aid, most of
which was channelled through
multilateral agencies, but the
greater part was invested in
short-term securities, so that it
would be available for financ-
ing the heavy river valley and
industrial schemes in the pro-
vince of Guyana.
However, government spend-
ing also increased rapidly due
mainly to public works
schemes to absorb unemploy-
ment. A minimum wage of
about Bs. 450 a month was


The GDP rose by 8% in
1974 (excluding petroleum).
Consumer subsidies were raised
from just over Bs 100 millions
a year to Bs. 1.800m. to
cushion increased import
prices, and retail prices only
rose 8%.
The Ayacucho scholarship
programme was established to
create cadres by sending
thousands of students overseas
on technical; and professional
It was originally expected
that a payments surplus would
be maintained in the years
ahead. A summary of the fifth
development plan (1974-9)
prepared by CORDIPLAN was
presented last summer by the
Minister of Planning, Dr.
Gumersindo Rodriguez.
The summary stated the
plan's basic assumptions a

gradually declining volume of
exports, and (since imports
would grow) a "positive and
descending" surplus until 1980.
Then the surplus would
grow again because the deve-
lopment of industry and the
change in patterns of consump-
tion (due to redistribution of
income) would halt the growth
of imports. The government
would also be able to draw
down the investment fund.
Altogether it was envisaged
that some Bs 157 billion would
be invested in these 5 years, of
which 40% would be in indus-
try and agriculture, mostly in
highly capital-intensive pro-
Largely as a result of irriga-
tion and other rural works,
agricultural output would rise
by an optimistic 11.5% a year
somewhat faster than the
national product.
Prospects have altered
drastically while the plan has
still been under discussion.
The internal expansion was
fuelled by a wage rise of 25%,
further big increases in gov-
ernment employment, and a

t I

*I 7

4 .

)&an t and poverty have existed in Venezuced
high standards of living.

ARCH 21 Q107,

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Oil wealth reinforced the emphasis for development on the urban areas, leaving large areas ofrural neglect.
Oil wealth reinforced the emphasis for development on the urban areas, leaving large areas of.nrral neglect.

private construction boom.
The sharp rise in imports
continued through 1975. Ce-
ment production proved insuffi-
cient for the demands of
both the public and private
sectors and imports jumped.
It was only slowed down by
the exhaustion of port capacity
at La Guaira at the end of the
year (some ships being held up
by more than 2 weeks).

The CDP again rose by
about 8%, although it does not
appear that the benefit was
spread more widely than previ-
Other developments also
began to eat into the payments
surplus... Import prices were

rising sharply. On the other
hand, oil prices, despite the
rise of about 10% agreed by
OPEC last autumn, remained
barely steady, at the new level.
The OPEC agreement im-
plied an average of $14.59 a
barrel (as against an average of
$f3.38 for January-September).
However, the average is
expected only to be $13.74,
because of a reduction in the
price of residual fuel oil.
Export volume fell in line
with OPEC's policy of main-
taining prices by cutting back
The reduction in output was
18% for crude in 1975 (com-
pared to 12% in 1974) in
products it was 25%,
On the other hand, the
rate of taxation rose from 64%
to 72%. The net result was
that the current account pay-
ments surplus fell back from
Bs 25 billion in 1974 to Bs 13
billion in 1975.
The Fondo de Inversiones
levelled off at nearly Bs 21
million. But it was expected
that revenues from a volume
of exports of 2.2 million
barrels a day (m. b/d) would
cover government expenditures
in 1976, at their new level,
about double those of 1973,
and also be compatible with
OPEC policy.


