Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00179
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: September 14, 1975
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00179

Full Text

62^ 78 STR
^^*k^' -23 /a



TAPIA Secretary Lloyd
Best told a gathering of
newsmen last Wednesday
morning that Tapia was
ready at any time to
participate in a "properly
constituted" assembly of
opposition forces to dis-
cuss in a full and open
manner the fundamental
issues facing the country
But. Best. insisted,
Tapia was not interested
in, and has always been
opposed to, any attempt
to achieve an overnight,
pre-election merger of
opposition forces. The
history of such shotgun
alliances, Best continued,
showed that they always
fell apart at the first
important decision they
were preparcd to make.
The Tapia Secretary
made his remarks at a
Press Conference called
by -Tapia to make its
views known to-. the
country on the issue of
Opposition unity.

In preparedd statement
presented to newsmen
Tapia stated that "na-
tionai disunity part-
icularly the division
between African -and
Indian is the "cause of
the Government's survival
for much longer than has
been good for the
nation." -
The statement quoted
the- words of Selwyn
Ryan. in his reservations
to the Report of the
Wooding Commission, in
which he argued that for
many people "To change
a party is to run the risk
of changing a race."
But the Tapia state-
ment went on to say,
"We are convinced that

the seven years of politi-
cal upheaval have sufli-
ciently shattered the old
politics of race as to
permit an opening to any
dedicated group of
patriots willing and able
to put the whole country
before any particular
"The challenge open
to the forces of opposi-
tion," the statement
argued "is to take the
lead in establishing the
Permanent and profes-
sional political organisa-
tion required to service
the country when race is
no longer the basis of
political allegiance."
Newsmen asked on
what factual evidence did
Tapia base its claim that
the politics of race were
dying? Members of the
Tapia team present indi-
cated that, while racial
politics could not be
-eliminated in 1975, the
events of the past seven
years, particularly in
1970, with the Black
Power Revolt, and in
1975, .with the U.L.F.
confrontation, h a v e
shown a population in
which both Africans and
Indians are striving to
break themselves free of
the prison of old polities
and racial divisions.
In addition to thl-ir
Release on Opposition
Unity, the Tapia team
present took the opport-
unity, in two other
prepared statements to
present positions on lhe
Motion of Condemnation
recently presented in the
Senate, as well as on
Tapia's relationship with
the Leader of the Opposi-
tion Mr. Richardson.
Representing the Tapia
organisation at the l'ress
Conference in addition
to the Secretary were:




Ivan- Laughlin-Ass't. Secre-
tary, Michael Harris-
Editor, and Allan Harris,
the Administrative Secre-
tary of the Organisation.
In his opening remarks
Allan Harris, who served
as Chairman of the pro-
ceedings, made mention
of the fact that the Press
Conference was the first
official event that was
taking place at tlhe
recently acquired Tapia
Port-of-Spain Centre.
Harris mentioned that

the Centre, which is cur-
rentl\ und ergoing renova-
tion. was expected to
house a Bookshop,
Library. Administrative
offices, and Committee
rooms as well as serve as
the Port-of-Spain Caim-
paign Headquarters.
The full texts of tlhe
three'statements present-
ed to newsmen at the
Press Con ference are pub-
lished on pages 1,2, and
3 of this Issue.

TAPIA Editor .Michael
Harris will be away
from his desk for a brief
period of three (3) weeks
which began from Sept-
ember 7, 1975.
But he is merely away
without leave. During
that time he is expected
to put some added muscle
intoTapia fund-raising
In the meantime Lloyd
Taylor will assist with
the editorial. j

A FRESH series of Tapia
public meetings will begin
in Tunapu na on Tuesday,
September 16. Venue of
the meeting is the Eastern
Main Road at the Library
Corner, Freeling Street.

lBe'inn'ingL at 6.30 p.m.,
ai tkc;in It 9 speakers will
pricil Itlie case for a
icane l' 1' government t ill
tli1 lurtlhcoming (encral
.Ilcctions and will outline
Tapia proposals or1i a
colmplcie overhaul of the

national political life.
Ivani Laughlin and
Hamlet Joseph will speak
on "Haves & Have Nols":
Beau Tewarie on "T'l
lEducation Crisis":
Krishna Ramrekersingh
on "The Oil Bonanza":
Syl Lowhar and
Michael Harris oni "Con-
stilution Reform and;
Mickey Matthews and
Allan !.'irris on "Tapia's
New World. "
The programme will be
repeated on Wednesday in

Siparia and again on
Thursday in Diego Martin
Ali three meetings start
at -ihe same hour 6.30
The following week the
series will be repeated in
Santa Flora, Sangrc
Grande and La Brea on
Tuesday 23, Wednesday
24, and Thursday 25
(hairma.n for Ihits series
is Lloyd- Best who will
also speak on "The Need
for National Unity."


THIL Press has been
invited o a lc;id the
aitcrinooni session ofl tie
Tapia Assclmhi\ t ltilie
SWWTIU Hlall in Port-ol-
Spaiin ont Sitnda\' Sept Ilm-
ber 2S. 1)75. l',
AssI'nbly is theli Irt l A o
three called lo IinalisC
pl-rparialions lor general
elecitio lundlt1er tlCe tm -
Il'' la o1 a N llnlonail ('on-
\ nti ion


A RAIFFL ofl run and
cakes, sponsored b\ Tipia

swum. A.ccodinig to Siephilen
Dotnu l; s Iutnd 'ls 1'ioi ihe lac l'le
would 14 o) waJs ll.' hil
All 1i1'spo l |'oi I.i A ing people
to I",pita' N.tlional Co iven-
1:1 i .c a.i ld \'l V IIc RiveL'
G( oit''s .li C also exl\ct ed to
VOi lk I \ \w l t \ ,ML 11\ p
,,I'O lI i', | II,!l ,pil 'p 1I.

Vol. 5 No. 37

30 Cents



I ~1 -



AUGUST MEETING OF Council of Representatives in Progress.


