Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00186
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: November 2, 1975
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00186

Full Text



meets again this Sunday
November 2. The monthly
meeting falls early due
to the heavy programme
of activity scheduled for
Tapia before the year is
On November 9, next
Sunday, we celebrate our
Seventh Anniversary up
in Tunapuna. The occa-
sion marks a return of
the General Assembly to

our spiritual and politi-
cal headquarters in the
garden setting of the
Tapia House. The birth-
day party is expected to
be a quaint blend of
parang, politics, and pow-

On November 30, the
Second Assembly of the
Tapia National Convention
comes off at the Lions'Civic
Centre down in San Fer-
Then, before Xmas, the

Tapia Centre on Cipriani
Boulevard, Port-of-Spain will
have its formal opening as,
among other things, Cam-
paign Headquarters for the
coming General Elections.
Budget Day is also on us

as the Government is pre-
paring an extravaganza of
promised spending.
Sunday's proceedings are
likely to go on well into the
night. Reps are reminded
that they must make their
own arrangements for food.
Chairman Denis Solomon
will call the meeting to order
at 10 a.m. sharp. Prominent
on the Agenda are the
amendments to the Tapia
Constitution left over from
the October meeting.



T&TEC IS responsible
for bringing flambeau-
dinners to Trinidad and
Tobago. Load shedding
is now the scene with
blackout after blackout.
No more TV dinners.
At first everybody
blamed George Weekes
and the Blue-shirt Bri-
gade. Now we know
Last Sunday in the
Guardian the real zeppo
started to leak through a
cover(up) story right
there on the front page
of the paper. A Manage-
ment source, said the
Sunday Guardian, had
been'contacted and
"admitted that the letter
existed but said that the
matters raised had been
discussed and resolved.
Efforts to contact Sir Alan
Reece, Chairman of


The letter does not only
exist; the letter is explosive.
As explosive as the plant on
Wrightson Road. Expert ad-
vice has it that four days of
shutdown are required if the
thing is not to blow sky-high
risking everything within a
radius of half a mile around.
The cause of all these
endless horrors is that by
now famous. 3rd Unit at the
Port-of-Spain 'B' Power
Station on which an extra
$5.2 million were spent
"against the better judg-
ment" of the 12 senior
engineers at the Commission.
The letter exposes that as
early as May 11, 1972, the
top technical brass at T&TEC
put their protest in writing
against the purchase of equip-

ment "to obtain no additional
benefit in plant or relia-
bility.... ."
Included in the 12 was
Mr. Leo Martin, now in the
hot seat of General Manager.
Martin is busily parrying
blows from industry, com-
merce and households as he
is forced to defend, a situa-
tion for which he is in no
way responsible.

In their letter, the senior
men warned against the ero-
sion of standards of conduct
by decisions handed down
from above and fraught with
unethical undertones.
1They pointed to outside
interests which influenced
decisions contrary to senior
professional opinion inside.
They saw a cause of
frustration and of a break-
down in morale in decisions
which sacrificed the best
interest of the organization.
The only way to raise
efficiency in T&TEC,-they
said, "is by implementing
decisions which could stand
full scrutiny and which are
clearly related to the objec-





tives of the organization".
Since then T&TEC seems
to have broken down al-
together. Efficiency. has be-
come a thing of the past
with no prospect of early
In their letter of May
1972, the senior professionals

failed in their attempt to find
a solution.
Mr. Leo Martin and his
colleagues never managed to
persuade Sir Alan Reece,
Professor Ken Julien and the
other members of the Board
to take the right steps for


;eorge Workers

WORKERS of the Tou-
rist Board employed at
the Fort George histori-
cal site overlooking Port-
of-Spain, are cut-up over
the failure of the powers
that be to respond to
their demand for better
working conditions.
The five workers at Fort
George now walk the 3-mile
odd hill to the top and, if

lucky, manage to organise a
lift from visitors to the site.
The workers complain
that they have made endless
complaints for transport to
the members of the Tourist
Board. The walk uphill which
takes a little over an hour is
not only tiring, but there is
also the problem of rain
since there are no places to
shelter beyond the stretch
of houses at the foot of the

The five employees are
there to maintain the historical
site and its surroundings and
have requested an increase
,in the staffing at Fort George.
The five workers on their
daily trek to the Fort keep
wondering whether it is a
question of out of sight, out
of mind, since their attempts
to obtain some form of re-
dress from both the Tourist

"the restoration of confi-
dence and acceptable ethical
standards which you will
remember were distinguishing
features of our organisation."
Following the Prime
Minister's example, Tapia
makes the relevant document
public. We can only hope for
the opening of impeachment
proceedings before the Bar
of the people's opinion.

Board and the recognized
union have fallen on deaf
One suggestion mooted is
for Don Bain or John Boos
of the Tourist Board to
make the walk for a week
to see if they survive.
One may assume that it
would be a simple solution
to allow the St. James police,
who must make some routine
checks in the area, to trans-
port the Fort's employees.
However, that is most likely
an issue for Cabinet ratifica-
tion. (T.R.)


WHEN T&TEC sought to buy a new Unit, Parsons of England tendered at
$5.2 million less than GCE of America. The stars and stripes prevailed. The
senior engineers protested that the money brought no additional benefit in
plant or reliability. The decision was handed down from above.
When the engineers prepared their forecast, it was reconciled with figures
prepared by Trintoplan. Trintoplan's Chairman is Professor Kenneth Julien,
Deputy Chairman of T&TEC and right-hand man to the Prime Minister.

Walk A Crooked Mile.

- --


I C ounci
'. --- "I Delegates-

Meet This Sunday

Vol. S No. 44

30 Cents



Sir A an and Prof. Julien

Should now resign and


THE complete breakdown of
efficiency at the Electricity
Commission means more than
pressure 'on the country when
the power is cut and the lights
go out. When load is shed, indus-
try and commerce often have to
send workers home at great cost
in wages and output lost, in
routines disrupted and in produc-
tion schedules wildly dislocated.
This dislocation of the economy
is costly as the business community
made clear when it resisted the
attempt at a total close down for
repairs over the Divali weekend.
The most stunningly expensive
fact about T&TEC however, is that
clearly there has been a breakdown
of administration and planning for
no other reason than the evaporation
of all confidence in the policy-making
Board on the part of the technical
and professional staff.
We doubt whether this confidence
has been restored as the professionals
hope in their letter would have hap-
pened. What is clear is that the current
.electricity. crisis is the consequence
of the unfortunate developments
which led to the letter published
on Page 3.
The letter points to "a number of
matters which are tending to disrupt
the efficiency with which we would
like to perform our functions...."
This-was the warning given by the
12 senior professionals at the Cor-
poration on May 11, 1972, men
who were prepared to pledge their
loyalty even to 4 body which they
felt had been sacrificing its own and
therefore the public interest to the
dictates of people outside.
The issue at T&TEC therefore is
the manner in which the public service
functions. It is on the working of the
State Machine that we must now
resolutely fix our gaze. The Prime
Minister, by his own curious backyard
method of cussing up everybody, has
raised the question in relation to the
Civil Service in the meaning of the
Ministries and the Great Departments
of Government.
The matter of T&TEC now raises it
in relation to the Public Corporations,
which have become a gigantic service
sector providing airline services, port
services, internal transport, external
tele-communications telephones,
water, natural gas, gasolene and do-
mestic fuels indeed, many of the
basic utilities and amenities of life.
Some of them have arrived on the
scene so fast that they have not been
In principle, the Public Corpora-
tions operate under the direction of
Boards whose function is to provide

THE problem of maintaining morale and efficiency.
was compounded by the fact that the decisions
seemed not only to be handed down from above,
but to be sacrificing the best objectives of the T&TEC
on the altar of outside interests.