Economic prospects changed
even more drastically after the
nationalisation of petroleum
companies on January 1 of
this year. The companies
accepted reluctantly the terms
of compensation.
The agreements with the
government (somewhat sur-
prisingly) did not provide for
their oil purchases to be main-
tained, even during the.period
when compensation instalments
were being paid.Thecompanies
were free to reduce consider-
ably their take of Venezuelan
oil, especially of products, and
many did so.
Exports fell to less than
1.5m. b/d. It has been
announced that firm contracts
have been signed for deliveries
of 1.7m. b/d. PETROVEN, the
Government's petroleum cor-
poration, expected to sell 1.8m.
b/d by March, and by June

2.0m. the minimum neces-
sary to cover government ex-
The immediate question is
whether other OPEC members
will step in and pick up the
markets which Venezuela previ-
ously supplied.
If they do, (and they are
themselves feeling the effects
of production cuts of 15 25%
in 1975) it could be considered
disloyal by the Venezuelan
government, and place intoler-
able pressures on OPEC.
Even if exports pick up to
the projected level of 2.2
million barrels a day, it will no
longer be possible to finance
the large programme of the
draft plan.
The change in mood has
been dramatic. The euphoria of
'1974 and 1975 has evaporated.
In this new mood, there has
been a devastating attack on
the government's ineffective-
ness by Perez Alfonso, former
Minister of Mines and "the
father of OPEC", now an elder
statesman and guardian of the
conscience of Accion Democra-
His statement was mucn dis-
cussed and had a tremendous
impact. After describing caustic-
ally the "physical and moral
degradation of the public",
Perez Alfonso attacked scath-
ingly the waste of government
funds and especially the "plan
for National Destruction" pro-
duced by CORDIPLAN.
A presidential decree just
issued froze the number of
personnel in the public services,
disallowed additional overseas
scholarships (apart from the
Ayacucho programme), and
required special Presidential
authorisation for research pro-.
jects, consultancies, etc.


The 5-year plan will be
reshaped before its publication
which is due in March. It
might (in view of the re-
emergence of the prospect of
unemployment) include less
emphasis on capital-intensity.,
There could also be a some-
what warmer welcome to
foreign capital.
There is a good deal of fat
that could be cut off the
import structil sibling the

rate of growth of output and
employment to continue.
But because of the habitua-
tion of the majority of the
public to a life style based
largely on imports, this process
would not be without social
And the prevalent political
tranquillity could disappear
rapidly if it proves impossible
to maintain thle growth of
There is no immediate
threat to imports. Foreign ex-
change reserves (not including
the foreign assets of the Fondo
de Inversiones) amounted to
Bs. 8% bn. at the end of 1975.
Still, difficult decisions clearly
lie not too far ahead.
The longer term problem is
more serious. With a birth rate
at 37 per thousand and a
death rate of 7, the natural
increase of the population is
Currently about 12.5
million (about half under 16
years old) the population is
expected to reach 22-30 million

by the year 2000, depending
on what assumption one uses
about fertility.
The population of working
age is growing at over 4% a
year, reflecting the very high
birth rate (around 45) of the
late 1950s and early 1960s and
also net immigration.
World petroleum demand
will look more secure when
the industrial countries resume
their economic expansion. But,
in any case, it is unlikely that
the government would want to
sell more than 2.2m. b/d.
In contrast to Iran and
Saudi Arabia, known reserves
(ess than 20 billion barrels, i.e.
some 20 years' supply at
recent rates of exports) will
only permit even that level to
be maintained for a few years.


Although vigorous explora-
tion is planned by PETROVEN,
this can hardly affect produc-
tion before the mid-1980s.
Even then it would have to
have been very vigorous to
permit 2m. b/d to be main-
tained for any length of time.
The question for Venezuela
is whether another dynamic
source of exports can be
developed in the next 5 years
to take the place of petroleum.
The official strategy relies
on products of steel, petro-
chemicals and aluminium by
making use of the availability
of natural gas, iron ore and
However, it is now realized
that a large part of steel and
aluminium output will be
needed for internal consump-
tion, and markets for petro-
chemicals are becoming highly
The Andean Pact will
provide a degree of shelter for
some industries, but there seems
as yet no firm prospect of
solving the long-term foreign
exchange problems set by the
speed of demographic advance
and the need to continue raising
incomes, especially at the
lower levels.

i _. .

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'. \ "- --r ,--. .