1. Tapia is sympathetic to and
prepared for an early--and com-
bined initiative towards national
unity by all Opposition organisa-
tions. In response to requests
from others, we will be proposing
a set of concrete steps for joint
action to be made public at
the appropriate time.
2. National disunity part-
icularly the division between
African and Indian is almost
certainly the main cause of the
present Government's disastrous
policy towards both industry and
agriculture, towards town and
country. And yet, it is also the
cause of the Government's sur-
vival for much longer than has
been good for the nation. Hear
Dr. Selwyn Ryan in the Wooding
Report (p. 159):
"In Trinidad and Tobago there is still a
widely held feeling that the rules of the
administrative and political process are
often maripulated for purely partisan
advantage. There is also a pervasive belief
among people of African descent and
mixed elements that the state apparatus
properly belongs to them and that
Indians as a' group must never be
allowed to achieve political power. There
is the fear that if this were allowed to
happen, economic and political power
would become fused in the same hands,
with all this is assumed to mean for the
economic well-being of the non-Indian
population. The belief that Indians will
use political power to alter-the dominant
position which peoples of African and
mixed heritage now enjoy in the public
sector appears to be of greater concern
than the economic dominance which
foreign and local whites now enjoy. This
belief is perhaps one of the most power
ful factors which affect the style of
political and administrative behaviour
in Trinidad and Tobago .
To change a party is to run the risk of
changing a race."
3. The Wooding Commission has
reminded us that the pattern of voting
is basically racial "with those of
African descent supporting the PNM".
(P.9). It is a subject "about which
people everywhere become embaras-
sed", wrote one of the Commissioners
in his Reservation to the main Report
(p. 120)'
4. It would be pointless, we

think in Tapia, to canvass any electoral
front amongst Opposition party leaders
if the realities of race were not properly
considered. The call for Opposition
unity takes the old racial divisions for
granted. That assumption largely
explains the pessimism of so-many
conunentators in te Press over the
Independence Anniversary weekend.
5. What factual ground is there
for conceding another victory and
another five-year term to a Govern-
ment which is universally denounced
by the citizens for betraying its sup-
porters and neglecting its opponents
and for religiously putting party
before country each time? Which, on
the surface, is split into three factions,
and which is often described as a 28%


6. We don't think the Govern-
ment more united, more competent or
better organised than the Opposition
even if it does possess the election
advantage of the State machine and
the political cement of being in office.
7. We are satisfied that only a
successful appeal to race could prevent
office from passing in the next elec-
ton to the present forces of Opposi-
tion. We are also convinced that the
seven years of political upheaval have
sufficiently shattered the old politics
of race as to permit an opening to
any dedicated group ot patriots willing
and able to put the whole country
before any particular section.
8. It is precisely because the old
order of race has broken down that
there exists such a bewildering multi-
tude of political fragments. Our.
people are desperately searching for
new directions, new visions, new hope.
9. In this search, upheaval is
necessary for a new order to emerge.
To make omelette, you must break
the eggs. There exists widespread
distrust of all the institutions and
agencies of State: of the Army, the
University, the Courts, the Police, the
Unions, the Public Service, and part-
icularly the Parliament and the political
10. The other side of this coin is
that new standards are being formed
by the people as we demand reform,


i-novjtion1, reorganlisailin, reconistruc-e
tion or revolution even. There exists
no special cause for concern over
present-day Trinidad and Tobago.
Politically, we are far in advance of the
other CARICOM countries. Here, a
sense of possibility still survives, requir-
'ing only the wit and the will to seize
the chance. The superficial punditry
which sees only a future of doom is
based neither on adequate analysis nor
on hard fact. The loose talk about
fragmentation and disunity is a measure
only of the bankruptcy of discredited
spokesmen from equally discredited
agencies of society and State.
11. We are involved in the birth
pangs of a new nation and race in
Trinidad and Tobago. We must have
-the historical insight and the revolu-
tionary patience to see it through.
12. Our experience in Tapia is
that tnere exists a "ast number of
citizens who love our country enough
to make the effort we now need to
win a stable ordei and to open the
gate to freedom and progress. Partisans
of this position we tind in the tradi-
tional ranks of both Government and
Opposition. We sense an opportunity
now to galvanize them all into action
in order to head off any reversion to
the conventional politics of racial


13. The challenge open to the
forces of Opposition is to take the
lead in establishing the permanent and
professional political organisation
required to service the country when
race is no longer the basis of political
14. The one thing we must now
repudiate comprehensively is the per-
petuation of overnight political mar-
riages of leaders on the eve of another
general election. The record shows
such shotgun alliances to be a recurring
futility and in any case, the most
positive reason advanced for fronts of

ihis kind is that a coalition of different
leaders is the best way of bringing the
races together.
Such personal magic will only paper
over cracks; we have Burnham & Jagan
to confirm this belief.
15. In Tapia we prefer to trust
alliances, of citizens based on the
recognition of the relevance of plans,
the effectiveness of organisation and
the integrity of leadership.
16. If the country divides on
such lines and the result is that Tapia
and its allies remain in the opposition,
the opportunity for honourable and
rewarding service will in no way be
diminished. The desperate charlatanry
and clowning which have been the way
of opposition politics are attributable
to precisely the habit of impermanent
and opportunist organisation.
17. We appeal to the opposition
forces to endeavour to found political
organisation of a kind that could
ennoble and uplift our nation. Such
organisation could be based only on
genuine agreement on fundamentals.
18. In response to initiatives
from others, Tapia is therefore pre-
pared to support a meeting of all
opposition parties to discuss:-
-: electoral reform including the
rules foi the next election;
constitution reform including
the timing;
economic reorganization with
special reference to the role of
the State, the Unions and the
citizens in the control of the
life-line sectors.
19. Tapia is prepared to partici-
pate in such a meeting with an open
mind, free of the prejudices which
have poisoned relations in the past.
We have a numberof concrete pro-
posals which will be revealed at the
appropriate time and place.
Press Conference Statement
rapia P.O.S. Centre
22 Ciprian' Boulevard
Wed 10-9-75.





delayed until June when these
gains appeared to have been
dissioated by time and

1. The Tapia Motion of No-
confidence in the Govern-
ment was introduced into the
Senate by Lloyd Best on
June 3, 1975, the date when
notice was given,
2. The decision to intro-
duce the motion was taken at
a meeting called by Mr. Roy
Richardson, Leader of the
Opposition, on Thursday
March 20 to discuss the ULF
crisis and attended by spokes-
men from Tapia and the DLP.
3. The meeting also charged
Mr. Richardson to visit the
Prime Minister and propose
certain national solutions to
the crisis.
4. It was decided that if,
as anticipated, the Prime
Minister did not respond,
steps would then be taken to
attack the Government's
negligence either by a Motion
+o adjourn the Senate on a
definite matter of ureent
public importance or by a

Maracas Hike

on Sunday 14

THIS Sunday Tapia mem-
bers will hike to Loango
Village in the Maracas-St.
Joseph Valley.
The hike leaves Curepe
junction at 9.30 a.m.will
join the La Seiva Group
at La Seiva and proceed
finally to Loango.
The hike is expected to
end with a full day of
communal activity involv-
ing, oarang, all-fours, river
'bathing, and political
Friends, supporters,
and associates are free to
join. -

Motion of No-Confidence in
the Government, or conceiv-
ably, by both.
5. Mr. Richardson subse-
quently announced to the
press that Lloyd Best would
be moving the Motion to
adjourn the Senate. On April
1, the Upper House duly
heard the definite matter of