THE question for an Integrity Commission is not
the legal but the ethical question as to whether the
Minister responsible and Sir Alan, the Chairman,
should have allowed Professor Kenneth Julien to
straddle the fence between the Electricity Commis-

sion and the Trintoplan

the framework of policy within which
the technical and professional staff
must work.
It follows that if these Corporations
are not to be perpetually torn by
internal tension with operations at
sixes and sevens, the policy and. plan-
ning decisions taken by the Boards
must be informed by a constant if not
cordial communion between the
thinking of the Board and the flow of
technical indicators coming from the
professional staff.
AtT&TEC, it appears that the
recommendations, resulting from con-
siderable effort on the part of the
senior engineers have been "either
ignored or discredited or decided
against without explanation....."
Needless to say, the decisions
taken have produced poor perfor-
mance if only because the senior men,
loyal as they are, must have found it
difficult to persuade junior staff to
support policy decisions arrived at in
such a high-handed manner.
The problem of maintaining
morale and efficiency was com-
pounded by the fact that the decisions
seemed not only to be handed down
from above, but to be sacrificing the
best objectives of the T&TEC on the
altar of outside interests.
In this regard the cause celebre is
the matter of the 3rd Unit at the 'B'
Power Station in Port-of-Spain, bought,
against the better judgment of the
senior engineers and the source now
of endless horrors in the Commission

firm of Consulting En-

although it is still more than a'decade
within the normal guarantee period.
Besides, the Unit was bought for
$5.2 million more than the next best
choice among the tenders.
The other example given is me
case where Demand Forecasts pre-
pared by the senior engineers were
"reconciled" with figures prepared by
Trintoplan, a firm whose Chairman
is Dr. Kenneth Julien who is also the
Vice-Chairman of the T&TEC.
Apparently, Trintoplan was able
to advertise that "they had been
retained by the Commission to work-
on the design of a new Power Station
even before we were informed of their
That was a hell of a position for
the professionals to find themselves
in. Rightly, they have raised the issue
as one of ethical standards. They have
referred to decisions "fraught with
unethical undertones" and to the need
for decisions which could "stand full
scrutiny". .
The question for an Integrity
Commission "is not the legal but the
ethical question as to whether the
Minister responsible and Sir Alan, the
Chairman, should have allowed Pro-
fessor Kenneth Julien to straddle the
fence between the Electricity Com-
mission and the Trintoplan firm of
Consulting Engineers?
Could they reasonably have ex-
pected the conflict of interest not to
have attacked the confidence of the
professional staff of the Corporation,

especially in the particular context?
Even if the Board was taking the right
decision, could the engineers have
confidence in the validity of the parti,
cular arrangement?
There is a problem here for the
entire public service. Situations of this
kind place too great a strain on the
loyalty and goodwill of the profes-
sional staff involved as has been
amply shown by the history of the
Water and Sewerage Authority and
place too great a burden on the
personal integrity of the men of
affairs involved.
Sir Alan Reece is Chairman of the
Elections and Boundaries Commis-
sions and has for years been busy on a
vast number of public assignments
detailed to him by the Chief Execu-
tive himself, the Rt. Honourable Dr.
Eric Williams.
Professor Julien for his part, is
highly placed in the academic world
where he sets an example to the.
undergraduate community. He
is known as one of the most zealous
of informal public servants who, like
Sir Alan, has undertaken innumerable
errands on behalf of the Prime Minis-
ter. Dr. Julien.besides, is Chairman of
Point Lisas and of the Urban Re-
development Council and he is Deputy
Chairman of the IDC, and of the
Chaguaramas Development Authority.
The Chairman and Vice-Chairman
of T&TEC are clearly therefore, men
who walk in such exalted corridors
that their personal integrity as public-
men must be an assurance to those
who may be anxious on account of
developments at the Electricity Cor-
Yet the fact is that the ethical
problem has been raised and has a
relevance to the whole range of
similar situations existing in other
Public Corporations, and in the vast
empire of industrial and commercial
enterprises which is daily beingbrought
under State control.
In this context, it is precisely
those men on those personal integrity
the viability of the whole system
depends to whom the country des-
perately looks for leadership in solv-
ing the ethical problems and in setting
standards of conduct capable of
generating new confidence on the
part of the professional and technical
interests as well as of the public at
It seems that Sir Alan and Professor
Julien would serve this country well if
they were to resign from the Board of
T&TEC, declare their assets and con-
tinue only in such Chairmanships as in
no way set up conflicts of interest.
If they took such a noble measure,
Tapia has no doubt that they would
reveal information and show a courage
to the satisfaction of all patriots in

Our printing-plant is open at
The Tapia House 82-84 St. Vincent
Street, Tunapuna.
Kindly phone orders to: 662-5126.


LA..:'r-. c

-I .

- I I--~--cc


The Letter From The T&TECEngineers

Engineering Division,
T. & T.E.C .,
63, Frederick Street,

May 11, 1972.

The General Manager,
Trinidad & Tobago Electricity
63, Frederick Street,

Dear Sir,
We the undersigned Engineers are disturbed over a number of matters which are tending to disrupt the
efficiency with which we would like to perform our functions in the organisation.
In the first place, recommendations which had been the result of considerable effort on our part are either
ignored or discredited or decided against without explanation, and whenever this has happened we have found our-
selves (the engineering staff) being blamed for the results of decisions which had been made contrary to our recom-
We do not feel it necessary to quote examples, but you must recall only too well, the particular case of the
award of the Tender for the 3rd Unit at the Port-of-Spain 'B' Power Station, when an additional sum of $5.2
million was spent to obtain no additional benefit in plant or reliability against our better judgment. In spite of this,
we accepted our instructions and carried these out faithfully and to the best of our ability.
Another matter which has caused us deep concern relates to the number of instances where outside interests
appear to have influenced decisions contrary to our recommendations. As professional people we are becoming
quite frustrated and indeed we are finding it increasingly difficult to operate with clear consciences when we
observe that the best interests of the organisation are being sacrificed.
An example of this is the recent decision to reconcile our own Demand Forecast with that produced for us
by a firm of Consultants despite the fact that at earlier discussions the very Consultants had indicated that they
were not prepared to change their forecast and had pointed out that it was our prerogative to either accept or
reject their proposal.
You will remember having received a letter from the engineering staff (including juniors) with respect to the
appointment of this Consulting firm who had advertised that they had been retained by the Commission to work
on the design of a new Power Station even before we were informed of their assignment. It is therefore becoming
increasingly difficult for us, as senior personnel to provide sound reasons to our staff with respect to their participa-
tion in work which conflicts with the interests of the organisation. You will appreciate how difficult it is for us to
insist on acceptable ethical standards of conduct among our professional staff when they express their conviction
that decisions passed down from above are fraught with unethical undertones.
As has happened on occasions in the past, decisions taken without the Commission's best interests at heart
can be very damaging to the morale of the entire organisation and it does not help matters when the only persons
available to uphold and defend these decisions are the very engineers whose recommendations were ignored in the
first place.
We would be grateful for your early consideration of these matters and we wish to assure you of our con-
tinued loyalty to the organisation. It is our conviction that the only way in which we can raise the efficiency of our
operations is by implementing decisions which could stand full scrutiny and which are clearly related to the objec-
tives of the organisation. Such decisions could then be enforced with full vigour and in the knowledge that we can
count on your full support and on that of the Board.
Some of us had met with you and discussed similar matters on more than one occasion, but there appears to
have been no improvement. Rather there seems to have been a general deterioration in morale. We have therefore
felt it necessary to appeal to you in writing in the hope that you would convey our sentiments to the Board.
We trust that a solution could be found where all concerned with the welfare and the proper functioning of
the organisation could work towards the restoration of confidence and acceptable ethical standards which you will
remember were distinguishing features of our organisation.

