Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00188
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: November 16, 1975
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00188

Full Text



-.. r ,tUDY OP I
r3 / r !6ca '-vT 78 STR EE





GENERAL Elections are
due not later than Sept-
ember 17 1076 and will
very probably be called
sooner rather than later.
The fact is that the
bottom has fallen out of
the bucket and time can
oni'. be of assistance to
our nwvv national move-
mrent, reaching out to
salvage the future of our
nai ion.
The Has-Beens (HNM)
have little cl oice but to
cut tl .ir political losses
to sav themselves from
STo save the Bare-Jack
from hanging, they may
throw it out before the
festive season is done -
some time while the
attention of the people

-' ;, aM

AT a Public Meeting
held by Tapia last Wed-
nesday eightt at the corner
of Bc-, .es Road in St.
James, an attempt was
made to damage the
public address equipment
that was being used for
the occasion.
The meeting had just
been brought to a close,
by Chairman Allan Harris

whcn one oF the specta-
tors rushed up to the
microphone s t a n d,
knocked it over, and
smashed the side window
of the car to which it was
The assailant was
seized by Tapia security
man but after a short
scuffle escaped and dis-'
appeared around a corner.

is consumed by Cricket
or Christmas or Carnival.
We in Tapia cannot
conceive that theGovern-
ment could stoop to such
irresponsible calculation
but the .-ynicism already
on disp.-y in regard to
the Black Power Move-
ment, to the, United
Labour Moment and' to
the Wooding Reform
Commission is undoubt-
edly equal to such a base

This Government so
low, it could walk under
a razor-blade. (It would
not even have to limbo.)
The Policeman on duty
at the meeting later stated
that he had seen the
man approach the car but
thought that he belonged
to the Tapia team.
The meeting which
was one in the series of
public meetings being
held by Tapia all over
the country, was attended
by a small crowd of just
over a hundred people.
Speakers at the meet-
ing were Allan Harris,
Michael Harris, Beau
Tewarie and Hamlet

If a snap pre-Carnival
election is the prospect
and the plan, then the
last big play is certain to
be an early December
Budget on the reasoning
that more corn you have,
more fowl you feed.
I anticipate the most
extravagant Budget ever,
one fuelled by high petrol-
eum output, and by
higher OPEC prices.
By a vastly enhanced
value of the State's
petroleum earnings on
account of a characteritic-
ally covert and colonial
devaluation vis-a-vis the
US dollar.
By the natural in-
creases in the tax burden
imposed on the scrunting
people when prices and


Friday 14th
Tuesday 18th
Wednesday 19th

Wednesday 19th La Fortune

Thursday 20th
Friday 21st
Tuesday 25th

La Remain Main Rd.
Frederic Settlement Caroni
Marabella Junction

I Wednesday 26th San Fernando

the cost of living are
escalating daily.
This year total current
revenue was -estimated at
$1211.8m and recurrent
expenditure before sup-
plementary appropria-
tions (- and inclusive of
bobol -) came to $675
This year the extrava-
ganza of earning and"
spending will be on an
infinitely greater scale
and the Party's Election
Works will have an Extra-
Special character.
The only fly in the
ointment is that we have
seen it all before. Too
much wrong thing going
on; is time for political



w p:*

no6 uuwwr

^^^^ ^** ^ ^BHBBi( b wBBIB ^- B^S1'e '^B^W^^H ^^^I^^BI^^ ^wBS^^W^^;~~Lr ^ m B- ^m U HB:f ^H m 9 ^ ^BU H ^BRf^ p ^I~ H H ^^

Vol. 5 No. 46

30 Cents

Public Meetings


Point Fortin
St. John Trace Avocat

C ~_~__ I

-I-- --- -

Th, S a,-so i~C


Sir Alan resigns but

T&T EC still has

Country in the Dark

rHE storm of controversy
that has been blowing
around the Trinidad and
Tobago Electricity Com-
mission increased in
intensity this past week
with two significant and
very disturbing develop-
In the first place the
dreaded word "black-
out" was back in the
news again, last Monday,
as the Trinidad and
Tobago Electricity Com-
mission turned the
entire country into one
gigantic Christmas tree,
with lights going on and
off all over the place.
By now the enormous
costs involved in the
practice of load shedding
through loss of wages and
output and disruptions
in production schedules
etc. is an old, old story.
But it would seem that,
short of a total shutdown
of the entire country for
a period of days, we shall

THE Trinidad and
Tobago Society of Archi-
tects which is currently
engaged- in staging Archi-
tects' week,' has
received a letter from
ECO One, the multidis-
ciplinary organisation of
Caribbean environmental-
ists, demanding that the
Society announces its
resignation from the
Institute of British Archi-
The letter from ECO
One, signed by Colin Laird,
himself a prominent archi-
tect, refers the Architect
Society to the issue of
Apartheid in Southern Africa-

have to live with periodic
blackouts for some time.
The latest round of load-
shedding, apparently, was
caused by an extensive fire
at the T&TEC Power station
on Wrightson road on Sunday
last. The fire caused damage
to an 80-megawatt generator,
thus reducing even further,
T&TEC's already drastically
reduced capacity.


Tapia readers will not be
surprised by the news of the
fire, but there is still definite
cause for alarm. In our issue
two weeks ago, we wrote on
the front page that, "Expert
advice has it that four days
of shutdown are required if
the thing (the power-plant) is
not to blow sky-high risking
everything within a radius of
half-a-mile around."
Apart trom this drastic
possibility, given such un-
welcome evidence by the fire


on Sunday, what is even
more alarming is that there
has not been a single state-
ment of explanation made,
on the whole question of the
rapid breakdown at T&TEC,
by any member of the Board
or by the Government Min-
ister in charge.
The absence of any offi-
cial explanation from the
Powers-that-be, is not only
reprehensible in the face of
the serious implications of the
Letter sent by the Senior
engineers to the Board, and
revealed in Tapia two weeks
But it is made all the more
curious when we remember
that it was the Prime Minister
himself who, not too long
ago, raised the whole issue
of the accountability of
Public Corporations and,
more, specifically, their Boards
of Management, to the Public
at large.
Nobody, outside of the
inner circles of authority,
knows exactly what is the
reason for the breakdown of
the equipment at T&TEC,

which is causing so much
hardship to the entire popula-
Not even in the intriguing
case of the infamous 3rd
unit at the B Power Station,
has any attempt been made
to bring some clarification
since Tapia made the whole
thing public knowledge for
the first time.


It is in this context that
we must judge the resigna-
tion by the Chairman of
T&TEC, Sir Alan Reece which
was made public on Tuesday.
We would not make so bold
a claim as to say that Sir
Alan resigned because Tapia
called upon him so to do.
What we do know is that the
resignation itself would be
meaningless, and indeed,
counterproductive, leading
as it would, only to wild
suspicion, unless Sir Alan
took the opportunity to

of Architects

urged to sever links

with South Africa body

It further points out that
the Institute of Architecture
in South Africa is exclusively
white as are the five Archi-
tectural Schools in that
country. By its continued
albance with the Institute of
British Architects. to which

Christmas Shopping



Cor. Henry St. & Independence Sq.