The oil companies struck back by cutting down on their purchases of
Venezuelan oil.




ernment recently struck
a blow in support of that
country's magazine indus-
try which must be viewed
with interest by countries
like ours with a high level
of direct foreign invest-
Acting with a remark-
able determination, the
Liberal Government
passed into law the con-
troversial "Bill C-58"
which prevents US-owned
TIME magazine from
benefiting from tax con-
cessions allowed to firms
which advertise in Cana-
dian magazines.
TIME had claimed
"Canadian" magazine
status on the basis of an
eight-page section of
Canadian news included
in its regular weekly
editions circulated in
Concern had long been
felt in Canada over the
unfair competition from
TIME and Reader's
Digest. The Canadian
editions of these magazines
benefited from being
able to make use of
material produced by the
"parent" US-based maga-
zines, thereby incurring
lower operating costs
than truly Canadian pub-



In fact the action
recently taken had been
originally recommended
by a Commission of
Inquiry which sat in


However, as Kari Levitt
recounted in her book
Silent Surrender, "No less
a person than President
Kennedy interceded to
inform the prime minister
of Canada that he wished
TIME to be exempt from
any legislation based on
the Commission's report".
And that was that in
1965. Publishing interests
in Canada deplored the
then government's defer-
ence to American
demands which was seen
as giving "the probable
deatn sentence on


Canada's periodical press
with all that can entail
for our future voyage
through history."
Among the new deve-
lopments of the decade
since is the growing
realization by Canadians
of their country's position
as "the richest under-
developed country in the
world" as Ms Levitt put


Another is the rise of
an aggressively vocal
Canadian publishing in-
terest which asserts that
their country needs media
to project a Canadian
way of life.
Canadian-o w n e d
Maclean's, vigorously
pushing this line, began

4, ~a

last year to publish a
fortnightly newsmagazine
devoted to Canadian
This was in anticipa-
tion of the announcement
in TIME of March 8 that
the Canadian edition of
the magazine had been
"TIME Canada" had a'
circulation of 500,000
this year as against 356,
000 in 1967.


The new law require:
that any magazine claim.
ing "Canadian" status
must be 80% different
from a foreign magazine
with which it might be
TIME had asked for
one year to be able to
make this change, but
the good intentions of
this multinational were
widely suspected.
As an editorial in a
Toronto daily put it in
late November 1975: "In
the ten years since it was

GuyenQ denies Cuban toops

AN official denial of the
presence of Cuban troops
in Guyanahas been issued-.
A letter to that effect has
appeared in the New
York Times, signed by
Laurence Mann, Ambas-
sador in Washington.
Against a background
of tense border relations
and rumours of recent
clashes between Guyana
and both Venezuela and
Brazil, there have been
persistent reports of a
Cuban military presence
in the West Indian main-
land Republic.
According to an item
in the Montreal Star, te
right-wing Venezuelan
magazine, Resumen has
claimed that Cuban in-
structors are indoctrinat-
ing "thousands of para-
military troops".
From the same source,
it is alleged that 3,000
soldiers of the Guyana
Defence Force have been
airlifted to Cuba in
planes returning from
Writing in the New
York Times on February
23, a columnist, C.L.
Sulzberger, writing from

London, claimed that
"Cuba still manages to
maintain troops in Guy-
ana, on Venezuela's

Mr. Mann has retorted
flatly that "no Cuban
troops have ever been or
are now stationed in

Dear Editor,
Please publish this poem for Tapia supporters.
The balisier is nothing but deception,
At best it is a meagre brain's conception,
For the balisier's conceived a symbol of this nation
And elsewhere the balisier's produced a corrupt confusion.
No doubt the balisier's of a sightly hue
But dosen't its smell a firm revolt imbue?
And who can say the balisier's productive
So let it not, wise souls, be any more seductive.

Tapia is the house of yore
Shows us what we were before,
Its colours are yellow, green and bright
Both quite pleasing to the sight
Make sure and vote the yellow-green
Out off the bad government you have seen.

Citizens Advice Bureau

Now Open

Tapia P.O.S Centre
Cipriani Boulevard Phone: 62-25241


granted its exemption
from the Canadian-
ownership requirement
of the Income Tax Act,
TIME has done very very
little to expand its cover-
age of Canadian affairs.
Now faced with the
loss of its exemption -
TIME has undergone a
deathbed repentance."