Yours faithfully,

G. Guevara M. Chinasing J.O. Yee George E. Bain
(then chief Engineer (protection & metering (now chief engineer (area superintendent
generation), superintendent) distribution) South)

Leo Martin George Ford
(now General Manager) Lennie Nimblett (engineering comptroller) A.L. Marshall

John Mackay Merlin Ramjohn John Woon-Song
(now Chief Engineer (area superintendent B. Bodden (chief engineer
generation) north) systems)



R 2, 1975





Team appears before loint

Select Committee Lowhar pleas for Civil Servants

TAPIA has issued a warn-
ing to the Government
that "we shall reject
whatever Constitution
the Government seeks to
impose' on the country"
by illegitimate means,
when we take power in
the country.
The warning came during
a stateennt made by Allan
Harris, Administrative Sec. of
Tapia, and leader of the
Tapia team of witnesses
which, last Wednesday,
appeared before the Joint
Select Committee set up by
Parliament to hear and re-
view public opinion on the
Cabinet proposals for a New
Constitution for Trinidad
and Tobago.
Other members of the
Tapia team were Syl Low-
har, Executive member of
Tapia, and Michael Harris,
Editor of the Tapia weeldy
newspaper. The Tapia team
was the only one scheduled
to appear last Wednesday and
the session, which began at
2 p.m. lasted for two and a
half hours.
Both the beginning of the
session and the end, were
marked by heated verbal
exchanges between the Chair-
man of the Committee, and
Speaker in the House of
Representatives Arnold
Thomasos, and Tapia Chair-
man Denis Solomon, Senate
opposition representative on
the Select committee.
At the start of the pro-
ceedings the Chairman,
Thomasos, was about to
invite the Tapia witnesses to
make a submission on the
first of the points raised by
Tapia in its memorandum
submitted previously to the
committee. t
At this point Solomon
intervened to question why
the Chairman had deviated
from the procedure adopted
with other witnesses who
had appeared before the
committee and not invited
the Tapia spokesmen to make
a general statement of their
Sviews,before a point by point

discussion of their memoran-
dum .
The Chairman refused to
entertain Solomon's sugges-
tion and insisted that he was
competent to decide whether
or not witnesses would be
asked to make a general
statement. The Tapia min o-
randum, he argued, was one
of the lengthiest submitted
and, as far as he was con-
cerned, no general statement
was required.
He then invited Leader of
the Tapia team, Allan Harris,
to make a statement on the
first point in the submitted
memorandum which had to
do with Fundamental Human
Rights. Harris'explained that
as far as Tapia was con-
cerned. the Constitutional
crisis, "is all-embracing in
nature, and relates to the
facts of economic disposses-
sion, political impotence,
social disorganization and
cultural dependence."
Harris continued by saying
that, the specific exercise of
Constitution Reform, makes
sense only if it is seen as
part of a larger task of re.-
constituting the society as a
whole. And, he further
pointed out, if the end result
of the exercise in constitu-
tion reform is to confirm
the sovereignty of the citi-
zens over the state, then the
very method of seeking con-
stitutional change must con-
firm that sovereignty.
Harris then went on, in a
statement which lasted over
twenty-fivy- minutes, to ela-
borate the Tapia point-of-
view on the fundamental
questions which are to be
faced in the exercise of Con-
stitution reform. Five
minutes after Harris began
speaking, the Chairman
shook his head, and resigned
himself to the inevitable.
The next Tapia speaker
to address the chair was Syl,
Lowhar who, himself a Civil
Servant, made an impas-
sioned plea for the constitu-

tional entrenchment of the
right of -Civil Servants to
overtly participate in politics,
and to stand for elections
without loss of service or
Quoting from the Report
of tie Wooding Commiission
Lowhar pointed out that the
teaching and the Civil Ser-
vices contained a large nunm-
ber of men and women
whose education and ex-
perience were now a coin-
plete loss to the political
'life of the country.
He further reminded the
Committee that the present
ruling party itself, had risen
to po\ er on the strengths of
the Teachers and Civil Scr-
vants of that era.


At the end of Lowhar's
statement, which also took
over twenty-five minutes,
Solomon reminded the
Chairman that he had
wished to question the wit-
nesses on specific points
raised in their memorandum.

The Chairman declined to
.question the witnesses and
for the entire session not one
question was forthcoming
from any of the Govern-
ment members of the Conm-
mittee. The Tapia spokes-
c1 w:ri c questcioned by )
Solomon himself and Inde-
pendent Senator, Tommy
Gatcliffe, particularly on the
implications of the Tapia
proposal for a "big maco
After several questions
from both. Solomon and
Gatcliffe, a lull developed in
the proceedings and the
Chairman of the Committee
moved to dismiss the Tapia
spokesmen. Solomon inter-
vened at this point to indi-
cate to the Chairman that
he was not through with his
The Chairman refused to
allow Solomon any more
questions saying that he had
had fourteen years experience
and that he knew filibust-
ering when he saw it. Solo-
mon reacted indignantly to
this statement pointing out,
in the first place, that fili-

busfering was a Parliamentary
device, and a perfectly
legitimate one at that, and
secondly, that there was no
authority by which the Chair-
man could refuse leave of a
member to ask questions.
iiic ilairman nonetheless
insisted that he was going
to dismiss the witnesses,
whereupon Solomon indi-
cated that if he were not
allowed to satisfy himselfby
questioning the witnesses he
did not see how he could
usefully participate in the
future deliberations of the
At this point the Chair-
man thanked the Tapia
spokesmen and dismissed

Next week we shall'be
presenting the full texts
of the statements given
by the Tapia representa-
tives before the Joint
Select Committee.

Your family is

well fPed with

Blue Band

on bread

while Harris warns Constitution will be rejected

_.-_,__ :-I-I------------


C.S.O. Indicators point to A

Taleof Endless Horrors

THE Central Statistical
Office of the Govern-
ment, has just put out a
publication which they
call "Social'Indicators".
Basically, it attempts to
examine the various.ele-
ments which contribute
to the quality of life in
the country, and the
socio-economic well-
being of the community.
It is a very beautiful

document with charts and
diagrams in colour no less,
plus the usual tables. It limits
itself to-just a few areas -
health, education, incomes,
housing, population and crime.
For all its beauty, it is, -
in fact, a truly horrifying
document. Many of the tables
give information for the nine-
teen years of the PNM regime.
The statistics confirm
what Tapia has been saying
for years, and what everybody

\in the country sees when
they go to the hospitals, to
the schools or just simply
look at. the scene around
For example, the old-age
pensioners would hardly be
surprised to find that the
country spent, in real terms,
less in social assistance per
head of population in 1972,
when the figure was five
dollars, than in 1965, when
the figure was six dollars.

Theophilus Jones

The number of hospital
beds between 1956 and 1972
increased from 1,374 to
2,012 which meant that there
was no real increase in the
number of beds per 1,000
people. Furthermore there
was an actual worsening of
the situation in the rural
As for housing the report
very candidly notes that 62%
of the households in this
country lived in substantial

housing and there was over-
crowding in over 40% of the
homes. They define over-
crowding as four or more
persons per bedroom. More
than 70% of the houses had
no flush toilets, and 30%had
no electricity.
The report shows too, that
the distribution of income
worsened between 1957 and
1972, a fact that Tapia had
announced long ago in the
Great Debate on Public Ser-
vice Salaries. We only have to
look around to see how wide
the gap is growing between
rich and poor.

National Library Service: Any Old

Bedroom Will Do!