Telephone 62- 37861


the South African Society
is also affiliated, the letter
claims, the Trinidad Society
is not fulfilling the "interests
of humanity" of which it
The letter referred to the
statement made by the

Trinidad and Tobago dele-
gates to the U.N. Committee
on South Africa, in which
the position adopted was
that, "South Africa should
be totally isolated from the
international Community".
ECO One goes on in its

reveal, to the 'country at
large, all the pertinent infor-
mation which he no doubt has
at his disposal and which
would go a long way towards
clearing up the doubts in
people's minds.
Such clarification is vitally
necessary at this point in
time for three major reasons.
In the first place, and absolute
the most important reason, is
the Public's right to know
how its money is being spent
and why it is that we are not
getting the service that we
pay for.
In addition, we wonder
whether or not a complete
airing of the issues may not
be exactly the inducement
required to convince people,
in particular the businessmen,
to curtail the scope of their
activities, in order that
thorough repairs .to damaged
equipment might be under-
taken, rather that the
patchwork that is going on.
Finally, until we hear a
full account from Sir Alan or
Prof. Julien or from the
Minister in Charge about
what is going on, and why
T&TEC, which once upon a
time was called the only
efficient service in the coun-
try, is now' absolutely the
worse, we shall be viewing
with extreme disfavour
T&TEC's present plan to
seek permission .for a 60% in
crease in rates from its
170,000 ratepayers.
For in the absence of any
official assurance to the
contrary, which can only
mean a total airing of the
affair, members of the public
will be perfectly right to
wonder whether the increased
rates would not go _towards
more wasteful expenditure
on expensive equipment
of dubious value.
letter to urge the Trinidaa
Society, "to set up a Com-
mittee to report on your
resignation from and public
censorship of the imperialist
British Institute of Architects
and the severing of the alli-
ance between the Trinidad
and Tobago Society of
Architects and the white
Institute of South African
The letter further con-
veyed ECO One's best wishes
to the Trinidad Society on
their celebrations and expres-
sed the hope that the Society
would have "the humanity
and stones" to lead the
British Caribbean and Com-
mnonwealth Architects against
South African Apartheid.



/S Stephens



SUNDAY) NU"'EMBLR 16. 1975

Eleven Assigned Portfolios,

as Plans put for Revamping


Mr. Chairman,

Brothers and Sisters,
Today, at our Seventh
Anniversary celebrations, it is my
honour to tell you that Tapia
will be putting up a full slate of
candidates in the coming elec-
We will be announcing our
Team at the National Election
Convention which started in
Port-of-Spain on September 28

of State

andwilii continue in San Fernando
on the 30th of November
The candidates for office in a
valid political alternative to the
Government must be judged by
one standard alone, one and
only one. Are they likely to
govern wisely on behalf of the
entire people and not just for
the rich man at his castle leaving
the poor man at his gate?
That is certainly how we

must insist on making the assess-
ment inside of Tapia in the
hope that, it its wisdom, the
electorate will see fit to accept
the same basis both in sizing up
the Tapia Movement as well as in
making up its mind as to the
individual candidates worthy of
its support.
Anything else would be a
continuation of the colonial policy of
buying cat in bag, of hoping for
morality in public affairs, for inde-

r# Er"T

1-1~~~~~~ U -CP



In Tapia's New World, this
Ministry for Parliament would be the
servant of:
highly independent Service
an Elections and Boundaries
Commission which will probably
be an all-party body operated
out of the Senate;
an- Ombudsman and a
Au('tor General appointed by
the "ei-ate and ministering to
a Government Printing. Pub-
lishing and Broadcasting A uthor-
ity set up as a National Trust
and -run by an appropriate
Senate Committee,
Parliame :tary Committees
from both Houses and Joint
Select Committees:
and finally, of Ike Leader of
the Opposition.
This Minister would naturally
be the Leader of the House.
This Ministry lies at the heart
of the constitutional crisis and
is therefore still very much the collec-
tive responsibility and the anxious
concern of the entire Tapia organisa-
We will therefore not be making

any shadow appointment to this
portfolio until the constitutional crisis
clears, and the whole country. is in a
position to repudiate the totally inade-
quate proposals now before the Joint
Select Committee of Parliament.




This Ministry will have respons-
ibility for two main areas:

Law Reform

There is a tremendous amount
of work to be accomplished in the
field of law reform not merely in
repudiating the repressive legislation
which a new Government will inherit
from the old regime but much more
positively, in constructing a scheme of
justice and a system of society differ-
ent in conception from the colonial
backyard in which our current leaders
seem to have been content to linger
This is a most sensitive area
requiring the highest command of the
law and above all, an instinct for
democratic process and a natural sense

of restraint. These latter qualities go
only with men who have preserved an
integrity and built a self-confidence
while becoming master of their profes-
In these times of trouble and
political upheaval, where licence has
become a comfortable habit of living,
I do not know if we dare to look for
such a man, but if we did dare, the
first place we would have to look is in
Tapia, among the bunch of so-called
starry-eyed idealists.
We will find a man for this port-
folio in due course and you can bet
your bottom dollar, that when we do,
we will not have to bolster his dignity
with any homespun silk.
I~ll I I




The Third area of Cabinet res-
ponsibility is in the field of what.the
French call national equipment, that i,
to say,

ti)1 Public Works ii) Housing
iii) Utilities iv) Environment
The job here is to establish the
amenities and facilities of a humane

culture, a context congenial to cordial
communion between man and man
and to an inner peace of soul as we
establish a contact with what we have
once described as the cosmic forces
that wander in the Indies, in the
Caribbean Ocean Sea.
This one policy responsibility
must be subject to one single scheme
of planning and administration (so
that when you get a house from the
National Housing Authority, you will
be sure of water, electricity, an access
road and sewerage).
But for the moment, we will
divide the work of preparation and
opposition into two, as indeed, we
may later assign two or three junior
Minister of National Equipment.
The chosen two are Hamlet
Joseph and Mickey Matthews, for
Public Works and Housing and Utilities,,
respectively. Both are men from the
ranks, men who have made their
presence felt because of capacities and
skills infinitely beyond their formal




Continued on Page 4

pendencc and for political education
and for West Indian nationhood only
to wake up one bright morning just
so. to find that one from ten leaves
no salvation only Babylon and the
wilderness and the desert; politically,
socially, economically and above all,
We in Tapia are and have been
following the proper procedure of
declaring our credentials in advance.
The seven years of ups and downs and
on and off, of cussing up and making
up, of Bull Wuk and Hardwuk, have
expqed the Tapia vision and many of
the Tapia plans and, above all, they
have revealed the Tapia capacity for
lasting political organization on a
completely democratic basis.
Our plans are constructive, our
perspective is elevated, our organiza-
tion is rooted in many parts of the
country and in accomplishing that
mission, even though we have fallen
far short of expectations and have
fulfilled only a small part of the com-
munity tasks we set ourselves in the
beginning, our leaders have made their
presence felt up and down the
country in the local areas, and un-
doubtedly they have made a tremen-
dous impact on the national political
Today it is my pleasant duty to
present to you these leaders and to.pay
special attention to those who have
accepted our invitation to shoulder
the onerous responsibilities of a Tapia
Shadow Cabinet.
They have already been doing the
work as any genuine Opposition must
do and as Tapia has been doing with
a special excellence ever since Fate
beckoned us into the Senate.
If Tapia comes to office next
January (1976) and that, I admit,
is a big if, though much smaller than
many pundits believe our Cabinet
will probably not have more than
Nine areas of the highest Executive
responsibility for policy.
Twice before I have discussed
this at National Assemblies of Tapia
and the discussion has been reported
in our pamphlets Prospects For Our
Nation and The Political Alternative.
The Nine Areas of High Respons-
ibility around which the work of a
good Government could most mean-
ingfully be organised are as follows:-


