Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00197
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: January 25, 1976
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00197

Full Text







Ministry of West Indian
Affairs have been closed
The large street sign
reading "Ministry of West
Indian Affairs" at the en-
trance to St. Ann's Ave-
nue, St. Ann's, has also
been taken down. And
the Ministry staff have
been dispersed between
the Ministry of Industry
and Commerce and the
Ministry of External
A civil servant com-
mented last week:
"To be quite frank, as
with so many other things,
the Ministry of West In-
dian Affairs has gone into
the Twilight Zone."
Not so, a top Govern-
ment spokesman said last
He denied that the
Ministry was no longer
being taken seriously.
"The Ministry of West
Indian Affairs has been
absorbed into the Ministry
of Industry and Com-
merce", the spokesman

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"That means that a
senior Minister is in charge
and that makes for better
administration and co-
In effect, however, the
senior Minister involved
Mr. Errol Mahabir, has
his hands.more than full.
Mr. Mahabir is Minister
of Industry and Com-
merce, Petroleum & Mines
and also Minister for
which is the new designa-
tion being given to the

Ministry of West Indian
The West Indian Affairs
Ministry was created as a
separate entity by the
Prime Minister to pay
special attention to re-
gional developments in
April 1967.

That was'one year after
the launching of the Carib-
bean Free Trade Associa-
Lion (CARIFTA) which

has since evolved into the
Caribbean Common Mar-
ket (CARICOM).
Kamaluddin Mohammed
was the first man who
was appointed to head
the new Ministry, a post
he held along with Ministei
of External Affairs unitl
he was shuffled to the
Ministry of Health in
March 1973.
"For all practical pur-
poses", another Govern-
ment official confirmed
last week, "The Minister
of West Indian Affairs
has ceased to exist".




grinds on
THE Trinidad and
Tobago Labour Congress
has failed in its bid to
get an early settlement
in the dispute between
Canning & Co., Ltd., and
the National Union oi
Government and Federa-
ted Workers (NUGFW)..
Hopes for an early
settlement in the dispute
were dashed last week
when it was disclosed that
meetings between Congress
President James Manswell
and the Company had not
produced an agreement.
Union sources said the
Company had advocated
that the loss of some jobs
at the Company's Soft
Drinks factory at Streat-
ham Lodge be accepted
by the'NUGFW.
Congress said it could
not accept that Manswell
is now expected to inform
other members of the
Congress of the stalemate
and a decision will be
taken on further action.
The Company's Soft
Drinks factory workers
have been on strike since
November 24 last year
when the Company dis-
missed its 49-man sales
staff to cut production
NUGFW reported the
dispute to Congress and
Mr. Manswell has held
several meetings with the
Company to try to resolve
the issue. So far, without

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An Industrial path

For T&T.



Report on Wednesday night meeting.


YI L ~ 'L I~l~a~

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mo veme 1. etion.,- ribe

Vol. 6 No. 4

30 Cents




A Technological Path ,or T&T

Lloyd Taylor

based on high technology
and high finance is in
the final analysis a
scheme for recolonisation.
It would be madness for
Trinidad and Tobago to
follow the path to econ-
omic transformation pro-
posed in the 1976 budget.
Thus argued Lloyd.
Best, last Wednesday
night at the new Tapia
Campaign Headquarters
at 22 Cipriani Boulevard-
in Port-of-Spaifl. The:
Secretary of the Tapia
House Movement was
speaking on Industrial
Policy for Trinidad and
Tobago, before a warm
and appreciative audience.
The talk was the first in a
fresh series of the celebrated
'Thursday Night Meetings'
planned to take place at the
Centre every Wednesday
According to Best, the
role of thepeople of Trinidad
and Tobago in the scheme of
industrial transformation by
means of high technology is'
bound to be one of hewers
of wood and drawers, of
Water. "If that is not rcolon-
isation I don't know what is,"
Best said. "We are lucky,"he
added, "that there is a paraly-
sis of public administration."
However wickedness was
not the important reason why
the Government is promoting
such a scheme. They have
bought hook, line and sinker
all the claptrap about so-
called developed and develop-
ing countries. They are
confusing the minds of the
young with false notions that
we have to engage in the
race to introduce some higher
technology into Trinidad and
The real source of the

problem was the Govern-
ment's profound ordinariness.
Their failure to find some-
where in our imagination a
different kind of civilisation
and a different relation be-
tween technology, politics,
society and culture.
Best argued that the
technology of the North
Atlantic merchant civilisation
has dislocated the human
personality and created a
personality disorder. It has
led to a fundamental aliena-
tion a king of futility it is
almost impossible to see the
end of.
It has cut people off from
decision-making and has
made them unresponsible.
People were afraid to take
initiative and win their free-
dom back. People were in the
main cut-off from any sense
of organic process.
That is why the Tapia
House Movement constitutes
an attack on the entire
civilisation by building from
below step, by step, by step.
Perhaps most important
of the power groups created
by the technological mer-
chant civilisation is a top
elite of apparently faceless
technocrats always wailing
and pretending that they
have no power. "But technol-
ogy cannot do anything if
some brain did not first
programme it."
The second group were
the politicians, the public
relations front men who are
the spokesmen for the sys-
tem. This left the vast
majority of the people cut-
off and subject to endless
These features Best, felt,
provided a more important
perspective for a sociology of
current power relationships
than the dead orthodoxies
offered by the conventional
politics of the left. He
pointed out that large-scale

Lloyd Best was addres-
sing a warm and enthusi-
astic crowd at Campaign
Headquarters on Cipriani
Blvd. in Port-of-Spain, a
Tapia team was carrying
on a public meeting in
Allan Harris, Augustus
Ramrekersingh and Beau
Tewarie had to compete
with a calypso show at
the Ascot Cinema for the
attention of the people
in the Guaico-Sangre
Grande area.
Then as luck would
have it, the rain came
pouring down.

The small crowd which
turned out however,
listened intently as Allan
Harris presented the
Tapia plan for a Local
Government in Sangre
Beau Tewarie, follow-
ing Harris, outlined plans
for reorganising the Edu-
cation System and
Augustus Ramrekersingh
made proposals for a
vibrant agricultural sec-
At the end of the
meeting, the Tapia team
pledged to return to
Guaico to continue dis-
cussions with people in
the Community.




organisation was part of the
package which came with
high technology. Another
related, aspect is the almost
complete absence of feedback.
Best urged that in look-
ing for answers we must ~'nd
an arrangement of tie econ-
omy and a choice of technol-
ogy which would reinvest
Caribbean people with com-
mand of their own situation.
We have to show our people
that problems are soluble by
work and participation.