SO now it is only a
recalcitrant minority of
three QRC teachers and
their families, who stand
between the nation and a
National Library Service.
At least this is what the
Government seems to
want us to believe.
But it should be obvious
to every Tom, Dick and Harry
that this is a lot of nonsense.
The idea of putting out the
teachers and housing the long-
defunct lending library services
in the QRC flats is just
another now-for-now election
Anybody who understands
how this Government operates
will know that what the
announcement really means,
is that no serious attempt is
going to be made to provide
the National Library Service
which has been the subject
of all kinds of plans and
announcements for many
long years now.
The late departed Super
Civil-Servant Eugenio Moore,
was once head of a Cabinet-
appointed committee to
bring the National Library
into being;the comprehensive
UNESCO Report prepared by
Mrs. Elizabeth Morton, has
been in the hands of the
Government for a year now;
Our Librarians have exhausted
themselves with comments
and recommendations over
the years but all is same
khaki pants.
It is over a year now that a
hurricane brought the issue
to a head by putting paid to

the decrepit, uninhabitable
and totally inadequate Cen-
tral Library Building on
Charlotte St. but still there
has been no action.
Until now that is, when all
of a sudden, baps! Election
in the air, so leh we hurry up
and put a sign over a door
(any door) and tell people
that we in the lending
library business once more.
It ent have no time to ask
the Librarians whether or not
the place is suitable a library
- and even though everybody
knows that books well heavy
- we ent have no time to ask
any engineers whether or not
the building can take the
strain. It don't matter any-
how, the thing ent suppose
to last beyond the election.
A Lending Library is a
different business from selling
mangoes on the roadside -
libraries depend on a vast
range of technical services
(ordering, indexing, binding
and repairing, administering
the mobile units etc.) and the
lending services are only the
tip of the iceberg.
Moreover facilities have to
oe made available for the
extremely important reference
sections and bibliographical
work. Not even the Govern-
ment ministers can try to tell
us that more than a tenth of
these services can be crammed
into the QRC flats.
At its best tne QRC flats
ploy is a temporary stop-gap
measure. But once the books
are in and the doors are open,
the spasm of activity will be
over and Government will
lapse into its normal state of

Sandra Charles.

There will follow no
National Library, no mobile
services, which were supposed
to serve the schools of the
nation, no training programme
(Government has not even
agreed to participate in the
University Library school in
Mona)..No Nutten.
Whatever happened to the
plans to build the National
Library and Archives on the
Princes Building site? Well
that plan get shelve fast fast
in 1970 when the P.M. did so
fraid Granger andhe boys
that he announce that instead
of the Library, he was going
to build a cultural centre to
presei ve our African heritage.
Time pass, Black Power
get beat back, an the next
time they open they mouth
is to say that they going to
build a School on the Princess
Building site. But while they
planning and planning to
build the school, they wake
up one morning and find a
Private school in the place.
It seem like they forget
that the land belong to the
City of Port-of-Spain and the
Port-of-Spain Council have
they own people to fix up.
So while the Private School
flourishes in the Princess
Building and our Petro-
dollars are generously given
back to the Multi-nationals
our never-never National
Library is to be squeezed
into unsuitable headquarters,
if only those recalcitrant
teachers would clear out.
But when this blasted
nonsense go stop.




We've got what you
need at minimum cost.


Marion 0 'Callaghan: Apartheid is
an Afrikaans
word meaning "separateness". The
South African Government now pre-
fers the expression separate develop-
ment; or "the development of separate
nations". In practice, apartheid is the
codification of laws governing racial
discrimination. Some of these laws
existed before the Nationalist govern-
ment came into power in 1948. What
the Nationalist Government did was
to elaborate a coherent ideology sup-
porting the laws of racial discrimina-
tion and push this to its logical
Apartheid governs every facet
of life in South Africa. Basically it
means separating two major so-called
racial groups: blacks and whites, as
well as the small minority groups -
Coloureds, Indiais, Malays into
separate categories. But it also means
breaking the Africans into tribal
groups, each one separate from the
They are separate first of all in
the political structure. Major decisions
are taken by the South African Parlia-
ment an, all-white body but
subordinate to this Parliament are
political structures governing every
group. This means that nationalism
on the scale of the South African
nation, cannot emerge as each of the
so-called tribal groups is divided and
kept quite separate from the others.
It also means separateness in
the economic sphere, and ensures
that at no point can black people have
any authority over white people, or,
for that matter, over coloureds.
It establishes separateness in the
social sphere: there are separate living

areas and Pass Laws which ensure that
Africans can only be in white areas
with permission, and even then not
during the curfew. In ensures that
burial groups are separate, that hos-
.pitals and libraries are separate or
have separate hours that even things
like weight-watching would have
separate meeting hours for each
population group.
It means separateness in enter-
tainment, separateness in sport and
separateness in education, with en-
tirely different structures governing
what is called Bantu education, white
education, coloured education, Asian

William Conton: Separate sel-
dom means
equal. When Marion speaks about
Bantu education contrasted with
coloured education and white educa-
tion, she is referring to differences
not merely in terms of quantity the
numbers or percentages of children
and adolescents in school but also
in terms of quality.
The education available to
whites in South Africa is vastly
superior to that available to the so-
called Bantus as concerns the qualifica-
tions of the teachers, the relevance of
the syllabus and so on.
We've been very conscious of
this in Unesco. In particular, we've
found a great deal of difficulty in
obtaining suitable candidates for the
fellowships we administer, tenable at
universities outside South Africa, and
designed for liberation movement
representatives who have come out of
South Africa, Namibia or Zimbabwe.
The entrance requirements of

- -. &'.i"'~Lc

universities in the host countries -
Tanzania, Zambia, Nigeria, Ghana etc.
are high and, naturally, the university
authorities do not want to lower them
simply to accommodate the refugees
or liberation movement representatives.
So "Bantu education" in fact
prepares people most inadequately,
not only for admission to universities
in South Africa, from many of which
they are excluded anyhow by law, but
also from admission to universities in
other parts in East and West Africa,
where they are competing with other
negroes. Separateness in education
means hierarchy with white educa-
tion at the top, and black education
very much at the bottom.

Marion O'Callaghan: South Africa
maintains that
the separation of the African popula-
tion into tribes and races is based, not
on racial categories, but on cultural
categories. She argues in fact that
traditional culture has to be main-
tained, and that this can only be
achieved by strict separation. In other
words, she rejects the idea of borrow-
ing between cultures, and argues as if
culture was a genetically inherited
thing, to be imposed automatically in
a very traditional sense.

William Conton: I would like to
add something
in relation to what you said earlier
about protecting a culture: this really
is just a polite way of killing it.
Culture, no less than a plant, depends
on cross-fertilization if it is to flower.
And when the South African authori-
ties talk about protecting, what they're
really doing is cutting off these so-
called separate cultures from the
mainstream of thought and achieve-
ment in the world as a whole.
It means that, for example, the
thoughts of Gandhi or Plato, or the
music of Beethoven, recognized
everywhere else as belonging to the
world, and not just to the Indians, the
Greeks or the Germans are inacces-
sible to certain selected groups in
South Africa.
And while some cultures are
sufficiently virile to survive a number
of years in this sort of isolation, there
is absolutely no doubt that, in the
long run, the result is sterility and