From Page 3

National Welfare falls into five
divisions of responsibility which
together make up a single area of
Cabinet policy and planning. Once
we business fix in regard to national
equipment, our attention must be
turned to:

Social Security, Pensions
and National Insurance
The Arts
Youth, Sport and National

For the moment, the colossal
task of planning, the decentralisation
of health and devising an equitable
and feasible plan of social security to.
come to'grips with'the burden of
disadvantage among the little people
will be given to Uoyd Taylor.
The Tapia proposals for reorgan-
ization of the education system have
already been sketched in dome detail,
focussing not so much on central aims
but on ways of winning the involve-
ment of principals, parents, teachers,
students and the business community
in the difficult and disciplined process
of transforming the colonial pattern
of education for examinations in the
interest of a privileged few into
examinations for living in the service
of the vast majority of Trinidadians
and Tobagonians.
The man for the job is obviously
Bhoendradatt Tewarie, a man strongly
'drawn to drama and the arts which
must equally engage his attention.
The youth lie at the centre of
the Tapia strategy for national recon-
struction of a kind that would set our
people free and bring the moral
resurgence, the spiritual regeneration
and the cultural revival which are the
only real road to the identity which
so many seek in extravagance,
obscurantism and escape.
In terms of -operations, the
Tapia plan is to begin with a new
living complex up in the Waller Field
Region. The project is to embrace
self-help housing, outdoor education,
co-operative agriculture, drag-brother
industry and craft and a thrust to
professional sport, all in the context
of a gigantic scheme of national
service encompassing anything like
25,000 brothers and sisters.
The Plan will be published
whenever the time is ripe. Intimations
and sketches have many times been
given in sundry Tapia pamphlets and
on various Tapia platforms.
What has become fully clear to
people is that the man to lead us in
the required direction is Michael
Billy Montague. That makes three
divisions of responsibility under the
umbrella of National Welfare.
i) Health and Social
Security Lloyd Tayloi
ii) Education and the
Arts Beau Tewarie
iii) Youth, Sport and
National Service -
Michael Billy-Montague





Trinidaa and Tobago needs
sweeping constitution reform to intro-
duce a workable and therefore partici-
patory system of government and
politics, a fresh scheme of law and
justice, a man-made environment
equal to the gifts of the natural

And then we must minister to
the things of the spirit by the arts and
the humanities, by the cultivation of
our intelligence through education, by
the care of our bodies through
medicine and sport and by inspiring
our imagination through the peculiar
blend of discipline and freedom that
we distil in finding our way to glory.
But how are we to pay our way
to such an exalted civilization if we
do not harness such forces of Produc-
tion? Perhaps the most crucial area of
discipline is the area of economic
affairs and labour. Without production
it becomes more difficult than ever
to call for tolerance and justice and
discipline must ultimately breakdown.
Our natural leader is Ivan
Alexander Laughlin than whom there
is none so well grounded in dedication
and practised in the routines of sus-
tained endeavour.
He will have to persuade the
people both in the New National
Movement and the country that the
Tapia scheme for localisation can
work; that it is possible to weave
petroleum, agriculture, manufacturing,
commerce and the service trades into
a single manageable fabric, operating
under the control of the Government,
the Unions and private people, and
equipped to provide all our people
with food and clothes and shelter out
of the resources of the land.
He will have to show us how to
do it in the face of jarring ideologies
imported from other places. He will
have to lead us into realms of com-
promise capable of containing the
dangerous conflicts inherent in the
huge enterprise of economic reorgan-
Production and Labour con-.
stitute the first division in the area of
Economic Affairs. The second is
finance which, in the Tapia New
World, would be no more than the
hand-maiden of economics.
The responsibility for Financial
Affairs in a Tapia Government would
be greater than it is now, because
being of service is vastly more difficult
than always being in charge.
We envisage a scheme of no more'
than half a dozen administrative
departments within this division of
responsibility for the planning and
management of the economy:
i) Budgeting
ii) Petroleum Taxation a
conspicuous outrage at the
iii) Customs equally a
scandal both on the docks
and at the old Bond in
iv) Inland Revenue includ-
ing Excise a target for
v) Central Expenditure
including Tenders
vi) Central Banking.

Particularly, we will have to
address our attention to bringing the
banking commess to an end and to
creating a national framework of
payments (expenditure) which would
activate and modernise the post office
and the 25 Tapia Municipal Council
Offices as well as harness the reformed
system of national commercial, house-
hold and industrial banking.
Angela Cropper has been chosen
to shoulder this enormous burden of
responsibility alongside Ivan Laughlin.
I am sure that she is going to be
presenting us with the most elegant
solutions. She certainly looks the part.





Top Row
Hamlet Joseph, Mickey Matthews,
Denis Solomon, Ivah Laughin,

Centre Row
Michael Billy-Montague,
Angela Cropper. Allan Harris

Bottom Row.
Beau Tewarie. Lloyd Best.
Michael Harris, Lloyd Taylor,

I wil



The only way for people to learn
responsibility is to be charged with
responsibility. Constitution reform for
Tapia therefore means 25 Municipal
Councils to create agencies close
enough to the population to be able
to listen to our needs for education,
school repairs, health, sporting facili-
ties, protective services, and the like.
The Ministry of Local Govern-
ment will have two main tasks. The
first-would be to provide machinery
in the local areas for the implementa-
tion of national programmes.
This Ministry must therefore
contain all the others in regard to home
(local) affairs. Certainly, it should
make all expenditures and all collec-
tions not requiring central interven-
tion. It would contain the bulk of the
public service including Teachers
which would cut down irrational
travel and admit greater political
The Minister in charge must be
a kind of Prime Minister for Home
Affairs, in terms of the comprehensive
character of his command. Allan
Harris, Manager of the Tapia Central
Office is bred by aptitude, training
and occupation for flexible responsibil-
ity in all directions.
His second responsibility would
be for integrating the protective ser-
vices into the machinery for servicing
the local areas. The Police Service
grew up as a bullying force of the
Colonial power; it has been eager to
develop a new direction.
The Tapia plan is literally to
civilise the Service by creating a new
civil branch not at all concerned with
crime but with protective service
embracing firemen, lifeguards, school

wardens, security guards, estate con-
stables, game wardens, sanitary inspec-
tors, prize controllers, probation
officers, social workers, national
insurance inspectors, and so on.
Crime control would become
less necessary and less important
simultaneously. The squads that fly
madly up and down the country
would yield place to the teams
of locally based personnel while the
opportunities for transfer'and promo-
tion and for career advancement
would correspondingly multiply and
make the entire scheme acceptable to






