Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00200
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: February 15, 1976
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00200

Full Text








IS THE flour subsidy
paid by the Government
actually finding its way
into the real estate busi-
This question was
asked last Wednesday at
the Housewives Associa-
tion (HATT) press
conference on the price
of bread held at the
Gourmet Restaurant on
Maraval Road, Port-of-
-- The question followed
%ii" presentation and

by a i r
which showed that the
country's bakers now
acting up for higher
prices, have been cream-
ing off most of the
subsidy while managing
to get around the price
control restrictions.
It was pointed out

that some prominent
baking firms have been
known to be building
houses for rent, and
reference was made to a
block of flats on Hor-
quette Road, Glencoe
which has been called
"Coelho Flats".
The HATT team com-
prising Hazel Brown,
Gloria Henry, Annette
Borely and Helen Camps
released their report to
the press on the same
day the Coelho and Sons
Baking Company Limited
published full-page advert-
-isements in-both daily

campaign iornignieTpTrcT
of bread.
Coelho's claimed that
the present controlled
price of bread is unrealis-
tic, having regard to the
12.7% increase in total
manufacturing cost or
bread in the two years

from January 1974 to
January 1976.
Coelho has already
retrenched 52 employees
and held its hand on
sending home 48 more
while it awaited the out-
come of reportedly
"urgent" Prices Commis-\
sion consideration of the
bakers' request for an

Reacting to the ban on
the production of hops
bread imposed by the
Bakers Association, HATT
-0l-1_ n .H r nn+

This boycott was
urged in support of a
demand for more quality
control without which,
HATT argued, there
could be no effective
price control.
Media representatives
at the Gounnet were




Heartbeat of Pan Fever-pg.4

Slaying the Dragon

no easy task EOTH HYNES8
O1 ag

given copies of the find-
ings of a HATT survey
conducted last week
Monday and Tuesday.
The housewife
researchers collected 132
loaves of 10 types of
bread from six outlets in
Port-of-Spain, St. James,
Boissiere and Maraval,
being the products of
five well known bakeries.
The loaves were
weighed according 'to the
categories in which they
are normally sold at
Government scheduled
More than half of the

The housewives gave
out a recipe for making
hops bread in further-
ance of its advice to
householders to bake
their own bread.
Still, it was pointed
out, the "hard wheat,
higher nutritional flour"
used for making hops
bread is sold only to
This is one of the
ways in which the bakers
get the better part of the
subsidy deal.
In the first place, only
the bakers, biscuit manu-
facturers and animal feed
millers could demand of
the flour mill just what
mix they require.
Ordinary home-baking
consumers simply have
to take what they get
which, most of the time,
is nutritionally unsatis-
The big buyers who
deal with the flour mill
get flour at the same
price as ordinary con-
"The bakers," one
HATT researcher charged,
"get better flour at the
same price as the con-
S.umer, then they sell
bread at a price which is
twice what it would cost
a housewife to prepare
loaves of the same weight."
Then there is no gua-
rantee that, with their
better flour, the bakers
actually produce better

bread, for official quality
inspection is non-existent.
So it is impossible to
determine how much
protein is actually con-
tained in a loaf of bread.
Housewives are able to
improve the nutritional
content of their bread by
adding butter etc., but
little is known about
what, if. anything, the
bakers add to their batter
The HATT team noted
that this problem of
bread was largely one fox
"non-Indian, urban and
suburban" people.
It was quite possible,
* 0 'er4igyjd ti at Indian

tional diets and preparing
dhal purees would they
be assured of a better
nutritional intake thus
those other sections of
the population who
depend on commercially
prepared bread.
The best choice house-
wives have is the "counter
flour" sold in the 25 lb
bags, the HATT team
Making recommenda-
tions for the solution to
the crisis, HATT pro-
that the flour sub-
sidy be redistributed so
as to reduce the price of
flour to the consumer;
that hops bread
prices should remain the
that bakers get no
subsidy on flour-bought
for making bread other
than hops.
These, they hoped,
would make for a freer
competition between the
housewife baker and the
commercial baker. People
who wanted and could
afford to do so could
buy from the bakeries
selling at uncontrolled
But a more radical
solution was suggested
by one HATT member
who, referring to the
existence of foodstuff of
comparable nutritional
quality, put it succinctly:
"Forget bread!"


to start

on housing

"HOUSING and the
Environment" is the
theme of a workshop
discussion to be held
after Carnival by the
Environmental Com-
mittee of Tapia. Per-
sons interested in
taking part can
contact Angela Cropper
at the Tapia Port-of-
Spain-at 25241.

_ ~~__

'I ---YY~Y E_ ----CI---~pl ----~-~L

- I-- --=--, I

- ---




30 Cents

Vol. 6 No. 7



SIR Solomon Hochoy,
former Governor General
of Trinidad and Tobago,
was, in the early, days
of the PNM Administra-
tion suspected of wanting
to sabotage the new
Making that revelation
was Denis Solomon,
Tapia Shadow Minister
of Public Administration,
'speaking at Tapia Port-
of-Spain Centre on
"Productivity, Profes-
sionalism and Persecution
in the Public Service."
Solomon's reference
to the suspicion of
Hochoy was made to
underscore his argument
that the Prime Minister's
suggestion that there
existed a small minority
of ambitious and power-
hungry Public Servants
was rooted in a sense of
insecurity that is as old as
the PNM Government.
According to Solomon
"what developed instead
of a definition of rela-
tionships betweenpolitical
and administrative arms
in the context of needs
of the country, was a
reinforcement of' the
small-minded, insecure,
us-and-them situation, a
situation of. for us or.
against we.:
Sol-oon -isitcc a num-
ber of factors he felt to
be responsible for the
insecurity and which led
the new administration
to place an inordinate
emphasis on "loyalty"
as the chief ethic for
guiding public service
"With the imposition
of a Ministerial system
you had a ColonialSecre-
tary with absolute power
and no work of any
consequence being re-
placed by Ministers
equally absolute but
faced with enormous
tasks and equipped with
no competence whatso-
ever in the arts of Gov-
What was worse was
that there was no way
such competence could
have been acquired. For
the new governing class
was drawn from the same
clerical/college exhibition
class as the civil servants.
And the members of
that class "were imbued
with the same ideas of
authority and subservi-
ence" that years of
colonial rule produced.
That fact coupled with
the intense suspicion of
those senior public ser-
vants who had ascended
to higher grades before
PNM led to the rapid
promotion of a spate of
young "qualified" people.
The new crew of public
servants were in fact
members of that group

- I.

of people, typically Afri-
can clerks, teachers and
to some degree profes-
sionals and mobilised by
the PNM in its rise to
In addition, govern-.
ment soon became one of
the recognized perquisites
of the African segment
of the population. The
feeling among them of
"having no other stake
in the country gave the
civil servants a sense of
solidarity with politicians
which was extremely
unhealthy for the country
as a whole.
Then there, was the
fact of racial polarisation
which affected morale in
the public service.
Loyalty was therefore
the prime criterion by
which public servants
were governed.
That trend spawned
three main strands in the
Civil Service. First there
were those who were
basically incompetent and
who got their position
and status because the
PNM was in power.
Next came the new
careerists. Some of these
saw the Public Service
as the road to political
eminence. One or two
are now Ministers of

Neglect of work and
the tendency to curry
favour with their political
bosses distinguished this
The other careerist
tendency was to search
for self-advancement
through cultivating special
relationships with the
Prime Minister.
Finally there were
those people of compe-
tence and vision who,.
despite the prevailing
ethic, attempted "to
advance a reasonableview
of public administration
but were cut down."
Solomon- cited the.
attempt to establish a
Committee for Perma-
nent Secretaries as one
example of the fate that
was meted out to those
people who sought ways
to facilitate the work of
This Committee had
been set up by senior
career ,officials. But the
Minister stopped it by
having the then Attorney
General Richards declare
such amove tobe uncon-
These conditions,
Solomon added, led to,
fluctuations of individual
fortunes and were "aggra-
vated by a particularly
paranoiac chief execu-


- I -

Official recognition of
the shortcomings of the
Public. Service led to
studies. And among the
Reports which came out
of those studies were the
O'Neil Lewis Report,
and the Dolly Report.
The Dolly Report,
Solomon found to be
particularly noteworthy
for the large amount of
purely technical recom-
mendations it made for
improving the Public
But little or no action
flowed from it. The con-
sequence was the
continued demoralisation
of senior administrators.
The general ineffi-
ciency which the public
has encountered in its
day-to-day contact with
the Public Service is also
partly traceable to a
number of other factors.
Some of these Solomon
identified as a general
decline in education
standards that tended to
lower the level of func-
tional literacy; over-
centralisation of
administration; the lack
of any direct control by
the public; the lack of
accountability and repre-
sentation at local and
central government levels.