Marian O'Callaghan: The South
African idea of
traditional culture for Africans is that
of tribes living separately in a way
they've never done before in their
history. This is bolstered up by the
institution of chiefs not chiefs in
the old traditional sense, who were
after all part of an independent
African system but chiefs paid by
the South African Government, and
responsible to it in the first instance.
Little attention is paid to tech-
nology, since this presumably is not
part of the African's traditional cul-
ture, but a good deal of attention is
given to pseudo-traditional cultural
This involves retribalizing Afri-
cans who have been urbanized for
generations, and who have married
members of other tribal groups, return-
ing them if possible to tribal districts.
It has included, in the case of Namibia,
a so-called traditional ceremony of
flogging in public, which nobody
knowing the tradition of the Ovambo
people has ever heard about.
It would seem therefore that
what South Africa is doing is bolster-
ing the most conservative of the tribal
elements in the hope that they will
stem the tide of African nationalism
and, by opposing tribe against tribe,
will enable them to control the
Africans better.
This also permits them to run
a highly sophisticated industrial econ-
omy, while maintaining a subsistence
economy in the tribal areas. So that
this whole policy of traditional culture
has both political and economic
As far as information and com-
munications are concerned, there are
two broad areas in which the South
African government is vitally
The first is the racial issue.
Nothing must show whites in a sub-
;ervient position to blacks and any-
thing which fosters black nationalism
has to be stopped. The Oxford History
of South Africa shows an example of
the kind of censorship involved,
An entire chapter on South
African nationalism written by a well
~iown social anthropologist, Leo
Kuper someone by the way who is

t njh 6 1IAPIA
Apartheid is a word with which everyone is familiar by now and a
word which will be heard more and more in the coming months. To
make it widely known was the purpose of a seminar on South Africa,
held at Unesco Headquarters in Paris last April by the United Nations
Special Committee Against Apartheid. But like all words that are
powerful in their connotations, it is useful from time to time to
examine just what they mean. In the following interview with Erin
Faherty of Unesco Radio, a social anthropologist, Mrs. Marian Glean
O'Callaghan of Unesco's Division of Applied Social Sciences, and
William Conton, director of the Organization's Division of Equality
of Educational Opportunity, give an anatomy of apartheid.


IVEMBER 2, 1975



not strictly speaking in exile and is
able to travel to South Africa has
been censored in the South African
version. And most of the black writers,
such as Ezekiel Mphahlele, Lewis
Nkoi are in exile and their books have
been banned within the Republic.
There is also a ban which
hinges on politics and here, the South
African government has passed a
Suppression of Communism Act that
defines communism as no other gov-
ernment has defined it: anything
which undercuts the present-day
political structures of the country.
This enables the authoriti-~ to ban
anyone who disagrees fundamentally
with the government.
It's not true that they don't
permit any disagreement, they do
permit some not about the funda-
mentals of apartheid, but about what's
called petty apartheid. In other words,
you can say that blacks should share
the same park bench with you; but
you cannot say that they should
immediately become members of the
government and have a free vote.
Anyone who says this is automatically
supporting communism and therefore
can be banned.
The banning, as I have said,
includes censorship, it includes a very
close watch on foreign journalists, it
includes a board which controls
publications coming into Africa.
Some of these things can happen
in other countries. What does not
usually happen in other countries is
that, not only are publications banned,
but persons can be banned, their
works can no longer be quoted, they
are in fact legally dead as far as their
writing is concerned.
What does not usually happen
elsewhere are the house arrests and
house detentions, and the definition
of unlawful organizations which makes
it well nigh impossible to get things
What does not usually happen is
the heavy financial and operational
interlocking between the secret Afri-
kaaner society, the Broederboand, the
Nationalist government, the South
African press and the South African
Broadcasting Company.
What does not usually happen
is the intimidation of journalists, even
in the English-speaking press which is
presumably free and controlled by

the English-speaking part of the
.What black newspapers do exist
are financed by the South African
government, written specially for
black readers and avoid any political
implications that would be harmful
to the government. This means that
black journalists have very little con-
tact with what's going on in Parliament,
very little access to white areas and,
consequently, do not know what's
going on in the centres of power.
So we are faced with inequality
of access to news by the black
population, inequality of control over
the mass media and, of course, censor-
ship. To this must be added the
informal but effective method of
control which is simply the fact that
people are afraid to publish or say
certain things because they could be
banned, because their families could
be pressured, because they do not
really know at what point they will be
offending various people in the gov-
ernment, or to what extent BOSS,
the security services, are interested.

Erin Faherty:

An essential

part of Unesco's activityis concerned
with human rights, and apartheid is
certainly a matter of human rights.

Marian O'Callaghan: It depends on
how you define
human rights. We wrote our book
Apartheid: its effects on education,
science, culture and information to
show how South Africa violated cer-
tain articles of the Universal Declara-
tion of Human Rights.
What we in fact discovered, is
that human rights follow economic
and political power.You can't separate
the two. If Africans are unequal
politically they can have no share in
the decisions which affect their future.
And if they have no economic rights,
it is useless to say that they can't go
to libraries or buy books. They simply
don't have the money to buy those
books. If they are not in government,
they can't allocate money to education
or control what's going on in informa-
In other words, if you are
looking at human rights as the totality
of things which in a country permit
an individual to function meaningfully,

yes, apartheid is a question of human
rights. If,however, as so often happens,
human rights are thought of as a
particular kind of good will: it would
be a good thing, for example,
for Africans and white not
to have equal political rights or econ-
omic rights, but to have, say,: "whites
only" signs removed then I think
we're fooling ourselves.
For we are talking about struc-
tural discrimination,not just something
incidental to the system. The entire
system is built on this, and so when
we talk about human rights, the only
way for Africans to accede to human
rights in South Africa, is for them
first of all to obtain equal political
and economic rights.
Racial discrimination exists in
many states, there is ethnic discrimina-
tion in many others, there is religious
discrimination and all sorts of discrimi-
nation, including discrimination on
grounds of sex in most countries. But
this is entirely different from what you
have in the case of apartheid: discrimi-
nation as a policy of state based on
the ideology of white supremacy.

(Unesco Features)


Women in Cuba:

Revolution Within


THE enormous crane
swings forward to unload
the holds of a merchant
ship in Havana Bay.'The'
woman crane operator -
who is no novelty for
Soviet sailors or Cuban
stevedores is the attrac-
tion for visitors from
capitalist countries.
They are surprised that
women are invading the
military sectors, air
fumigation, scientific re-
search and rural urban-
ization programs.
Sixteen years after the
triumph of the Revolution,
women in Cuba have a
decisive economic importance
in the development of the
country. /
590,000 women are en-
gaged in productive activities,
representing 253 per cent of
the labor force, as announced
by the Cuban prime minister
in his speech closing the II
Congress of the Cuban
Women's Federation in Nov-
ember 1974.
At the start of the century,
only 13 per cent of the
female working-age population
was working in Cuba, and of
this number 70 per cent were
in domestic service.
In 50 years of formal
independence, women's parti-
cipation was a tiny 9.8 per
cent of the labor force. Sixty
thousand women were domes-
tic servants and another large
number of them were under-
employed .
Among the women who
were unemployed in 1958,
85 per cent were condemned.
to domestic slavery (euphem-
istically called housewives),
while 26,000 begged in the

streets and more than 11,000
were prostitutes, giving a
typical panorama of the sad
fate of women in a bourgeois
This past, which is how-
ever the sad present in most
of the underdeveloped coun-
tries of the Third World, was
broken with radically on
January 1, 1959.


The process which began
on that day signified the
massive incorporation of
women in all sectors of pro-
ductive and cultural life,
which before were prohibited
to them.
The limited framework of
the home was broken by
more and more women com-
ing out to carry on the urgent
tasks of the early years of the
Revolution: the national
literacy campaign, the militias,
schools for former domestic
servants and sewing courses
for peasant girls.
However, it was not until
1964 that the campaign for
linking women massively to

production began to give
fruit, under the direction of
the Cuban Women's Federa-
tion (FMC).
Because of women's perma-
nent links with agriculture, a
great number of farm projects
were .entrusted to women,
among them the agro-indus-
trial tobacco sector.
Women take part in the
delicate operations of selec-
tion, processing and rolling of
the tobacco leaf which is
destined chiefly to the export
52 per cent of the tobacco
workers are women and in
Pinar del Rio, the country's
chief tobacco producing pro-
vince, selection is entirely in
the hands of women.
Fifty percent of the work
force in the coffee sector in
Oriente province are also
women. Women also do
planting work, raise calves
and work in poultry and rab-
bit breeding, fields which are
reserved exclusively for them.
Because of deep-rooted
prejudices in pre-revolution-
ary Cuba, industry was con-
sidered the domain of the
male. Today that prejudice is
fast disappearing and one-
fifth of the industrial work
force consists of women.
As an example of women
in industrial direction posts,
from which women were
excluded in the past, there is
Nora Fromenta, minister of
light industry. That sector
employs 2,880 technicians, of
whom 37.5 per cent are
The Plastics and Rubber
enterprise is at the vanguard
in this aspect, with 85.1 per
cent of its skilled workers
women. The textile industry
also has women in 71.6 per
cent of its work force.
The highest percentage of
women workers are found in
the Cubartesania enterprise -
90 per cent of the work force
which specializes in making
articles continuing the rich
folkloric tradition of the
Other sectors where female
participation is in the majority
are education and culture
and services, with 68 and 52
per cent respectively.