We have already described m
Tapia's New World the mountain of
effort required to place Trinidad and
Tobago in a properly active and inde-
pendent role in' the affairs of the
Caribbean, the Americas, the Atlantic
and the world.
First and foremost, the rebirth
of our national movement means
establishing a Caribbean where alone
in the Americas, Black People would
be in charge culturally and politically
and would therefore have the chance
to settle the score with the civilisation
of the North Atlantic by establishing a
world of genuine freedom, democratic.
participatory, multi-racial.


c I--
I '1

Our foreign- policy must there-
fore move rapidly to acknowledge that
West Indian Nation. already exists in
the logic of our culture and our history
and requires immediately an Eastern
Caribbean state built around Trinidad
and Tobago and later, successfully
larger constructions on the planks laid
down by the Caribbean Economic
All the rest of our external
affairs must be and will then be
informed by this central task of
building a viable Caribbean nation and
a viable Trinidad and Tobago, viable
Trinidad and Tobago, viable because
the larger context would simultane-
ously increase tie psychological
security of the African majority in
the region and therefore provide cul-
tural guarantees to the Asian and
European minorities.
The translation of this vision
iino the practical Jpohtici of a ...
oil-producing Caribbean City State of
two islands in the last quarter .if the
20th Century is a job demanding high
:i'. e. full commitment and
exte';c political resource. Michael
Harris -iill open the innings for Tapia.
U fsarsaai~ ,,iiiases.ws,ig-mwmwil



Our whole view of the constitu-
tional crisis and the urgency of a
sweeping reconstruction dictates an
at altogether new conception of the
working of the state machine as of the
whole system of politics and govern-
ment in Trinidad, in Tobago and in
the West Indies.
As we tackle fundamentals by

revamping the political branch of the
Executive along the lines spelt out so
far, the administrative branch will also
have to be reformed in the same way
as the advent of Cabinet Government
at the time of Independence called
for a reorganization of the Civil
This calls, among other things,
for a Ministry of Public Administra-
tion, a Ministry to deal exclusively
with other Ministries and not at all
with the public.
In a Tapia Government, it will
be'the centre of personnel and train-
ing, of organization and methods, of
a public service planning committee
of Permanent Secretaries, and above
all, of the Cabinet Secretariat.
In Opposition, our main respons-
ibility is to prepare a workable plan
for defining-responsibilijy and ensuring
accountability at the level of Min-
isterial and Departmental leadership
in the context of a responsible
Cabinet system.
The evidence, even from the
horse's mouth, suggests this to be the
major failure of the Has-Been National
Movement which is now clearly a
living dead.
The failure is partly a failure of
Doctor Politics and one-man rule
which have stunted the party and
prevented the recruitment and/or the
development of technically competent
candidates from amongst whom the
Ministers could be selected.
Partly, it was also a failure of
imagination in relation to the terms
of employment at the top of the
public service where amendments
were needed to accommodate the
political interests of the expanded
new technocracy and to turn them to
the advantage of public administration.
Two solutions to this problem
have recently been suggested. Mr.
Patrick proposes to entrench Doctor
Politics by retaining both the Cabinet



and the House of Representatives as
Audiences before the King, as Dr.
Gocking has shown the Prime Minister
to be.
Mr. Patrick recognizes that the
present arrangement treats both Min-
isters and Permanent Secretaries as
equal in the eyes of the Doctor so
that for him what is required are
occasions where all the advice is heard
for consideration,, evaluation and
His proposal simply ratifies the
subversion of Ministerial responsibility
and the sacrifice of Parliament on the
alter of a Benevolent Doctator. It
would confirm for all time the debase-
ment of both the Public Service and the
Dr. Ryan, for his part, has'
pointed to the practice in some coun-
tries of appointing administrative
Heads of 'Ministries and Departments
who would be Deputy Ministers,
politically recruited. Tapia first made
a similar proposal in a daily paper
since 1969, but unfortunately the
lead writers in Independence Square
over and over fail to read their files.
In our scheme, the Minister
would be both technically competent
and politically responsible. We would
also create a class of politically
minded but technically oriented public
servants as the administrative heads of
Ministries and Departments. _They
would fall when the Government
does and find places in university
institutes, the foreign service, and in
certain public corporations if we
persuade the country that such an
arrangement is necessary for the
proper functioning of a participatory
democracy in Trinidad and Tobago.
The top position in the career
Civil Service will then be occupied by
what are now the Chief Technical
Officers, officers of equal competence
to that of the Deputy Ministers but
with no wish to take political identity.
These Officers would operate under
Westminster rules and regulations 69
and 70 could properly apply to them.
These career Civil Servants inci-
dentally, would not constitute too
-very large a body since the vast
majority of Government workers
would be employed in the Municipal
Councils and since far fewer people
would wish the security of being a
Westminster-type Civil Servant where
there is full employment for all and a
decent programme of social security
for all the citizens of the State.
This range of Tapia Proposals
has an excellent prospect of being
successful, not because they are more
imaginative in the abstract, but
because political independence and
broader educational opportunity have
changed the social context and climate.
Our proposals in fact, are already
in being in the sense that there does
exist a small minority of ambitious
civil servants, technocrats with a politi-
cal orientation, who rise and fall in
response to changing political condi-
tions, and who are paid handsomely
for their contribution by the perqui-
sites of office, and for whom, when
they are out, places are conveniently
found in the public service in the
form of long vacation leave with pay,
The main thing-wrong with this
arrangement is that, being organised
in the interest of the zig-zagging sur-
vival of a single- individual, it is
illicit, undignified and devoid of any
constitutional legitimation.
The Tapia Minister of Public
Administration will have to prepare
the "appropriate framework for bring-
ing these arrangements on the level.
The obvious mind for this computer
task is the mind of Denis Solomon.




_-- slL~- -~16-"C~P ~DJJ+YP~-~d~-Y -Lk --~-~-- -L

The final area of responsibility
is Planning and Reconstruction. Here
we must assemble all those Agencies of
State whose task is to lift the nation
'above the issues of daily living by
turning our faces towards the longer-
term, the realities of survival, the
greater possibilities of development as
well as by transporting us into the
higher realms of civilisation.
Given the complete .demoralisa-
tion into which we have been mis-
governed for more than a decade
now, absolutely the first of five
Agencies of Reconstruction must be a
National Academy or some such body
charged to establish and maintain a
framework in which current cultural
revival among the artists could be
enhanced and sustained.
We need museums, theatres,
libraries, galleries, monuments, pan-
yards properly provided and all the
props of the spirit. It is significant that
in 20 yrs, the only major project
which this Government has initiated
seems to have been the Lock-Joint
Sewerage Scheme.
The Tapia Academy would em-
brace the leaders of thought and
letters and humanities and give them
the funds to establish Trusts and
promote all those activities by which
the national soul is uplifted.
We would begin by bringing
home C.L.R. James so that he could
oppose the Government and inflame
the young with all the facts at his
disposal instead of playing Lenin in a
fantasy world and waiting for a return
to the Finland Station.
Number two is the Petroleum
Techretariat for which there is no
need to make the case. I will only say
that you can bring the horse to the
pond, but'you can't make him drink.
Number three is the Technol-
ogical Institute. The Government has
always maintained that black people
have no head for business so they
killed off all the small craftsmen who
used to be promoting technological
progress up and down this country:
they have killed them and put them
on the project while Nail& Messy.
assembling motor-car on the basis of
the rubber-stamp technology they
import from Australia and Japan
under the "scheme" of pioneer
The Technological Institute,
with the assistance of the drag-brothers
and the imagination which made -the
steelband, must win our manhood
Number four is the Central
Planning Office including Environ-
mental Planning, the Central-Statistical
Office, Economic Analysis and Fore-
casting; all the matters concerned with
long-term transformation. All of this
is very familiar territory.
The new departure is number
five, the most important Agency of
all the Caribbean Bureau to plan
the strategy towards that elusive West
Indian State and given hope and life
and vitality to-the New Movement
for a West Indian Nation.

