Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00191
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: December 7, 1975
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00191

Full Text



* et-c,
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.1* A I

LAST Sunday's Assembly, the
second in the series of the
National Convention, has already
being described as the best
Assembly Tapia ever had. And,
with all due respect for the
euphoria of the aftermath, it is a
judgement which cannot be far
from the truth.
All the elements of a success-
ful political gathering were there.
An overflowing crowd which it-
self overflowed with excitement.
A warm qnd sunny day in the
Southlana. A beautiful location,
four powerful speakers and, per-
haps more than anything else,
the shared knowledge that our
Movement had come of age.
Yet, to my mind, none of
these things marked the unique-
ness of last Sunday's Assembly.
What did was the atmosphere
which'pervaded, the tone which
ran through the words of all the
speakers, those on the platform,
those who came to the micro-
phone during the open session,
and those who merely chatted
with their friends.

A Special Report on Last Sunday's Assembly.

Perhaps it was the first
speaker, Michael Harris, who hit
the nail on the head when he
commented on the fact that al-
though the Movement was meet-
ing at a time when the political
tempo was rising, it was charac-
teristic of an organisation like
Tapia that the Assembly should
begin by "drinking once again at
the fountain of our faith."
And that proved to be the
keynote of the entire Assembly.
The joy which suffused the entire
gathering could not have been
engendered by any scathing
attacks on the Government nor

by any- bombastic robber talk of
licks like fire.
It came only because, from
the start, the accent was placed
on those things which lifted the
spirit, a faith, unrelieved by"
adversity, in the promise of a
new world.
The Assembly was not quite
that new society in miniature if
only because the old Tapia sin
of unpunctuality reared itself
once again. The Assembly sche-
duled to begin at 10.30 never
began until some minutes past
But Ilie delay was not

entirely bad. As the members
and friends from all over lhe
country streamed into the Lion's
Civic Centre, to meet and renew
acquaintance with those whom
they perhaps had not seen .for
some time or to welcome new
friends, it became obvious that in
Tapia there existed that com-
munion of souls, which in spite
of rapid growth in membership,
had not dissipated but grown
From a ll parts of the country
now they came. Over a hundred

Continued on Page 8

Tapia Council Sunday 14
/ '

30 Cents

6 0

1 WANT to begin this morning by reminding you of two statements.
The first statement is one which has become a motto for Tapia, and
it states simply that Tapia means building from the earth. The second
statement is one made a couple of years ago by the man who is
currently Prime Minister of our country, to the effect that the people
of Trinidad and Tobago are nothing but a bunch of transients. To
my mind, those two statements contain levels of meaning which take
us to the depths of the revolutionary crisis which engulfs our land;
they stand in relation to each other as thesis to antithesis. On such a
glorious Sabbath morn, and in front of such a splendid congregation,
one is almost tempted to say Christ and Anti-Christ. If that be the
case, let us proceed then to demolish the Anti-christ.

Brothers & Sisters,

It is true to say, in fact it is
obvious that the people of Trinidad,
as distinct from those of Tobago,
have been drawn here from all quarters
of the globe. It is also true to say that
the society is young, in the sense that
it was only from about the beginning
of the nineteenth century that the
island began to be populated in any
serious way.
When to these facts is added
the consideration that the two largest
racial groupings came here under the
decidedly unfavourable circumstances
of slavery and indenture, we begin to
get some sense of the underlying
reasons for the rootlessness, the in-
stability, the fragmentation and lack
of common purpose which have tradi-
tionally characterized Trinidad society.
For a long time we have been a
nation of immigrants who have had
our roots, and our loyalties, elsewhere.
Neither the restrictive colonial econ-
omy nor the equally restrictive Crown
Colony system of Government could
do anything to improve this situation;
in fact, they made it worse.
The point I am making, Brothers
and Sisters, is that if you are looking
backwards, and that is the direction in
which the Prime Minister seems always
to prefer to look, then you might be
justified in saying that Trinidadians
are a bunch of transients. But if you
are dealing with the present, and if you
are looking to the possibilities for the
future, as we are doing in Tapia, then
the evidence changes dramatically.


The evidence that confronts you
is of a nation that is young we are
fond in Tapia of quoting the statistics
73% of the population under 35
years, 50% under 25:this post-war
generation, brothers and sisters is
probably the first in our history with a
majority of its members born here
rather than outside..'
For those of us of this generation
there is no memory of India or of
Africa or of Europe. We know no place
other than Trinidad and Tobago. For
us there is no other home. That is why
our generation has been in the van-
guard of the struggle for change here;
that is why we have been prepared to
give our blood in the cause, and that
is why we are still prepared so to do.
On the evidence that we in
Tapia see, Brothers and Sisters, a new
nation is struggling to be born out of
the womb of the old, a nation of com-
mitted men and women, who are
prepared to settle down to build a
home here for ourselves in the Carib-
bean Ocean Sea, to build it step by
step, building from the carth.
I want to argue, Brothers and
Sisters, that the emergence of this
generation has been one of the prime
factors precipitating the crisis which
encompasses-all aspects of our national
life. For the fact is that formal inde-
pendence for this country-hlas merely

The following is the address
given by AllanHarris, Shadow
Minister of Local Gov't, at .
last Sunday's Convention. /



The Road to




All our People

meant the carry over of that old
colonial system which kept our fore-
fathers in chains and which alienated
them from the land, from economic
control, from political power and
from their traditional culture.
That alienation of the bulk of
our people from participation and
power has been perpetuated in the
era of independence by a ruling elite
which betrays an Afro-Saxon lack of
trust in our capacities, and by the
imposition of a Westminster-style
arrangement of the organs of the
State which, in our situation, has
encouraged the excessive concentra-
tion of power in the hands of the
Chief Executive and has led to the
emergence of a constitutional dictator-


The revolutionary crisis which
rages today points to the need for
new systems of economy and politics,
morality and culture, which draw
their sustenance from the sentiments
and sensibilities of the people of this
Brothers and Sisters, it is in that
setting that we need to view the Tapia
proposals for local government. Today,
we listen to reports that a Government
Minister is bemoaning the destruction
of Government property. We read
that Mr. Chambers, the new Minister
of Education and Culture, wishes to
remind us that the property of 'the
Government is the property of the
people. He tells us that large sums of

money have been spent on erecting
community centres and that now most
of them are in a state of disrepair; Mr.
Chambers is distressed at the vandal-
ism being visited on schools and
streetlights and other Government
We hear these things, Brothers
and Sisters, and our minds go back to
the words of C.L.R. James, written
over 40 years ago:
"Governors and governed stand
on either side of a gulf which no
tinkering will bridge, and politi-
cal energy is diverted into other
channels or simply runs to
waste . a people like ours
should be Jfe to make its own
failures and successes, fiee to
gain that political wisdom and
experience which come only
fiom the practice of political
affairs. Otherwise, led as we are
by a string, we remain without
credit abroad and without self-
respect at home, a bastard,
feckless conglomeration of indi-
viduals, inspired by no common
purpose, moving to no common
end. "