(Prensa Latina)

However, the massive pro-
motion of women into posts
of leadership requires a long
process of cultural formation
and favorable social condi-


Cuba's population structure
is basically young and al-
though this is an advantage
in the long run it means,
however, that the weight of
work activity is today on 32
per cent of the inhabitants.
This percentage tends to
diminish in the measure that
more and more women start
to work.Butin Cuba women's
participation is still relatively
low if we compare the number
of women actually working
(670,000) with the total
working-age population which
is approximately 2.3 million.
During the 1964-68 period
the first big wave of women
starting to work was regis-
tered, a 34 per cent increase
over the 1959-63 period.
The economy then began
to confront the challenge


Vilma Espin, President of
the Cuban Federation of
represented by the new labor
force, since for every thousand
working women with small
children, the state had to
'make investments of 280,000
pesos in'the construction of"
nursery schools and 16,000 in
equipment and train 125
attendants, 3 nurses and one
Women have also made
great strides in cultural
development and in working
in jobs and careers tradition-
ally considered unfit for the
"weak sex."
A large percentage of
university enrolments are
constituted by women,
especially in the sciences and
in technology.
These percentages are
much higher than those regis-
tered in other Latin American
The advancement of
women, according to their
professional qualifications,
however, Las had to struggle
against deep-rooted incompre-
hension which only the econ-
omic development of socialism
will be able to eliminate.


The struggle is still against
domestic chores that waste
women's efforts in work that
is unproductive and mind-
Cuba considers that
women's problems are pro-
blems of the state with a
developing economy and, as a
result, is advancing according
to its possibilities in the crea-
tion of a material base so
that women will be able to
devote themselves to work,
politics, culture, technology
and their own education.

iT- M;_4
1 I rf-1.



off the

Campaign Manager, Billy
Montague, another mus-
tard seed has been sown
for the Tapia New World.
On Sunday October 26,
our Cochran people laid
down their organisation.
A congregation of
serious minded people
elected four persons to
form the Steering Com-
mittee that will now
conduct the executive
business of the local party
The Chairman is Kelvin
Elder: the Secretary M.
Celestine: Miss V.
Dechinea Treasurer and
Miss Patsy James Com-
munity Secretary.
Sunday's meeting was
opened by Arnold Hood
from La Brea who ela-
borated on the impor-
tance of becoming
involved in politics.
Politics, he said, was not
enough but it was vital if
the people of Trinidad &
Tobago are to shape our
own destiny and bring
about meaningful change.
New Chairman Elder
said that to him Tapia
was more than just a lip
movement. ,Patsy James
thanked Arnold Hood for
lending to Cochran the
encouragement of La
Brea and Vessigny.
Billy Montague closed
the meeting with a short
and sweet address in
which he expressed the
hope that the Tapia
Group in Cochran would
continue with the same
zeal with which we have
started on this Dble

"WHEN you plant rice
in Oropouche, you footee
reap nothing." As usual,
the discussion at the
Tapia meeting at St.
John's Trace, Avocat,
turned to the salt water
that killing off crops ever
since the Government
mash up the swamp with
some Port-of-Spain plan
to put in new sluice gates.,
"Man, the Government
dead, oui; we have to
get together and do
something for we self".
Doc Dookeran laughed a
dead serious laugh flash-
ing his gold teeth at the
We must stan' up for
the generations, said
Sheriff; the main thing is
to get together." All o'
we must get together for
the future."
Roopnarine Sahadeo
chimed in that ,"is only
promises again so now is
the time to make a

IT is always easy for those
who did not live the hard
life or grow up in an area
where poverty and hunger
exist, to care little for
persons saddled with
those social problems.
Sonny Melville is quite
a different kettle of fish.
As a young man he took
schooling like any other.
But because of misfortune
and poor finances -
Sonny failed'to see the
high school door. Even
his brilliance in school
was not enough to see
him through to higher

ber 28
On Thu
the loc
ed a St
of offi
make u
of the
as Tap
from a

plained ,
there we

Unlike those of his time
who have been lucky to
come from fairly well-off
families and were there-
fore able to escape the
rigors of hard times
Sonny had to leave school'
at an early age. And face
a world that never knew
he existed.
He limed, he gambled,
he got into trouble as is
the experience of the
average man growing up
in any depressed area,
before he decided to
settle and become a

Steering Committee

appoi nted

in Avocat

1 from the Visiting were Mickey
.e of the National Matthews of Fyzabad,
ition on Septem- Tapia second Vice-Chair-
I, Tapia of St. man; Billy Montague of
Trace, Avocat Santa Flora, popular
d is moving fast. sportsman and newly
irsday October 23. elected Ca m p aig n
al group appoint- Manager for Sputh Trini-
:eering Committee dad; Annan Singh from
cers to guide the, Quarrie; Consy Scott,
politics up and Steve Crease and Keith
the old Siparia Kamona from Fyzabad;
Gregory Noel from Siparia
pnarine Sahadeo, Road; Lloyd Best from
al Balgobin, John Tunapuna and Julius
Lallchan and Clarke from Vistabella.
aha a After a masterly Chair-
nooj Jaghroo man's Statement by
jp the responsible Mickey Matthews, Billy
Montague made a touch-
meeting was a ing appeal for ,political
r blend of co involvement and for love
exchange and of country. Lloyd Best
realitiscal calculation f 1975 reminded the gathering
realities of 1975 that one of the Move-
iamen turned up ment's slogans was
.11 over the place "Enlist In-This People's

ds its voice
He then ex- see how the 80,000 think-
why Tapia must ing for they self!
the people to The only way to glory
is to let the movementI
Ragbir felt that grow from the mud and
ere too many the grass.

opposition parties. Jama-
dar and Capildeo had not
achieved anything con-
"Like we have a politi-
cal crisis in the whole
world in Vietnam, in
America, in Beirut. But
how we go solve it?"
'All the market people
must strike, that is what I
'.feel." An older man was
talking now.
He was worried
that the youth were only
studying to make a day's
work; none of them was
interested in making
garden. "But if the
gardeners only strike,
everybody else go dead
out in this country,"
Mickey Matthews rolled
his eyes as if to say you

family man.
One interesting thing
about Sonny is that he
seems to hold the same
love, care and concern
for those people within
his community as he
holds for his family. It is
therefore not difficult to
understand his emotional
outbursts against disadvant-
age that is so rife in our
Poverty, his greatest
enemy is still with him
to this day. Yet he has
refused to allow himself
to be defeated or be con-
quered by it. Sonny is
forever working to exter-
minate poverty either
singly or with the help of
I remember when he
was just a mason during
the Vigilante days. He
never failed to enquire
about how we were get-
ting along. With our work.
Then there were no
charge-hand or foreman
on the job. But we had
little to worry about
because Sonny would
always offer his expert

ALL along the road from
Erin to Debe, the Tapia
crew of foot soldiers are
putting up posters. But
what Really Going On?
What? The answer is
politics in season and
out of season. Last week
the Tapia Platform stop-
ped in Erin and Santa
This week it was Penal,
right at the junction
under the new Hall of
Justice, in this Police
The meetings have
been no big thing only
an opening gambit to
remind all the people that