"Our problem was not
that we were forever depen-
dent on North Atlantic
technology. Caribbean coun-
tries are in fact highly deve-
loped for poverty. And we
must break out of that vicious
Answers certainly are not
to be found in barbarian
socialism by which Stalin
solved the problem had
liquidated millions of Rus-
sian peasants. Nor does the
choice lie as the ideologues
would have us believe, be-
tween capitalism and
What is the essential
difference between American
and Russian civilisations?
Between these two out-
worn options we in the
Caribbean must find a
"desperate intersplucy". The
problem with capitalism is
not private ownership but
the abuse of power. The real
solution lies not inmere State
ownership but in the redistri-
bution of central power.
It is in such a context
integration and contribute to
building Caribbean civilisation.
That is the negative. The
positive and second step is to
plump for a 'high enterprise
low technology' sector based

Best felt that any offer of an
.alternative technological
choice must be located. And
we consider'more tlan the
economic question. The
alternative was one which
swims against the current.
We have to go upstream
as it were instead of drifting
downsticauni ais hic Govecn--
ment was currently doing.
H-igh technology must he
cautiously pursued only in
such pioccts. as :1c critical
for allowing us to make the
reu ed cultural shifts.
What do we then do
Lloyd Best asked?
The critical strategy Best
suggested involved three
measures. The first was the
conservation of ourpetroleum
resources. There are two
reasons for that move. One
is that money should be
moved into goods whenever
the rate of inflation is rising
faster thn the rate of in-
terest. We could stop selling
'good oil' in exchange for
varnishing dollars.
We should mine so much
oil as would earn the foreign
exchange necessary for us to
take-over the life-line indus-
tries and to own and run
such companies as Amoco,
Texaco and Fed Chem.
We should go only into
those downstream operations
that might bring regional
on drag brother industry and
kitchen garden agriculture.
The fundamental charac-
teristic of low technology is
that it creates widespread
demand for htunan skill and
human insight. While high
technology makes most of us
only semi-skilled.
What is the road to such
a programme? The closing
off of imports, further de-

valuation, allowing prices to
rise for drag brother industry
and small farmers and the
use of State resources for
breaking critical bottlenecks
in the production of goods at
inese measures neSt
pointed out would have the
advantage of emancipating
the arts and crafts and bring-
ing income to multitudes of
little people. The unanswered
question was how were we
going to trigger off the
country to get on that scene?
That question was an
important one because we
could only create full employ
ment to the extent that we
managed to reduce material
in equality.
The solution here was in
a high welfare sector. Such a
sector, Best said, must be
based on an incomes policy,
with minimum wages below
and maximum above, on
functioning utilities and a
widespread provision of public
goods in the form of educa-
tion services, health services
and cultural facilities galore.
The high welfare sector
was necessary to persuade
people to lift Trinidad and
Tobago out of the conditions
that create inequality and
unemployment. "The only
way that that is politically
feasible is if output increases."
An additional advantage of
this path to economic trans-
fonnation is that it would
allow the cultural level to
rise. The quality of life would
be infinitely richer.
Economic transformation,
Best concluded, was more
about poetry than about
economics. The high enter-
prise, low technology path is
the only way forward with-
out totalitarian measures.

Iron & Steel?

Aluminium Smelter











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--'----r:---l ~-

This is a view of the old building from which

the Government plans to move the panmen's headquarters.

AFETR spending two
years in a decaying and
condemned building owned
by the Ministry of Works,
Pan Trinbag6 is soon to
get better accommoda-
This is as a result of
a recent series of Cabinet
decisions relating to assist-
ance for Pan Trinbago,
who will be staging
this year's Panorama com-
Tapia understands that
the Cabinet decided to
put up Pan Trinbago for
three months in condi-
tions better than the dila-
pidation and squalor of
the building in which
steelband officials have
been doing their business.
The building on Queen
and Abercromby Streets,
Port ot Spain was ear-
marked for demolition at
least 10 years ago, when
plans were first announced

for the construction on
the site of a multi-storey
block of Government
office buildings.
The stipulated period
of three months is per-
haps the most pointed
indication so far of when
the elections will be held.
For what has begun,
from all appearances, is
the familiar shower of
attention and love usually
lavished on the steelband
movement -in an election
On January 8, the
Government announced a
decision to give over
$60,000 in financial
assistance to Pan Trin-
bago to help the organ-
isation in holding Pano-
In effect, the Govern-
ment will be paying for
police services at the
grand annual "pan jam
fete" in the Savannah
($38,404); for the print-

Grande school holds

folk music show

A 'angre Grande Secondary School will this
month end bring its cultural offerings to the
Queen's Hall stage in Port of Spain.
This will be when the Folk Choir of North
Eastern College, Sangre Grande, on January 30 and
31, presents 'Linstead Market', a presentation
containing Jamaican market and work songs, some
specially written for the occasion.
The North Eastern Choir won its category of
the 1974 Music Festival with a performance that
was described by the judges as equal to professional
The month end show will be directed by
Winston Williams and Helen James, two teachers.
Tickets are $2, $3 and $4, but a special show for
school-children to be put on at 2.30 p.m., on
january 30, can be seen for 75 cents.

ing of tickets at the
Government Printer
($18,500); and for "extra
duty" by the Fire Ser-
vices Department.
In addition, the Gov-
ernment seconded four
public servants to "assist
in the management of
the 1976 Pan Trinbago
Carnival productions."
This too for a period
"not less than three


This technical
assist ance will enable
key officials like Bertie
Fraser and Roy Augustus,
present and previous Pan
Trinbago Presidents res-
pectively, to devote their
attention full-time to the
Carnival needs of the
steelband movement.
Moreover, the promise
of future "assistance" in
cash or in kind seemed
to be suggested by the
"Cabinet decided that
as a precondition to
future assistance, Pan
Trinbago set up an
accounting system accept-
able to and subject to
the terms of the Auditor
So a Government that,
as Tapia man Ivan
Laughlin pointed out last
week, included not a
word about pan in its
$2 billion 1976 budget,
is now seeking to recover
lost ground and take to
the road for elections to
the sweet music of grate-
ful panmen.
Last year, and most
occasions since Panorama
was first held, the Carni-
val Development Com-
mittee footed the various

bills that the Government,
by Cabinet fiat, is now
Dissatisfaction over
their share of the earn-
ings from Panorama,
however, led panmen to
want to run the Panorama
themselves. Shortly after
Carnival 19 75 preparatory
work began in Pan Trin-
It was always clear
that the dirt-poor pan-
men's organisation would
need capital and techni-
cal assistance to hold
such a venture.
There was no response
from the Government,

however, till the January
8 Cabinet decision an-
Nor have panmen been
slow to note that the
assistance is restricted to
"Carnival productions".
Many of them .suspect
that the perennially
wretched state of the
steelband movement will
not be affected by th:
Government's Carnival
They remain sure that,
unless they are careful,
it is a guava season which
will follow the Carnival
season, or the elections...
whichever is the sooner.