That was in 1933, and C.L.R.
was arguing the case for West Indian
self-government, that is to say, for
self-government at the level of the
national community. In 1975. brothers
and sisters, the same arguments apply,
only this time the case we in Tapia
are making iS for self-government at
the level of the local community.
Brothers and Sisters, Tapia takes
its stand.on the principle that the citi-
zen in the local community must
control all those aspects of government
which directly affect his or her life,

surrendering sovereignty in such
matters only where compelling and
universally accepted reasons ofadmin-
istrative or technical or economic
efficiency dictate that a more remote
level of government should be in
The main aim of such a system of
local government, brothers and sisters,
is quite frankly political. The intention
is to establish popular authority and
to encourage popular participation by
placing independent initiative and
responsibility and decision-making
power in the hands of the multitude of
little people by means of a widespread
system of municipal authorities.
By so doing, we hope to foster
and protect the growth of a democratic
and humane society here to create
an independent political base. and to-
make political resources available to the
citizens at the grass-roots level in his
or her community.
Such a system, brothers and
sisters, would be a revolutionary
departure from the conditions of
political monopoly which existed in
Crown Colony days, and which persist
today under the PNM dispensation.
No longer would it be possible for the
people of a local community to be
victimised simply because they did not
support the government at the last
Tapia is therefore proposing the
division of the country into anything
like 25 Municipal Authorities, created
on the basis of such factors as a sense
of community, population, economic
resources and geographical character-
istics. The average population of the
municipalities is likely therefore to be
between 40,000 and 50,000 people.
In addition to the existing
municipalities of Port-of-Spain and
San Fernando (which may themselves
be._ subdivid)ad. and-Ark-mi-municipal--
authorities may be established in
Diego Martin, San Juan, Tunapuna,
Blanchisseuse, Toco, Sangre Grande,.
Chaguanas, Couva, Montserrat, Pointe-
a-Pierre, Mayaro, Princes Town, Rio
Claro, Siparia and Point Fortin.


These municipal authorities will
not be mere administrative arms of
the national government, but will have
their own independent powers, assum-
ing major responsibilities alongside the
central government in such fields as
education, health, housing, water and
sewage, road maintenance and public
transport, environmental improvement,
cultural affairs, sports and protective
Such a decentralisation of gov-
ernment will place into the hands of
the citizen in the local area control
over the provision of a wide range of
welfare and other services, and will
free him or her from dependence on
the sometimish and inefficient services
of the central government and from
the largesse of large private companies
and multi-national corporations, which
have often felt it expedient in the past
to provide a modicum of services in the
absence of any local administration.
Additionally, local government
will provide the means through which
comprehensive national development
plans will be effectively implemented.

Brothers & Sisters, there has
been a shortsighted view that decen-
tralisation of government would saddle
the people of the country with burden-
some and unnecessary costs. It has
been argued that the country is too
small to admit of such decentralisa-
tion. Another argument which has
often been put forward alongside this
one, is that the experience of the past
shows that local government is
Cont'd on Page 3




From Pane 2
attended with a great deal of waste and
corruption and incompetence.
Brothers and Sisters, may I be
permitted to deal with these objections
very quickly. In the first place, decen.
tralisation need not mean greater
costs of administration. On the con-
trary, many services may be more
efficiently, and therefore more cheaply,
In addition, decentralisation
does not mean the duplication of
services. In fact, what will happen is
that a great deal of the functions
which at present are performed at
national level will be transferred to
the local level, with a corresponding
transfer of the staff involved, and
therefore no net addition .o costs will
be incurred.
As far as our small size is con-
cerned, brothers and sisters, I am
prepared to argue that that is our
greatest advantage.For our small size
allows us to co-ordinate the work.of
local government and national govern-
ment easily and effectively, and there-
fore gives us the option of instituting
widespread local government with all
that that means for the growth of
participatory democracy.


With regard to the accusation of
incompetence and corruption in the
past, all that needs to be said is that
we have never had local government
in this country which was endowed
with any serious responsibilities. In
the circumstances, very few people of
competence could have been attracted
to offer their services, and the citizens
"oluTIn1tobavwbeen roused to exercise
vigilance in matters which were of trif-
ling importance to them.
In the Tapia scheme, on the
other hand, where matters deeply
affecting the welfare-of the citizen
are concerned, and where real and
heavy responsibilities reside with the
municipal authorities, these disabilities
are sure to disappear.
In any event, provision will be
made for the municipal authorities to
operate with proper budgetary and
financial controls, and the conditions
of service will be such as to attract at

Local Governmenti
Local~~ Gvvmn

the administrative and professional
levels, the most competent staff avail-
At this stage, brothers and
sisters, I wish to say something about
Tobago. Tapia has always recognized
that Tobago by virtue of its location
and the complexity of its problems
must be accorded a special status. To
this end we have proposed a scheme of
'Home Rule for Tobago, which could
be implemented by the creation of a
Tobago Council with extraordinary
Such powers could include the
drawing up of special plans for agricul-
ture, tourism and industry, or the
power of review over national plans
in these areas. The Tobago Council
should also be in a position to fix its
own price and wage levels in the light
of the circumstances existing
in Tobago. What we need to concede,
brothers and sisters, is the principle
that the circumstances of Tobago
demand a special dispensation.
It must be clear to you by now,
brothers and sisters, that Tapia is
proposing to vest the municipal authori-
ties with very heavy responsibilities.
The question, that must be taxing
your minds at this stage is, where is
the money to come from to pay for
all this?
In the first place, since the central
government will be devolving many of
its current functions onto the munici-
pal authorities, it is only proper that a
proportion of the revenue now col-
lected by the central government
should go to the municipalities.
What formula is to be used for
this revenue sharing is a matter for dis-
cussion, and in Tapia we are proposing.
that the local government bodies will
collectively bargain with the central
government on the sharing of revenue .
on an annual basis.
Nonetheless, it is still desirable
that the municipalities should have
their independent sources of revenue.
In this regard, local government will
continue to be financed by property
rates, but will be encouraged to develop
new sources of revenue such as special
purpose taxes, rents, fees, professional

licenses, capital loans, and, especially,
earnings from investments and enter-
Mention of this last source of
revenue necessarily turns our attention
to the relationship of the scheme of
local government to Tapia's proposals
in other fields, notably that of econ-
omic reorganisation. Local Government
crucial to Tapia's proposals for localisa-
tion of the economy, that is to say
the restructuring of economic enter-
prise in order to give the citizen in
the local community a greater share in
ownership and control.
As a concrete example of what
we have in mind, Iwish to direct your
attention brothers and sisters, to our
proposals for Forres Park, which were
made public last week, and which are
published in the latest issue of TAPIA.
Those proposals call for the crea-
tion of a special municipal authority
in the Forres Park area, and for the
proposed municipal authority to play
a leading role in the revitalization of
the major economic enterprise in the
area, the Forres Park estate, in partner-
ship with workers, cane farmers and
the central government.
In addition the proposed munici-
pal authority is seen as performing
the whole range of local government
services as I have already outlined
them. It is through the participation of
municipal authorities in many enter-
prises of this nature that Tapia envis-
ages that popular participation in the
economy will be made a reality.
Brothers and Sisters, I am sure
you appreciate that our proposals for
local government, when put into effect,
will bring about far-reaching transfor-
mations, not only in government and
administration, not only in politics,
but in the day to day lives of every
man, woman and child in our country.
It would be no exaggeration to
say that local government will tend to
you from the cradle to the grave. We
can look forward to the day when the
municipalities will provide ante-natal
and post-natal clinics, organise day-care
centres and kindergartens, supervise
elementary schools, secondary schools
and vocational schools, run apprentice-