Lenny Grant

resident editor of Tapia,
and Keith Smith another
old Tapia hand are now
working on a new format
of Tapia's New World -
our proposals for social
and economic change.
This Manifesto will
spell out Tapia's political

urgent public importance.
6. On Wednesday April 9,
the Prime Minister inter-
vened in the ULF crisis and
appeared to have gained great
political advantage from
restoring supplies of gas and
sugar to the public.
7. The Motion of No
Confidence was therefore




and social philosophy. It
is expected to be cast in
what Keith Smith calls a
"valid Trinidadian langu-
age." Lloyd Best reported
to Sunday's Council
Meeting that the state-
ment would include an
elaboration of the ideol-
ogy behind the Tapia

8. According to the Stand-
ing Orders, the Motion could
have been debated after 12
days had elapsed. The Presi-
dent duly approved it and
circulated it to the House and
the Press. In the first instance,
delay in debating the Motion
was due solely to the time
conceded to the Leader of
Government Business to pre-
pare his briefings.

Keith Smith
measures for the economic
reorganisation of Trinidad
and Tobago.
The Manifesto is being
prepared for the first
Assembly of the National
Convention on September
28, 1975 and is to be
published as the news-
paper for that week.


Annan Singh both came
in for special commenda-
tion from the Com-,
munity Secretary, for the
successful staging of a
local assembly in Santa
Flora over the Indepen-
dence weekend.
Speaking to the Coun-
cil, Beau Tewarie des-

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Tapia, 82,St. Vincent St. Tunapuna,
Trinidad & Tobago, W.I. Telephone 662-5126.

Arnold Hood

cribed the event as one
of crucial importance in
the growth and develop-
ment of Tapia. It showed
that Tapia people in the
Oil Belt.were on the verge
of handling fully on their
own the work of mobilisa-
tion and of political
The meeting in ques-

Annan Singh
tion drew from the
surrounding areas in
Fyzabad, Siparia, La
.Brea, and Point Fortin, a
significant band of Tapia
With that victory for
decentralisation, more
Tapia people could now
devote their energies to
work in other parts of
the country

9. In this interim, the
President of the Lower House
called in the President of the
Senate and advised'him that
such a Motion could not
properly be brought before
the Senate since it could only
end in a-"nullity." The Presi-
dent of the Senate conveyed
this information to Mr. Lloyd
Best who then agreed to
alter the Motion to one of
10. The President of the
Senate approved the new
Motion, circulated it, and
then the Housewaited for the
Leader of Government Busi-
ness to agree to proceed.
11. On September 2, after
much delay, the matter came
to the Order Paper.
TAPIA HOUSE, SEPT. 10, 1975.

1. In my recollection, I have
always responded to the
Leader of the Opposition
whenever he has called for
consultation but since the
ULF crisis ended in May, I
have not seen Mr. Richardson
(except when I give him right
on St. Vincent-St.).
2. As far as we know in
Tapia, there has been no
change in the Senate repre-
sentation and certainly there
has been no quarrel. In fact,
there cannot ever be any
quarrel because Tapia and
the UPP are not engaged in
any political competition.
3. We certainly hope that
Mr. Richardson continuously
reviews the-Senate representa-
tion. In our view, he would
be duty-bound to alter his
choice of Senators if by so
doing it would improve the
government and politics of
our country.
4. Mr. Richardson might
also quite justifiably re-
shuffle his Senate team if he
thought it to the political
profit of his party without
any injury to the country.
5. If there were a conflict
between country and party,
we have no reason to imagine
that the Leader of the Opposi-
tion, however much his
judgment may in the past
have differed from ours,
would fail to meet the most
exacting demands of honour.
Lloyd Best

__ I -1

^J-- --- ----
Pt~iE: -.-~~a=.~,

Assembly Line
Workers in
Coca Cola

IT is very difficult to
establish the degree of
control by foreign capital
over the economy of an
underdeveloped country.
The formulas of participa-
tion are manifold and
some of them are very
skillfully cloaked.
In order to stave off
nationalist, popular reactions,
the governments of dependent
countries generally seek to
cover up the degree of take-
That is especially possible
in countries such as Brazil,
in which the regime totally
controls the communications
media. The people are
informed only of what suits
the interests of the govern-
ment team, the ruling classes
and the global corporations.
SHowever., from time to
time, studies-made by techni-
cal publications linked to
those same foreign interests
disclose at least partially the
extremes attained by the
"de-nationalization" of the
In 1962, the magazine
Conjuntura Economica put
out by the Getulio Vargas
Foundation, a Brazilian gov.
ernment agency, published a
study on the concentration
of economic power in the
country. It listed the 66 com-
panies whose capital topped
the one billion old cruceiro
mark, that is, about 450
thousand US dollars.
Those companies account-
ed for 46.3 percent of the
capital registered for the
6,818 corporations investi-
gated. From the analysis of
the published data, these con-
clusions were reached:
a) state companies
accounted for 55 percent
of the total capital of the
66 firms.
b) in regard to national
capital, the state com-
panies accounted for 81

percent of the total.
c) the 32 foreign com-
panies included among the
biggest in Brazil possessed
a joint capital of 100.8
billion old cruceiros -
45.4 million US dollars -
against 39 billion cruceiros
17.5 million dollars -,
the total capital of the 19
Brazilian private com-
Already at that time the
participation of Brazilian
capitalists in the develop-
mentist process was very
limited at the level of the big
companies. Cornered between
state capitalism and interna-
tional monopoly capital, the
Brazilian private companies
played a secondary role.
In. 1970 Visao magazine
published a Who's Who in the
Brazilian economy. Analyzing
the composition of the capital
of the 679 largest private
concerns in the country, the
publication showed the gains
made by foreign capital in the
big urban companies.

Of the total investigated,
530 were industrial. In them
foreign capital held a 70.2
percent participation. In the
commerce sector 98 big
companies the share of
foreign capital was lower,
though it wielded majority
control with 58.3 percent.
On March 9, 1975, the
pro-government Jomal do
Brasil carried a study by
economist Gilberto Paim,
possibly the broadest analysis
made in the country of the
three sectors of the economy:
the state enterprises, the
Brazilian firms, the trans-
nationals and other foreign
The study considerably
broadens the number of
companies tabulated by

including thousands of
medium-size firms. It has a
clear and stated aim; to show
that the share of international
capital is not so great as is
claimed by local nationalist
Gilberto Paim wages an
intransigent defense of foreign
capital and scores "nationalist
prejudices "The accelerated
development of the econ-
omy," he says, "leads to the
overcoming of preconceptions
against foreign capital,
.opinions that took shape in a
not-too-distant past."
The data studied cover
5,256 companies, all of them
urban, for the year 1973. The
criterion adopted for the
classification state, Brazil-
ian private or foreign was
that of controlling capital.
Thus a company with 49
,percent of foreign capital and
51 percent of Brazilian private
was not considered mixed but
Obviously such a classifica-
tion is arbitrary, unreal and
serves to disguise the true
scope of the share of interna-
tional capital in the Brazilian
In many cases a minority
share of 20 to 30 percent is
more than enough to secure
control over a company,
especially when the majority
of the stock is owned by a
large number of small local
investors and the remainder
is concentrated in the hands
of a single foreign group.
In other cases dependency
can exist because of patents
and licensing, or through
international loans and/or
markets provided by trans-
national corporations.
The ways that international
capitalism controls local com-
panies are numerous. Paim
most certainly is aware of
them down to the details, but
he zealously covers them up
in his study.