Our coverage of


is unsurpassed anywhere

for focus and point.

Keep abreast of the

real currents in the

Caribbean Sea.

Trinidad & Tobago $15.00 T.T.
CARICOM Area 25.00 W.I.
Other Caribbean 17.50 U.S.
North America 21.00 U.S.
United Kingdom -1l 1.20 U.K.
Western Europe 14.00 U.K
Bound Volumes 1973 $20.00 T.T.
Bound Volumes 1974 24.00 T.T.
Back Issues Available
Overseas Deliveries Airmail. Surface Rates on Request
Postage Extra on Bound Volumes.
Tapia, 82,St. Vincent St. Tunapuna,
Trinidad & Tobago, W.I. Telephone 662-5126.


I --I _1 L 1 'I _L ~L I ii



What it is and

who gets hurt

EVERYDAY, tucked
away in some inconspi-
cuous corner of the news-
papers, a few lines tell a
tale of violence and rape.
Every now and then,
some father-journalist will
paint the pages of the
newspaper with the fur-
tive face of some suspected
But rape is not only a
crime against children. It
is a crime against women.
The married or
"experienced" woman
accustomed though she
may be to the sex act,
is as much traumatised,-
by the act of rape as the
Rape can maim them
both emotionally for life.

The thought of rape
arouses as much fear as
the thought of murder,
for rape is murder of the
will, a violation of a wo-
man's right as a person.
Many of us have
nightmares about being
sexually assaulted not
because of some sick and
aeep \ desire tor male
domination but because,
as all householders know,
'there is a difference be-
tween the gift of hospital-
ity and the rank pillaging
of armed robbery.
The law of this country
reveals much about itself
in its attitude to rape.
Carnal knowledge of
your daughter who is un-
der 13, whether or not
she consents, carries a
maximum sentence of
five years.
It is regarded as only
a misdemeanor, however,
if your daughter were
going on 14, the act then
carries a maximum of four
Legally, childhood ends
at 14, so the law makes
a show of taking care of
its children, very specific-
ally, in its Ordinance.

Yet the sentences are
so disproportionate in
relation to this theory of
protection, (rape of a
child carrying a five-year
maximum!) that the whole
thing is a bloody farce.
Still, though there is
'protection', for the child,
there is little for the ex-
perienced woman.
Some men, and a num-
ber of them administer
the law, have their own
ideas about rape.
They prefer to believe
that women who cry rape
have either encouraged it
or want to seek revenge
for either unwanted preg-
nancy or a promise of
reward not kept.

Though there are in-
stances where this might
be so, it cannot be held
as the general rule and
attitudes cannot justifiably
be fashioned by such a
Or again, these hard-
liners excuse the so-called
uncontrollable 'sex drive'
of the male. A myth.
A study entitled
"Patterns of Forcible
Rape", which took 646
cases of rape into con-
sideration, showed that
71% of these cases had
been planned.
Authorities'advise that
to resist the slavering
rapist is to court violence,
yet to passively submit

is to seek eventual humilia-
tion before the co!'rt.
You must relive the
lurid det' Is for the vica-
rious pleasure (illtmina-
tion?) of the court, even
identify the various under-


Because the rapist's
only defence is the con-
sent of his victim, the
woman has the added task
of attempting to describe
the resistance to a lawyer
who is convinced that a
bucking mare cannot be
Through some strange

miscarriage of the law,
every woman bringing a
rape charge before the
courts must be prepared
to DEFEND her character
- that is prove that
she is not a loose woman
who seduced the poor
While the most intimate
details of HER personal
life can be laid bare, the
law forbids any reference
to any previous convic-
tions (for rape or other-
wise) that the defendant
may have.



Port of Spain


now houses

* National Executive

Campaign Committee

* Administrative Secretary

* Citizens Advice Bureau

* Angela Cropper

for Wednesday night rap session

and Cultural activities.

Is Venue for Council meetings

Check us out Tel: 62-25241

Cipriani Boulevard.P.O.S.



IF THE man re-appointed as Chairman of the Board,
the arbitrary James Alva Bain, behaves towards the
new Board members ashe did towards the old Board's
two members George John and Lenny Farfan -will
Anna Mahase, Esmond Ramesar, OwenMathurin and
Dr. Ashton Parris put tail between their legs and
When Jimmy Bain descended on 610 Radio and
TTT in March 1975 with a new "editorial policy",
banned all political voices from the air, (not even Dr.
Williams' address to the PNM's annual convention
last year was broadcast over 610, though Radio
Trinidad carried it), fired five journalists and ter-
rorised nearly everybody at both stations, he was in
fact acting without the consent of the Board.

George John,'who has
since resigned his job as
publicc Relations Officer
to the Prime Minister to
work as editor of the
EXPRESS, issued a state-
ment to the Press at that
time saying he was not
in agreement with the
"editorial policy", nor
was the Board being
asked anything.
The decisions of Chair-
man Bain, including
appointing Ed Fung as
new Programme Director
at 610, were rammed
down their throats.
Lenny Farfan, who is
Permanent Secretary at
the Ministry of Educa-
tion & Culture, said
nothing in public but
privately he seethed with
rage over Chairman Bain's
high-hinded actions.
In effect, the old-
Board had stopped func-
tioning long before its
time was up.. Minister of
Industry & Commerce
Errol Mahabir did not
tell the Press that when
he announced the new
Board on January 16. It
was simply put that the
term of the old Board
had "officially expired."