ship schemes, operate employment
exchanges, establish health centres,
public baths and toilets, washing-
machine centres.
Local Governmentwill be respons-
ible for registering births and deaths,
marriages, land titles, patents, copy-
rights, certificates of incorporation
and contracts. They will administer
driving tests and license vehicles, they
will pay pensions and other social
security benefits.
They will build and run centres
for arts and crafts, centres for sport,
libraries and museums, and hostels,
And last, but by no means least, they
will be in charge of burial grounds and
To provide such a vast array of
services, the municipalities will have to
cmploy administrators and managers,
economists, accountants and statisti-
cians, doctors and nurses, medical
social workers and midwives, town
planners and engineers, librarians and
curators, steelbandsmen & drummers.
There will be tasks to be per-
formed by wardens and watchmen, by
gardeners and garbage collectors,
Architects and surveyors, price inspect
tors and public health inspectors.
Brinks and Wells Fargo.
Jobs there will be for teachers
and tutors, for assessors and valuators,
rent collectors and meter readers, and
lawyers to boot. There will be a little
something for masons, plumbers, car-
penters, electricians and for every
tailor and tinker in town.
Brothers and Sisters, to me it is
an exciting prospect, and I hope I
have been able to convey even a little
bit of that excitement to you. And if I
were to end on a personal note, I
would say that what attracts me the
most is the likely impact of such a
scheme on the quality of life.
I must confess that I find the
prospect of vibrant civic life in the
communities, of a cultural revi-
val across the length and breadth of
the land, of a wholesome environ-
ment, I find the prospect of these
things to be tremendously appealing.
They mean for the first time we
shall have created for ourselves a real
home in the West Indies, a place where
men and women and children can be
rooted where they live and work and
play. Rooted to the earth and building,
building from the earth.

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IN the beginning was the vision, and the vision was ofof Old World lay dreaming under a common veil woven
a New World, and the New Worla'began right here in of faith, illusion and childish preposwsio.u. That may
the Caribbean Sea. wcll bc true. Yet that very veil, while it hid men
froni tihmcnislves was the integument under which all
BROTHERS and Sisters Good Morning. Let .: men were drawn together and all aspects of human
me first of all add my voice to that of our i, activity were knit into an integrated and coherent
chairman in welcoming all of you here whole, which men knew and accepted even if they
-. never understood.
morning. It is indeed a pleasure to see so When therefore that veil of faith was rent
many of you here this morning, but it is really '" asunder, mens minds were liberated but they had los
no surprise. No surprise because after seven their spiritual moorings, and for the first time the
years of hardwuk, Tapia has survived to pose 'word alienation entered into the lexicon of the
the crucial question of power in this the sea- human language. Man became a divided soul. Divided
son of politics. from himself, divided from each other, and divided

All over the country today, Brothers and Sisters,
the eyes and ears and hearts and minds of people
are attuned to the political pulses. The pulsebeat is
growing faster and the tempo is rising. It is therefore
fitting that so many of us gather here today for what
is essentially a Council of War. A-time when we settle
the strategy, the tactics, a time when we program the
fighting machine and gird our loins for the battle
which would take us from where we are and into the
realms of power and take the country into a brighter
and nobler future.
Yet it is characteristic of the type of organisa-
tion which Tapia is that we should begin the day by
reminding ourselves of exactly what the battle is
about. By reminding ourselves of who we are, and
why we started on this long road. By returning once
again to drink at the fountain of our faith, that faith
which tells us, even as we make a bold attempt to
seize the power, that power alone is not enough, and
that success will only be realized when all our hearts
can sing the Human song.
In the beginning then was the vision. A vision
so vast in scope, so awe-inspiring in its boldness that
it defies, and in some cases, defeats the wills of men
even before they embark on its realisation. And they
have called us dreamers, a hapless bunch of starry-
eyed idealists, who are not only mad enough to set
out to build a new world, but are attempting to do
it from the darkest, dingiest corner of the earth, the
devil's little acre, the isles of the Caribbean.
Yet we 4ie not the first. Ours is a vision which
has been before men, and a struggle which has engaged
the wills of. men, long before we drew our first
breath. It is fashionable today to look around the
,world and,to see the terrible signs of stress and
despair, the revolts against the established order, the
wars and 'rumours of wars, the acts of terrorism and
anarchy,' the irrationality of men all over searching
for some meaning to their lives and e+ilging with
desperate futility to every conceivable inanner of
charlantry you could care to inagine..

There IC lihose \\ho. ecig i all this, long with
a religious tcrvour that it would all come to an end.
Armageddon, they say. is around the corner. Well, if
it is, it is a very. long corner. For I know of no period
in the past two centuries when turmoil and dissension
have not rent the-fabric or our peace.
The fact is, brothers and sisters, that we live in
a civilization rooted in disorder. Western Civilization,
as we know it today, arose out of the great develop-
ments which took place in Europe over the period of
the fifteenth, sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth
centuries. These developments. from the voyages of
Columbus to the French Revolution, Iromn the dis-
coveries of Copernicus to the spinning jenny, in-
volved every facet of humlanI activity. iclgion, politics,
government, law, science, economics, art, education
and war.
The sum total of all these c development,
brothers and sisters, was the complete demolition of
the world as it had been and the critical achievement
was the liberation of the subjective consciousness of
Yet, the truth is. that su!ih! liheri!lion. while iis
value could never be denied, was bouglh at a high
price indeed. It has been said that mankind in the


from any sense of communion with the world
around him.
And, brothers and sisters, it is necessary to
understand and acknowledge this, if we are going to
make any sense whatsoever of the course of human
history since. For man has made enormous strides
since that time. The hubris, that abundance of confi-
dence and zeal with which men set out to discover
the unknown in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries,
has never died. And the voyages of Columbus are
now the voyages of the astronauts.
But the fact is, brothers and sisters, the fact is
that it has all taken place, all these fantastic develop-
ments, to which those who worship at the shrine of
i"nai' i-ii., ,omll d ive tine anu;me progress, all of
them, brothers and sisters, have taken place in a void
of values, and none of the fundamental questions
about right or wrong, good or evil, have been settled.
So that man cannot split the atom without releasing
forces that can work both for his enormous benefit
and for hIis total destruction.
The fault, dear friends, lies not in the atom,
but in men. For example, there are those who would
lay all the woes of the world at the doorstep of the
economic system which we call capitalism. We all
know the terrible legacies of the system. We, after
all, are its most complete victims.
Yet the question needs to be asked, what
exactly is capitalism? What is the fuel which drives it
on its wasteful path. Do you believe it is some extra-
terrestial force called technology, or do you think it
is money, or some immutable law of supply and
demand? Brothers and Sisters, it is none of these
things. The fuel is none other than the creativity, the
intelligence, the pride, the passions, the prejudices,and
ambitions of men, unfettered, uncircumscribed by
any moral responsibility, by any allegiance to a
system of values which all men share and accept. Let
us call it faith.
And o the fundamental task of reconstructing
the world has never been merely one of demolishing