When PNM



Hochoy of


administrators who want
to make a career of the
Public Service.
What that means,
Solomon said, was the
need for a new relation-
ship between senior pub-
lic servants and Ministers.
For there was a definite
need for a Government
to appoint people to
carry out its party pro-
Such a measure had
to go hand in hand with
Ministers who were cor-'
petent administrators and
in the context of full
c) Decentralisation for
which Tapia was propos-
ing 25 townships distri-,
buted throughout the
length and breadth of
the country. Public ser-
vants will be working for
Local governmentBoards;
d) A big "macco"
Senate to establish the
supremacy of politics
over government;
e) Agencies such as
Organisation and Manage-
ment must be revised,
modernized and made'
more flexible; revision
of appointments, sophis-
ticated testing, real
probation, varied patterns
for entry into the Public
Service together with
research geared to con-
tinually upgrading the
quality of the Service
should be adopted.

There was, too, a dis-
tinct lack of organisation,
and absence of a concept :
of organisation in relation
,to needs, the hallmark of
professionalism, which
led public servants
themselves to low-rate
the public service as a
Finally there existed
within the public service
a general lack of discipline
which was both a conse-
quence and a cause of the
weaknesses previously
But what was the way
According to the Tapia
Shadow Minister of
Public Administration,
the answer was to be
found in a new constitu-
tional dispensation founds
ed upon the basis of a
process that would set
us on the road to trust
The reforms directly
related to Public Admin-
istration he saw as:
a) A Ministry of Public
Administration to over-
seer the reforms;
b) A recognition that
public servants and
teachers had political
interests. That meant the
political liberalisation of
those senior public
administrators from
bureaucratic controlan

L = ~---- I -- --




OVER 200 cocoa farmers
walked away disappoint-
ed and frustrated last
Wednesday from the one-
day symposium on the
Cocoa Industry organ-
ised by the Ministry of
Agriculture, the Agricul-
tural Development Bank
and the University of the
West Indies at the
Centeno Experimental
Not the least cause of
disappointment was the
performance of the
Minister of Agriculture
Mr. Overand Padmore
gave a feature address
which managed to skirt
all the important pro-
blems on which the
farmers wanted to hear
Arriving a full hour
late for the opening of
the Symposium, Padmore
proceeded to regale the
gathering with statistics
about cocoa production,
the numbers of farmers
-4--he amount of:
money ea-
extent o ed 'and the
financed cocoa research.
According to one
farmer:,"He didn't sound
like he was speaking from
his own knowledge."
And this was borne
out by the fact that the
Minister declined to make
himself available to
answer any of the several
questions that farmers
had looked forward to
Commenting on' Pad-
more's reference to the
possibilities of exporting
Trinidad cocoa to China,
another farmer said: "God
alone knows where they're
going to get it from, with
this bad crop we have."
Not for all the tea in
China, however, could
the farmers get from the
Minister or any of the
officials present informa-
tion on the following
crucial questions:
Labour difficulties -
farmers having to com-
pete for labour with the
Special Works now pay-
ing up to $17 a day for
little or no work;
The unavailability of
access roads orthe non-
maintenance of those
which exist;
The late receipt of
fertilizer subsidies;
The general question
of poor agricultural in-
In fact, the Minister
put his foot in his mouth
by declaring that the



cocoa production was
The 300 persons at the
symposium heard from
an Agriculture Ministry
official that the late pay-
ment of the fertilizer
subsidy was because an
adequate staff had to

In the light of the poor facilities for cocoa production, nobody
knows where the cocoa for the Chinese market will come from.

n e w cocoa-growing
method being advanced
by Ministry of Agricul-
ture agronomist W.E'
Freeman would not cut
down on the amount of
labour needed in cocoa.
For, as the farmers
could clearly see, the
closer planting of the
trees as suggested by
Freeman would elimin-
ate having to cutlass the
undergrowth which now

nIaraTwuK Li cocoa.
-The Symposium had
been put on as a means
of bringing the farmers
and the researchers into
closer contact.
But the farmers left
without learning much
from the pathologist and
soil expert who spoke
to them, because of the
highly technical way in

which these researchers
put across their material.
Mr. Frank Thompson
of the ADB got a part-
icularly poor reception
when he talked about his
Bank's special three per-
cent interest rate for
loans to farmers.
It was noted that the
amount available for such
loans was only $2.5
And then.this amount
1J.5jj.u._.^ L0 v s1 iAdI U.. tY all

KInCt oI farmers. So that
the more than 7,000
cocod farmers who would
qualify for such a loan
could get only a paltry
sum each.
But to crown the
absurdity, ho w eve r,
another official announced
that only 300,000 plants
were available anyway,
so that no big increase in

process over


Most of the farmers
felt the symposium had
failed even though the
ideas put forward by
Freeman in a new book-
let were interesting.

Our coverage of


is unsurpassed anywhere

for focus and point.

Keep abreast of the

real currents in the

Caribbean Sea.
OWING'to the recent increase in the postal
rates, the Tapia House Publishing Co., Ltd., has
found it necessary to increase the subscription
r he ne rates IA.re as
The new rates are as follows:

Trinidad & Tobago
Caricom countries
Other Caribbean
E.E.C. (incl. U.K.)

$18.00 per year
U.S. $25.00
U.S. $30.00
Stg. 14.00

SSurface rates and rates for other countries on
request The new rates are effective February 1, 1976.
Tapia, 82, St. Vincent St Tunapuna, Trinidad &
Tobago, W.I. Telephone 662-5126. & 62-25241.





62 Queen St P O.S.

the place where thrifty







..........-p~~~-~ r-;ii~~~ -~lii




iiii -E w=&iwi~IIY-~^ -wI wwwC



-~-- -----




:a heartbeat that,



a bass


YOU KNOW it's coming
but you can't feel it.
Endless fetes advertised,
band-leaders interviewed,
calypso making a brief
stop-over on the airwaves.
But you know it's
Carnival when the north
lime moves down to
South for Panorama
It must be Carnival
when the sun is more
than hot and you trip
over the mounting skate
of beer bottles on the
grass at Skinner Park.
When four overgrown
women frolic in the grass
then pile themselves on a
squashed male compan-
ion the eruption comes
below and they all fall
over in a tangle of arms,
heads and legs, screaming
and spitting grass at the
Olympian Steel Kings
are rounding the bend,
pushed on by hundreds
of stormers.
They're beating Kitch's
George Weekes, the Road
March King like the four
bands before them.
Not hot, the pace is
just warming up.
Something is stirring
the crowd as the Steel
.Kings disappear can't
hear, can't see, but the
frenzy of bobbing heads
and fists dancing in the
air tell their own story.
The crowd anticipates
you and you are crushed
to within three feet of
Angel Harps.
The Statue coming
down to a samba beat.
People drawn like flies
to the sweet pan.
One official with an
inoperative hand-mike
stands before the surge
with his hand upraised
like a spunky pebble in
the face of a force mightier
than itself.
Pretty soon he aban-
dons the pose to break
up a fight.
By three o'clock 13
bands have crossed the