The Minister's an-
nouncement also should
clear up the doubts
among journalists, includ-
ing some very senior men,
that ChairmanBain acted
last year. without the
Government's say so.
Guardian Editor Lenn
Chongsing, and President
of the Journalists' As-
sociation (JATT) now
in abeyance actually
told a JATT meeting
last year that he had
spoken to a Cabinet
Minister about it and the
Minister had said he was
shocked about the whole
thing and would have it
At least one Political
Reporter wrote that
Chairman Bain might
soon find himself in hot
water because the Prime
Minister him self was
looking into what was
happening at 610 and

But by re-appointing
Bain as Chairman of the
Board, Mr. Mahabir, and
the Government, in
truth and in fact expres-
sed a vote of confidence
in Bain and support for
his actions.
The new Board mem-
bers are not exactly
"lightweights". Anna
Mahase is known as the
enlightened and progres.-
sive Principal of St.
Augustine Girls' High
School; Esmond Ramesar
is Head of the UWI's
Extra-Mural Department;
Dr. Ashton- Parris, is a
UWI Lecturer in Electri-
cal Engineering and
Owen Mathurin is editor-
ial writer for the "Trini-
dad Guardian" 'and a
former Public Relations
Officer to the Prime
Contrary to the im-
pression being given,
things are not "back to
normal" at either 610
or TTT. All kinds of

"Subscribe to The little

Bajen Pa per'




$ 5.0 I I '.S.'

S5. S. (

Territories )



$2.50 (Ja)

Other Caribbean:

USA /Clinada.
L'. K. /l-'iropce:

tensions are lying there
below the surface of
jingles, balmed voices
and television mascara.
There are issues among
the staff themselves,
especially at TTT; issues

Foundation to


K EE,,P ,E 1:

Fix t ures

Call 6)2-44698






Of people who know
how to cope
with rising



26a Raminar St. Morvant

c)tween staff and
management; the feeling
that neither station is
doing what it should be
doing; and the natural
residue of fear and anger
created in the wake of
Chairman Bain's bull-in-
the-China-shop activities.
Added to that, there
is the wider issue of
radio and television time
for opposition voices. All
the political parties,
whatever theirdifferences,
are agreed on this as a
genuine, valid and urgent
issue call it an election
Is the new TTT/610
Board going to deal with
these issues as a group of
intelligent citizens with
the country's interest at
heart? Or are they going
to sit back and watch
Chairman Bain do his

I I I I I Ilri I c I



I I ,


ALTHOUGH he is one of
the major figures in
the history of the
Caribbean,- and indeed of
the western hemisphere,
the great Cuban writer
and revolutionary Jose
Marti has remained al-
most totally inaccessible
to the English-speaking
reader. Marti Anti-
imperialist, written by the
distinguished Cuban his-
torian Emilio Roig de
Leuchenring and publish-
ed in English in Havana
in 1967, contains exten-
sive quotations from
Marti's prophetic warn-
ings of the coming domi-
nation of Latin America
by the United States, but
it is not generally avail-
able outside. Cuba Two
collections of his descrip-
tions of American life and
politics have been pub-
lished in the United
States, but they too are.
difficult to find.

Inside the Monster:
Writings on the United


States and Ameri
perialism by Jose
edited by Philip S
'and just publish
Monthly Review
New York, will
least part way
filling this gap. I
together, for the fi
in English, Mart
criptive pieces ab
United States w
anti-imperialist cr
Marti lived
United States for
the most productive
of his life, from
until he went t
and die in Cuba ir
In that time he a
a correspondent
number of newspa
both New York an
America, and in t
cles he wrote fo
newspapers he le:
cord of his Ameri
perience that is i
able in its varied
,quence and perc
From New York
worked incessantly
gahize a revolut
Cuba, skilfully r
ing the forces

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New book

gives view

of Jose Marti

as journalist

Review for TAPIA

disarray at the defeat of
can lm- the first Cuban uprising
SMartin in 1878, but he also had
a wider vision of the pur-
hed by poses of his work. He
Press in described his goals in
go at 1894 as "a free country;
toward a free and friendly An-
t brings tilles; our America, free,"
rst time In his last latter, left
i's -des-- unfinished at his death
out the on the battlefield, he
ith his wrote, "At last I am daily
itiques. risking my "life for my
in the country and since I
S15 of understand it so and have
ve years the spirit to carry it out -
n 1880 for my duty of preventing
o fight in time, by securing the
n 1895. independence of-Cuba,
icted as the spread of the United
for a States across the Antilles,
papers in and of stopping it from
d Latin pouncing with this added
he arti- impetus upon our Ameri-
r those can lands."
ft a re- The progression of
.can ex- Marti's thought his
remark- initial belief in American
ty, elo- ideals of freedom and
optionn. democracy and his-grow-
k, Marti ing recognition of the
y to or- failure of the late nine-
tion in teenth-century United
egroup-. States to live up to those
left in ideals come through
.- clearly in Inside the
He warned his tellow
Cubans and other Latin
Americans not to be
UBANO. dazzled by American
achievements, and told
them of "the crude, un-
-even, and decadent cha-
-. racter of the United
__._ States, and the continu-
'." oussexistence there of all
-/ the violence, discord, im-
morality, and disorder
blamed upon the peoples
of SpanishAmerica."
In particular, he' tried
to alert Latin Americans
to the danger American
expansionism posed to
.i/,...' their own independence
Writing about the Pan-
American Congress held
"""'" in Washington in 1889,
'l ', an early manifestation of

II, -- C==;--
;L-~YLT-";-4 ---U

/ /

;-'. ~~e~ ---


the spirit that later pro-
duced the Organization of
American States and the
Alliance for Progress,
Marti said with charac-
teristic uncompromising
"This powerful neigh-
bour has never desired to
incite the Latin American
republics, nor has it ex-
erted control over them
except to prevent their
expansion, as in Panama
or to take possession of
their territory, as in
Mexico, Nicaragua, Santo
Domingo, Haiti, and
Cuba; or to cut off their
trade with the rest of the-
world, as in Colombia; or
to oblige them -to buy

what it -cannot sell, as
it is now doing, and to
form a confederacy for
purposes of controlling
Marti believed this an-
tagonism tobe fundamen-
tal, and it led him to
postulate the existence of
two separate Americas
perpetually in conflict:
"Our Ameirca" south of
the Rio Grande, and the
"Other America" that
threatened it. I can find
no explicit references that
give any clues to his atti-
tude toward the British
colonies of the Caribbean,
but it is clear that the
man who wanted to "cast
(his) lot with the poor