62. (tI-l I STRI l Pi.O S


-- I- ~-"~--"~~~-~------`-----"I---------
~-~---~-i- -~csli~re~la~ss~iaclen~a~ppsa




lany one system and replacing it by another. This is
the mistake the Russian revolutionaries made. This is
why the marxist Iream has turned into the present
communist nightmare.
It is not enough to say with Lenin, "On s'engage
et puis on ivoit." We act and then we see. Certainly,
as Denis Solomon would tell you, all Governments,
and Imight add, all revolutionaries, need to be flexible,
pragmatic even. The danger comes when that flexibil-
ity, that pragamatism is infinite. When it is unbounded
by any fundameAtally held moral pale beyond which
we shall never step. We have lived with the reality of
that danger for the last twenty years as this Govern-
ment pOrsues its zig-zag course to a well merited
No brothers and sisters, systems must change,
and they are going to change, but that can never be
ill. The task of reconstruction must begin by ack-
nowledging that man is not only mind or matter but
soul as well, and we must minister not only to his
physical needs but to his spiritual needs also. And the
New World would have been founded when we have
a society in which these two aspects of man are
reintegrated once again. That is the vision.
As I said we have not been the first to cling to
this vision. Nor will we ever claim-to be endowed
with any greater attributes than other men in other
places who have tried before. Yet, if we acknowledge
what the nature of the task is, then we can see that
our condition of life in this little corner of the world
gives cause for hope, and that all our so-called dis-
advantages are really tremendous blessings.
Our small size becomes an advantage, for it
gives us the opportunity to develop systems of gov-
ernmental, political, social and economic relation-
ships which put a premium on face to face, personal,
human contact.
The fact that, as societies, we are still in our
infancy is also an advantage, since,unencumbered-by
any static or deeply held traditions, free of any
quarrels or prejudices the roots of which are buried
in antiquity, we are in a position to move in any
direction we may, chose.
Even the fact that we are supposed to be
underdeveloped is a blessing. For it means that we do
not have too much to destroy in order to start
The -only barrier b.,ithers and sisters, is we
ourselves. We lack confidence in ourselves, we are

afraid to test our own capacities lest we be found
wanting, we look at ourselves through eyes blinded
by centuries of external domination and dependence
.and we see only that which our colonial masters
would have us see.
But there is another view. A view which when
it looks at our past sees us, not as a miserable bunch
of ex-slaves, or ex-bondsmen, or ex-colonials, but
rather one which sees a people who have had the
strength, the courage and the will to survive and
reach this point in time in spite of slavery, in spite of
indenture, in spite of colonialism.
When we look at our present situation we do
not see a nation irretrievably divided by race or
colour, but we see a people who,-llhrown *m 11i!,1.
together by imperialism, have managed to work out
some common allegiance. in spite of genuine cultural
and racial differences and in spite of the attempts by
so many to manipulate these differences to their
own selfish ends.
When ivc luuk at ourselves we do not see ;i:
miserable bunch ui tianiSieni, out !,i;i': :cupic u
boundless energy and talent, a people of overwhelm-
ing love and goodwill, who have been able to express
themselves, with honour, in every sphere of activity,
in spite of the repressive and anachronistic political,
economic and social institutions which we have
We can certainly agree with Naipaul when lie
says we are the Third World s third world. As far as I
am concerned to be at the bottom of the heap, in a
world such as this, is no disgrace. We say with Jesus,
we are not of this world. We may be the Third World's
third world but we are the New World's first world,
and we must move now to construct the first stage
of that New World, One Caribbean Nation.
Brothers and Sisters, many have been the
reasons advanced as to why a Caribbean Natron is an
imperative of our times. I have here a little book by
Willie Demas, in which, in a series of articles he
presents cogently and with the command which only
he has, all the economic and political reasons for West
Indian Nationhood. "

I recommend them all to you for they are valid
and entirely acceptable. The only problem is that
they are far from being all. Demas has written, in an
attempt to explain in a simple way, the political
necessity of Integration that, "'l oidcii utodci o li

giants a lot of pygmies have to get together." But,
brothels and sisters, when ten pygmies get together
you don't necessarily get a giant, you may end up
with ten pygmies together. If we learnt anything
from the Federation it is that.
No, brothers and sisters, the critical issue in
West Indian Nationhood is not the fact of a Union
but the process of getting there. The alchemy which
will transform pygmies, if that's what we are, into
giants, is a process of West Indian integration which
acknowledges from the start that we have a moral
responsibility to share what we have with our brothers.
That must be the fundamental principle of our
faith, the corner stone of our new society. For with-
out it we shall end up with "dorg cat dorg and
survival of the fittest." But with it we can be sure
that any Nation which we create, whatever the final
constitutional shape may be, will be an entirely new
and different nation, one anchored in the morality of
Iunaanii',. a light to lighten the gentile, a beacon of
light 11 tils dark and ui':1;:l ,l;ct, A Nation with
And in the act of founding such a Nation will
we find the psychological emancipation, which we
all have been looking for by planting on the world
stage a creation the greatness of whichall peoples
can acknowledge.
Brothers and Sisters, we in Tapia have always
pleaded guilty to the charge of idealism, but we are
not fools. We have always said that Foreign Policy,
like charity, must begin at home. And so absolutely
the first step which we must take in founding the
Caribbean Nation and ultimately our New World is
to move now to reconstruct our own island homes on
the basis of that same moral imperative.
So let us now gird our loins for the battle
ahead. The trumpet hath sounded and it must never
call retreat,not until the vision becomes reality and a
new Nation,constructed on the pillars of justice and
equality sits here in the Caribbean Sea.
And perhaps in days to come, when men speak
of these times they will say. In the beginning was the
vision and the vision was of a New World and' that New
World is right here in the blue icaribbean sea.
Thank vni Broth ers and Sisters. Power u., ls :A.

We go to any

length to do

our job!

We installed suspended ceilings on-two of AMO.CO'S
offshore production platforms over twenty miles out at sea some
time ago. It was a hew experience for us, but it was all part'of
our job The Indusyial and Building Products Division of
L. J.Williams Limited.
Apart from installing suspended ceilings, we also construct
shop fronts and part.iions for business places, install NACO
S i-o:'.? Windows and custom., bu;lt Roller Shutters, and appiy the
; ultra modern 'Flecp finish' to walls and floors.
SAlso,'we su1uppl Kwikset locks, Gibbons Ironmongery,
world-famous Evo-Stik 528 adhesive and Resin-W woodwork
adhesive, Ibiboard, laminated plastic sheeting and Ibi Ace
dec.Orzitive 6INb,'vlc.od ind I9.,_,

JL. .J. Williams.
l i'dustrlalS Building j



MEMBERS of the professions of Quantity Surveying, Land
Surveying, and Land Economy Surveying from all the Com-
monwealth met at a Symposium at the Holiday Inn between
November 19 and 21.
Their theme was "The Develolment of Caribbean Land
Resources! The Role of Surveying and Land Economy."
-On Saturday November 22, a Conference of Caribbean
Surveyors adopted a resolution that a Steering Committee
comprising representatives of each of the Professions be set
up to map possible areas of collaboration and association and
to report in six months time.
The Committee has been set up with Mr. George Mc-
Farlane, a Jamaican Land Surveyor, as its Convenor.
Last week Tapia carried the full text of the Address
delivered to- the Symposium by the Secretary General of
CARICOM, Mr. Alister McIntyre.
This week, we carry the full text of the Closing Address
to the Conference of Caribbean Surveyors delivered by Ivan
Laughlin, Assistant Secretary ofTapia, himself a Land Sur-
The theme of the Address was "Achievements of the
Conference: A Look at the Future."