A Man Called Sonny

after ole mas is new
Most people do not
want to hear anything
about politics. Too much
crookedness, too much
To get them out to
meetings and to win poli-
tical involvement is a task.
for which you need
plenty belly.
But ask Annan Singh
or Oscar Lewis or Glen
Telesford what they think
are our chances. There is
only one answer they will
give -, Power to the
Hardwuk, as the posters

knowledge. With his dis-
play of keen interest it
was not long before we
decided amongst ourselves
that Sonny was the most
likely person for charge-
Accordingly we
approached Special Works
authorities requesting that
Sonny Melville be given
the foreman's job. The
response to our proposal
was positive. From that
time onwards Sonny has
seen a most rapid advance-
Not only did he per-
form well as charge-hand,
but he did so well that
the authorities did not
hesitate to make him
foreman of the area.
Now Sonny is moving
more and more to reach
the unfortunates. as
best as he could. Cur-
rently he is seeking the
help of people who are
interested in teaching
young men the art of
boxing. He also intends
to pave the yard of the
community centre so that
a number of recreational
activities can be intro-
duced for the benefit of
Laventille's youths.
Here is a man bursting
with love.xee

Power: to Hardwuk

Now a Reality

Avocat fini


Eastern Main Rd., Laventille
(Near to Trotman street)
Galvanise, Cement,
Blocks, Tiles,
etc, etc.

0 0




Employees may claim 70% of their
share of the N.I. contributions as
an Allowance for Income Tax
purposes. Employers may claim
their total contribution.

For further information
See your district NIB office


Commercial Banks-making

A Killing, while the


LAST WEEK the Govern-
ment introduced a bill
which, if passed, would
give the Central Bank
the necessary instru-
ments for changing the
exchange rate or par
value of the Trinidad and
Tobago dollar.
Up to the present time,
there has been an automatic
relationship between the
Trinidad and Tobago dollar
and the Pound sterling and
this relationship has been
enshrined in the Central
Bank Act of Trinidad and
Tobago of 1964.
Our founding fathers
always wanted $4.80 to be
the equivalent of one British
pound and one of our dollars
to be equal to 4 shillings and
2 pence. It is a wonder they
did not put it into the con-
stitution as well.

The mould out of which
they hatched the Central
Bank; the dependency com-
plex they imported vis a vis
the Bank of England; is
obvious even today after
eleven years of the Bank's
It still does not act like a
Central Bank. It has made

Bank sleeps!

hardly any mark on the com-
mercial banking sector in this
country. The biggest joke in
Banking in this country is
the totally ineffective at-
tempts made by the Central
Bank to control the commer-
cial banks.
An effective Central Bank
is supposed to be banker to
the commercial banks and
the Government, to orient
the development of the bank-
ing system in the areas it
sees fit, to control or expand
the money supply to main-
tain monetary stability, and
to monitor and control the
parity of the $T&T in the
light of our trading position.


With a responsible Govern-
ment one would anticipate a
developmental thrust in the
operational policies of the
Central Bank. But the pre-
sent Central Bank is still by
and large a fictitious institu-
tion. And in the area of
control over the banking
system, which is its most
critical area, it is hopelessly
inadequate and helpless.
We have only to look at
the recent past to see how
powerless the Central Bank
has been. At the present
time the commercial banks

are overflowing with funds
but still crucial areas con-
tinue to be starved of credit.
The Central Bank has been
unable to get the commer-
cial banks to change the
structure of their portfolios.


Of the new business
in which the' commercial
banks have been involved
over the past five years the
monthly data show that
Agriculture consistently re-
ceived less than 1% of the
credit on average. Industrial
Building, plant.and Equip-
ment got less than 4%.
However, loans for con-
sumption rather than invest-
ment hasrepresented.between
45% and 60% of instalment
credit. Even when the
Government was making its
big play way back in 1972
and early in 1973 about con-
trolling consumption of non-
essentials and when the
Central Bank was expected
to use moral suasion to get
the banks to follow policy,
the commercial 'boys were
still doing their own thing.
And the Central Bank con-
tinues to be a total failure
in harnessing financial
resources for development.
There seems to have been

Excitement "Galore" As

Theo Jones

no impact whatsoever on
overall interest rates, which
is another area for the dis-
cretionary powers of the
Central Bank.
In spite of the excessive
liquidity of the Banks,
interest rates on loans are
still sky-high. Yet the com-
mercial banks have reduced
the rates on deposits thus
widening the spread between
what they charge for loans
and what they pay for deposits.
This policy puts a high
premium on loans for invest-
ment purposes and it con-
tinues and will continue to
starve important sectors of
the economy for funds.
Meanwhile, the profits of
the commercial banks have
been rising. And their profits
will continue to rise if they
proceed with their policy,
conducted with the full bless-
ings of the Central Bank, of
localisingg" their operations
by selling their $1.00 shares
at scandalously inflated rates.

When the Banks make a
new issue of $1.00 shares
sold at $5.00 or more a piece,
they increase the funds
available' to them. And in
order to guarantee a reason-
able rate of return to the new
shareholders, they keep the
pressure on the interest rates
and restrict their credit to
the consumption area where
where is a quick killing to be
The commercial banks get
away scot-free with all this
in spite of the existence of
the Capital Issue Committee
which supervises the local


Returns to Majuba Junction

LAST Wednesday night,
Majuba Junction, La
Brea, celebrated a Tapia
Meeting that could have
gone on forever. It was
excitement galore under
the Chairmanship of
local boy, Arnold Hood.
We left with our cups
running over.
Mickey Matthews, speak-
ing with the clarity and force
of a man inspired by a re-
ceptive audience, explained
the Tapia proposals for con-
stitution reform and local
government. "All we want is
to open the door of history
and let our people in. The
Voice of the People is the
Voice of God."
Beau Tewarie, caught the
mood of the night and
pounded the old regime for
"chaining our people in de-
gradation" with sub-standard
housing and education plans
that were cancelled by social
and political pressure on
Billy Montagu, looking
every bit the grandmaster of
athletics; sketched a perspec-

tive for sport and the youth.
He said that, from being a
representative of Trinidad
and Tobago abroad, he had
learnt that nationhood could
be won if the youth were
inspired by the professional
disciplines of organised sport.
Trinidad and Tobago, he
declared, has a great abun-
dance of natural talent. "All
we need for a start is the
freedom of proper playing-
fields in every little village."
Arnold Hood presented a
full plan for the reorganisa-
tion of oil, industry and
tourism. Playing to many
rounds of-applause from his
home crowd, he showed how
the big oil corporations were
digging out we eye."
He showed that 70 cents
out of every dollar of foreign
investment in this country
was in fact local money mak-
ing a half-tack as profits
going out and coming back
as re-investment. Hood prac-
tices accounting at Tesoro
Lloyd Best said he was
glad to come in at No. 11
when the scoreboard was full.