I LA 111 A tA1JJA I

"4, *I9u-. 4ri
q I Iis~ljl l~l~J9iiBH

people of the earth"
would have considered
them part, of "Our
Mai i placed great em-
phasis on the need for
each country to realize
its own destiny. "The
good governor in Ameri-
ca," he wrote, "is not
one who knows how go-
vernment is-conducted in
France or Germany, but
who knows the elements
of which his country is
composed and how they
can be marshalled so that
by methods and institu-
tions native to the coun-
try the desirable state
may be attained wherein
every man realizes him-

self, and all share in the
abundance that Nature
bestowed for the com-
mon benefit on the na-
tion they enrich with
their labour and defend
with their lives."
Influenced by present-
day manifestations of
American expansionism
such as Vietnam, the re-
visionist school of Ameri-
can historians has traced
the roots of that expan-
sionism back to events
of the nineteenth cen-
tury. Marti was no re-
visionist historian but a
contemporary observer of
those same events, who
often foresaw their con-
sequences with telling
accuracy, and his view of
them has a passion and
freshness of perspective
that no later writer can
In the event, Marti's
warnings were not
heeded. His successors,
who led Cuba to its inde-
pendence from Spain in

Left: Jose Marti poses with a
group of colleagues of the
Revolutionary Party. Drawing
above shows Marti speaking to a
group of Cuban revolutionaries.
I ar left: the eagle on this
Havana monument signifies deep
American involvement in pre-
Castro Cuba. Right: victorious
members of the 26 July Move-
ment celebrate in Havana, 1959.

1898, were less alert to
the danger from the
the United States. It is
questionable w he their
there is much they could
have done anyway. Cuban
independence was severe-
ly compromised from the
Puerto Rico was an-
nexed outright by the
United States. American
marines occupied Haiti
and the Dominican Re-
public. U.S. military
bases were established
everywhere from the
Bahamas to Trinidad.
Multinational corpora-
tions based in the United
States came to dominate
the region economically.

The struggle that drove
Marti remains unresolved,
and as a result his writings
have lost little of their
The appeal of Marti's
observations of American
life is different, perhaps,
but no less enduring.
Marti began by being fas-
cinated by the United
States, and that fascina-
tion, mixed sometimes
with admiration, some-
times with horror, and
often with elements of
both, never left him. He
saw America in a period
of considerable accom -
plishment, rapid growth,
carefree optimism, and
unbridled excess, and all
its contradictory elements
come through in his des-
"What a bustle!" was his
response to the amusement
park at Coney Island, then
newly opened. "What flow
of money! What facilities
for pleasure! What absolute
absence of all sadness or
visible poverty! Everything
is in the open air; the
noisy groups, the vast
dining halls, that peculiar
courtship of North Ameri-
cans into which enter al-
most none of the elements
which make up the modest,
tender, exalted love found
in our lands.
"The theatre, the photo-
graphic studio, the bathing
booths; everything in the
open. Some get weighed.
for to North Americans to
weigh a pound more or
less is a matter of positive
joy or real grief... Others
laugh uproarisouly when
one fellow succeeds in
hitting a Negro on the
nose with a ball, a poor
Negro who, for a misera-
ble wage, sticks his head
out of a hole in a cloth and
is busied day and night
eluding with grotisque
movements the balls
pitched at him."
Recent years have seen
a renascence of this kind
of highly personal and
subjective journalism, but
even the best of this "new
Journalism", which is of
course really not new at
all, lacks the commitment

and willingness to make
moral and political judg-
ment that mark Marti's
Inside the Monster is
the first volume in a pro-
jected three-volume col-
lection of Marti's works
and introduces the reader
to only part of his as-
tonishing range. Volume
II will cover Marti', writ-
ings on the Cuban revo-
lution and Latin Ameri-
ca, while Volume III will
include selections of his
writing on the arts. his
poetry and stories for
Not all of Marti is easy
to read. His Spanish is
considered idiosyncratic
and difficult although
beautiful, and it has gene-
rally been thought almost
impossible to translate.
There are places in Inside
the Monster where one
understands why.
More frequently, how-
ever, the clarity of Marti's
perception transcends all
these difficulties, and the
translations, some of them
from older collections
and some newly done by
Elinor Randall, allow that
quality to come through.
Marti's references are
sometimes obscure but
Professor Foner's notes
help the reader over the
rough spots and put many
of Marti's judgments in
historical perspective.
Monthly Review Books
are generally not as widely
distributed as they should
be, especially outside the
United States(the address
of the publisher is 62
West 14th Street, New
York, N.Y. 10011). The
cover price, US $16.50,
will scare off some people
and the title (which
comes from a remark of
Marti's in a letter written
in Cuba just before his
death: "I lived inside the
monster and I know its
entrails") will scare iff
others, But interested
readers who make their
way past these obstacles
will find the journey well
worth the effort.


Here, sc



CR e

Beau Tewarie

IF YOU go to Penal, and
drive about 3 miles into
Mohess Road, you will
come to the village of
Digity. About 75 homes
make up this rural com-
munity in the heart of
the sugar country.
A Tapia team of Annan
Singh, Mickey Mathews
and Beau Tewarie visited
the area recently and got
this report of conditions
in the village:
Digity is another of the
many remote and for-
-gotten villages wasting
away all over this land.
There are few amenities,
no aids to community
life or organization and
no facilities for recreation
or leisure.
Mohess Road itself is
one of the worst roads in
the country. There are
infinitely more potholes
than surfaced portions.
As a result taxi-drivers
refuse to drive through
Mohess Road, or that
there is no transportation
from the Penal Main
Road to Digity village.
And there is no bus
service either.
Children attending the
Penal Junior Secondary
or other schools in San
Fernando must experi-
ence what amounts to
torture every day.

Roads and transport
create one set of prob-
lems. The water situation
Many homes have taps,
but they are all dry. Ac-
cording to the villagers
the taps seldom flow ex-
cept around 2 a.m.
Obviously the people
of Digity are expected to
work in the day and fill
water at night.
Not all of the people
work. As one may guess,
a good many, mainly the
older folk. work in sugar.
Most of the young people
in the village are un-
Illiteracy is a problem
too. Only the younger
people can read. Many
of the villagers over forty
could not read the Tapia
Digity is dependent on
Caroni Ltd. in more ways
than one: most of the
land in the area is owned
by Caroni Ltd.
Very few people own
any land in Digity. Still,
they use the land in what-
ever way they can to
plant kitchen gardens at
the back of their houses,
to rear ducks, chickens,
goats etc.
Their homes too were
built through loans from
Caroni Ltd. In the past
Caroni used to be willing
to give sugar workers a
housing loan of $3000.
Today the company is
more generous. Sugar
workers can now borrow
as much as S5000.
It goes without saying
that the housing is sub-
standard. The houses are
small, usually of two or
three rooms, cheaply con-
structed and grossly in-
adequate to the needs of
reasonable living.
The people of Digity
have grown accustomed
to- neglect and indiffer-
ence over the years. They
face life with a mixture
of resignation and the
knowledge that self-help
is the only way out.
Feeling used by all the
old political parties, they
resent the government for
its indifference.
They feel that the time
has come to restore dig
nity to Digity.