AT the opening of the Sympo-
sium on Wednesday last Victor
Hart referred to this occasion as
a historic event in the sense that
it should lay the foundation for
the sustained growth of.the pro-
fessions in relation to the require-
ments of the region.
We have had four days of
extensive deliberations and dis-
course of which today's Con-
ference of Caribbean Surveyors
has been a fitting climax.
Whatever pur disagreements,
clearly we must all feel a sense of
achievement. Yesterday at the
closing of the Symposium there
existed even a sense of euphoria.
But let me hasten to echo the
exhortation of Sir Oliver Chester-
ton that the work has only now
For all its flair, an event ot this
kind cannot by itself make change.
The euphoria always dies down. We
need therefore to channel the achieve-
ments and the enthusiasm into con-
structive effort and purpose.
It is in this sense that the
losing of the Conference really marks
a beginning for the respective profes-
The opportunity exists now for
us to work out our own Caribbean
priorities and to map our role in
'relation to the overall development of
the region.
I wish at the outset therefore to
say that we cannot merely look at the
achievements; we need also to focus
on the non-achievements so that we
can develop a balanced judgement, a
critical assessment of the success of
the deliberations.
There can be no doubt that the
most significant achievement of the
entire exercise has been the fact that
surveyors from up and down the Com-
monwealth Caribbean have assembled
to talk.
One of the real stumbling blocks
to the abortive federal attempt of the
late 1950's was the lack of collabora-
tion at non-governmental levels.
I for one am a regionalist at
heart. Norman Girvan, the Jamaican
economist, always refers to himself as
a West Indian from the Paris of
Jamaica. In that context, I would have
to refer to myself as a West Indian
from the County of Trinidad.
The designations, you will note, are
all European.
But however we may want to
look at it, the-attainment of regional
unity is a process, and one of the
essential ingredients of that process is
collaboration and participation at the
level of associations and organizations
possessing common interests.
The resolution just adopted is
clearly a positive manifestation that

we are prepared to participate mean-
ingfully in that very necessary process.
This step is an acceptance of our
responsibility to our region and to our
professions. We in the Caribbean are
yet to fully break from the old colonial
inheritance where the links existed,
not between the individual territories
of the region, but between each
individual territory and the so called
mother-country. It is important for us
to remember that even the impetus for
this conference came from outside
the region.
We need, therefore, now more
than ever, to ensure that we give
meaning to the resolution and shoulder
our own load here in the Caribbean.
In shouldering that responsibility
we must turn our gaze to the non:
English speaking territories. We must
widen our horizons beyond the
southern reaches of the Caribbean
Sea. South and Central America com-
prise a large land mass and we of the
surveying professions have to begin
loosening our British ties and locating
ourselves in the Western Hemisphere.
I see this as an imperative and I
suggest that the Steering Committee
seriously consider the proposal.
The Symposium and the Confer-
ence have been able to concentrate a
wide range of data of technical and
historical importance. We are building
up a store-house of knowledge of
great importance to the professions
and to the public and private agencies
which draw upon our services. I don't
need to outline those achievements
since that has been adequately done
by the respective chairmen of the
What I want to stress is that
there now exists a much greater
understanding among and between all
surveyors, an understanding of our
respective problems and of our respec-
tive skills.
At the same time, I want in my
humble opinion to point, out that, in
practically every case, the reports
lacked a real Caribbean dimension. We
failed to relate the surveying profess
sions to the particular historical junc-
ture now reached by the Caribbean
Let me remind you that the
theme of the Symposium was "The
Development of Caribbean Land Re-
sources: the Role of Surveying and
Land Economy." To what extent
brother surveyors, have our delibera-
tions focused on that theme?
Lance Murray, inhis own deliber-
ate style, did raise some of the impor-
tant points in his address this morning.
I simply want to elaborate on them.
Our professions as he pointed
out, developed in the United Kingdom
with their own bias related to British
conditions and-requirements.
We in the Caribbean need to
take careful stock of our own situation
and our own requirements. And I want
to suggest that there is a psychological
conditioning that we need to take
careful stock of.
I refer you to this booklet -


A New Cari

In a New Cai

"Surveying and Land Economy in the
Commonwealth" in which there is a
sub-title which states "A descrip-
tion of the professions of surveying
and land economy, the problem
experienced in their advancement in
developing countries ........... ."
Let me stress the word develop-
ing. The categories of developed and
developing countries which appear in
all the professional literature has a
European orientation and inherent in
them is the view of Europe .& North
America as developed and the former
colonial world as developing in relation
to them.
We have to disabuse our minds
of that view and chart our own destiny
as a Caribbean people with a common
historical and cultural background but
admittedly, with our own individual
territorial emphases.
Vidia Naipaul the noted
Trinidadian novelist who has revealed
deep insight into the colonial condi-
tion has referred to us as a people who
have never and will never create any-
thing. That is the negative view.
It was the St. Lucian, Derek
Walcott, a poet of equally rich insight
into the Caribbean condition, who has
'taken the positive view. He says -
"there is nothing like what we will
Nor can we can forget Wilson
Harris the Guyanese novelist, himself
land surveyor, who calls for a com-
munion with the land and for a relev-
ant relationship with our own Carib-
bean habitat.
Harris and Walcott have both
captured the message of Independence
and once we align ourselves with those
views and remove the psychological
restraints imposed by ;our past, a
whole new vista of possibility is opened
unto us. It has deep relevance to the

developmental approaches for the
region as a whole as it has for our
own professions.
That is what I mean by a Carib-
bean perspective. Our destiny has to be
under our own control, to the extent
that is humanly possible.
If we hold that message before
us in our search for the role of Sur-
veying and Land Economy in the
region, then, it seems to me, we need
to face two related factors.
The first has to do with the
professions. Lance Murray raised the
point. We have to find the relevant
blend of the respective disciplines in
relation to the region's needs and
taking into account the limited finan-
cial resources available.
We may find, for example, that
we need to work out a closer relation-
ship between the disciplines of land
surveying, land economy, quantity
surveying, and town planning, and
this search could lead to one basic
first degree course with opportunity
for specialization.
Or, for example, we may, for
our purposes, find that the quantity
surveyors should be located much
closer to the architects and the engi-
The point is that we must open
up the discussion in an atmosphere
devoid of insularity and professioanl
jealousy, and, as Andrew Rose pro-
posed, to make compromise in the
interest of the region's future.
The second factor, therefore, has
to do with the region. We are in the
process of setting down a framework
6f nation-hood heie in the Antilles, of
building the structures of genuine inde-
In that context, the responsibil-

ity and participation of the profes-
sional must extend outside the bound-
aries of day to day professional work.
We must bring our skills to bear on the
overall developmental process.
We cannot simply be servants of
governmental policy nor can we stay
on the sidelines and grouch about the
lack of proper policy measures and
implementation procedures relating to
land and construction generally.
We have to be initiators of
action. We must actively inform the
development process in relation to the
environment. That work should go on
at the level of the respective Associa-
tions. There is no better method of
public relations, as Gil Thompson
pointed out during the group discus-
sions on land surveying.
But we cannot play that role in
a vacuum. Robert Steel, the Secretary
of Casle, in his closing remarks yester-
day afternoon, suggested the need for
a 20-25 year perspective for the profes-
Victor Hart at the opening of the
Symposium called for the moulding of
the professions "in the interest of the
Caribbean peoples."
What brother surveyors, is the
condition of our people? We need to
stop thinking of our public image and
turn our attention to the image of the
Alister McIntyre, the Secretary
General of CARICOM, painted for us
a vivid picture of economic and social
distress. It is my view that we have
failed to take account of those reali-
Let me refreshen your memories
in only two areas. McIntyre pointed
to large scale unemployment 13% of
the work force in 11970 of which 50%
was in the age group 15-19 years of
The trends since 1970 clearly
indicate that the situation is worsen-
ing and we can see no comprehensive
policy aimed at coming to terms with
the problem. Unemployment has
reached crisis proportions. Our young
people are scrunting without work and
without the prospects of meaningful
The second area is agriculture
where dependence on imports is in-
creasing at an alarming rate. We are
now spending $1,000 million in food
imports into the region.
In point of fact, agriculture is
shedding labour, intensifying the rural-
urban drift and creating pockets of
real poverty.
Let me add to the evidence. In
Trinidad and Tobago 60%r of the
population in poorly housed. The local
architects at their "Architects Week"
held here at the Holiday Inn a few
days ago showed that we in Trinidad
and Tobago require in the vicinity of
15,000 houses per year to meet the
needs of the population. At present
the public and private sectors are
producing less than 4,000.
Obviously, as McIntyre suggested
we need fresh approaches.-And if we
are to map a long range perspective for
the professions and to mould them in
the interests of our people, then we
must have some sense of the future
direction of- the development of the
I want therefore, Brother Chair-
man, to take my own advice and
initiate some discussion in this direc-
tion. We need a dynamic and large
scale thrust in agriculture and housing
to, feed and house Ithe population of
the Caribbean Nation and, in the
process. Io p1ovidr large scale and