Brothers and Sisters,

Planning and Reconstruction is
not a responsibility for Lloyd Best
alone, it is the responsibility of every
one of us. The Tapia Shadow Cabinet
can only be a focus of action, a light
shining before men that they may see
the good works and rally to save us all.
The Team is young, eleven
young leaders, average age 33 years
and two months. At 41, lam the oldest
man of the lot. It is fitting because
Tapia has always been the Movement
of the youth, young in ideas, young
in personnel, young in following,
young at heart.
After seven years in the field in
a country where me dropout and
accident rate in politics is among the
highest 'in the world, these young
shoulders are carrying heads which are
remarkably mature.



There is


on; a new coloni

is not

sugar esta/

but H0ous


Nat ion


IN 1957, shortly after
the PNM had come to
power, the Central Statis-
tical Office was instructed
to carry out a Housing
census. This census
revealed that Trinidad
and Tobago was sadly
lacking in one of the
basic amenities for toler-
able living.
The level of overcrowding
reached a national average of
43 per cent; highest in Port-
of-Spain 52 per cent and
lowest in San Fernando. Ten
years later, the C.S.O. carried
out a Housing survey to
ascertain changes in the
situation, if any.
The changes or improve-
ments over the period were
insignificant to say the least.
: F'a. ;wilh increasing popu-
lation, the situation could be
considered even worse than
when the PNM replaced the
Gomes regime.
Looking at overcrowding
the 1966 survey showed that
40 per cent of the total
housing units "accommoda-
tion units", as they are called
- suffered from overcrowd-

ing which was defined to
mean housing units with
more than 4 persons per
bedroom or without bedrooms.
That is, 40 per cent of
the total households or
families were living under
grossly overcrowded condi-
tions. The closer you lived to
the city, the greater the
overcrowding, but nationally,
the levels of overcrowding
continued to be frightfully
The C.S.O. survey also
identified "poor to fair"
housing this is different
from overcrowding one
could find overcrowding in a
house with toilet facilities,
running water, electricity and
a solid structure. Alter-
natively, one could find
overcrowding without these
facilities this is poor hous-
The percentage of "poor
to fair" housing was highest
in the rural areas like Nariva/
Mayaro with 57 per cent of
the total housing units con-
sidered poor or fair. In
Caroni, the figure was 43 per-
In St. Andrew/St. David,

it was 48 per cent; and in St.
Patrick, now the blue-eyed
constituency, the percentage
of poor to fair housing in
1966 was estimated to be 42
per cent of the total housing
in the County.
Port-of-Spain and San
Fernando showed the smallest
percentages of poor to fair
housing 26 and 18 per
cent respectively. But as
pointed out, with the greatest
concentration of people, the
existing facilities in these two
boroughs are shared by a
greater number of persons.
What this means is that
facilities like electricity,
water, roads, are concen-
trated in dih urban areas
which. already overcrowded,
draw migrants from the
neglected rural areas. In the
end, there is overcrowding
and poor facilities around
the country.
The 1966 survey also
looked at the situation with
water, electricity house
ownership indicators of the
"welfare" of the country's
Nationally, only 32 per
cent of all housing units

were served by running water
in the house. Another 14 per
cent had running water in the
yard; while 47 per cent of
the total households in the
nation depended on stand-
pipes for their water supply.
Worse yet, another 6.5
per cent of the housing units,
or roughly put, some 13,000
households depended on
streams, springs, ponds, etc.,
for their water supply. In
other words, they were not
served by pipes in yard, house
or in the street.
The situation is even
worse, when urban/rural dif-
ferences are considered.
Urban areas like Port-of-
Spain and San Fernando
were supplied with 51 to 75
per cent of their water supply
respectively by running water
in the house. In County
Caroni, piped water in the
house reached only 17 per
cent of the total households.
In Nariva/Mayaro, the figure
was put at 18 per cent.
Electricity also reached a
limited section of the popula-
tion in 1966 outside of the
urban areas which obtained
their electricity supply from

T&T.E.C. In Nariva/Mayaro,
the pitchoil lamp or high cost
private delco supplied 69 per
cent of the total electric
In Caroni, 55 per cent of
the household went without
electric light in 1966. In St.
Patrick, for 47 per cent of
the households, burning the
midnight oil was a reality,
all night long.
It was only in the area of
house ownership, that the
rural areas could match the
urban advantage. Nationally,
58 per cent of the total
housing units were owner-
occupied, with another 24
per cent being leased or
rented unfurnished. Renting
was as high as 43 per cent of
the total housing units in
Port-of-Spain and environs
and as low as 12 per cent in
Caroni and Tobago and 13
per cent in Nariva/Mayaro.
That was 1966 almost
10 years ago. Yet the most
generous projections or esti-
mates only can conclude that
the situation has not worsened
Personal experience tends to
indicate that in fact the
situation is worse: that the

Comparison of overcrowded Units, 1957/58 and 1966. I

Administrative Area

Trinidad and Tobago
St. George
San Fernando
St. Andrew/St. David
St. Patrick

Percentage of

Percentage of
Units Overcrowded



Owner Occupied

Administrative Area

Trinidad and Tobago
St. George
San Fernando
St. Andrew/St. David
St. Patrick

Leased or
Rented %

Trinidad and Tobago

St. George
San Fernando
St. Andrew/St. David
St. Patrick




Ir~6b~Rll~s~s ~s6~ h. --,~_r ~ I

~~n 4~e~-9c I~rs I_~a ~4~bb%~'

le-, L C

_ __ .._

BER 16, 1975



ret; whose game

e ot COCoa estate

ig Eittfe!

t Case

I I I r La

g in Review

people of Trinidad and Tobago
are in worse state in 1975
than they were in 1966 or
even 1956 with regards to
housing in particular.
There has been some water
and electricity expansion but
this has not been able to
keep pace with the increase
in population. The construc-
tion of new housing, and the
repairing and renovation of
existing housing structures
has suffered an even sadder
- fate.
In 1966, it was estimated
that to overcome the over-
"crowding problem and replace
dilapidated buildings, would
require, at that time, the
construction of 50,000
housing units,just to meet the
backlog. To keep pace with
population increases and
demand for' better housing
would require that new hous-
ing units of 3 bedroom each
be constructed at a rate of
10,000 units per year.
In reality, housing con-
struction public and
private, has only been able
to produce an average of
3,000 to 3,500 units per
year. As a result the accumu-

lated total of housing units
to meet the 1966 backlog of
50,000 units and the deficit
over the last 10 years, has
been put at over 100,000
housing units.
The PNM regime has not
been able to provide the
people of this country who
have always yearned for
house and land with the
basic level of housing; instead
the levels of overcrowding,
poor housing, lack of water,
of electricity, has remained
and even gotten worse.
The state is unable to
build the houses This was
frankly admitted in the 1975
Budget speech And the
private contractor has come
in to cater for the needs of
those with the wherewithal
to justify the investment.
The inability of new house
construction to keep pace
with demand crys out for an
enterprising soul the private
entrepreneur with the con-
nections and resources to
build housing estates which
will be readily sold.
This is the underlying
cause of the land tenancy
issue, now the subject of a