stage and there are 14,
more to go.
Among them only last
year winners Hatters and
Free French stand out in
any way.
Coming to think of it,
no performance so farhas
reached the famed high
standard of the south
Added to this, bands
move too slowly across
the cycle track.
Tf that is not bad
enough hear Stork St.
"Bands-are asked to
move up to the white
line to be judged by the
competent authority."
That phrase "compe-
tent authority" seemed
to be trying to convince
somebody of something.
Time to move around.
Once you have threaded
your way through gate's
eye trying to find some-
thing to eat, the crush is
The world here is a
clawing, pushing mass of
sweaty bodies and wedg-
ing elbows.
Even before you hear
the "Fight!" you feel the
current as though you
touched an exposed wire.
A bottle crashes near-
by and with eyes shut,
I've feel the splinters in
the air.
The main current
rushes past and we huddle
in the slack water, fear-
ful and breathless,
squeezed against the wire
Soon a man passes by
with a face gouged and
bleeding; -the tip of my
friend's toe is missing.
Higher up the Brigade
is fanning a chick who
passed out.
All a dat is mas.
Take a drink, poura
corkful on your friend's
toe and get out of there
But if the music went

through two previous
phases you co'did c:l the
George Weci. i:i tihe
Pan in .1Hnn1rIu, js hse.
this one is dcii!;iit-iiy the
Flag Womanc and final

The chick at the top
of the "north stand",
with the peroxide hair
and the tie-dyed jersey
is doing a wild interpre-
tation of Flag Woman,
with particular reference
to the sexy bumping.
Fonclaire and Flag
Woman, Stork might as
well give up with the
'white line' plea.
A small side called
Nightingales come down
with De Fosto's Chicks
in 76.
In the deepening dark
they seem to touch the
deesp'chort i .h .
ates total mas.

tlhinI and ci :I -.' cir;ii'.'e
w i\ Sy ; .)!!u .ii." !

from now on it's Fla
Woman to the end.
Hear Silvertones, hear
Renegades. In the pauses
hear that "scratcher"
from West Stars.
Jump through the gate
to the dying sounds of
Tropical Melody, heady
sweet in the car-park.,
Carnival is here; in the
aching toes, the gritty
throat, in the tenors that
ring in your ears and the
heartbeat, that somehow
is a hass drum.




las Americas, Number 91, devoted
to the English-speaking Carib-
bean countries, marks an
important stage in the develop-
ment of relations between these
countries and Cuba.
When diplomatic relations
were formally established be-
tween Cuba and Guyana, Barbados,
Trinidad-Tobago and Jamaica in
December, 1972, the beginnings
of the process of development
of knowledge about the cultural
life of these countries were
observable within Cubab At the
University of Havana teams of
teachers and students, including'
some of Jamaican parentage,
were compiling and translating
collections of English Caribbean
poetry, short stories and essays.
Nicolas Guillen suggested a
similar project for the National
Union of Writers and Artists of
Cuba. A serious effort is being
made on the Cuban side to make
up for years of neglect,while a
growing reciprocal interest Is
being shown by scholars and
writers in the English-speaking
For several centuries during
which Cuba shared essential
socio-political features with the
English-speaking Caribbean the
two areas were as remote from,
and ignorant of, each other as
these English-speaking countries
Dominican Repuo-ic or uer-o
The one sustained point of
contact between any of these
English-speaking countries and
Cuba occurred in this century in
the form of the migration of
Jamaican workers to seek employ-
ment in the cane fields of Cuba.
Yet this contact, given the
historical context in which it
took place, was hardly beneficial
to the furtherance of a real
cultural exchange. For given the
monopolistic nature of the pro-
duction of sugar, in Cuba in those
times and the concomitant diffi-
culties experienced by Cuban
workers in their quest for fair
returns for their labour, difficul-
ties marked by the prompt and
ruthless use of the police and
the army against the trade
unions, the Cuban workers could
hardly be blamed if they tended
to see the introduction of foreign
workers partly as an aggravation
of their difficulties.


Only now, with the security
brought by the revolution and
with the incorporation of Jamai-
cans and their Cuban children
into the national life, are there
projects afoot to study the
evident impact of Jamaican
culture on Cuban life.
In the same way that the
revolution is permitting the
proper assessment of the English
Caribbean fact within Cuba, it is.
promoting an awareness of and a
curiosity for further knowledge
about the neighboring English-
speaking people. What is more, it
has created the resources and the
sense of efficiency to make this

Fidel Castro

Nicholas Guillen





. .

Forbes Burnham

Marcus Garvey

knowledge real, profound and the
basis for effective co-operation.
The illuminating editorial
which introduces this number of
Casa de las Americas points to
the historical and cultural similari-
tiesthat exist between Cuba and
the English-speaking Caribbean,
to what the Caribbean as a whole
has produced and to the need
'felt by the journal to devote a
number to this little-known area,
making its achievements and
problems known to the Spanish-
speaking world in the same way
as it had devoted earlier numbers
to countries like Puerto Rico,
Mexico, Chile .


The reproduction, together
with the English translation, of
Fidel Castro's speech at the
Cuban-Guyanese Friendship Rally
held in Cienfuegos on the occasion
of Prime Minister Forbes Burn-
-ham's visit to Cuba in April,
1975, makes concrete and specific

the case for co-operation.
The speech is replete with
information about Guyana, about
Cuba and about Cuban-Guyanese
relations, information on which
real solidarity between the people
can be based. The directness and
clarity of its style makes it a
good example of how a
companero Prime Minister talks
to his people.

The rest of the volume is
devoted to the work of English
Caribbean writers. Elsa Goveia
and Rex Nettleford explore,
particularly with regard to race
and colour, the psyche of the
West Indian and Jamaican person
respectively. Edward Baugh sur-
veys the twentieth-century poetry
of the region while the Cuban
short story writer and critic
Antonio Benitez views the achieve-
ments of our novelists.
Excerpts from the writings
of senior political thinkers,
Marcus Garvey, Marryshow,


Norman Manley, Eric Williams,
C.L.R. James and Jagan provide
in economical fashion a good
background against which present
political practice may be judged.
The literary selections while not
aimed, as the editorial states, at
achieving the coverage of an
anthology, do manage to repre-
sent most of our leading creative
writers (thirty-three of them)
from Claude MacKay to some of
the established young poets.


The quality .of the transla-
tions is high indeed. Many of
Cuba's leading poets and writers
have participated with evident
enthusiasm in this project which
has also attracted the participa-
tion of writers from outside
Cuba. MacKay's 'If We Must
Die', for instance, is translated
by the outstanding Uruguayan
writer Mario Bendetti. And the
range of the excellence of the
translations can be appreciated
in David Cherician's inspired
representation in Spanish of
Louise Bennett's Jamaican dialect
poem 'Back to Africa?'
No doubt this number of
Casa will be read by some
readers with the wish that other
writers had been included or
with the feeling that a broader
sampling of the work of those
included would have given a better
idea of their achievement.
But as has been said, an
i iact, this number contains
significantly more pages than the
average number of the journal.
The overwhelming assessment of
this effort must be that an
excellent service has been done
to the writers of the English-
speaking Caribbean as well as to
the readers of the Spanish-speaking
countries, and it has been done
with exemplary efficiency.