IEMBER 7, 1975

bbean Man

ibbean Land

productive 'employment.
It is my view that failure to
launch such a programme will lead to
escalating social distress and continu-
ing political turmoil and tension.
A programme of that kind would
give our professions, which deal with
land and with construction, a perspec-
tive within which we could set down
our priorities for the future.
Priorities in terms of educational
requirements at professional and

technical levels; in terms of the neces-
sary research we need to conduct. This
is a crucial area and it is urgent that
the respective Associations should now
initiate the work.
Finally, in terms of our role as
advisors to the development plan, we
must note the estimate that the con-
struction of 15,000 houses per year
would employ directly 40,000 people
and create substantial additional
employment in terms of the range of

linkages developed with the rest of the'
But for those linkages to have
its full impact, we must ensure that
the materials used have a high local
content. It is only in that way that
we can hope to have control over costs.
That opens a whole range of possibili-
ties for investigation and research for
the quantity surveyors.
Moreover, tackling agriculture
and housing would mean a break up
of the old agricultural structures, and
a relocation, of communities bringing
the need for careful land management
and allocation, and therefore for map-
ping on a much wider scale than
The land economy surveyor
would therefore be exercising a much
wider range of the skills of his profes-
sion than at present. While the land
surveyor would be expanding his
activity in the sophisticated area of
Brother Chairman, I have only

sketched some possibilities and, of
course, in so doing, I have traversed'
the limits of my discipline. But I am
fortunate to be actively involved ir
the political process and my vision of
the future is optimistic.
We have to remove that view
which perceives ourselves as a people
"with a bottle of rum in one hand and
a woman in the. other."
We will of course have that too
because we have good rum and we
abound in beautiful women. But we
will have it in a situation in which we
are building a New World and laying
the infrastructure for a humane and
responsible civilization.
I wish, Brother Chairman, to
thank you for affording me this opport-,
unity of addressing my Caribbean
Brother surveyors.
And I wish you all a fruitful
future of professional introspection,
wide-scale participation, and meaning-
ful regional collaboration.

EACH person must be entitled to
three (3) functional spaces. A
Personal Space, a Group Space and
a Service Space. The total number
of spaces would differ with the
household and these in turn
should relate to a dimensional
module which would be efficient
in term of construction and
The extent of .the Finishing of
the modular space would relate to
the income or earnings of the family.
We have investigated the economic
space standards based on the national
average wage of $300.00 and an intro-
duction of a 40 years mortgage
scheme would certainly facilitate the
Low income individuals obtaining
In respect of the units relation-
ship, we have indicated in this series
how the unit may grow organically
into clusters and community relation-
ship at the same time identify the
social and economic factors with
which housing is involved.
Housing must be involved with
the total concept of population shelter.
It is not merely the provision of
houses or units. It involves the provision
in anticipation of demand of socially
and economically suitable shelter in
proper physical relationship to com-
munal facilities. Policy should be
concerned with the shelter of all
income groups structured within a
national and physical planning frame-
It should indicate the precise
Areas of Government participation
side by side with the performance of
the private sector. Performances
should be reviewed annually, and
realistic targets further established.
The primary needs for an urban
housing programme are Labour,
materials and money. More money
would have to be spent on the Hous-
ing programme 10-20 times that allo-
cated at present to the National
Housing Authority. Placed at the Con-
servative estimate of $15,000 per unit,
the housing programme would need a
capital outlay of 225 million annually.
The Building material industry
should be vastly expanded to cope
with the proposed demands' particu-
larly Block manufacture. Special incen-
tives would have to be given to manu-
facturers intending to expand facilities
or to set up recognized needed indus-
tries. Government should consider
joint participation in the material
supplies, particularly regarding Forest

timbers and finished Lumbers.
There should be a co-ordination
of Building components, particularly
regarding new manufactures entering
the market. Modular co-ordination
wonld eliminate waste and allow for
easy manufacture and on site erection.
New rapid training techniques for
building personnel would have to be
Simultaneously with on site
training, a rapid training programme
for masons, carpenters, plumbers, etc.,
would have to be conducted in a
"camp" or "national service" atmos-
phere. Building Professionals and
Technical Personnel should be "persu-
aded" to identify with the training
needs, and to give intensive time to the
training programme.
The intention would be to in-
tensify Labour training programmes
on a scale similar to that of a national
emergency which the problem of
Housing undoubtedly is. Identifying
new and cheaper sources of Land for
new Human Settlements, in particular
either related to easy transportation
routes, or identified with a major
industrial or agricultural source.
The utilisation of Land is a vital
factor in the housing exercise, particu-
larly when the problem has been
identified as being Urban. Major re-
development would be necessary at
increased densities and better rational-
isation of service and resources.
Each community, city, borough,
village, etc., should determine its needs
and identify the areas for development
and redevelopment, within the context
of the overall National need. The sum
of all the area needs should be
rationalised at the level of the National
Housing Authority which will become
a co-ordinating and research agency.
Cities, boroughs, and villages
should be given financial allocations to
directly control and co-ordinate on a
smaller scale the necessary expen-
ditures. Professional ,and Technical
assistance should be rationalised in
similar manner to the expenditures.
The N.H.A. would be respons-
ible for the co-ordination of essential
services within the national framework
of the programme WASA T&TEC
Telephones Community facilities -
mortgages and finance.
The local municipality would be
responsible for the distribution of
lHouses, the collections of rents and
mortgages, which we recommend
should now he spread over a 40 year!
period. Developers should be en-1

courage to enter the subsidized
housing programmes on a participatory
N.H.A. should be responsible for
conducting research into new systems,
either directly or by grants, or 'by
special concessions. Experimentation
should be conducted on unit types
based on e.g. Ventilation systems and
construction techniques.
A rationale regarding the re-
development of squatter housing and
chattel houses should be arrived at
particularly in regard to the Land
acquisition price paid. (An example
from another country shows that 1/3
the market price has been paid for
lands under the conditions.) Urban
land laws to stimulate development
should be introduced as part of the
overall development programme.
The setting up of Building Socie-
ties should be encouraged. The Build-
ing of nev towns with attached indus-
try Agricultural or otherwise. The
deliberate dispersal of industry and
government buildings away from the
city should also be encouraged.
In order to build 15,000 units
per annum, new sources of Finance
total between 200-300 million dollars
would have to be identified. The
intention would be to remove housing
from competition for capital needed
for other essential development.
Finance for Housing therefore, would
be identified as such and administered
by the N.H.A'
The collections for the capital
housing fund, should be administered
through existing government agencies
such as, the Inland Revenue Depart-
ment and Comptroller of Accounts,
and National Insurance Board. The
following sources are proposed for the
Capital Fund:-

1). From Central Government
Sources directly to the
Housing Programme.
2). From introduction of Com-
pulsory Worker Savings a
percentage of income.
3). From introduction of
Housing Bonds Investment
should be encouraged in
the Bonds at reasonable
interest rates. It should be
compulsory for the follow-
ing organisation to invest
a percentage of their gross
earnings in Housing Bonds.
All Building Material Sup-
plies Firms.