I wish to congratulate
the Tapia Movement for
organising such a success-
ful Convention at the
Lions Club at San Fernan-
do on Sunday November
With limited funds and
resources, that Convention
surely entailed a lot of
hardwuk and dedication
by your Cabinet. This in
itself manifests the calibre
and integrity "of the Move-
ment when we shall over-

rassroots must

go deeper

I was very much inspired
by the addresses of the
Harrises and also the Sec-
retary's discourse which
has surely given the elect-
orate much food for
However, I believe you
have only scratched the
surface; your. grassroots
must explore deeper into
the masses.

W aste'...
downJ St jo

I want to report a
serious situation in St.
Joseph. There is a place
in St. Joseph, Freeman
Street to be exact, where
WASA water trucks dump
"all excess water".
I was surprised to hear
that the Minister of Public
Utilities has instructed
WASA to increase water
delivery when the trucks
dump the water hun-
Ireds of gallons that
should be delivered.
It pays to 'deliver'
water so the more taken
tobe delivered the better.
Please help the poor

suffering people and help
stop this wastage.
I am writing to Tapia
because I know the MP in
St. Joseph is a waste.
The people in the area
are keeping mum about
the whole situation. I
realise the strength of
yourparty, newspaper and
voice in the Senate, that
is why I am writing.
I do not want toidenti-
fy myself. But please go
to Freeman Street in St.
Joseph, and see
the waste.

I may be wrong, but I
feel that you are not
getting the message across
It is not being absorbed
and is not creating the
impact that I would like
to see.
Yours is a new kind of
political education in the
country and much de-
pends on how your Move-
ment translates this doc-
trine which will erase the
suspicion and deceit cul-
tivated by other political
At your next Conven-
tion, you should speak
more explicitly on the
agricultural situation and
also what will be done
about anti-labour legisla-
tion which is allowing
capitalists and transna-
tionals to perpetuate sla-
very conditions.
Your attention must
also be focused on the
restoration of human
rights and freedoms and
the establishment of an
independent Judiciary.
Just remember, the eyes
and ears of the Nation
are upon you.

Our printing-plant is open at
The Tapia House 82-84 St. Vincent
Street, Tunapuna.
Kindly phone orders to: 662-5126.


I '
* I .

II -_ I

r I













THE Prime Minister is
likely soon to retire again
from his post as Leader of
the ruling political party.
This is the view of Dr.
Vernon Gocking, put out
in a new crystal-ball pam-
phlet, gazing into the poli-
tics of 1976.
The forthcoming threat
of retirement will be part
of a plan to win a popular
mandate in order to re-
main in office.
Dr. Williams, argues the
pamphlet, would expect

the mandate to be "much
clearer and stronger" than
the one he got last time.
On December 2, 1973,
he made a triumpnarit
return to his party Con-
vention and abruptly
dashed the hopes of Pre-
tender Karl T. Hudson-
Dr. Gocking is an his-
torian and was a senior
contemporary of the Prime
Minister when at school
at Q.R.C. Before retire-
ment from the Public Ser-

Citizens Advice Bureau

in P.O.S.
NEED a helping hand,
some knowledgeable ad-
vice, or just a sympathetic
ear to tell your troubles
A number of Tapia
members have got together
to set up a service with
just you in mind.
They call it the "Citi-
zens Advice Bureau", and
it is open for use (free of
charge) by the public on
Monday, Wednesdays and
Friday from 10.00 a.m.
to 1.30 p.m.
Place: Tapia Port of
Spain Centre, 22 Cipriani
Boulevard. Telephone -
62 -25241.
A spokesperson for the
Bureau said last week that
the service had been car-
ried on ,for some time
now on an informal basis.
With the opening of
the C6ntre in town, how-
ever, the opportunity was
taken to centralise its
operations, making use of
the accommodation and

facilities available.
Already the Bureau has
secured the voluntary ser-
vices of a panel of doctors
lawyers and other
The aim, said the Bureau
spokesperson, is to "help
those 'little people who
have been hitting their
heads against the stone
walls of bureaucracy and
who suffer most in this
dog-eat-doL society"'

Williams' last come-back play
shattered the hopes of the Pre-
tender, Hudson-Phillips




ed by Dr. Williams in his
1973 comeback and also
hitches it to the power-
plays made by the Prime
Minister to defuse crises
such as the recent one in
The result reads very
much like the script for
a drama,about the final
settlement of the five-
year constitution crisis
and the forthcoming gen-
eral elections middle of September.
Dr Williams and the
Constitution was largely
written before the 1975
Xmas holidays and held
over for the New Year. It
tells the tale of how the
Political Leader of the
1956 Movement aims now
to fulfil his own prophecy
of December 1973 that
the country would choose
the party and the leader
"to whom they wish tc
entrust their mandate".

vice he was Chief Techni-
cal Officer in the Ministry
of Education. He teaches
History now to the Sixth
Forms at St. Mary's.
The new pamphlet is
entitled Dr. tilliams.and the
Constitution Blue-Print for
a Brave New World.
It will be pub-
lished on January 31 by
the Tapia House Publishing
Company and will go on
sale at 22 Cipriani Boule-
vard at a price of 50 cents
th.e pamphlet is the
hi in a series devoted
to the current constitution
crisis in this country. In
September 1973,he issued
Democracy or Uligarchy?
which speculated on the
then impending Report of
the Wooding Commission.
This was followed in
March 1975 bvParticipatory
Democracy which
pointed to weaknesses in
the Victorian constitu-
tional approach of Sir
Hugh Wooding and Dr.
Eric Williams alike.

While the Prime Minis-
ter was away on pre-
retirement leave, Dr. Gock
ing also published in
Tapia of November 4,
1973, an article entitled
"Dr. Williams May Not
"Blue Print for a Brave
New World" develops the
political strategy employ-



/S StOe ensA
_________ ^U K i~ai~y ______ PORT OF SPAIIN SAIN FERNANDO _______ __ __ _

A new


by C.V. Gocking

Nursery School

Auzonville Road


HOURS: 8.30 a.m. 11.30 a.m.
AGES: 2/2 4 Years
Contact Thora Laughlin,
14 Auzonville Rd. Tel: 662-5729.