Commission of Enquiry.
There is a new colonisation
going on; a new coloniser
and planter whose game is
not sugar estate or cocoa
estate but housing estate.
For the successful entre-
preneur there is the prospect
of windfall profits-build now
and sell later at inflated
prices. The market.is available
among the 30 per cent of the
population with levers over
wages and other income in
the professions, the Public
Service, the business sector,
thetrade unions and the
party elite.
The present tax allowances
for new housing and the land
transfer tax, intended to
encourage house ownership
and discourage speculation,
respectively, have been work-
ing in favour of those with
incomes high enough to
secure loan financing.
The land transfer tax is
being passed on to the final
purchaser. For those without
levers'it means a never ending
state of renting or squatting.
The new plantocracy is
also buying blocks of land
and removing tenants who

have been on the land for
generations and have legitimate
rights of ownership. It is
happening in the flat land for
housing estates for middle
income groups and in the
hills for upper class mansions.
When the people found
that the flat land was taken
up or prohibitively priced,
they took to the hills and
established ingenious struc-
The fad today, among the
elite, is to build massive
structures on the hill. In the
process the natural vegetation
and water table is being des-
troyed: this is one of the
contributing factors in tihe
present flash flooding through-
out the country.
The 'Group of 49' who
have been negotiating to
purchase the Trincity houses
represents a cross-section of
those members of the society
with the levers, among them
Johnny O'Halloran and Ellis
Clarke (who has'rejected the
offer to take part in the new
The shortage of housing
has caused speculation in
both land and housing with

the former having a devastat-
ing effect on agricultural
Only very recently the
technical officers involved in
the Land Capability Survey
revealed the tremendous pres-
sure that was coming from
agricultural estate owners who
wish to dispose of their
acreage for housing develop-
In many instances, it was
further revealed, the requests
came from estate owners cul-
tivating prime crops in areas
subject to very slight water
and wind erosion. In short,
excellent agricultural land.
But if the history of irra-
tional allocation of land by
this Government is any guide,
then the monumental folly
of allowing housing estates
on prime agricultural land, as
in Diamond Vale, River
Estate and Valsayn, will
The speculation has also
raised, the reserve price for
land, ensuring that the margi-
nal "have" the wage earned
remains dependent on the
big financier the housing

S- -E

Administrative Area Percentage of Fair &
Poor Housing

St. George
San Fernando
St. Andrew/St. David
St. Patrick

Administrative Area

Trinidad and Tobago
St. George
San Fernando
St. Andrew/St. David
St. Patrick



Stand Rain, Streams.
Pipe Springs, etc.

Public Kerosene, Candles
Electricity other Forms

, --


WELFARE does not
mean freeness and it is
this failure to distinguish
the welfare of the people
of this country from
freeness, which has led
to the failure of econ-
omic policy to provide
either welfare, freeness
economic transformation
or political participation.
The PNM regime looked
for the "development" of the
country in an economic
policy of supported indus-
trialisation, providing, in this
respect, over-generous incen-
tives to foreign and local
capitalists to set up shop on
state-created industrial sites.
After twenty years and
more of this policy, (since
the Williams -Govt. simply
implemented policy adopted
by the Gomes regime), the
unemployment problem is far
worse than in the 1950's. The
industrial policy, basically,
has floundered because of
limited markets (each island
assembles its own cars, etc),
the high capital cost to create
any one job, and the large
percentage of the inputs of
these industries which are
Since the large mass of
the population has. had
neither the jobs nor the
income to support themselves
at some reasonable standard
of living, the role of the
State has become more


The response of the State
has been simply patronage -
freeness with strings. Patron-
age is a fact in the appoint-
ment to the key positions in
the public utilities and in
employment in local institu-
tions run by village councils.
The result of such a welfare
policy is too apparent to all
citizens to warrant any
detailed exposition. A recent
Central Statistical Office
publication entitled "Social
Indicators" details the state
of ketchass in which the
large percentage of the popu-
lation lives.
The evidence is there in
Health, Public Transport,
Income distribution, Educa-
tion, nutrition.
The failure of the ruling
regime to provide an adequate
standard of living is most
apparent in the area of
Housing. More than half of
the country's housing can be
classified as sub-standard by
virtue of overcrowding, age
and condition of the struc-
ture or the availability of
required facilities. (Details of
the dispossession in Housing
are given on Pgs.,6&7.)
The impact of these adverse
living conditions is reflected
in health- conditions, perfor-
mances on the job and in
school, family stability,
juvenile delinquency, (so-
called,) and an entire host
of side-effects, physical and
There is no greater stabilis-
ing force, socially, politically
or economically, than invest-
ment in long term goals like
house ownership. For a.
citizenry long denied the
wherewithal of house owner-
ship, this deprivation is not
merely financial but cultural.
Unable to put up the
money for house ownership.

man has

The rich

his Castl



lk -,

r .-?b~.;7- 2

the citizen makes up in
conspicuous expenditure
on clothes, household fur-
nishings, fete, woman andi


The greatest indictment
of the 20 year old national
movement has been its Iailiure
to transform tle housing
sector. Instead. tlie solution
espoused has led to a dead-
end where the mass ol a

population face a regilmc,
insecure, frightened and in-
creasingly oppressive.
It conventional economic
theory is inappioprialte, pre-
miised as il is on an "invisible
hand" which, by seeking its
own lld. achieves the end ol
all, tiheni the "visible h111nd"
solution which hoped to doi
'tile salle bV Iln l til ig scIrew-
diivei iid ihli is equally
The ieci)il sructed econ-
o)ily will cilcall econollnlc ,icnd
)political democracy by placing
the cil.i/zen at the heid ol ltie

table' in seeking tie welfare
of the cilizen, the welfl.re of
the economy will be achieved.
In practical term s, this
means a locus on Housinig,
IHcallh and Nutil tion, Ldu ca-
lioln. ('ul lti e. Spoi ts and the.

Hih wcllim no ctor con-
\11\'1 o ll oc11% .