The .application of the
80% content rule is
widely thought to be
problematic. But the
government, with the
approval of large sections
of the Canadian public
who are disenchanted.
with the growing "Ameri-
canization", was deter-
mined to drop the axe on
With competition now
freer, many Canadian-
owned magazines are
expected to spring up.
TIME's international edi-
tion will of course still
be available as a foreign


WITH ARMS out-stretched he stood at the ramp oi the
sprawling stage, like some great god, holding back an entire
cast of Fallen Angels he had created.
He had almost blacked out close to the end of it all.
Only the self-consciousness of the artist kept his memory
from fading fast.
"Oh Gawd, I must be looking like Beryl McBurnie!"
He could not stand the thought and moved to relax his
attention from directing, before the thousands watching
mas, section by section production of Stephen Lee Heung's
1976 Carnival presentation, "Paradise Lost."
Then came the appearance of a face he had never seen
before but which he will never forget. And a voice whisper-
ed: "George Bailey would be proud of you."
Against the background of prancing feet and blaring
brass PeterMinshallhad received the accolade of which he
thought he could justly feel proud. It was a tonic to pull
him out of the weariness caused by having to create "Para-
dise Lost" with little time and under trying conditions.
Minshall described attempt to fit his interpretation of
Milton's Paradise Lost into a typically Trinidadian Carnival
of borokeets, jambalassies and pimps.
He also wanted to focus on mas' playing as "visual
kinetic experience."

What for Minshall is Carnival
that are moving". In a
phrase, Living Art.
I got the idea to
interview Minshall on
Carnival Tuesday.
It was when Lenny
Grant, Tapia's Production
Editor, plucked a multi-
coloured vacuum pressed
plastic helmet from the
hands of a teenaged girl
as "Paradise Lost" swept
across the stage.
The helmet had a
perfect finish. But no-
-- where on it could I find a
"Made in Trinidad" tag.
Concerned that we might
have been importing
finished items for mas
costumes, I went to
Minshall to find out more.


It turned out, how-
ever, that the helmets
designed by Minshall From S
himself, were produced
by a local screen-printing
team Ramon and Viera.
By means of a technique (i
that Minshall had hit
upon while producing
Carnival abroad in the
UK casting and painting
the helmets became one
Hundreds of helmets
had to be prepared.
Minshall obviously form;
couldn't produce them essen
all by himself in time for street
Carnival. stage.
In any case, the
more important objec- is th
tive was bringing move- played
ment more fully into charge
Carnival, reintroducing movil
mas playing all of are tl
which Minshall saw as costu
vitally necessary to his
conception of Carnival as comes
street-theatre. a man
To do that one had
to change from the grow- sailor
ing trend to heavy is on
costumes which only pieces
oppress the mas player. can ha
For Minshall that trend is and
part of the gradual trans- comp

"colours and forms

Peter Minshall

Section of Paradise Lost

nation of what is
tially a thing of the
Into a thing of the

Instead, he argues it
e individual mas
r who must be in
e of costumes. For
ng hands and feet
he things that make
mes work.
A bat, for example,
s to life only when
i moves in it.
Take the fancy
. For costume that
ne of the greatest
s of design that one
ave. Its peculiar step
clothes make it a
lete whole.

mas players had worked
out for themselves what
they thought was required.
Putting 200 jamba-
lassies on the stage is a
far cry from Mardi Gras,
- XJ. .exclaimed Minshall,
astonished to know that
that was what some
people had been writing.
Minshall was not
looking to Europe. "Mas
itself," he emphasised,
"was the greatest teacher."
His aim to move
'- Carnival from "the stage
which had become the
source and the centre."
But what is this in-
tellectual thing about
"Paradise Lost" that
Peter Minshall brought to
Trinidadians? That was
how anxious mas-players
had posed the question.
According to Min-
shall, Milton wrote an
epic poem about things
we are familiar with.