---- --





for a






let's rap

IF TAPIA wish to win
this election, you must
concentrate your energies
on the people's bread and
butter problems. You
would increase your
chances by 100%.
Tapia need a new five-
year development plan or
modifications to any exist-
ing plan incorporating new
ideas. Here are some ideas.
I would like to discuss
and amplify with your
Roads and Bridges: The
present system should be
retained. In addition,
the Regiment should be
transferred to Nation
Building and Protective
Services and drawn into
engineering and construc-
tion. This would prvoide
additional manpower and
pave the way for
ex-officers. to be self-
employed' as road con-
struction contractors using
rented equipment where


Housing: The Govern-
ment should acquire,
wherever possible, all un-
used land over 2 acres
which is suitable for
housing. We should deve-
lop and sell or lease such
land using a means test

together with a lottery-
type distribution system
for landless citizens. For
example, we should ac-
quire IPD holdings in Trin-
city and reduce specula-
tion and inflation of land
Haves and Have Nots::
The statistical structure
of the economy must be
changed to reduce the
gap between the Haves

and the Have Nots of
Trinidad and TobagouProl
vide a Deferred Icnome
Investment Allowance in
Trust with Government
supervision and participa-
tion by investors in mana-
gement of the new in-
dustries set up.
This concept of deve-
lopment is not new just
more dynamic. For exam-

pie, the Neal & Massy
share transfer will give
this tax Iree benefit only
to a few workers.

I am not a politician.
I have no political interest
or ambition. I want to
help Tapia win this
election but I am afraid.
If they win. a hastily

drawn Development Plan
for the country could be
just as badly as noi plan at
1 am willing to sit in at
any closed door brain-
storming session in which
the subjects I have men-
tioned are being discussed.

Yours sincerely,
Port of Spain.


Look, we have the next govt already!

FRIENDS, some startling
news has just been
brought to my attention.
I got it from some really
good sources and I must
say that if it is true then
Tapia and most of the
other parties around
should pack-up and go
For what the news
adds up to is that we
already have the next
Government. In the first

place I was told that
there are very good
grounds for believing that
Panday has twelve seats
in the Central district
sown Lup. My sources
claimed that he cannot
be beaten there at all.
But then I also heard
that there is no shadow
of a doubt that Jamadar
has twelve seats in the
Central area under his
belt. All he is looking

for now they tell me is
to join with whichever
party looks the strongest
in the North and the
deep south.

In addition, a friend of
mine who is also a good
friend of Leq uay's right-
hand man, has told inc
(hat Lequay is quite cecr-
tain that he has twelve

seats in the Centraldistrict
completely under his
Now friends my mathe-
matics is lousy and my
politics may be worse.
But even a blind 1man
could see haIlt thllee
twelves are thirty-six. In
short we have liad the
ne\t government t all the
time. We cool.
Rind Zranathl ('apild co
/owl low weC need you

_ i. ~ -111~ ..1 Ld ~L-~qe.~q--



12 Parties going to the polls

would mean 432 candidates!

Dear Friends,
I have not been asked
yet by any of the many
parties around the place
to stand for them as a
candidate in the coming
elections. But I fully ex-
pect that I will be asked.
So these last few days
my thoughts have been
turned towards the whole
question of what I will
do if I am asked
You may think that I
am being facetious in say-
ing that I fully expect
to be asked. I assure you
I am not.
Just look for moment
at the situation in the
country. There are, at
tue moment, more than
a dozen registered parties.
By the time the
elections come there may
be more, but for the
moment let us say there
are twelve.

Now, no party can
afford to .go into the
elections with anything
less than a full slate of
candidates. To do other-
wise is to be defeated
even before they start.
So that, if my arithmetic
is up to scratch, I figure
that, come election time,
we are likely to have
exactly 432 candidates
running up and down the
country asking us for our
Now 432 may not look
like a lot but believe me,
it is. Of course it is quite
possible to pick up 432
men or women off the
streets, particularly these
days, pay them a few
dollars, keep them well
supplied with booze, and

turn them loose on an
unsuspecting population.
Indeed, after, seeing
some of the candidates
already announced, I be-
gin to wonder if this is
what is happening already.
But if we are generous
and assume that all the
parties are serious and
hence will be looking for
candidates who are capa-
bel of gaining respect and
support from the citizens,
then this is no solution.


But 432 good and
serious people are hard
to come by. I am not for
a moment suggesting that
our country does not
possess that number of
men and women of ex-
cellent character and
serious disposition, who
are capable of leading us
out of bondage and into
greener pastures, etc.
What I am suggesting
is that it is extremely
difficult to get such men
and women to agree to
stand as candidates in the
For the fact remains
that the odds are just too
great and the risks in-
volved not easy at all.
For example, many of
our citizens, or rather
many of our worthy citi--
zens, are to be found in
the worthy professions of
teaching and public ser-
'Under present rules and
regulations, any teacher
or public servant overtly
taking part in politics,
which you would agree
is a definition which can
be applied to taking part

in an election, has to
resign his or her job
In other societies where
anyone with experience
and ability can easily move
out of one job and into
another this may be no
Sbig thing.
But here in paradise
it is not difficult to under-
stand why plenty people
take the position that a
job in the hand is worth
all the greener pastures
in the world. Ketch-arse

is ketch-arse anyhow you
take it.
The fact remains that,
like it or not; most of
the candidates are going
to lose. After election
day there will be 39';
would be candidates look-
ing for something to do.
Now there may be a
few who even though they
lost have the consolation
of knowing that their
party won and they can
reasonably expect not to
be left to suffer.
But for the vast major-
ity, it will be a case of
crapaud smoke they pipe.
So that from the start
a large section of the

population is excluded by
the realities of bread
from even contemplating
standing as candidates.
It is not surprising,
therefore, that so many
parties run up and down
the country looking for
doctors and lawyers to
run. And when you think
of it, it is not a bad idea.
After all, theirprofessions
would tend to guarantee
them some independence
of means so that they
do not have to bother
about if they lose.
Indeed the only thing
that is not guaranteed
when you get a doctor
or lawyer to run for you
is that they would have
the interest of the country
at heart. But then foi
many parties this is defi-
nitely a secondary con-
Even so, however, the
problem is not solved.
We just do not have that
many doctors and lawyers
in this country to satisfy
the needs of all the


The next possible
source of candidates that
the parties might investi-
gate is all those candi-
dates who stood in pre-
vious elections and lost.
This indeed might turn
out to be the most fruit-
ful source of all. When
one thinks of it there
must be a lot of them
about the place. This
country has been having
elections for a long time
now and we have always
had a lot of candidates
whether they ran as par-

tymen or as independents.
Most of them must!
still be about. There are
some of them I could
name who never miss an
It is as though there
were something narcotic
or perhaps carthartic about
losing their deposits. They
always return to lose some
Many of them, of
course, are already in
some of the parties about
the place. But I am sure
that there are quite a
few just looking for a
A good idea would be
for them to form them-
selves into an Association
and rent their members
to the various parties.