Therefore the numbers
lined up in the analysis do
not come any where near to
revealing the degree of "inter-
nationalisation" of the Brazil-
ian economy. However some
data used by the author do
make it possible to come to
conclusions that are quite the
opposite of his own.
On the basis of the
criterion adopted, the final
result of the study is as
follows,'considering the "con-
trolling capital" of the total
of the 5,256 companies
analyzed: 46.1 percent state,
38 percent Brazilian private
and 15.9 percent foreign.
The state continues to
wield majority control in all
the infrastructural sectors:
electrical energy, telecom-
munications, petroleum, deve-
lopment and credit banks,
railroads, steel, mining and
That situation, which
stems from the stateist policy
undertaken by Getulio Vargas
back in 1930, is maintained

in spite of the ongoing offen-
sive waged by the military
governments since 1964 in
favor of private capital.
Brazilian private capital,
virtually dislodged from the
big company level, is located
basically in small and medium
size firms, in sectors which
have yet to awaken the
interest of the foreign cor-
In many cases those
Brazilian companies are
utterly dependent upon
global corporations. A
typical example is provided
by the thousands of small
and medium factories that
turn out parts and accessories
for the big foreign auto
In most cases, such com-
panies are; single-customer
operations and hence are
completely dependent. Con-
sequently it is thoroughly
unrealistic to call that sector
"national capitalist" as if it
were an autonomous, econ-
omically independent class.
In fact it is a subject and
dependent bourgeoisie, one
that has been proletarianizedd"
by foreign monopoly capital,
which allows it to live with a
minimal profit margin so
long as direct occupation of
the sector is not tempting.
Foreign capital is located
in key sectors. Acting in a
dynamic and monopolistic
manner, with a virtually total
freedom of action, the foreign
corporations obtain high rates
of profit and accumulate an
increasingly large chunk of
decision-making power over
the Brazilian economy.
Volkswagen do Brasil, for
instance, has a sales volume
that tops the yearly budgets
of several states in the Brazil-
ian northeast. It is a state
within a state, and clearly,
such vast economic power

Continued on Page 10




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THE BOMB, 1973

". ... our educational political party ..... can keep PNM on
their toes and expose wrong doings .... a well knitted and intelligent
group of men the only party in these parts which has put a lot
into planning and has not been just anrelection wonder ......
as a party, Tapia sounds too good to be true .. a collection of
bright young people who have ability and hope for the future .
they don't have a clue about politics...
By contrast,watch the front rank of any PNM Convention .
and you see reflected there tough, powerful men who exude an air of
cold ruthlessness, men who are looking after their own interests,
ambitious men who want to get ahead .

The radical opposition is now in six or seven bits although the
moral lead is given by the Tapla House Movement.
Waiting in the wings is the extraordinary economist Lloyd Best
who can be found every Saturday morning in Port of Spain on the
street corner selling Tapia. Though still only 36, Best has been one of
the main intellectual influences in the Caribbean for ten years.
He was the founder of the New World Movement whose chapters
up and down the Caribbean, in Canada and the United States, have
been discussing and examining Caribbean society throughout the 60's.
Best is a supreme rationalist: he does not believe you can
change anything by just setting up a political party or electing a new
team to office. Change must be based on analysis, work, education
and organization ...
After living in many places in the Caribbean he has returned to

his home town of Tunapuna to espouse a simple life based on the
resources of the locality, tie has biilt in his backyard a mud hut with
a roof made of thatched palms a Tapia House as it is called and
from that base he is arguing for a complete change in Caribbean
economic and social life to put the rich resources of the area to
work for the benefit of the people.

THE BOMB, June 1'973
Out of the maelstrom of Trinidad politics, out of the morass of
confusion in this country that passes for democratic process, one man
is emerging who shows that he knows what he is doing ...
That man is Lloyd Best ... Best is the exponent of "hard wuk"
and he has not flinched from this... Best has been organising at the
grass roots level hoping to build an organisation that will right all the
mistakes that Dr. Williams made ....
It is going to be difficult for people in this country to accept
Best or what he stands'for We are still far from the stage where
Jesus slippers and dashiki could lead us to great things ...
It will take a long time for the Chamber of Commerce types and
the Jaycee types to see Lloyd Best as the answer to their dreams.

Probably his (Williams') most dangerous opponent the
main spring of Tapia (literally "grass roots").
In someone less intelligent, the confidence with which Best
talks might sound bombastic; as it is, he comes over as a formidable
AFRICASIA, Paris 1970
.... The person most apt to create a new integrated West
Indian State .. Lloyd Best is convinced of the need to forge a single
entity out of the West Indian islands ..... ."

Our Organization

meet to taste

meets monthly
meet as required
meets at least once yearly
meets weekly











What They Saay Aboaut





The Tapia Proposals for Constitution Reform are based on three





We propose the






Voting Age at 18
Ballot Boxes
*Automatic registration of all voters
Independent Boundaries Commission
Radio and TV time for all Opposition parties

Our Education Plan
Tapia begins from a full stock-taking of all our education
resources including those which are out of school. Our education
will involve schooling, training at centres and training at the
work place.
We will start with a Mixed system of Church, State and Private
Schools, some all-age and multilateral, others forming a part of a
two-tier system of Junior and Senior Secondary Schools.
The State Sector will call the tune for the entire system
within a framework of experimentation and adjustment. All new
Schools will be State Schools.
Our main proposals are as follows:-

Pooling of educational facilities (Libraries, Trade Centres, Vocational
Centres, Schools, etc.)