Il s is i. e ontl'. \v \ t o
iatlilltii- hiili' ie I. lt is n ai\
nation-hui ln It 1\h i, iillc

to promise thle citizenry full
employment in 1985 and
expect political stability.
especially in die face of an
eite. which is not so much
highly employed, a highly
A Competentl Il ousim
pIolic\ c:i1n eivxe as the ll i'ba is
lo 11 il ildust i alisatioln p)o-
gi1 amllile The h:icklog of
hoIllIlll lnull I lll 'ch!i, l 1to
lllow a i ;llso ibl. lc 'l of
lhouiMlllg acco) lll _;l !>1- is
low 1\ie It)U.U00 i0nn'.
continued d on Page 9




sketching Arse

Housing in Review

ol I


From Page 8

The present employment,
directly and indirect, of the
housing industry has been
put at 30,000 persons, en-
gaged in the production of
three-four thousand houses
The housing programme
envisaged by Tapia would
involve the' construction of
15,000 housing units annually,
with a matching increase in
the number of persons em-
The new housing thrust
would also involve a greater
utilisation of local materials
in building construction with
the backward effect on
employment creation.
Tapia is proposing the
establishment of a new city
on the sands of Waller field
to break vith the colonial
hang-up with coast living and.
to ease the congestion in the
existing urban areas.
This will not mean a
neglect of the existing areas
of settlement but simply a
creaming off of the surplus
population to allow the task
of rehabilitation to be per-
formed effectively.
The proposals for the
urban redevelopment of East
Port-of-Spain will not be
carried out ioot simply due
to the ilna:uity of Govern-
ment to implement the Plan,
but due to the lack of a
larger vision which people
can identify with
The .plan contains .no
dream of new settlements for

the young population so that
the older heads can find
more room to rea'- without
conflict with b: .,-ietball on
the block, 'hning on the
corer and weed in the
The urban redevelopment
plan will fail because it articu-
'!tes the nart hut does not
see the whole.

The creation of a new
city will make new demands
for roads,sporting and recrea-
tional facilities, schools, hos-
pitals, administrative offices
and all the other ancillary
services needed to maintain
the complex.
- The ease on the existing
urban areas will provide
space for rehabilitation so
badly needed in the over-
crowded sections of the city.
On both counts, there will
be a multitude of tasks to be
carried out by a population,
young and eager to establish
roots, in a situation which
will for the first time, allow
some equal opportunity.
To provide the materials
necessary will require the
en ire revamping of the
present industrialisation pro-
The demand for bricks
and mortar, galvanise, furni-
ture and fittings will task the
ingenuity of our peoples and
we may soon be faced with a
situation of shortages of
The massive thrust will
require National Service and
the reorganisation of the
Educational and .Training
facilities to, place technical

and vocational education on'
par with other education.
Local Government will cut
its teeth on the new responsi-
bilities and problems faced
in the national reconstruc-
tion. Engineers, Architects,
Surveyors, contractors trade
unions, friendly societies will
have to be organized for the
Housing programme.
Agriculture will .have to
provide the nutrient require-
ments of a population
famished at the end of a hard
day's physical and mental
The Petroleum sector and
other highly capital intensive
operations would come under
the surveillance of the State:
The profits of these indus-
tries will be utilised for
further downstream opera-
tions while taxation will
siphon off a reasonably pro-
portion to finance the State's
involvement in the welfare
There are two crucial
changes needed for the suc-
cess of this programme. This
first will the rationalisation
of Land use.
Work undertaken by dte
Land Capability Studies and
the Town and Country Divi-
sion can serve as the basis for
the definition and isolation
of the various types of land
available and their proper
allocation for agriculture,
recreation, schools, housing,
and health.
The allocation will be
based on some preservation
of agricultural land for these
purposes unlike the Diamond
Vale .and River Estate housing

programmes which have en-
croached on some of the
most valuable and scarce
agricultural land in the
The agricultural settle-
ments created, typically, on
the sands of Waller Field by
the present Government, will
be allocated for housing.
The establishment of
schools, hospitals, health -
centres and other service
institutions will be related to
existing and projected popu-
lation movements.
By bringing all land under
State and municipal control,
land can be brought under
price control to disallow land
One of the early measures
needed is a complete revision
of the laws of. title to give
recognition to the legitimate
rights of citizens to owner-
ship of lands on which they
have lived, built houses or
cultivated food crops over
many years.
The control of rent is
another area for immediate
attention as part of a policy
of abolishing rent. House
owners have been increasing
rents out of proportion to
any costs with the knowledge
that people will pay almost
any price due to the scarcity
of proper housing.
This speculation in rent
causes windfall profits which
are most times used iir
conspicuous consumption by
the house owning class.
The introduction of an
effective windfall profits tax
will be a useful tax device to
block such speculation.

The second change neces-
sary for the new Housing
programme is the localisation
of the financial sector; not
the shameful joke of adding
Trinidad and Tobago after
the name of the foreign bank
as is presently being practised
but the total integration of
commercial banking, in-
surance, friendly -and credit
societies and pension schemes.
Money is the grease which
moves all concrete activity:
the financial resources of the
country must therefore be
made the servant of the con-
crete and real needs of the

Tapia is proposing three
types of banking under the
new financial arrangements:
commercial banking, house-
hold investment banking and
industrial banking.
Under present banking
operations is it easier to
obtain a loan for a car or
television sets than for an
addition to or renovation of
an existing house.
This. policy only en-
courages expenditure on con-
spicuous consumption and
accounts, for the contradiction
of lavish furniture in the
most squalid houses.
From one point of view it
is a plot by the North
American and European
financial institutions to
ensure that the financial
resources of this country are
spent in the parent countries
since the loan policy favours
consumer durables, imported
from the North Atlantic.

Our printing-plant is open at
The Tapia House 82-84 St. Vincent
.1 Street, Tunapuna.

Kindly phone orders to: 662-5126.



--c--- --




13r -"-

SUNDAY NUVhMbrm xv, ivl ,,

YAuIz U v I Arid'

to auchAtto-B

Greg Chamberlain
"ONE day, that's all it
will take us, one day."
When they're not shoot-
ing it out with leftwing
guerrillas, Guatemala's
generals are fond of brag-
ging how easily they
could march east into
neighboring Belize and
snuff out the last vestige
of British colonialism on
the American continent.
Britain's dispatch of
extra planes and troops
to its largest remaining
overseas possession once
again in response to a
Guatemalan military
build-up near the border
is unlikely to dull for
long the generals' dreams
of winning glory by
making good their coun-
try's 150-year-old terri-
torial claim to Belize.


'Behind a front of
Guatemalan threats, how-
ever, there have been
seven years of intermit-
tent secret talks between
Guatemala, Belize, and
Bitain, which wants to
grant independence.
But these reached

dead-lock again four
months ago. Since then,
both sides have waged an
intense diplomatic cam-
paign for international
This time, however,
the Guatemalans who
have, as usual, denied any
military preparations -
are after more than just
historical honour.


They want the oil they
think will soon be struck
by the American firms
currently -prospecting in
Belize and they want to
have a 200-miles econ-
omic sea zone in the
Atlantic which, because\
of the shape of the coast-
line, they will not have
unless they possess Belize.
Apart from any oil,
immensely rich phosphate
deposits lie on the hund-
reds of islets off Belize's
Behind Guatemala and
its 12,000 man army
stands, in the name of
anti-colonialism, the rest
of central America.
Belize, slightly larger
than Wales, with 1,000
of its own police and

soldiers, plus a normal
British garrison of about
600, can count on, under
the banner of self-deter-
mination, the Common-
wealth Caribbean states,
Britain, and much of the
Third World. But neither
army really wants to fight.
Pessimists am ong
Belize's 130,000 people
say the Guatemalans
already have the country
trussed up anyway. A
Belizean tanker captain
and his crew are being
held in Guatemala and
6 pounds millions in
damages is being
demanded for their
release. Guatemalan gun-
boats and planes freely
violate Belizean territory.
The Government of
Mr. George Price, the
Premier recently agreed
to hand over the colony's
telecommunications to
the Guatemalan phone
company, Guatel.
Physical signs of pre-
paration for a Guatema-
lan invasion have been
detected in the remote
southern half of the
country which Guatemala
especially wants.
Not all Guatemalans,
who learn in school to
recite tihe phrase "Belice
es nuestro (Belize is ours)"

EFFECTIVE 1st December, 1974.