If, from the body of writ-
ings included in this number,
one subject were to be acknowl-
edged as claiming pre-eminence,
it would have to be recognized
as the preoccupation with racial
injustice, especially against black
people. Several works point to
the indignities blacks have suffered
and either imply or explicitly
show the need for radical social
change to correct this situation.
The war in Angola, cruel
and tragic as it is, would seem
to bear timely lessons in this
regard. It provides, first of all,
the opportunity to support the
Popular Movement in its struggle
against those who are in alliance
with the arch representatives of
racism and imperialism, a com-
bination that represents pure
malevolence as far as black
advancement is concerned.
It serves also to expose the
false trappings of negritude as is
revealed in the roles of its expo-
nents Mobutu and Senghor, and
it demonstrates the feebleness, at
best, of tribal or racial politics,
an option which is in any case
beyond reason in the Caribbean

Continued on Page 8



i .



In this section of his pamphlet C

In the first place, as has been already said, recent legislation
has tended to place undue constraints on popular modes of political
expression. In the second place, existing constitutional machinery is
admittedly quite inadequate for proper popular participation in the
political process and for supervising the Executive, hence the need,
in the first place, for constitutional reform.
This does not mean that the existing constitution could not
have been used more effectively than it has been for popular partici-
pation in government. It could have. That it has not should serve as
a warning that a new and more liberal constitution may not bring all
the, advantages expected of it if devices such as Parliamentary Com-
mittees with investigatory powers are not built into it making public
accountability of the Executive and thedissemination of information
to the public at large inescapable and mandatory and therefore
making it easy for the communications media to play their proper
role, shaping public opinion in a free and democratic society.
But the country now finds itself in a totally new set of cir-
cumstances. Recent 'gas and oil discoveries and increased oil prices
have created a situation where something in the nature of an indus-
trial revolution, we are told, is about to take place. This has under-
lined the need for considerable expansion in technical and scientific
training at all levels.
A five-year course of free secondary education for all up to
16 plus is now envisaged as the norm and the entire structure of
secondary education is to be refashioned to give technical and voca-

There has beeir apletho-TrCf---- .. ..
Working Parties, on educa-
tion and other matters, and
though the cyni i entitled to ,
his say, their creation is still
testimony to the recognition ,
of the need to bring, or seem
to bring, thore and more
people into the field of
governmental activity.-

tional training their proper place in the national scheme. There are
bound to be corresponding developments at university, technical
institute and teacher college levels. This is going to mean a consider-
able increase in the number of well-to-do, educated and sophisticated
people, demanding "a superior type and form of representation" (Dr.
Williams), and a high level of general education.
Trinidad and Tobago can already boast considerable numbers
Sof people, talented and knowledgeable, in many fields, and the great
expansion in education about to take place over the next decade will
mean that we must no longer be made to rely almost exclusively on
the politician and the technocrat to bring us change and reform from
above. We cannot afford it. To do so would be to perpetuate a local
variety of the old Crown colony system. Popular participation is
needed, for efficiency, if nothing else. We cannot afford to do
without it, and this is what the PNM's "Perspectives for the New
Society" said as long ago as 1970:
"Many are of the opinion that a totalitarian system practising a high
degree of centralised planning constitutes a better framework for
effective rapid economic and social transformation than a centralised
participating type of politics and political and economic system.
Current experience elsewhere in the world does not support this argu-
ment. Apart from the certainty of such a system suppressing the
potential and initiative of the people, the real question is: for how
long can the leaders under such a system hope to secure commitment
from the people? ... Thus widespread popular participation would
seem to be the only basis for hoping to secure long-run commitment
to a drastic process of economic and social transformation".
We have been told on the highest authonty that there is need
to give technology the highest priority at this stage of our industrial
development. We have also been told that education must bejestruc-
tured to suit. The present constitutional exercise is only the neces-
sary political and administrative counterpart to social and economic
development depending for their success on an educated, informed,
politically participating people.
This is why Toffler's recommendations in his "Future Shock"
are so much to the point; indeed they are identical with those:of the

PNM's "Perspectives" just quoted.
"To master change, we shall therefore need both a clarification of
important long-range, social goals and democratization of the way in
which we arrive at them. And this means nothing less than the next
political revolution in the techno-societies a breath-taking affirma-
tion of popular democracy.
The time has come for a dramatic reassessment of the directions
of change, a reassessment made not by the politicians or the sociol-
ogists or the clergy or the elitist revolutionaries, not by technicians or
college presidents, but by the people themselves. We need literally to
'go to the people', with a question which is almost never asked of them:
"What kind of world do you want ten, twenty or thirty years from
now?" We need to initiate, in short, a continuing plebiscite of the
We in this country have been acting in the spirit of the "Pers-
pectives" and of Toffler. There has been a plethora of Working
Parties, on education and other matters, and though the cynic is en-
titled to his say, their creation is still testimony to the recognition of
the need to bring, or seem to bring, more and more people into the
field of governmental activity.
Greater popularparticipation in the political process, is, I think,
a constitutional imperative. I shall only repeat very briefly what so.
many like myself have advocated and, so many have seen to be
necessary a Republic with a Head of State (President) and aHead
of Government (Prime Minister), a larger House of Representatives,
certainly a larger Senate with the Independents forming an Estate
with their numerical strength greater than their voting strength, a
-E-o-nsi-t'tu ionnl- n.-' .... ... C.. .. ... : p n u on -
Public Service Commission, equal rights for women, more scope for
Local Government, and something special for Tobago which, while
preserving the unitary state, will take account of her separate history
and legitimate claims to an.identity of her own.
I wish to make two further points under this heading. Most
people will agree that there are few things that gnaw at the moral
fibre of a people more than the conviction that there is corruption in
high places.
Most people set very little store by Integrity Commissions
and Declarations of Assets. Like most things of the kind they never
catch the big fish, only the little ones. And Dr. Williams gives strong
support to this way of thinking for he refers to areas where it is
difficult for these anti-corruption devices to work. Here is what he
said at the 17th Annual Convention:

"We are part of a concern that is fairly widespread over the world over
the integrity of persons who hold high office.
We are part of concern that is rapidly spreading in the world
over the mounting evidence of corrupt practices associated with foreign
You could say that again!
Trinidad and Tobago society has generated no great, uplifting
and inspiring purposes. Individualism and oligarchic organization for
material ends are the rule. Patronage, nepotism, corruption are too
much in evidence. They have introduced a subtle poison into the
bloodstream of the national life and the result has been listlessness
and the lack of will to perform and achieve.
The second point has to do with the Civil Service. 1 am
reminded that on May 3rd 1970. Dr. Williams also said:
"The reorganization of the Government machine also involves die
Civil Service I have already begun to think of drastic revision of
existing procedures and regulations relating to discipline in die Public

Trinidad and Tobago society
has generated no great,
uplifting and inspiring pur-
poses. Individualism and
oligarchic organization for
material ends are the rule.
Patronage, nepotism, corrup- ,
tion are too much in evidence ~.
They have introduced a -
subtle poison into the blood-
stream of the national life .