Widespread Apprenticeship

National Service in aid of Youth Education

An Experimental Plan involving immediate transformation of
selected prestige schools into multilateral schools

A three-sided curriculum of Craft, Academic and Social Studies

A National System 'of Certification at ages 14 plus, 15 plus and
16 plus

School Boards for all Schools

An Education Levy to replace the Unemployment Levy

- Community Homework Centres

- To recognize and build on the potential and beauty of our own environment
- To rationalize land use so as to feed, clothe and shelter our population out of
the resources of our own land, as far as is reasonable.
- By radical reform in the traditional patterns of land use and land tenure.
- By comprehensive regional planning of natural entities like the Caroni River
Basin and the Chaguaramas Peninsula
- By shifting population emphasis away from, the western end of the East/
West Corridor:
Establish an entirely new living complex-on the sands of Waller
Field and possibly another in the Couva/Chaguanas region.
Induce business, industry and agriculture to recognize that only
an import/export colony need cling to the continental shelf.
Decentralization of government, education and health services.
- By a programme of building at least 150,000 three-bedroom housing units
over a 10 to 15 year period, to:
Stabilize our population in the areas of their commitment,
particularly Tobago
Generate full employment
Anchor life in the communities as the basis for a participatory
Make systematic planning possible in the construction and
furnishing industries
Build communities within which new habits-of life could

- By a thorough' renovation of depressed areas beginning with Laventille and
- By speedy implementation of Scarborough and San Fernando Rc-Dvcelopment

tal Planning

*Clearly marked lay-bys tor taxis
Incentives to taxis and mini-bus operators
Disincentives to private car owners
Road safety education
- By long-termn measures
Decentralization of government and business (See proposals for
Strong Local (JGoiern'tilet)
Re-organization of the public transport system
Rationalization of tie motor-car industry and spare parts
Coinm niuty control of road maintenance. through Municipal


By rational allocation of activity between hill and valley,
swamp and plain
By regarding the Caroni River Basin, both valleys and foot-
hills as a region to be irrigated, farmed, and organised for
industry and agriculture
By dispersing all over the country facilities for back-yaid
industry, intensive small-plot food gardening and guest-
house tourism.
S By ensuring that every natural community be equipped
with those amenities, which uplift the spirit and ennoble
the culture.: savannahs, parks, playing fields, theatres,
gymnasiums, libraries, sanctuaries, museums, archives and
monuments appropriate to the particular scale.
S By making our people aware of the need to cherish and
care our patrimony with love.

Ends &Means

Tapia's aim (i to establish for the Caribbean and the West
Indian people, beginning in Trinidad and Tobago, a democratic,
humane and participatory Republic composed of two island
Our hope is that we will eliminate the patterns of domina-
tion and dependence which are the distinguishing features of the
civilization of the West Indies' last 500 years.
Our goal is to eradicate racial discrimination and racial
prejudice, to repudiate social class and social snobbery, and to
reject religious bigotry and religious intolerance.

-o- -o-

To, create a new Caribbean man by inspiring all segments of our
population to overcome their common history of rootlessness and
dispossession and build together a new Caribbean society-

To create a West Indian State by uniting all the English-speaking
countries of the Caribbean into a single participatory democracy,
collaborating closely with the French, Spanish and Dutch peoples
who share a similar heritage.
-o- -o-

UNCONVENTIONAL POLITICS: the intentions of the new humanity
cannot be achieved by the methods, devices and conventions of the old Colonial

CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM: aimed at building the authority of the
central government on the firm foundations of strong community involvement
(See our booklet "Power to the People")

NATIONAL RECONSTRUCTION: the reorganisation of the economy and
the society so as to create material and spiritual conditions in which a just
social order can flourish in freedom.


Tapia Constitution
Who Owns Trinidad and Tobago?
Our Nation at the Crossroads
What the World Thinks about Tapia.

* Tapia's New World
* Power to the People
* Proposals from Fyzabad
* Doctor Politics


Illegitimate Parliament or Conference of Citizens

Constitution Reform: We already know the Score

The Happy Budget: The Second Coming

Black Power and National Reconstruction
Freedom and Responsibility ............
Gov't and Politics in the West Indies...
The Political Alternative .......
Prospects for Our Nation ..............
Whose Republic ? .......
The Afro American Condition .....
Honourable Senators ............
Letter to C. L. R. James 1964 .
Democracy or Oligarchy .. .......
Participatory Democracy ...............
The Machinery of Government ..........
Black Power in Human Song ............
We are in a State ... ...
A Clear Danger ....................
Your Turn to Choose (out of print) ... ....

Lloyd Best

. C. V. Gocking

S. Denis Solomon
...Syl Lowhar
. Ivan Laughlin
S. Michael Harris
.... RaffiqueShah


The Failure of the 1950's Movement ............ .. Krishna Ramrekersingh
The High Season of Crisis 1975 .......................... Lloyd Best
Benevolent Doctatorship ............................... Allan Harris

To Join Tapia you pay one dollar. After that monthly dues of one
dollar are payable to the Treasurer of your local Group. Tapia has
been building for seven years now. Join us and help create a better
Trinidad & Tobagq.
Our Headquarters are at The Tapia House, 84, St. Vincent St.
Tunapuna. From October 14, 1975, our Campaign Headquarters will
be situated at 22, Cipriani Boulevard, our Port-of-Spain Centre.


I& M. Am N. O



'75 '76

This Convention is to span several Assemblies.
The first takes place at 10.00 a.m., on Sunday, September
28, 1975 at S.W.W.T. U. Hall, Wrightson Road, Port of Spain.
All Tapia people are invited cadres, members, associates -
and supporters.

The work of this Convention
Election Campaign.

The Convention will

is to prepare Tapia for the coming

continue on Assembly dates to be


New World

National Control of Oil, Sugar, Cement, Banks

Community participation by Union, Local Authorities, etc.

To feed, clothe and shelter our people from our own land

To free the enterprise and initiative of the man in the street

To close the gap between the haves and the have-nots

To equip people to make their own way


To win our identity back from a past of disadvantage

To make the public service responsive to the needs of the people

To create a public platform to.sustain genuine equality

To make dignified citizenship possible for all

Tapia founded
Tapia Newspaper appears
First Tapia public meeting (Auzonville Park)
Tapia calls for Constituent Assembly
Tapia joins Opposition Forum to promote Constitution Reform
before elections
Mayaro Seminar First National Assembly
Tapia Constitution Adopted
Tapia joins Assembly of Citizens to fight repressive legislation
Tapia joins Wooding Commission Exercise at Arima
Tapia acquires own Printing Press
Tapia Paper goes Weekly
Tapia enters Senate
Tapia P.O.S. Centre Acquired
Tapia National. Convention begins

Nov. 14, 1968
Sept. 28, 1969
March 19. 1970
Jan 1, 1971
March 28, 1971
April 1971
Nov 4, 1971
July 1972
Sept 17, 1972
Nov. 5, 1972
Oct 15, 1974
Aug 1, 1975
Sept 28, 1975