It contained notions
of good and bad, ugly
Sand beautiful. And it
gave the masman an
opportunity to express
contrasting emotions.
'Which is to make people
say more than just "it's
beautiful'. 'One can react
emotionally to it.
Try to see 50 moko-
jumbies walking down
the road. No need for
costumes --there. Only
painted skins, ugly head-
pieces and wire are
required to communicate.
Accordingly, mas can
be and is more than being
just pretty. What he is
trying to do with mas is
peculiarly Trinidadian.
Close parallels to it were
to be found in "the din
of iron" or "the loud,


Yet like all other
costumes it remains noth-
ing by itself. It is the
person that must give it
Never off the stage,
Minshall could be seen
trying to infuse life in his
designs by the movement
of his eyes, brows, arms
and the intonation of his
voice as well.
Speaking of his helmets,
for example, he forced
the air upwards with an
open palm, behind his
ear and then over his
temples to create the
image of "that round
helmety feeling." They
were like a visual repre-

sentation of "big fat
drum rolls" we hear in
According to Min-
shall, the Burning Lake,
a section in Paradise Lost,
was created with dancers
in mind. He had hoped
to have Carol La Chapelle
choreograph a special
dance for it. That idea did
not materialise.
Yet when the pole-
grasping bearers of the
Burning Lake hit the
stage and exploded into
form that gave life to a
sheet of red cloth thathad
initially been seen to
creep up, the spectators
went wild with joy. The

blaring, sunshine sound
of brass pelting down the
In Paradise Lost,
apart, from the juicy
label, were to be found
Imps, Devils, Fallen
Angels, Hell Fires and the
Garden of Eden, And all
were costumed to react
to the slighter movement
of the body.
The blending of the
colours, not just within,
but between all the sec-
tions is important to a
conception of a Carnival
Band that, like a sym-
phony, has a beginning a

Continued on Page 11


~8s~~k~b~ ~BDl~%d~EIS ~P~4~i~~






of the

Sunday April 11,

Tapia House


WHEREAS over seven years of community life have created
a confident and competent nationwide movementdetermined
to provide Trinidad & Tobago with the valid political alter-
native in the forthcoming general elections and willing and
able to assume the power of the State.
our party be named
The Tapia House Movement
A Tapia House as its election symbol
and with
The Motto: Building From The Earth
The Tapia House Movement adopt as its Constitution
the Constitution of the Tapia House Group

All members of the Tapia House Group become
Founder Members of the Tapia House Movement

All Associates, friends and supporters registered at this
Foundation Assembly on April 11, 1976, be eligible to claim
foundation membership of the Tapia House Movement.
Morning Session 10 a.m.

Ch airman's Address

The Tapia Ten-Year Plan

Midday Session 12 noon

The Coming General Elections


Afternoon Session 2.00 p.m.


Denis Solomon

Ivan Laughlin

Debate From the Floor

Angela Cropper

The Election Campaign




Lloyd Best


sure that all of you must
have heard by now of the
notice of resignation
given by the British
Prime Minister Harold
Wilson. The resignation
certainly came as a great
surprise to me.
My mind immediately
went back to the notice
of resignation given by
our own beloved righte-
ous and honourable Bill
late 1973.
I am sure you remem-
ber that occasion very
well, my friends. Long
before the Party Conven-
tion the party circles
were buzzing over the
fact that Bill had not
signed his nomination
Everyone was wonder-
ing what was coming
down. Bill himself was
content to maintain a
discreet silence.
Until the day of the
Convention when he
dropped his bombshell.
Oh what a bomb that
was, my countrymen!
Bill was at his dramatic
best as he spoke of all the
frustrations he had
encountered in trying to
make his dreams a reality.
He blasted everybody
from his own ministers,
whom he all but called a
--bntmch of crooks, to the
West Indian leaders whom
he all but accused of
treachery against the
idea of West Indian
He warned us of the

balkanization of the
Caribbean, of the depra-
dations of the Trans-
national Corporations.
Both financially and
spiritually he declared his
assets and then he pulled
up the bucket which he
had let down in 1956.