Readers should note that there has been a change in the MANJAK subscrip-
tion rates, with effect from 1st December, 1974.
MANJAK now offers rates for one (1) year, rather than for 26 issues of
the journal, as at present.
Current subscribers should, however, note that their subscriptions for 26
issues of the journal remain in force.




Rates for annual subscription to MANJAK:

$5.00 (U.S.).

$5.00 (U.S.).
L 1.50.

Territories )


$2.50 (Ja)

Other Caribbean:

USA Canada:

,and whose
Belize as a

maps show
province of
share the
ardour to
Belize, how-

In a recent poll by a
Guatemalan newspaper,
only 40 per cent of those
asked thought the colony
should be seized by

The Belizeans remain
solidly, almost fanatically.
opposed to a takeover by
their neighbour. The
Guatemalan bogey that
"communism" mibht
somehow engulf Belize is
matched by a vigorous
Belizean contempt for
the traditional political
violence of Guatemala
There have been anti-
Guatemalan demonstra-
tions here and the
SGuatemalan consulate has
been stoned.
Since the breakdown
of talks in July, the
Opposition and the Gov-

ernment have teamed up
for the first time in
years to fight the Guate-
malan claim.
Mr. Price has set up a
special public relations
office in New York to
press Belize's case at the
United Nations and has
named one of his ablest
Ministers to head it.
A break in the
impasse seems more
distant than ever now
that Guatemala's claim is
being publicly challenged
at the United Nations.
Until Guatemala finds
a face-saving way out
the theatrical diplomatic
and military posturing -
the latter at a cost to
Britain of some .1.25
pound millions a year -
will have to go on.


Eastern Main Rd., Laventille
(Near to Trotman street)
Galvanise, Cement,
Blocks, Tiles,
etc, etc.






Of people who know
'how to cope

with rising



_ I CLa 9 I


~91 IP =I I I




NO EASE. The staff and
programme problems at
National Broadcasting
Scandal (NBS) 610 Radio
have settled at an all-
time low; at least for the
present. There have been
no recent dismissals
although the axe-man is
reported to be still yield-
ing his blunt instrument
in the search for disloyal,
indisciplined subversives
of the established orler.
In the absence of a
proper union representa-
tion, 610 staffers are
running scared, either
by dumb resistance or by
outright curry-favouring.
New Programme Director,
Ed Fung, true to form, has
spent most of his time in
reorganising the staff rotas.
SIn one instance, Fund in-
creased the shift hours of
the members of the News
Department, beyond the
specified weekly quota
signed into the union's agree-
ment with management.
Fung has also tightened
his grip on the allocation of
weekly shifts, a junction
formerly carried out by the
Chief News Editor and Chief
Announcer, in an attempt to
further centralise authority
while staff positions are
On the broadcast side,
a watered down version of
the Newsmakers, now a pro-
gramme concerned with the
"World",has been introduced
at 12 Noon, for a 45-minute
run. The programme shares
many similarities in format
with the Newsmakers pro-
gramme except for the staff
(all now fired with the ex-
ception of the evergreen
Jones Madeira), and the fact
that no controversial items
are covered.
There are long voice inter-
views with respectable figures
but the controversial or con-
temporary issues which make
the difference between dead
and alive broadcasting) are
largely absent as Fung and
others toe the line of the
"Editorial Policy" laid down
by Chairman J. Bain.
The programme is no
doubt intended to answer
criticisms of censorship at
610 Radio. The programme
is censored not only in terms
of the non-reporting of con-
troversial news but also in
the broadcast time. At 12
o'clock, listeners ar, either
at work or lunch, with no
available radio, or witlh no
inclination to absorb 45
minutes of news broadcast-

The next programme
change expected is most likely
the introduction of "Jimmy
Bain Hour" to deal with
slavery, history, communism,
Fed Chem, industrial con-
cessions and "safety" on the

I qw

-- 7O 1 --" p

41aP % IB
O D ---

= [da I
O' I ---"

- T

I =

NOV.18TH-19TH 1975

fr /* BONDS
This is a $5 million issue. The 6/4% bonds 1982,/85 (Nov.)
can be purchased at T.T. $96.14 percent with a running
yield of 7.02% per annum, and gross redemption yield
of 7.30% per annum.


525YEA R
021B 0 Nr~ D S

This is a $10 million issue. The 7.15% bonds 1995/2000
(Nov.)can be purchased atTT$90.87 percent with a running
yield of 7.87% per annum,and a gross redemption yield
of 8.00% per annum.

The list of applications will be opened at 8.00 a.m. on
Tuesday 18th Nov. 1975 and closed at 12 noon on
Wednesday 19th Nov. 1975. Bonds will be dated 19th
November 1975.

The Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago is the sole and
exclusive agent for the raising and management of this
Interest will be payable half-yearly by the Central Bank
of Trinidad and Tobago on the 19th.May,and the
19th. Nov. The first payment will be made on the1.9th.
May 1976 at the rate of T.T. $6.75 per T.T.$TOO0.
face value per annum for the 6%% bond and T.T. $7.15
per T.T. $100.-face value per annum for the 7.15% bond.

The proceeds of this issue will be applied to financing
Projects in the development programme for 1976 and
to providing long term securities for insurance companies,
pension funds and similar investors.

Prospectuses and application forms may be obtained at
the Investment Division of the" Central Bank of Trinidad
and Tobago, Comptroller of Accounts, Central Bank
Building, any of the branches of the commercial banks
operating in Trinidad and Tobago, Trinidad Co-operative
Bank Limited, Caribbean Stock and Bond (Trinidad)
Limited, West Indies Stockbrokers Limited, Trinidad
and Tobago Stocks and Shares.Ltd, all Trust Companies
operating'in Trinidad and Tobago and Barclays -inance
Corporation ot Trinidad and I obago Limited.
Applications will be received at the Investment Division
of the Central Bank, St. Vincent Street, Port of Spain,
and muSt be accompanied by the full amount of the
purchase price of the Bonds applied for.
The issue will be made under the Development Loans
Act 1964 (No. 19 ol 1964), as amended by the Act No.
17 of 1965 and Act No. 14 ol 1969.
Further information may be obtained Irom the Central
Bank, St. Vincent Street, Port ol Spain; all banks and
trust companies or .your lslockbrokei.

12 noon, 19th November 1975.





s Andrea Talbutto
Research Institut or
Study of Man Street,
162, East 78th s ree
Ne York, 10021,
Ph. Lei igh 5 844"



SAN 10
lNovo 301,9