L~L n ---- -rp~- ~.~Lt~ijlst=


[Y 15, 1976

. Going exposes Dr. Williams'

In my "Participatory Democracy" I wrote:
"One of the short-comings of the Constitution Commissions Report is
the absence of a section dealing specifically wim the Civil Service and
its place in the Constitution." (Page 13)
I have drawn attention to tne enormous powers given the
Prime Minister under the existing Constitution, powers which he
must exercise as part of his duties. I have suggested that the role of
the Public Service Commission must be strengthened and the body made
more autonomous.
But the place of the Civil Service in the Constitution is almost
a specialist subject and I am sure that the Public Service Association
possesses both the knowledge and the will to do its part. And con-
stitutional lawyers too.
This is the sort of operation & co-operation Government has
the right to expect.
I have argued all along that the Prime Minister will see sub-
stantial constitutional reform as necessary in the interests of his own
image, if nothing else. I add now that he will be constrained to see it
as an absolute requirement in terms of social efficiency for carrying
out great social and economic programmes.
Indeed we have a right to expect that those who exercise
state power will use the resources at their disposal and their access
to expertise, at home and abroad, to introduce constitutional
machinery and devices appropriate to our circumstances and our

One bright morning, after the
Joint Select Committee of
Parliament has submitted its
Report and its Draft Con-
stitution to Parliament, in
this most sensitive area of
parliamentary representation,
the Prime Minister will prob-
ably submit his own
proposals to Cabinet,
incorporating the principle
that will bring the required
talent into Government.
I do not think this task will
be assigned Jo the Joint
Select Committee-where the
Party has a decisive majority.

Another quotation from the concluding paragraphs of Dr.
Williams' address to the 17th annual convention of the ruling People's
National Movement provides additional evidence that he is thoroughly
aware of the situation:
"Our electorate, growing daily in education, sophistication and afflu-
ence, as more and more of the younger generation come to maturity,
...... will increasingly demand, insofar as they show any interest at all,
a superior type and form of representation.. "
Dr. Williams went on to say. that this growth would be taking place
"at the very time when increasing opportunities in the economic
sector will drain more and more people away to business and profes-
sional activities who two decades ago looked almost instinctively to
the political arena. "(probably true, certainly convenien t)
This would lead to a further deterioration in the quality of those
offering themselves for political office though the Political Leader did
see that
"more and more our Party and its senior representatives and propa-
gandists will be drawn into the activities of the newer national or com-
munity entities for example, parent-teacher association, credit
union movement.."
S would there be a link between this prospective deterioration of the
offering in the political field and the point I raised in my "Partici-
patory Democracy", page 11? I wrote:
"In his total setting I am far less interested and impressed by Dr.
Williams' denunciations of P.R. and curious about the following pas.-
sage, knowing thathe must want to keep his options open.
"I want to ask a further question here. (This is Dr. Williams
speaking on Constitution Reform In the House of Representa-
lives. December 1974). Was any considerationgiven at all to any
possible improvement of the existing traditional sten's/-m first.
past-the-post basis? It is in7 mam, c'mitries ... One of' the Comn-


~i--, ~L
~Ft~ci' fl~f~i~~i9 ''
!~~~ H

ra 4 I

n~ 1-

The Prime Minister will see sub-
stantial constitutional reform
as necessary in the
interests of his own image,
if nothing else. I add now
that he will be constrained to
see it as an absolute require-
ment in terms of social
efficiency for carrying out
great social and economic

missioners in Germany considering this report suggested that
only 80% of the seats could be given out on this basis, and the
other 20% be left for distribution among the parties on the
basis of the result of the 80; not proportional representation.
But to make sure, you know, you try to remove some of the
possible actual difficulties encountered over the years indifferent
countries. Was any consideration given to that If not, why not?"
I went on to ask: "What does Dr. Wianams have in mind?" I
suggest that to find the answer we should go back to his address to
the nation on the night of May 3rd, 1970, Black Power year.He
referred to his broadcast of March 23rd of the same year and said he
would be dealing with "more fundamental issues"'
What he said then and what he said in December 1974 in the
House of-Representatives about 80% first-past-the-post and 20% for
distribution "on the basis of the result of the 80" and what he said
list year (1975) at the PNM Convention are all of a piece. This is
what he said in 1970:
"The fourth immediate question is the reorganization of the govern-
ment machine. I am at work now on a drastic reconstruction of the
Government and its administrative arm...
But one point I shall raise here tonight for you to think about
We can only work within the resources available under the Constitu-
Even larger countries with more talent to draw on find it
difficult to secure sufficient people from among representatives in
Parliament to run the Ministries of Government.
Sooner or later, and sooner rather than later, we shall have to
discuss the question of selecting the Cabinet from all the available
talent and going outside Parliament for this purpose."
A week later he returned to the subject' A newspaperheadline
ran. "Civil Servant heads Petroleum and Mines". Dr. Williams said:
"As I emphasised in my broadcast to you week ago, Ihave restricted
myself to the resources available to me within the limits of the Con-
stitution. I have already stated that I think more fundamental reform
of the Constitution is needed, such as the selection of the Cabinet
from outside of Parliament. "
The three occasions, 1970, 1974 and 1975, have this in com-
mon they represent the view that the persons elected to the
House of Representatives do not, and will not, provide a full comple-
ment of the talent needed to run the Ministries of Government.
Dr. Williams' ideas have been developing over the years and
perhaps, something like this: There is a limit to the numbers of
Ministers that can be drawn from the Senate; the country's most
important business must be transacted in the House ot Kepresenta-
tives where the people's elected representatives are and where the
more important' Ministers must be: the 20% are to belong to the
House of Representatives and will comprise men of expertise and
outstanding ability; in the event, they will most likely eclipse the
general run of party elected representatives since they are there solely
because the former di -ot provide all the talent necessary and
because many of th'Iem will not measure up to what will be the rising
demand for quality from an electoratee growing daily in educaulic .
sopl i ;ition and afllluenci." Ir WV ill i:aus at the Conven tic').
C :., 'il side Parli;i nl t t to tinld ei'n ,r ol Cabinet sm ucks of lthe
Amn -i- Pirsedenti '. Sv ;teml. i.. l1 :' .. M inistergoing to keep mo:
within l; nunslit&' t l el t a i';l lt 'izl l.'
I:I .' ,itl ilo l'lU g i er the Joint Select ('omn iltte of
Continued on Page '



I S0 iOS 4'-


MY experience with Tapia think-
ers over the years, has convinced
me beyond doubt that they are
broad thinkers and analysts; but
they always fail to perceive the
finer points, the key note of a
This is clearly established
by the comments by Michael
Harris on the Angolan problem
in last week's TAPIA. Harris has
failed to perceive earnestly (the
usual dilemma of the highly
oriented academic person writing
from a comfortable position) the
reality of the Angolan troubles.
From his comments he is
clearly thinking the following:
(1) that each faction was
for nationalism and against foreign
domination and imperialism;
(2) that one of the factors
responsible for Zaire's activities
there was due simple to the
existence of one of its tribes;
(3) that regardless of who
wins, military stability will not
come to Angola;
(4) "Whatever support
comes from outside constitutes
(5) a total withdrawal:of all
foreign intervention is what is
(6) that moral pressure be
brought to bear in the corridors
of the United Nations to force
the foreigners; and,
(7) the 23 African States
that support MPLA do so as a
reaction to South Africa's pre-
sence in the conflict.
This kind of general think-
ing clearly shows the degree to

which he simplifies the "great
troubles of Angola"which is the
same for all Third World coun-
tries, because of neo-colonialism.
Angola,like any other Third
World country that is serious
about true national integrity,
must get support from some-
where, of a type and quality
that could make their struggle
against this vicious system of
international imperialism effec-

Any careful and honest
examination of international
politics, since the end of World
War II will indicate unequi-
vocally that the Soviet Union
has contributed tremendously
in bringing an end to colonialism,
by giving material support,
through its advanced technology,
to liberation movements.
The archangel ofimperialismi
is the United States, and one of
its chief agencies, through which
it ch-annels this vicious system is