WORKER (Three men come on stage, one
with a large paint brush, one a
Oh God, meh back! If is one thing that kills-me out, is bending can of paint. The third is the
down. foreman who is dressed in an
Tonite in bed ah sure dis back of mine going to kill me. extravagant "official" uniform.
The other two men are dressed
FOREMAN as workmen. Worker sets the pan
down, takes out a tape measure
You must start some yoga exercises, man. They say is good and starts to mark out a line
for the back you know, and the kidneys, and for people who stop down the centre of the stage.
up, it really a good remedy too. Leh me show you an example. After a minute or so of drawing
First of all, yuh lies-on the ground like this. Then yuh start he straightens up)
raising you feet in the air, easy and natural, like this.
(Presses his hands on the floor and desperately tries to kick
his feet into the air with grunts and groans and finally flops
back down blowing hard. He sits up and looks towards the
I don't know if is old age or what but the muscles don't seem
to-co-ordinate so good again. Anyway, the first important thing is
to have the right idea.
(He stands up and takes up the paint brush)
And if you know what I like about this yoga business you
could do this thing whatever your creed or race and you have an
equal chance just like in the National Lottery. You could be a
Hindu mayor, a Moslem minister, a black christian labour leader or
curse the thought, a Marxist labour leader but when you lie down
on that floor, the prana will flow for everyman. It just as good for
the beggar in the square as for the manager of a multi national
subsidiary. Both of them have a blanket of some kind to lie on
-even if each have a different smell, and it easier for one of them to
take up he bed and walk than for the other. And as we all know, it
have a thing in the midst of life which does fix up that difference.
You know what I talking about? Nothing else but death. For years
now herein this country as far back as you could look, death
bringing the equality we need between black.and white, between
Indian and Negro, between the respectable and the George Street
whore, between the policeman fixing them up with law and order
and them criminals who only understand blows and jail. You see I
reely here to draw a line, because there is a point beyond which
people must not go if law and order and the rights of respectable
citizens the people who have done well by hard wuk and their
fathers' hard wuk and business sense, the people who know how to
use opportunity, the backbone of this country, who making the
profits and want to produce disciplined enterprise. We are not
going to standby and let any mob break that up. Make no mistake
eh, the representatives -of the people in a free democracy are here to
keep them in check. We must draw the line.
What I saying? Draw the line.
(Worker starts to dip paint brush into pan held by other man and traces
a line. He soon straightens up)

Oh God, this back! I really should have a stool to sit on, you
know. Look at me here doing the Government wuk and I can't even
get a wood stool. Imean to say I don't really want to complain, but
something must be done.
Don't blame me. If I write the permanent Under Assistant to
the Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Security and National
Coverup, I mean Uindercover...to say that I want a stool so as to
have a needed facility in regards to the matter of drawing a line -
You know what have to happen?-I prepare a memo and send it to
the Parliamentery Secretary, then if he approve,he pass it on tow the
Minister attached to the Minister, who don't have I only saying
'this to you in confidence any real power at all. So he have to
pretend SO he send it to the Ministry of Works to get an estimate
of expenditure you know what- I mean cost of materials and
labour and so on. They know send it back in six-plicate, and then,
a request will go in triplicate to the Ministry of Finance. But the
P.M. withdrew the enthusiasm of his speech from the P.S. in
Finance so many an A.M. pass before the memo was attended. In
case they give the P.S. an office out of the Ministry and guess what
happen? He in this empty office and no files ain't going in to this
fellah and no files ain't coming out from that office. One from
ought leaves ought. But finally, the Ministry of Finance say is
alright and funds could be provided and everything is just lovely,
except that the thing now have to go to Cabinet for approval. You
see, the Prime Minister don't really trust all them fellahs. So, if
even a man want a stool, it have to go to us Cabinet. In fact is a
lucky thing that instead of wanting a stool, he didn't want to have
he stool checked because that would be a smell to high heaven, but
the real point is that the amount ofbobool and chikanery was smell-
ing to high heaven because Ministers were stocking up for the Other

people simpler here just buy a car to suit.'

World, the world they would go to if they ever lost the elections or
they get the P.M.blasted vex. Now one these.......days Cabinet going
to approve that stool Never you mind that costs would have risen
600% but that is life. In the meantime, I think Ibetter try to draw a
little more of this line.,
(He looks at his watch)
Butwait a minute, is lunch time. Well-you know what they say
about all work and no play. Boy, that sound like a good rhyme to
me. People used to think that only Trinidadians could compose
calypso and ting, but you have Grenadian calypsonian. So who is me,
I ain't folks too?
(Men sit and take out lunch -hops, mauby, maybe somerumin
flask. Foreman takes out bread and takes abig bite attempts
to hum a tune while chewing. He swallows and .sings).
My name is Lord Haw Haw and drawing the line have to be
my score, Neer doubt it
(Takes another bite, uncorks a bottle and drinks)
You know that line could take a long time to draw. You know
if this place was like Tr'nidad where you have pitch lake and asphalt
all over the place it would be a different thing. Butwvhat you going
to do in a place like this, you get orders to draw a line and when
you looking to draw that line, you come up on a pothole that
deep enough to lose a car in. In Trinidad now, a truck drive up with
some pebbles...Six fellahs jump off the truck, throw the pebbles in
the hole, break a branch off the nearest tree, sprinkle some hot tar
on the stones and matters ship shape til the next rain fall. Over
there if people tired of potholes, it simple. You appoint a Com-
mission of Inquiry which could sit for months upon months taking
evidence, this one hiring lawyers, this other one saying it ain't
really his fault and you can read the whole thing in the newspapers.
That is a complex society People simpler here. If a Minister know
that he go drive through potholes to get to his office, he just buy a
car to suit. In fact, the new plan our Ministers have is to travel by
helicopter. But I always say that you have to Draw the Line some-
(All the while eating and drinking)
I meai is one thing to have the people carrying you on dey
shoulders but is another thing to fly above their hands like that,
even if you believe yourself to be head and shoulders above them
Well, leh we get on with the job, eh.
(WORKER picks up the paint brush, bends as if to continue
painting then straightens up again and wipes his brow).
That is really a hot sun up there you know. Now it have a lot
of people feel that because we born in the tropics we could take on
this sun just so, but 1 think people should stop working about ten
o'clock and start back at 4 o'clock. Anyhow, while we resting from
the sun show we again what in the box there nah man. The reserve
for when I draw this line here.