So they say. I for one
agreed with the Tapia
people who came out
immediately and said that
they did not believe that
Bill was going anywhere.
Three months later,
Bill yielded to a well-
organised campaign which
begged him to reconsider
his resignation, and at
the resumption of the
Party Convention, he
was borne in on the
shoulders of the faithful,




still not having signed
his nomination form, and
was reinstated as political
leader by the political
method of acclamation.
No damn dog barked.
Nor did Karl who thought
himself the heir, say a
numbling word.
For many of the inno-
cents around the place
the entire episode was an
indigestible piece of poli-
tical cynicism.
Many simply could
not believe that the man
who had brought teais to
the eyes of many three
months before was really

such a ruthless manipula-
Now Harold Wilson
has announced his resigna-
tion. His reason is that at
the age of sixty he has
done enough, seen enough,
and for him there is no
higher to go.


So rather than stay in
power, thwarting the
efforts and chances of
younger men, he would
step down.
Politics, they say, is a
dirty game. Wilson has a
reputation for being a
shrewd and resourceful
political animal, a wheeler
and dealer of consulate
At this point in time it
would be easy for him to
pull the same trick that
Bill did. The Labour

This cynic
^ H'Thm C %&^^ ^B^sS

From Page 9
middle and an end.
So in moving one's
view from these who
raised the Fires of Hell,
to the Fire-flies and the
Fallen Angels one shifted
from the red black and
gold to green and the
yellow of the Garden of
Eden and so on.
That was something
-that George Bailey 'took
account of. Bailey, Min-
shall explained, was a
master of the pageant of
Bailey's mas was
opera it was grand; but
it .still kept within the
rules of mas. His "Saga of
Merrie England" was a
good example of that.
Yet the experiment
was not the success
Minshall had worked hard
for.The entire essay was
screwed up by the s.tage-
centred view of Caanimal
that led to heavy traffic
forcing his masque cadexs
to spend four to five
hours motionless
It was a most de-
.res~ing experience. yIas-

queraders had been
flinging away their staves
and head-pieces in frus-
That for him was
the best example of what
Carnival should not be.
Once before the stage
masqueraders could not
play their mas for which
the costumes were so
specially designed.
The combination of
stage and stage-centred
competitions was the
biggest obstacle to the
fullest expression of
Carnival as street theatre.
Minshall yearned for the
day when bands roamed the
streets rather than this run-
ning from one competition
centre to another.
But the problems of Carni-
val and the way it is now
conceived are not merely a
fault of the organizers. Mas
men and masqueraders had
to bring themselves back into
the act by going for costumes
that dictate movement and
encourage mas playing.
MacWilliams, Minshall felt,
is among those whose designs
indicated that they were onto
a similar view of what mas is
all about.



on a limb

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Party, they say, is being
torn apart by left-wing
and right-wing factions.
Wilson is the best man,
they say, to hold it
together. What better
scenario for a comeback
Yet Fillip is about to
put his reputation as a
-cynic on the line and say
that it will not happen. It
will not happen because
political integrity is not
a matter of Integrity
Commissions but a matter
of democratic traditions.
And the righteous and
honourable Bill could get
away with his nasty
manipulations o n l y
because he knows, and is
content to have it so,
that this our country
lacks the Traditions that
would force a Leader to
do such a simple thing
as keep his word.
Sometimes, D e ar
friends, even a cynic can

now a Republic. What
that means is that
sovereignty now resides
in the hands of the
are now the masters in
our own house. Do I
hear you rejoicing? Do I
hear the shouts of Hallelu-
jah? Do I hear freedom's
Bells tolling over the
Or do I hear the
sounds of .an ominous
silence, as a nation prays
for a soul that is dead?






Baldwin Mootoo
THE West Indian victory
over India in the first test
of the Series at Kensing-
ton, last week, seemed so
easy and convincing that
many are tempted to
write off the tour as a
In India last year, the
West Indies won the first
two tests equally as con-
vincingly, only for India
to draw level two-all at
the end of the fourth and
there was a period when
the fifth test hung in
So this series is far from
over andthere is going to
be some exciting cricket
It is true that on paper
the West Indian team is
much stronger. The bat-
ting is powerful and the-
fast bowling seems more
than India can cope with.
India, on the other
hand, seem to be depend-
ing heavily on Gavaskar
and Visvanath to score
the runs, and a total
reliance on the spin
quartet of Bedi,Prasanna,
Chandrasekhar and Van-