South Africa, which is deter-
mined to maintain its highly
inhumane apartheid policies.
This is the heart of the Angolan
troubles. There is no simple way
to deal with this dragon.
The Angolan war is caused
by the economic and strategic
interest of South Africa, backed
by the CIA of American imperial-
ism. The factions, FNLA and
UNITA are making things diffi-
cult for MPLA, because of the
mischief caused by South Africa
and America.
MPLA, being broadly based,
had no choice but to use Soviet
technology since 1961 to fight
themurderousPortuguese colonial-
ism and now neo-colonialism,
South Africa was advancing for
the quick kill of MPLA, when,
thanks to the support of Soviet
technology and Cuban troops,
MPLA is alive and has grown in
stature. Without this support the
inhuman apartheid of South
Africa would have been further
-cons oHdn tea: D-tl~ -fr8W;- With
MPLA winning the war, the
writing is on the wall to bringing
an -end to this vicious system.
The factions FNLA and
UNITA are clearlynot genuinely
nationalist, for they allow them-
selves to become pawns of the
very people who are responsible
for the Angolan troubles. Zaire
also, being controlled by a reac-
tionary leader, is interested in
Angola not simply because one
of its tribes has family there, but
because it is an agent of imperial-

Page 5

Cubans learning about W.. life & letters

where the suffering sector of the
population is of diverse races.
In this connection it would
be well to view the situation of
the black Cuban. He played an
important part in the liberation
of his country and helped to in-
stitute a system that effectively
combats racism. In 1973, along
with all the Cuban people, he
mourned, with profound under-
standing of its implication for
the liberation movement in
Africa, the assassination of

Amilcar Cabral, the leader ot
the liberation movement in
And now, as part of a
national effort, within a national
culture that stresses the develop-
ment of scientific skills, he partici-
pates with sophisticated
preparedness in an international
effort to chase the South Africans
from Angola.
Casa is a product of the
revolution. Its primary role as
the journal of the cultural institu-

tion Casa de las Americas is to
maintain a cultural link between
Cuba and Latin America, a role
that was most crucial in the days
of Cuba's diplomatic isolation.
When it was founded we
were colonies, moving inconspi-
cuously towards independence.
were colonies, moving inconspicu-
ously towards independence.
Jamaica and Trinidad achieved
independence within four years
of the revolution and Guyana
and Barbados within eight years.

An important convergence of
history is therefore recognizable
among all these neighboring
The phrases 'from Columbus
to Castro' and 'from Toussaint
l'Ouverture to Castro' have special
meaning for all of us. In view of
this it seems natural that there
should be a growing cultural
exchange between us and that
Casa should have extended its
scope by making this gesture.
It is no doubt part of a
continuing process of co-opera-
tion and comparison of achieve-

Our printing-plant is open at
The Tapia House 82-84 St. Vincent
Street, Tunapuna.
| Kindly phone orders to: 662-5126.


To talk about the United
Nations playing a part at this
stage is to lack judgment about
the reality of that organisation.
History has clearly shown that
whenever a problem can only be
resolved by interfering with
American vested interests, the
UN cannot be of great help.
The Middle East problem is
showing this clearly, and so are
many other examples. The OAU,
on the other hand, has never
dealt effectively with any Afri-
can national problem, as is
proved by years of a cruel
Nigerian Civil War.
The truth then is for Angola,
as all other Third World coun-
tries in a similar position, to get
rid of American imperialism.
This is not possible without the
help of Soviet technology for the
imperialist is a super power, and
thus capable of extensive mis-
chief and destruction.
It is not impossible for
Third World countries like Angola
to use this support, and yet
forge, and maintain a way of life
that is comparable with the
objective nature of their respec-
tive country. Cuba is a good
example to cite for this cagse:
The key issue here is to
break out of a stemifying straight
jacket that is keeping back the
free progress of the African
people, and not just foreign
interference in isolation.
At any rate, modern stakes
one interdependent; the reality
of the struggle is to improve the
quality of this interdependence
on a genuine humanitarian basis.
Until then, we have no choice
but to wage the struggle against
imperialism with help from any


~_ _~ ~_ I __

I- ` I

-I ~-
---~ -~~---


.:TAPIAL l ~ I I

MIiniiael n iaris



IT WAS C.L.R. James who reminded us, in his book
"Beyond the Boundary" that, particularly for us in the
West-Indies, cricket is more than a game. Its implications
and its effects extend deep into our psychological, social
and political life.
If the embarrassment, the depression and the ill-
humour which has attended the recent humiliation of
the West-Indies team in Australia were not enough to
confirm this, we now have the issue of the Guyanese ban
of the Barbadian player Geoffrey Greenidge, on the grounds
of his participation in a tour to South Africa.
With amazing rapidity the issue has blown up into a
crisis of West-Indian proportions with sportswriters,
.administrators, politicians throughout tle region all putting
in their penny's worth.
What thus far has marked all the exchanges, whatever
the viewpoint expressed, is a tone of truculence, petulance
and even animosity. And thereby hangs a tale.
For the issue clearly has nothing to do with the right
of the Guyanese Government to bar any foreigner from its

All Governments have
that right and quite
frankly all Governments
can abuse it. Yet, to my
mind, there is no question
of abuse in the present
Any action, in any
sphere, which to any
extent legitimises the
odious practices and
policies of the South
African regime constitutes
an insult to the dignity
of black people every-
where and a blot upon

the quality of human
It is clearly inconsist-
ent for us to condemn
those countries which
continue to do business
with South Africa if at
the same time we con-
done our own neighbours
and nationals who con-
tinue to treat with that
country in the area of
Those who speak of
not bringing politics-into
sport are clearly missing

the wider dimensions of
the issue and are speak-
ing of a time which, if
it ever existed, is by now
long gone.
The real problem then
of the action of the
Guyanese Government
lies not in what has been
done. A good definition
of diplomacy might well
be the art of deflecting
confrontation while not
compromising principles.
Clearly on this issue
diplomacy was called for.
Just as clearly none was
used. How much better
it would have been if the
Guyanese had quietly

informed the Barbados
Government, through the
nomnal diplomatic chan-
nels, of its intentions in
the matter, thus giving
the Barbadians the op-
portunity to reshuffle
their side without fanfare
and with no loss of face.
But such an approach
implies a commitment
to the maintenance and
enhancement of cordial
relations among the
Caribbean Govermnents
so necessary to any pro-
gress towards Caribbean
The sad truth is that
this episode is but the
latest testament to the





Future Shock
From Page 7
Parliament has submitted its Report and its Draft Constitution'to I st p it the.
Parliament, in this most sensitive area of parliamentary representation, SSl h r
the Prime Minister will probably submit his own proposals to Cabi-
net, incorporating the principle that will bring the required talent -
into Government. -
I do not think this task will be assigned to the Joint SelectTH P
Committee where the Party has a decisive majority. I myself shall ..r
not attempt to say how the principle will be implemented since I do the r c lUl
not possess the expertise required or the access to it.
This would seem to be what this 20%- proposal, which is
claimed not to be proportional representation but a modification of .S
first-past-the-post by way of supplement, means. It would be a
device to suit our circumstances. NS
The political arm of Government may well need strengthen- .' - .
ing, especially with the .growing complexity of Government. This N_'-... ..
"nominated" element would reflect the-voting pattern of the elector- .'
ate, party-wise. It would therefore have a representative basis, would
not preponderate numerically though it may very well do so in
influence and power.
But there is another side to this 20% however. The moment
we introduce this modification into the first-past-the-post system we
must decide whether the "nominations" should be made on the
basis of the number of seats won or the number of votes cast for the .
various parties; and there seems very little doubt that the claims of
the latter course, namely the votes cast, are stronger.
It is more representative, more democratic, It does not seem
possible to argue one's way out of this. But this involves, however
you look at it, an element of proportional representation, after all.
Two observations seem in orderhere. One of the consequences
of this constitutional device may very .well be to make opposition .-
unity more difficult to come by.' 'A ,,
The second is that though the device has merit in its own THLAN
right, it can be interpreted as a concession, after all, to the Afro- M ATER L
element which, at no very distant time in the future, may find itself | ATERIAL WEIE '..
a minority, if population trends continue as they are and as they
have developed in Guyana. It could be the thin edge of the wedge.
The words of Constitution .Commissioner Reginald Dumas
come to mind:
"One last word. It would be a nice irony if one day (perhaps in the
not too distant future) the roles are reversed, and those who mdst
loudly clamour for proportional representation find, for one reason or 'S
another, that it is no longer necessary to do so while those who spuni
it now then seek its introduction." (Report, page 142) KIRPALANr 'ds ON~ DE
The whole thing, fortuitous or not, could be a deft political .- .". ._ ..
manoeuvre. It would float all boats.'