N immons=

Housing For All

Conclusion of presentation by

The Society of Architects during

Architects Week held last month
I ''

Financing and Mortgage
Specialist subcontractors.
Contracting Organisation.
Professional firms dealing
with the Building Industry
in any way.
Estate Agents.
All the organizations
directly or directly con-
cerned with construction.
4). The National Insurance
Board. In addition to
investments made regard-
ing economic housing a
percent of income in hous-
ing bonds.
5). International Lending
Agencies. To the tune of
49% these aid programmes
should not be curtailed. In
spite of set backs, they
still represent by their
feasibilities and financing,
a large 'portion of the
recent works of N.H.A.
Their financial policy must
however, be compatible
with the national interest.
6). Land Tax. A Tax based
on the potential developed
value of the Land -
whether Agricultural, Resi-
dential or Commercial.
This would have the effect
substantially reducing
speculation on Land would
consolidate or disperse it
into the hands of the
people who must develop
within the national, social
and economic climate.
You have seen our approval to
an integrated housing policy. Our
rationale regarding the solution to the
housing problem, our housing and
economics and the identification of
the problem- --.--------
The problem today, is worse
than it was in 1960, for when the
backlog of existing units is considered,
and if the assumption is made that
we should wipe out the backlog over
a period of say, seven (7) years, then
the number of units should be in the
order of 22,000 per annum.
We have shown that the econ-
omic benefits of that major national
construction exercise would be tre-
mendous. We have identified the
enormous social benefits which would
be derived both in terms of employ-
ment and in terms of adequate housing..
We have attempted to rationalise
a module of spacial requirements
necessary for living and to relate this
to the wider community.
In this critical area of housing,
this paper is ;mited in scope, but sets
the framework from which we shall
in future papers be developing more
detailed studies to one or two of the
identified regions, possibly St. Joseph,
as an area of redevelopment, and
Point Lisas or Waller Field as an area
of new development.


From Front Page

souls made the journey up from
the North. In private cars, in taxis
and in rented buses. They arrived
to find that they were the first.
The southern invasion had not
yet begun. But come it did.
In the past months Tapia
has been engaged in a lot of work
in the South and the response
has been tremendous. Indeed the
unequivocal demand that the,
Assembly be held in the South
came from all those cadres in
that region who wanted to show
what they had been about.
And there was plenty. From
La Brea came Arnold Hood and
his following. From Fyzabad,
Mickey Matthews brought out
his people. Billy Montague and
Annar Singh, the little dynamo,
came with a large contingent
from Siparia and Santa Flora.
And there were more, from Point
Fortin- and Siparia, Avocat and
La Remain, Marabella and Gas-

pAio, and from San Ferando
It was therefore fitting tha:
the Chairmen for the entire day
should all have been men from
the Southland. It was without
doubt their day.


The first speaker was Michael
Harris, Tapia Editor and Shadow
Minister for External Affairs.
There are those in Tapia who
never miss any Assembly or.
meeting, and who had heard him
speak before. They smiled in
But on this occasion there
were many who would be hearing
him for the first time. One
wondered what their thoughts
might h.'ve been as this short,
but completely self-assureW young
man came up to the podT.m and
stood still for a while a e
microphone was adjustedd' iiis
He began without flair. "In


)ECEMatR 7, 1975


the beginning was the vision and
the vision was of a new world.
right here in the Caribbean sea."
The Caribbean Dream. A new
society right here in the Carib-
bean, based on the foundations
of justice and equality, upon a
new moral order, that which
Western Civilization had been
looking for for centuries.
Then came Denis Solomon.
His responsibility on the Shadow
Cabinet that of Public Admin-
istration. A tall, strong, man of
towering intellect and unswerving
principles. Making no pretence
at being a dynamic speaker, he
began to articulate with Jarity,
and obvious cima.:J .e a,
program fdr freedom in (h. ?Piub-
lic Service.
Allan Harris, followed Solo-
mon. He has been called the
nexus of the entire Tapia Move-

ment. For the past four years
he has served as Administrative
Secretary and to this has now
been added Shadow respohsibili-
ties for Local Government. His
distinguishing characteristic,
admired by all who know him, is
an amazing cool.
On Sunday it became evi-
dent that he had added to that
the authority of a dynamic
speaker. Local Government is
one of the key pillars of the
Tapia scheme for reconstruction,
and the huge crowd was silenced
for the first time as Harris out-
lined tc program for bringing
Power to the People.


Then came what to my
mind was the most important

Shopping at


Cor. Henry St. &'Independence Sq.






Telephone 62-37861



_ I/S

Ste phens

.- i.?

session ot the day. For a long
time now in its Assemblies Tapia
has been seeking ways and means
of getting everyone involved in
the programme. It was not until
the previous sitting of the National
Convention that the way was
On that occasion a definite
period was allocated on the
Agenda for statements from the
floor. And the responses surpas-
sed all expectations. Members
had come prepared to give their
views and they did not hesitate.
The hour and a half allocated
then, -stretched into two hours
and still it was not enough.
So last Sunday we resumed.
Let the people speak. It is both
an indication of the type of
Movement Tapia has grown into
and the type of repression which
has been placed for so long on

the voices ot all the people, that
there was no hesitation. People
spoke from their hearts.


Some merely wanted to say
how happy they were to be in
Tapia. Others had definite views
on issues which they wanted
Tapia to consider. One long-
standing Tapia man lifted the
entire Assembly ten feet high
when he sang a calypso which
put the whole of Tapia's econ-
omic program better than it has
ever been put before.
Then there were the few who
used the opportunity simply to
ask questions on points in the
Tapa manifesto. Whatever the
reason they came to the micro-
phone, the fact is they did. It is

obvious that this is a feature
which is going to have a perm-a-
nent place in Tapia Assemblies.
But it ended. All to soon.
But Chairman Dalton O'Neil had
a deadline to meet. At two
o'clock Lloyd Best must begin
speaking since the speech was
being recorded for broadcast
that same night.
Few of the members present
knew this. The fact had been
badly advertised. But Tapia had
succeeded in getting, for the
first time Radio Time for a politi-
cal broadcast. Significantly it
was on Radio Trinidad. The Gov-
ernment owned radio stations
were still firmly closed to the
people and their representatives.
But Radio Trinidad had
taken the first small step. They
still would not give Tapia the
opportunity to broadcast a series
of short programs by different
Tapia speakers. They still insisted
that only the "political leader"
must be heard. But still they had
made a start, provided we could
find a commercial sponsor. The


Tapia House Publishing Company
duly put up the bread.


Lloyd Best, coming last.
But coming as the excitement
reached its peak. And as it was
in the beginning so to at the end.
A long cool drink at thq-fountain
of our faith. Yes, he started,
Tapia had its thirty-six candidates
which we would ask the country
to vote for. And the first of
these were personal integrity,
moral insight and political judge-
"Nothing Brothers and
Sisters, can be built without
faith." Here it was again that
keynote. The key to the man
who was speaking, to all the
men who had spoken. The key
to the members who had come
from far and near, the key to
everything Tapia stood for and
worked for. The Kev to a beauti-
ful gathering, that Sunday in the


Youth in Success Village

Neglected and Damned!