kat to take. the wickets.
In the last test both
batsmen gave away their
hands in at least one inn-
ings, and the team never
gave the bowlers any runs
to bowl at.
In addition, they drop-
ped some vital catches.
They will most certainly
be swamped if that
remains the quality of
their performance.
But 1 do not believe it
will. I am sure that they
are going to get better,
and give a better fight in
the next three matches.
Nonetheless, the West
Indians have everything
.going for them to win
'the series 4-0. Clive Lloyd
must take the opportunity





to re-mould his tattered
team of the Australian
tour, and try and repeat
Frank Worrell's 5-0 vic-
tory of 1962 against the
He must remember,
too, that his team is most
susceptible, to collapse
from a position of
Lawrence Rowe has
everything made for him
to establish himself once
and for all as the partner
to Fredericks.
If he does not grasp
the opportunity now,
Gordon Greenidge is
breathing down his neck
and the middle order is
f i 1 led (Kalliecharan,
Richards & Lloyd) unless

we have to play six bats-
Meanwhile, Shillingford
has justifiable claims as a
middule-order batsmanai,
and Larry Gomes is among
the strong young con-
Roberts, I hope, will
not be overplayed during
this series. Already there
are reports that his ankles
are not fully healed.
It would be a pity if
bad handling prematurely
ends the career of this
great bowler.
The tour will also give
the West Indies an opport-
unity of blooding some
of the young slow bowlers.
Jumadeen's perform-
ance in Barbados suggests



Athletic sports meeting
of the Barataria Junior
Secondary School, held
on Friday March 12,
1976, was an occasion of
fun and excitement.
Students also came
from schools in Mount
Hope, Aranguez and
from Tranquillity Inter-

There was much keen
competition. Teenagers
Ann-Marie Murray and
Fitzroy Nelson won Victrix
and Victor Ludorum,
Murray doing it for the
second year running.
She also got the Best
Athlete Award, gaining 14
out of a possible 15
points. Runner-up Annette
Innis got eight points.
Miss Murray won four
of the five events she
contested- the 100 and
200 metres; the high jump
at four-foot-two and
throwing the discus 73
feet, three inches. Her
nearest rival could throw
the discus only 59 feet,
four inches.

In addition Ann-Marie
Murray won the 100
metres invitation and
anchored her school team
to victory in the 4x100
relay. In the broad jump,
however, a leap of 12
feet, six landed her only
second place.
Fitzroy Nelson also
dominated the competi-
tion. From I. La Rose he
won the 100 metres. In a
close finish ie edged
Andrew Neptune into
second place in the 200
metres. In the 400
metres he was second.
Nelson ,also won the
high jump, getting over
the bar at four foot nine,
to beat Ian Cyrus who
did one inch less. The

positions were reversed
for the Broad Jump in
which Cyrus made 17
feet, four inches beating
Nelsoni by 11 inches.
Over the next two
weekends these two
promising athletes will be
in action again in the
National Junior Champ-
ionships in Arima.

Fitzroy Nelson

that he has probably now
arrived on the test scene.
Holford's re-appear-
ance was aided-by luck.
His match analysis is
certainly better than the
quality of his performance
and at 35 I do not think
he can hold his place on
the team for any length
of time.
Nonetheless, his selec-
tion was justified in these
first two test matches,
but a long range view of
thing"inust make us look
very carefully atPadmore,
Imtiaz Ali and Ajodha
Persaud of Guyana who
put in a few good per-
formances during this
year's Shell Series.
There is one policy of
the selectors I cannot
agree with, and that is
selecting the test team
before the territorial
.match is played.
In this way a good
performance in a terri-
torial match is considered
not for the test match
immediately following,
but for two tests later.
Why not name only
the test players not in-
volved in the territorial
match and leave it open
to all players on show in
that match to be eligible
for selection?
What, -for example,
would be more embarras-
sing than Imtiaz Ali
proving completely un-
playable in the match
against Trinidad?
It seems as though, the
selectors, instead of keep-
ing their options open as
long as possible, deliber-
ately try to close some
off early.
Although the West
Indies should win the
series, none of the other
matches should be quite
so one sided. Before long
the Indian batsmen will
give their bowlers 350
runs to bowl at and that
will be a totally different
ball game.