(pulls out a baton, a riot squad lhenlet, an SLR. teat gas bombs
and shows them off with a big smile)
You see is not only a question of drawing the line the other
point is what you are going to do when people try to cross that
line. Well you have no choice in the interests of law and order, you
must use the force necessary. Buss they head, send dlem to the
hospital, throw them in the cells. Since Crown Colony days we
learn that. That is how you make the thick skull people vou have to
deal with .Inderstaind that they cannot pull down the civilization
thal the English people build in this place- Parliam'entery institu-
tions -- die rule of law the right of private enterprise, local and
foreign, to a make, e he pioits. because where we go be without our
foreign investors'?


Letter To The Editor





I MAKE reference to a
notice appearing in Wed-
nesday newspapers August
27th under the heading
'Trade Ordinance 1958
Regulations. This appear-
ed as a Governmnent
notice to the effect that
there was a decrease in
the price of certain brands
of milk. The Gov't of
course, stupid as it is,
must be patting itself on
the back for an early
piece of electioneering.
Instead of doing this, it
should be tried for treason
because it defies one of the
most scared duties of any
Gov't i.e. to properly feed its
But what happens?
The Gov't because of its
corrupt nature allows a few
local financial vultures to
continue to hold this country
to ransom by their regular
hoarding. The result is well-
known. The prices go up. So,
Mahabir is fooling no one.
Why? Because very soon, the
food importers the local
capitalists these human
jackals will hoard their milk
The prices will go tip
again. So, a drop in price

Milex. Add to this list Dancow,
Lita, Frico. So, we import at
least eight brands of milk.
Why? These milk come in
three types Full Cream
Powdered or Quarter Cream,
Skim, At present only Milex
is available in Quarter Cream
preparation. The rest are all
Full Cream Powdered except
Anchor which is Skim.
Let us examine now the
so-called chemical analvsis'-
According Skim Milk is the
best. But, because of its flat
taste it may not be too
popular. So, it can be clearly
seen then that from a nutriti-
ous point of view Milex
Quarter Cream is then the
most useful. It contains the
next highest amount of pro-
tein and very little fat.
According to the Gov't
notice this will be the cheapest
milk. So, people should really
buy Milex Quarter Cream.
When you buy full-cream you
are buying fat. Does t the
Gov't say this? Does the
Ministry of Health say this?
None of these brands give
anything except pressure on
the pockets. Klim, Cremora,
Dancow, Fernleaf. Frico. Lita
- same fat same exorbitant
It is nonsensicAl and econ-
omic stupidity to be import-
ing all these non-nutrious
brands of milk. This farcical
situation will continue unless
and until such times as these
three minimum conditions are
(1) Complete overthrow of
this Capitalist System.
(2) Setting up of a National
Food Agency which will
run in the interest of the
broad Masses.
(3) A rational diet i.e. a
minimum diet of nutrition
available to everyone of

Anchor (Skim) 38% 1%
Frico Full Cream Milk Powder 27% 26%
Others "
Milex Quarter Cream 35% 8%
here is only an election gim- which the most nutritious
mick that will be exposed by milk be included in every
the reality of further increases breakfast.
on these same products If the Gov't is serious it
coming around Christmas can begin by banning all
time. these unnecessary and non-
I turn now to another nutritious brands of milk
aspect of this Gov't notice. and restricting importation
On this notice was the name to the cheapest. Milex
of five brands of milk Klim, Quarter Cream.
Cremora, Fernleaf, Anchor, Anum Bankole.

Foreign Purchase From Page 4

is translated into political
The role of ITT in the
overthrow 9f the Popular
Unity government in Chile
provides a classic example of
the performance of the trans-
national corporations in the
dependent countries.
The Jmral do Brasil study
provides some indices on the,
takeover of key sectors of
the economy.
In the auto industry (900
thousand vehicles in 1974)
the foreign share is one
hundred percent. In the
tobacco industry one of
the biggest in the country -
the Brazilian share is tiny,
(99.5 percent foreign)."
In machinery, foreign
capital is present to the tune
Sof 87 percent;in pharmaceuti-
cals 80.8; glass 75.2; tractors
and road building equipment
72 percent.
In electrical material, the
foreign share is 71 percent;

rubber 64; electrical appliances
59.5; chemicals and petro-
chemicals 50.4 percent.
SEven in traditional indus-
tries relying on modern
technology, the presence of
foreign capital is a dominant
one: 57.22 percent.
The foreign takeover of
the Brazilian economy, more-
over, is being attained with a
minimum of direct invest-
ments from abroad.
Gilberto Palm unwittingly
provides precise information
on this aspect: "The total
investment made in the
country amounts to 23 per-
cent of the gross national
product. Consequently the
investments for the present
year will come to 18 billion
US dollars. The influx of
foreign capital is expected to
be about one billion dollars.
Perhaps never before in
the history of capitalism has
so much been bought for so
little. (Prensa Latina).

THE Laventille Educa-
tion Service (LES) is an
Association of young
people and adults whose
plan is to promote self-
help in education in
Success Village.
The Association has
been formed after four
(4) weeks of discussion
following a proposal for,
a Laventille Homework
Centre made on July 22
at a meeting hosted, by
Fr. Woods at the Success
R.C. School.
At that meeting a Steering
Committee was set up com-
prising Charles Maynard,
Cecil Vesprey, Hamlet Joseph,
Carl Roberts, Mrs. Julie
Barrington and Father Woods.
During the month of
August the Committee
carried out a detailed exami-
nation of the proposal for a
Homework Centre and
decided to embark on a more
ambitious programme of
education services including:
Classes for students-from
Common Entrance to 'O'
Level in pursuit of the
work originally started by

Adult Education Classes
involving a certain amount
of apprenticeship in
Laventille-based business

General community edu-
cation centered around
investigations into local
social problems

Y-~ ,.-. -4-

The Association aims to
find appropriate accommoda-
tion for those students who
for one reason or another, are
not able to conduct their
studies at home.
The Laventille Education
Service will be based at two
centres: at the Success R.C.
School on Church Street and
at Rigault Street, Laventille.
All the services are to be
provided on a strictly volun-
tary basis. They will utilise a
combination of lecturing,
personal tutoring and general
supervision of study.
An appeal is being made to
willing and able people to
pitch in and lend a construc-
tive hand. Residents of
Laventille are particularly
urged to come forward and
assist in the preparation of
curricula, in the administra-
tion, the teaching and the
supervision of the centres.
Letters carrying the appeal
are being prepared at the
moment and they will also
be sent to the Principals and
Staff of various schools and
colleges as well as to the
Students' Guild of the UWI.
The LES expects that the
emphasis on academic studies
will shift towards technical
and vocational studies as
appropriate plant and equip-
ment are acquired. Sympa-
thisers with skills in these
fields are therefore en-
couraged. to come forward
even from the start.
Meanwhile, the highest

priority is being accorded to
the programme of apprentic-
ing Laventille youths to
business in the area.
For further information contact.
Neville Maynard, I. Rigault St.
Mrs. Julie Barrington, 62-36743.
Fr. Woods, 62-37939.
Lloyd Taylor, 6384644.