He proceeded to spell out
plans for national reconstruc-
tion and to show how the
OWTU could help the oil
belt in that regard with pro-
jects for agriculture, housing
and vocational education.
The Secretary said that

Georgie-Porgie Weekcs was
right-on in asking for 147%
because he was bringing
bread home from Texaco to
the people of Trinidad and
Tobago. Manswell was only
transferring money from one
to another national pocket.

stock exchange and is respon-
sible, in the final analysis,
for the so-called localisa-
tion" arrangements ,of the
financial institutions. This
committee is directly respon-
sible to the Central Banks.
As for its foreign opera-
tions, the Central Bank is
now the envy of many others
in the CARICOM area. With
the changes in oil prices, the
foreign assets of the Central
Banks jumped from $219
million T&T in May last year
to $932 million in May this
year. In other words they
more than quadrupled in one
year and must stand at over
$1 billion at the present


Most of this money, is
loaned to the major financial
institutions in North America
and Europe which relend
these funds to other institu-
tions and countries, includ-
ing Trinidad and Tobago, at
exorbitant interest rates.
This is but another one of
'the absurdities of present
economic policy.
Since the proposed change
in the legislation concerns
the vital area of foreign re-
serves Tapia will be monitor-
ing, very carefully, this
aspect of the Central Bank's
operation which is shrouded
in mystery.
For if Government's past
record is any guide, and after
twenty years of unrelieved
bungling there is no reason
to expect sudden compe-
tence, we can assume that
the proposed measures
merely constitute so much
cosmetic for all the noise
that is being made.
Without a radical change
in the orientation of the
Central Bank and in the
orientation of National
policy generally, we can be
sure that for all concerned
it will be a straight case of
business as usual.
In an evening of ;royal
entertainment and political
education, the crowd ap-
plauded lustily when Lloyd
Best denounced the One-Man
governmentt Tor thinlaing
that we would vote for any
jackass they decide to put
up a policy they work
out to suit La Brea.
"That Superman politics,"
he concluded, "was over and
done with. Anybody who
want to bat, bowl and field
the ball go end up by running
out herself "




/S Stephens



of a






-. .,v

I will
come a
Flood of
ch an ge

We Invite you to





at the

St. Vincent St. Tunapuna
2pm- -6pm
B| People.. 1






Nrs. Andrea Talbutt,
Research Institut for
Study of Man, r
162, East 78th Street,
New York, N.Y. 10021, 9i
Ph. Leh~ih 5 8448.

Gov't refuses Work-Permit

To Visiting Professor!

SOCIAL Science teachers
at the UWI last Wednes-
day metto oppose the
decision by the Govern-
ment of Trinidad and-
Tobago to refuse a work
permit to Professor Kari
The meeting issued a
press statement calling
on the government "to
reverse the decision-or to
provide reasonable ex-
A Committee is also to
press the University to
expedite its appeal and to
secure a Visitor's Visa for
Mrs. Levitt pending final
decision. After the Ministry
of National Security refused
the permit, Mrs. Levitt's
Visitor's visa, extended only
the day before, was also
The meeting of social
scientists said that lecturers
were deeply disturbed by the
ban on a scholar of un-
doubted professional inte-
grity, an expert in national
accounting and the affairs
,of multi-national corpora-


Professor Levitt has won
the admiration and respect
of many West Indians for.
years of productive effort in
West Indian economic analy-
sis and research much of it in
collaboration with native
For three years she was
Co-Director with Lloyd Best
of a Project on Plantation
Economy at the Centre of
Developing Areas Study at
McGill University, and she
has supervised the graduate
work of a considerable num-
ber of front-ranking West
Indian economists.
Mrs. Levitt is also joint
author of a book on Canada-
West Indies Economic Rela-
tions with Alister McIntyre,
currently Secretary-General
William Demas wrote his
book on The Economics of
Small Countries at the McGill
Centre in close collaboration
with her, and served as her
replacement in the Depart-
ment of Economics when she
took leave for her work with.
the Centre.
In 1969, it was largely
through the instrumentality
of William Demas that
Professor Levitt was con-

traced to the International
Monetary Fund to prepare a
new" system of national
accounts for Trinidad and
Tobago along lines first
sketched by Professor Dudley
Seers of Sussex University,
and developed by herself
Lloyd Best and their Project

In 1973, her work on
national accounts, advanced
to a point where a pre-
liminary report became
available for classified study,
was suddenly discontinued
by the Ministry of Planning.
A story leaked in the
media by journalist Raoul

Pantin, suggested that much
of the work focused on the
transactions of the petroleum
and petro-chemical sectors
and showed startling figures
for output, income and
taxable capacity on the part
of the big firms.
Earlier in the same year,
Professor Levitt was co-
incidentally involved in a
controversial episode in a
fashionable residential area
in Port-of-Spain. The house
in which she was a guest,
owned by a Doctor and his
wife, was raided by the
police. Nothing was found
and no charges made.
The meeting of Social
Scientists expressed the view
that the refusal of Professor
Levitt's permit seemed to be
an administrative error
besmirching the reputation

PROFESSOR Kari Levitt came to the University of
the West Indies as a Visiting Professor for one year
from September 1974. During the course of that year
she was offered a three-year appointment which she
accepted and travelled to Trinidad in early October
after resigning from her post at McGill University.
She was advised to return to assume her job
since the university had applied for a renewal of her
work permit and anticipated no problems in this
On Tuesday 21 October, however, the University was
informed that the work permit had been refused, without
explanation but "after careful consideration".
Professor Levitt is an economist of the highest cre-
dentials who has an international reputation in her field. She
has done a considerable amount of work for governments and
for international organizations and first worked in the West
Indies in the early 1960's when she prepared a study on
freight rates for the Federal Government of the West Indies.
After years of close collaboration with scholars of the
University of the West Indies in many short assignments, she
returned to Trinidad and Tobago in October, 1969, under the
auspices of the International Monetary Fund, to prepare a
study of the National Accounts. She-spent a full year on this
in addition to the summerr" vacation periods of 1971, 1972
and 1973. After this she finally decided to accept a Visiting
Professorship at the Institute of International Relations.
It is undoubtedly the professional integrity displayed
by Professor Levitt which brought her such a wide involve-
ment in so many projects requiring confidentiality and tact,
and over the years, both as colleague and teacher, she has won
the respect and affection of many West Indians.
In this period she has not to our knowledge abused the
hospitality of Trinidad and Tobago or been involved in any
unprofessional activity warranting the denial of a work permit.
She has certainly not been arrested and no charges have ever
been laid against her. Yet Professor Levitt's good name has
been impugned, her trustworthiness by implication has been
questioned, her international reputation bersmirched and her
career put in jeopardy.

of one who had in no way
undertaken unprofessional
activity or abused the hos-
pitality of Trinidad and Toba-


The press statement also
expressed anxiety lest work
permits and the manner of
their granting were used to
intimidate the University,
prevent the academic com-
munity from doing its work
and were to become an
instrument of political, con-
The matter of Professor
Levitt and the general sub-
ject of work permits are to
be taken up at a meeting of

Prof. Kari Levitt

the .West Indies Group of
University Teachers at 1230
p.m. on Tuesday November

We therefore are deeply disturbed by the decision to
prevent Professor Levitt from making her services freely
available to the University and the country through employ-
ment at the Institute of International Relations.
We can only conclude that this decision has been made
in error the alternative is that it is a mischievous and
reprehensible act of political repression, the effect of which
would be to intimidate the University. We are extremely
anxious on this account because the Levitt case is not singular
and at the present moment there are other cases strangely
outstanding which give cause for alarm.
There are, for instance, those cases where application
has been made in good time, the parties have resigned their
jobs and are still waiting abroad to assume their appointments
here. Then there is the long delay in granting renewal of
permits to particular individuals and the new technique of
granting the permit for a period less than the period of the
contract. These practices give the impression of intimidation
and raise grave doubts about the use being made of work
permits as an instrument of political control.
Perhaps one of the most unfortunate effects of such
use of work permits has been to make it difficult for West
Indians to work freely at the St. Augustine campus and to
threaten the regional character of the University. The further
effect of such harassment is to suggest that the Government of
Trinidad and Tobago is less than serious about maintaining
the integrity of the University as a centre of learning, research.
debate and critical analysis.
Neither the Government nor the public needs to be
persuaded that such a University must have the freedom to
employ visiting scholars of the calibre and integrity of Professor
Levitt and to allow them to ply their trade without fear of
intervention or control by any outside body.
We therefore join the University of the West Indies in
calling on the Government to reverse the decision or to
provide reasonable explanation.
Faculty of Social Sciences.
St. Augustine.
October 29. 1975.

U.W.I. Social Sciences

Demand explanation

c --"-