fact that such a comit-
ment just is not there.
For if 'Burnham is
guilty of total insensitiv-
ity over this issue, he is
no more guilty than
others have been in the
Barrow is also on
record as referring to
some of the leaders in
the smaller islands in the
most insulting and con-
temptous terms. While
Williams not so very
long ago was castigating
in the most venomous
language some of his
Caribbean colleagues.
When the political
leaders begin in an atmos-
phere of animosity and
vituperation then the
example is set for the
people as a whole to
The prospect of Carib-
bean integration is now
closer to the ashes of
1961 than it has ever
been. Nor is it likely to
move forward until the
present crop of political
leaders are replaced by
those to whom Carib-
bean Nationhood is not
just an empty slogan.

-I IPb~l -s~B~IPseeSCdlg~P b




going to build not a
house, not a block of
flats, not a high-rise
building but a temple
in Trinidad.
"There's going to be a
studio and a museum
and a theatre", Clarke
says. "It's going to be a
place io prayer and
meditation. And that's
going to be my home
And the Temple will
be called "El Tucuche".
That is also the name
of a new series of paint-
ings that Clarke intends
to complete in more
ways than one. "El
Tucuche" as painting
will express a resolution
of the human agony that
Clarke has explored in
two other series of work
his first, "Fragments
Of A Spiritual" and
"Douens", now in its
finishing stages.
Where the earlier work
showed the groping
around in the dark and
the distortions of people,
people disturbed in that
peculiar Third World twi-
light, Clarke intends "El
Tucuche" to move on
"towards identity, a
stability o( wi'i. chlwc ca;i
find a footing to re-
group and re-root."
If the idea of building
a Temple as his home
here strikes people as
crazy, Clarke happens to
take his art as religion.
"I believe your cul ture
is your religion", he says.
"Believing that, I'm
going to build my Temple
and continue being a poet
and a painter and, hope-
fully one day, emerge as
priest. I say 'hopefully'
because it takes a lot to
get there."
Clarke, who has been
living out a kind of self-
exile in New York, is
back home for Carnival.
He's been doing that
every year for a number
of Carnivals, coming
back, he says, "to get.
the feel of the colour
and the people."
This year, though, he
is back on a longer mis-
sion. He wants to begin
basic drawings and notes
on "El Tucuche" and
that's going to keep him
in Trinidad until around

Then he'll go on to
Haiti and Mexico. draw-
ing and taking notes
out there too.
He's going to gt
involved in Carnival of
course. As part of tlhe
preparation for the work
Immediately after
Carnival he's going to
climb El Tucuche, one of
Trinidad's highest peaks.
"I have to go through
these rituals", Clarke
This Carnival, he'll be
"walking- through the
plains", hoping to shed
"the trivia and banality
of Carnival."
Which dosen't mean
he's against it. It is just
that at this point, "in
order to find yourself
you must break from the
habits, no matter how
precious those habits,
like Carnival, may be."

Clarke wh o .used in
work as arlist-iii-residenrce
at the Studio Mucseuni
in New York, is now
l-i i,*:M' ion? ': o
p ii n{t :t'; v- i,. ;'. to
rind thc dirno and tlie
112mone soe o'. lo be.
able io dc i;lhii uL'
paint and write for two,
three years."
It may take him as
long as that to finish the
"El Tucuche" series.
The framework of the
new series is, to Clarke.
simple. The paintings will
be, constructed in the





c ON the evening of
Wednesday February 4,
Tapiamen Syl Lowhar
and Beau Tewarie
journeyed to Penal and
together with Annan
Singh of Siparia held a
lively meeting with the
.folks at Penal.
p The meeting was a
model of participatory
democracy. After Beau
Tewarie and Syl Lowhar
had spoken, several mem-
bers of the audience, got
up to say their piece.
First there was former
Senator Robert Mansingh
who spoke in flowing
form of a module or language about the pro-
room. blems-of rural communi-
The outer walls will ties.
contain "all our failings, He agreed with one of
the havoc we've created the Tapia speakers that a
in the world". The inner responsive local govern-
walls will take the form ment could put an end to
of the womb, that hal- many unnecessary pro-
lowed place where "life blems, such as roads,
is celebrated." water, drainage etc., that

.i o n e c,,,vov Next to speak was Mr.
T S 0 eo who
I'm going to try to do ,of corruption in the
that as a series of rituals, county council. He
rooted in our culture and lamented the fact that
tracing the whole circle the little man had no
of ritual from birth to voice in this.country.
death." One Mr. Gopaul-was
All hise. i. p .;- pleased to be at a meet-
ar-c accompanied by ing in which Tapia had
poems in which Clarke spoken "so many truths".
tries todistil the meaning Mr. Guiton, an old
of the particular ii,.. hand at politics, rose to
'.. this wo;k beg:a, For make a forceful delivery.
LeRoy Clarke, as an There weremany prob-
enquiry into his own ing questions too, and
condition and therefore the meeting went long
the condition of his cul- into the night.
ture. At the end of the
"Enquiry" was the meeting the people of
name of one of Clarke's .Penal promised to arrange
earliest poems, showing a larger meeting as soon
where he began. See above, as possible. RT.

"Who will rechart the ruin?
Who will piece it together
in its beginning?
Who will utter the cipher?
A new poet
who claims neither name nor roof
who will sacrifice child or fied ..,
A new poet
who has collected words like nails
stripped from his own fingers,

I must own the voice
tlat archetypal warmth on uthe t.gue
my own"!

26a Raminar St. Morvant


Foundation to Fixtures

Call. 62-4469 8



S Stephens







me say from the start
that there is no love lost
between Arthur Napo-
leon and .myself. I have
said time and again that
even by the ridiculous
standards of politics
which we have unfortu-
nately become accustom-
ed to in this country
Arthur Napoleon is the
most incompetent poli-
tician I have ever met.
The poor. fellow just
cannot seem to do
anything right. His
political career is a whole
series of enormous
blunders. And his most
amazing gift is an extra-
ordinary capacity for
throwing away the most
wonderful of opportuni-
The first big mistake
-i-eeverenxag-e3as juinung
the PNM. His nextmistake
was leaving it. By that
time he had grown too
accustomed to the sweet
taste of power to think
clearly, so he proceeded
to make yet another
gigantic blunder, he

formed an overnight
party, the ACDC.
Not content with
forming an overnight
party and giving it such
an unfortunate name
Arthur Napoleon- next
proceeded to join his
party to that of Jamadar's
DLP for the purpose of
fighting the elections.
But when somebody
bless they well bless and
when somebody stupid
they well stupid.
For after campaign-
ing up and down the
country and getting
people from all over the
place to come out in
support of him, Arthur
Napoleon nextproceeded
to declare that he was
boycotting the 1971
elections, without even
telling Jamadar and the
1", '-u'l.--memn in tih
So naturally the mar-
riage buss up one time.
But Arthur had not
learnt anything. For his
very next step was to
change the name of his
half of the buss up party




to the DAC and proceed
right away to start calling
for, would you believe,
"Elections Now".
Friends I could go on
talking about Arthur
and' the mistakes he has
made but all I want to
do is to convince you
that I could never be
called a supporter of that
So that when I write
now to defend him you

can know that I am
being ashonest as possible.
But on the latest issue
defend him I must. I
believe that anybody in
this country should have
the right to put forward
their views to the country
in a public meeting and I
am confident in the
ability of the people to
judge the who the stupid,
politicians are and who
are the worthwhile ones.
That tome is the most
important sign of a free
society. And I feel very
strongly that it is the
height of wickedness
when the police are
allowed to break up a
public meeting and arrest
the speakers.
The law passed by this