Still, I am not worried
about being asked. After
all, I have beep talking
as though there were
only 12 parties and 36
But as I say there are
likely to be more parties
than that and information
reaching me indicates that
the number ofcontsituen-
cies are going to be in-
creased..One rumour has
it that there may be as
many as one hundred con
So from next week, do
not be surprised if you
see an advertisement in
all the papers reading:
"Young, strong, healthy
male. Reads and writes.
Speaks as well. Available
as candidate. $1,00"-
best offer. Interested
ties please contact. .


Mrs. Andrea Talbutt,
Research Institut for
Study of Man,
162, East 78th Street,
New York, N.Y. 10021,
Ph. Lehigh 5 8448.


- -SUNDAY JANUARY 25, 1976


How W.l.openers dilemma led to



THE West Indies have
been thoroughly outplayed
in the third and fourth
test matches.
After such a convincing
win in the second test, it
was difficult to envisage
a situation by the end of
the 4th test where Austra-
lia have already retained
Sthe Frank Worrell Trophy,
and the West Indies only
hope is to try and win
the remaining two and
even the series.
At the end of the 2nd
test, Australia: (as true
champions) were able to
assess the situation and
to buckle down and coun-
ter the West Indies.
The West Indies, how-
ever, have been let down
by their batting. They
may have been surprised
by the wicket on the
first day of the third
test match, but there was
no excuse for the batting
in the second innings.


In the fourth test they
showed an ability to fight
in the first innings and
amassed 355 runs under
very difficult conditions
with several people retir-
ing hurt at one stage or
another. But again they
folded up in the second
That is the really worry-
-4ng thing about the series
the inability of the
batsmen to stay there,
put their heads down and
organise an innings as the
Australian Captain did so
well in Australia's first
innings of the fourth test.
All kinds of excuses
have been put forward
bad umpiring, possible
dissension in the West
Indies camp and too much


There has been bad
umpiring and some awk-
ward decisions, but this
is nothing new, and while
I agree that one should
complain about it, one
should not be preoccupied
with it.
True champions must
be able to go on and win
in spite of bad umpiring:
touring teams have always
faced these situations in
Similarly, to try and
account for our defeat
in the fourth test by the
one chance that Greg
gave (to Boyce in slips
when he had scored less
than twenty) is really to
look for facile answers.


The root cause of our
defeats as far as I can
make out is that our bats-
men have failed against
the Australian attack.
Thomson has bowled very
well and the batsmen have
tried to fight themsleves
out of their quandry by
some desperate hooking
and cutting.
When a bowler is bow-
ling as, well as that you
need only to give him
the odd wicket now and

then and he would take
care of the rest.
There have been cer-
tain tactical errors too
which have not made the
situation easier.
The use of Julien as an
opener a second time was
just the sacrifice of a good
player and it seems
as though we will still
be paying the price for
that. by 'he fifth test
An equally bad decision
was sending Kallicharan
to open the second inning
of the fourth test.
It is easy to say that
he should not have hooked
at that time of day but
here was probably your
most reliable batsman
struggling for fo m -
being sent in late in the
afternoon in a most un-
accustomed position.


After the first over,
he was tied down by
Thomson until he finally
succumed it was in-
evitable once he did not
get away from Thomson's
Kallicharan more than
anyone needed these two
weeks' break one hopes
that he has been able to
mentally reorganise him-
Richards' form is very
encouraging all the re-
ports suggest that he will
open the innings with
Fredericks. The important
thing is that the West
Indies must take hold
of themselves, refrain from
panic, and approach the
remaining games with cool
and clinical method.
A draw is ot no use
they must go all out for
a win thus the side

should be the same as
the side for the second
test i.e., five -batsmen,
five bowlers and'Murray.
Playing Baichan at this
stage is bad both psy-
chologically and tactically.
They erred in playing
Greenidge before him in
the third test but two
wrongs do not make a
My team remains, in
batting order: Fredericks,
Rowe, Kallicharan,
Richards, Murray, Lloyd,
Julien, Boyce, Holding,
Roberts, Gibbs.
I have not been able to
understand their reluct-
ance in asking Rowe to
open the innings. I suspect
that once more they will
not, and ask Richards to
do so instead. While I
do not think it is the
best arrangement (in spite
of Richards' recent suc-
cesses there), I prefer it
to Baichan at this stage.

But no matter what
happens in the end, there

must be batsmen who are
prepared to stay and have
the innings built around
Australia can still be
beaten but it is no easy
Their batting remains
essentially on the shoul-
ders of the two Chappell
brothers and, but for a
few short periods, they
have never been able to
get runs easily.
To beat them we must
be prepared to build a
reasonable innings our-
selves. So we must put
our heads down and play
Thomson on merit he
is a much better bowler
than a lot of us imagined
but we have the basic
ability to play him.
Can we summon the
mental approach necess-
ary? I hope we can for
these two teams are more
evenly balanced than it
would appear from the
present state of the series
and the West Indies must
set about to show this.

How '75 untest hit south

THE Southern Amateur Regional Athletic Asso
ciation ended 1975 with limited though creditable
This is how the position was summed up in a year-
end statement from the Association which praised
the '75 executive for having done "a very good job
with limited facilities, time and finance".
Another difficulty with which the SRAAA had to
cope was the industrial unrest in oil and sugar during
the dry season of last year.
The unrest, said the Association, "dampened the
general atmosphere for spectator participation".
Nevertheless, it was possible to bring off both the
Southern Regional Championship and the Southern
Regional Inter-Secondary School Championships, with
resulting benefit for the athlete participants.
For 1976, the SRAAA hopes for development of
competition on an inter-regional basis so that athletics
would be kept alive in the country once more.
PRO of the Association Billy-Montague has already
donated a trophy for inter-regional competit on.