MAYNARD, yuh"really
know what yuh saying?
Yuh make a statement on
the radio. Ah wonder if
yuh really know wha yuh
Now to4ay, Maynard
wonders, for Maynard feels
he knows Laventille, Laven-
tille, the place where he was
born and where he Is spend-
ing his life. Maynard, who
has seen this area through its
good and bad times. I believe,
in the words of superstitious
persons, he has "goat mouth".
Just dig Laventille's head.
lines for the past month:-
One man stabbed in the
school yard; Fatman chops
off a man's hand in town:
Fatman hanging on for life by
a thread. "He was chopped
with an axe in retaliation for
what he did. Fr, Woods tied
and robbed and now dey kill
Michael in a Block 0. You
must wonder if these are all
coincidences? Plainly speak-
ing, I do not.
Success Village, Laventille
is just another sub-urban,
underdeveloped, depressed
What is common to most
and evident to all is the gross
lack of education or mal-
These factors are synony-
mous with areas or villages
like Success; the name Success
Village being a mockery or
mimic of the achievement of
the place.
Let us begin with the
children and let us see in true
context what is in store for
then, At age three these
children attend nursery schools
all over the area, These schools
are run privately or by Servol.
These are the best years of
the child. At age five its
troubles begin
The schools in Laventille
are overcrowded and it is
felt that they are below par
in its teaching. What is really
true, is that, there is hardly
any interest in these schools
by both parents and residents,
so why, worry.
For some people it is the
last resort to send a child to a
Laventille school. The trek is
town. NelsonStreet, Calvary
These children who remain
in Laventille, just exist,
anonymously, as far as popu-
larity of school is concerned
and the Laventille complex of
inferiority in born,
Those who attend outside,

most of them that is, are now
nuturing a "get out" of
Laventille complex. Laven-
tille is no place for the
We now arrive at the most
sensitive stage the departure,
from Elementary school and
here is where all the com-
plexes come into full play.
It can be clearly seen who
is "down to earth" from who
is playing "I don't know
what". You see class-mates
going their separate ways;
very good friends shunning
each other because this one
talks to "dem over dey" and
dey ain't talking to dem over
You see a search for truth
by most of these young
people and also misled dedica-
tion, given to wrong ideals.
You also see who stands a
hcance to be saved and who
is heading for the block,
unemployment, hardship and
possibly jail. It is a most
sickening sight to behold.
I blame first of all the
Government, I blame them
squarely for their mis-educa-
tion programme. The teen-
ager is slated for ,subservience
even if he makes the O'Level
grade and worst yet, if he
I blame them for worsen-
ing the situation they have
met and up to now not come
up with real answers but still
persisting in mamaguy, big
talk and crisis actions even to
the extent of having ineffi-
cient Ministers of Education.
I blame them for their
gross neglect of the sufferings
of young people who today,
with all their talents, have no
These people according to
Government's policy are to
be used for "Party" benefits
and at Representatives' dis-
They have been reduced
to a state of sub-human
status. They are now guinea
pigs to be experimented
upon, cast aside and con-
demned when the experiments
In short, they are a bunch
of uneducated misfits. 1




Foundation to Fixtures

Call 6 244698

wonder what one would feel
if one knew that one was
scorned, scoffed at and was
being laughed at and also was
being punished inside and
outside for every wrong com-
mitted whether it was one's
fault or not. I wonder.?
Finally, I blame all the
people who know better and
who can help (myself included).
Whether it is in putting pres-
sure on Government or whe-
ther we try in our own way to
help, we are not doing enough.
We are also not giving
without wanting. We still
intend -t-o us; to pressurise,
and to subject youth to their
sub-human status. We are
nothing but semi-oppressors.
It is only when we-feel the
wrath of these young citizens
of tomorrow, then and only
then, some of us are jolted to
our senses. The others, retali-
ate viciously.
And this is so because
our very existence is threaten-
ed, Our welfare, our children's
welfare and everything else
collapses before our very


.. ... "and we are hoping that the Industries and the
business in Laventille would come-in and assist us, especially,
in the question of the giving of Technical and Vocational
skills and crafts. So I hope they would see it fit because I
believe if Laventille remains as it is then Burroughs and these
chaps would have a lot of work to do because an uneducated
community is a very serious thing so I believe everyman,
everyone who is capable of playing his part should do so."

eyes, so we then stretch our
benevolent arms to embrace
the fold of the sufferers.
I say this is a complete
waste of time. We have failed
before we have even started.
Today Laventille is appre-
hensive. It is very apprehen-
sive of a wind of evil changes
which is blowing hard. Will the
old stigma return? Will it be
now proven that "nothing
good comes out of Laven-
Rev. Fr. John Woods is a
man who has broken all the
traditions and who is deter-
mined to defy Satan in all
the evils of Laventille. There
is no nearer priest to the
block than he is.
One wonders whether, if
he were successful in his
endeavours, what would have
been the -reaction of his
parishoner's and clergy?
Today with all the mal-
goings on centered around
him, the church and the R.C.
School one wonders if he can
be likened to Christ being
tempted by- Satan in the
desert. Is he on the threshold
of success?
Yet there is no hiding the
fact that it is known, that
there is bad blood between
the teachers of the premen-
tioned school and Fr. Woods.
Is it because he is a Block 0
priest? Is it because, the
teachers are not on that
scene? Is it that they are not

EFFECTIVE 1st December, 1974.

Readers should note that there has been a change in the MANJAK subscrip-
tion rates, with effect from 1st December, 1974.
MANJAK now offers rates for one (1) year, rather than for 26 issues of
the journal, as at present.
Current subscribers should, however, note that their subscriptions for 26
issues of the journal remain in force.




Rates for annual subscription to MANJAK:

Tmeitorries )


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Other Caribbeaw:


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$5.00 (U.S.).
L 1.50.

-ASK I-VA MR, PARRMS I.________________

in love or do not believe in a
better Laventille? Do they
deny the priest the right of
his associations or his methods
of carrying out his duties of
Or is it that they deny
him the rights to grant "sin-
ners" and "dem boys" privi-
leges of using the school
What is quite significant
is that Fr. Woods was the
one in the forefront for the
renovation of the same
school. He stuck his neck
where no teacher or'parent
stuck theirs.
No one protested when he
gave Servol permission to
erect a Netball Court and to
pave the premises. What is
the quarrel bout now?
One big man "de priest"
came down. One thought he
would have set the pace for
others to follow. This was
not so and the results are
what we are getting now.
It would not be surprising
for Fr. Woods' people to
turn against him nor would it
be surprising for Laventille

to return to its evil ways.
I have siad it before and
will say it again "An unedu-
cated community is a very
serious thing."

Charles Maynard.

I- -' P --- I I I tar 3 1 I 1 q I

suNI)AI/ DECEM13eER 7. 1975



Just Cut-Out the Coupon Below and
bring it into any branch of the
American Stores throughout the
Nation and we will give you

I250/ /0


,Reg $97.50

Reg. $150.00


Reg. $54.95
$41.22 *


R eg. $66.00

4S i $33.95

Reg $105.00

.\ .i

Reu 15~

Reg $125.f0

Tapia say Register to Vote Now!







-'.'- TlaiDUT-C,
,ch Institut for
'f Man,
.',t 78th Street,
-1J-. N.Y. 10021,

.r i ...........



of the Valley




Sunday 14 December

Time 10 am. To.

Admiss-ion- 3.00


EL IH^ ^H^ -^^H ^^^B ~

with the




I -~ ~rrPul

Imm N