Government which savs,
that politicalparties must
receive permission from
the Commissioner of
Police before holding a
public meeting is nothing
but a vicious example of
repression and the denial
of the people's freedom.
So I want to publicly
state that as far as I am
concerned in this matter,
Arthur Napoleon, as
stupid as he may be, is
going to get my support.
And I am notprepared
to believe all those
wicked rumours. that
somebody is spreading
that Arthur bribed the
police to arrest him so
he could get some cheap


am sure you know, there
is politics and politics.
And these days when
we getting so much
politics all over the place
we have to be very clear
as--to what politics is
r'ious4ooliiticns nd wh at
poli tics i justpappyshow.
For example, right
now there is a lot of
pappyshow politics being
played by some of the
Government Ministers.
All of them running

about the place like
chicken with they head
cut off. Which may be
just the case.
For example not too
long ago imagine five big
Government Ministers
turn up at the airport
all at once to see some
packages arrive.
And all of them were
fighting to get their faces
in one small picture in
the Guardian.
The other day they
open a little two by four


Port of Spain


now houses

* Administrative Secretary

* Citizens Advice Bureau

Is Venue for Council meetings

for Wednesday night rap sessions

and Cultural activities.

Check us out Tel: 62-25241

Cipriani Boulevard.P.O.S.

bridge on the old Southern
"Main Road and they had
S'a bigger ceremony than
when they open the
One of them was so
desperate for a little bit
of publicity that he even
went out in the street
and start directing traffic.
Friends, you know
and I know that all this
is a lot of pappyshow.
None of that nonsense
is going to change the
price of rice or the price
of hops bread.
And that is serious
The bakers in this
country arp holding the
people to ransom. They
are threatening one of
the most vital institutions
in the land.
The tradition of the
hops bread is one that
goes back deep into our
history. Trinidad and
Tobago without hops
bread. is like Trinidad and
Tobago without carnival.
If the Government
were really serious they
would neverhave allowed
the bakery to get as far
as they have. Imagine the
audacity of the Bakers
to say that in place of
hops they are going to
bake more hamburger.
Hamburger buns is for
hamburger. Hops bread
is for ham. The bakers
should be charged for
social treason.
And I also want to
say how very disappoint-
ed I am with those lovely
ladies in HATT. I read
their statement very care-
fully and I hope 1 aun
wrong but all I could see
they are saying is: If
there "are no -lops Let
them eat Bake.

* National Executive

* Campaign Committee


Mrs. Andre TalbUtt,
Research Institut for
Study of M4an,
162, ,ast 78th Street,
New York, N.Y. 10021,
Ph. Lehigh 5 8448.


UNTIL very recently it
used to be just voush ky
vash. They travelling up
and down the country's
roads. Nobody eh see.
Before time catching
them used to be a big
thing for the Police. But
those were the days of
Trinidad Government
Railways. and what used
to be popularly known
as Darmanie Bus.
Now a days Superin-
tendent Toppin strength-
ening the Traffic Branch,
with more men and more
specially high-powered
N o r t o n motor-bikes.
But still no Police see.
Then all of a sudden they
have become the biggest
culprits in Transport, black-
ening an otherwise rosy
state of affairs. Or so some
would have us believe.
Is "Nuh, nuh, nuh con-
done wha? Law breaking?
That is totally unacceptable.
Aren't these fleet owners
callous cheaters of the
revenue, by-passing regula-
tions compelling them to
register and to pay under
the law governing the opera-
tion of taxis?"
See them boldly seeking
an audience with the PM.
"Haven't the pass week
brought out the audacity
that surrounds this wholesale
breaking of the law by PH
"Unless we apply the
strictest curb we can look
forward to much agony
among commuters as the

menace becomes completely
That is the Editor, Trini-
dad Guardian.
Has he not noticed that
commuters are daily lengthen-
ing the transport lines onto
the outskirts of the city? To
the Fly Over Bridge in the
East for San Juan passengers.
To Park Street and above for
St. James and St. Anns
travellers, and to way pass
Mission Road on the 'Saddle'
for those people going to
Santa Cruz.
Does he know that if you
have to go Arima and the
evening catch you anywhere
between Laventille and Tuna-
puna you have to fork out
money for two or three
short drops?
Does he not know that
each day ,out-of-town com-
muters knocking off at 4
o'clock and darkness still
catching them on the road
scrambling, scrambling...
What oould be more
agonising? You are tired like
hell, you want to go home
and you stilrcan't go. What
could be more risky than
travelling by PH? You are
scrambling for taxis and any
minute car wheels could roll
over your body.
But that is not a serious
concern for Worswick, the
Transport Commissioner
The PH's presence is
more serious and it is his
intention to curb that regard-
less of how people feel.
Always it is the little people
who suffer. More agony!
But the truth really is
that PH's have been flouting
the law with impunity, boldly
importufiing passengers on

the taxis' stands. To that
they must pJead guilty. It is
also true that it has been
happening with the tacit
approval of the large majority
of commuters in the country.
The question is just why?
The answers are related
to the failures of the Govern-
ment over the twenty odd
years they have been in
power to provide either for
full employment or proper
And the evidence is the
fact that close to 80,000
citizens of the country walk
the streets without jobs and
another 70,000 are under-
employed. From here has
come a small proportion of
individuals rushing to fill the
gaping short fall in the supply
of passenger accommodation.
The situation is one in
which public transport


Farrah's Building,
Henry Street,

always bad, always heavily
subsidized by tax-paying
commuters became trebly
worse once it was decided
to abandon Trinidad Govern-
ment Railways. From the
horrors that greet us each
day on the road we are
surer now that the altema-
tives were never properly
thought through.
,. Neither did we plan for
the inevitable increase in the
demand for transport stem-
ming from the rise in popula-
tion. From this has flowed
congestion and longer and
longer peak hours.
The situation is one in
which everybody has had to
move to cut his losses. Com-
muters accepting PH's. Taxi-
men moving to the short
drops. Not to mention the
H-Rights that are being sold
so they can help themselves


8Mon Chagrin Street,
San Fernando.

Opening Soon!

to two PHs, and so abandon
the inefficient taxi-business.
The point is that with the
hell-hole that transport is
now in, everybody taking
licks. We losing time and
money. And the country
paying the price by way of
S.o the issue is not simply
taxi-men versus PH. Nor the
lawful against the lawless. If
asKT cw Come somne owners
have two taxis? Or how is
it that some civil servants
and teachers getting taxi
badges, in front of the
neediest cases?
Thorny questions eh
No, transport cannot
be solved simply by making
way for 600 new taxis
because none of the prospec-
tive owners are going to
service Todds Station Road,
mash up their vehicles for a
low rate of return in the
Taxis will go first where
the bread is. Those are the
urban areas. That spellsmore
congestion, more time wast-
ing and more under-produc-
tivity. Even though such areas
yield the highest rate of
That means we are back
to PH.

Transport Solutions.

Power Talks



Through Local govern-
ment' is the topic for
this week down at the
Tapia Port-of-Spain Cen-
tre, 22 Cipriani Boulevard.
The talk will be
delivered by Allan Harris,
Tapia's Shadow Minister
of Local Government. It
is carded to take place
on Wednesday February
18, 1976 at 8 p.m.