Charles Neville Maynard

Laid low's

Eastern Main Rd., Laventille
( New to Totmanw stet)

Galvanise, Cement,

Blocks, Tiles,
etc, etc.


We go to any

length to do

our job!

We installed suspended ceilings on two of AMOCO'S
offshore production platforms over twenty miles out at sea some
time ago It was a new experience for us. but it was all part'of
our job The Indusrial and Building Products Division of
L. J Williams Limited.
SApart from installing suspended ceilings, we also construct
shop fronts and partitions for business places, install NACO
Louvre Windows and custom built Roller Shutters, and apply the
.', -- .r ultra modern 'Flecto finish' to.walls and floors
Alsdg"e sup y Kwikset locks.-Gibbons Ironmongery.
S~e'--vuworld -famous Evo-Stik 528 aLd.hesive and Resin-W-woodwork...
Y.eAj'e-.l"6lboard. larminated plastic sheeting and Ibi Ace
S.lvwop, aridho~oe .e : ". '
serwc'~a v aservicyo could pe. give us apll at62- 32~866.
a- o In go oani ength elp you. ..,

-. .' .
1.6" ..'


L'tille Ed. Services Moving

I 1

""" '~-


Constitution Reform

Call For A



TAPIA -has opposed the
major provisions of the Draft
Constitution now being re-
viewed by a Joint Select
Committee of Parliament, as
these relate to the composi-
tion of Parliament, the
powers of the Prime Minister
and fundamental human rights
and freedoms.
In our written submission
to the Joint Select Committee,
which takes the form of the
point by point critique pub-
lished below, Tapia has sum-
inarized most ofits differences
with the Draft, which in all
essentials differs very little
from the 1962 Marlborough
House Constitution.
The Draft Constitution, if
enacted, would perpetu-
ate the present over-cen-
tralized system of Govern-
ment, and would retain in

the hands of the Prime
Minister his tremendous
power over Parliament and
over appointments to offices
of a national character and
to senior positions in the
civil service. Such powers
would be amplified, in fact,
by the provisions for the
declaration of assets by
Parliamentarians and senior
public officers.
In the absence of any fun-
damental changes in the
character of the Senate,
Executive power will con-
tinue to go unchecked within
Parliament. Nor do the provi-
sions of dhe sections on Rights
adequately guarantee the
citizen against tlie encroach-
ments of the State on his
personal freedoms, even when
account is taken of the limited
nature of such "constitu-

Chapter I The Declaration of Rights

S. 17 We do not agree with this provision which
authorises the suspension of all Fundamental
Rights and Freedoms during a' period of
public emergency. We believe that it should
be quite adequate to limit the application
of this section to S. 3 (Protection of right
to personal liberty).

S. 19 We do not agree with this provision which
appears to render all existing laws inviolate.
Existing laws must be subject to review
under the terms of the new Constitution, at
least in so far as these relate to Fundamental
Rights and Freedoms.

S. 21 We believe that this section should specific-
ally affirm the right of the citizen to submit
for Judicial review any existing or future
law which he believes abridges or infringes
the protective provisions of this Chapter, and
that this right may be exercised even before
any case arises under any such law.

S. 22 We believe that the provisions here should
unambiguously make provision, as they do
not in the Draft, for Judicial review of
legislation passed under those subsections
which provide for the deorgation from
Fundamental Rights and Freedoms gua-
ranteed by this Chapter.
We are not satisfied that adequate
safeguards have been made 'in relation to
such future laws, by providing 2) that they
require a special majority to be passed in
Parliament, and 2) that even whpre they are
valid, actions taken under them shall be
shovn to be not only reasonably required
for the purposes specified and to be reason-
ably justified in a society that has a proper
respect for the rights and freedoms of the
individual, but also that the manner of such
actions shall not be oppressive.

Chapter II Citizenship

We are proposing that this Chapter should
provide for Dual Citizenship. Failing that, provision
must be made foi automatic resumption of citizen-
ship by former citizens upon renunciation of their
foreign citizenship. We are proposing that provision
should be made for citizens of either sex to confer
Citizenship upon their spouses.

Chapter III The President
We believe that the President should be

tional" guarantees.
As opposed to the neces-
sary major reforms of the
structure of the Constitution,
the provisions for an Ombuds-
man and for an Integrity
Commission are merely cos-
metic changes.
The real task is to fashion
a set of constitutional
arrangements which foster the
widespread participation of
citizens in the tasks of gov-
ernment and which ensure
representation of as varied a
range of community opinion
as possible. This the Draft
Constitution fails to do.
Tapia therefore repudiates it
and proposes to publish as an
alternative a Draft Constitu-
tion which will embody the
vision of a democratic and
participatory republic.

chse byteSnt, scnttte ln ie

chosen by the Senate, as constituted along lines
proposed hereunder.

Chapter IV Parliament

S. 56 (1,2) We do not agree with the proposed
size of the Senate nor with the method of
appointment of Senators. We envisage a
Senate of considerably more than 30
members, selected by a wide variety of com-
munity interests.

S. 59 (1) We do not agree that the life of th'e
Senate should be tied to that of the House
of Representatives. The length of tenure of
individual Senators must be a matter for the
community interests which select and pay
them, subject to.a mandatory recall of all
Senators every four or six years.
(2) (e) Revocation of the appointment of
Senators must be a matter for the sponsoring
community interests.

S. 60 (1,2,3) These provisions do not apply to a
Senate selected in lthe manner we are

S. 61 (1) We propose that the presiding
officer in the Senate should be drawn from
that Chamber.
(3,4) These provisions are not applicable
under the system we propose.

S. 64 (1-7) We propose that a 3/4 majority of
the House of Representatives should be
required to alter any of the provisions of
sections 1-23 inclusive, in addition to the
special majority required in the Senate.

S. 71 (1+2) We do not agree that members of
one House should speak during sittings of
the other. We propose that there should be a
National Panchayat, joint sittings of both
Houses to be held whenever Bills first come
up for debate and at the request of either

S.73,-74 The Senate that we are proposing
will be entitled to vote on Bills only when
they are debated at joint sittings of both
Houses, such vote of the Senate to be a man-
datory limitation of the Government only
where the Bill concerned attempts to alter
any of the provisions of the Constitution.

S. 76 78 The life of the Senate we propose
would in no way be dependent on the say of
elected Icadeis in the House of Representa-

S. 79 81 The Boundaries Commission should
be appointed and ..,4irT.II., by the Senate,
constituted in the ,i ri,,.j described above.

S. 82 The .Elections Commission should be
appointed and controlled by the Senate,
constituted in the manner described above.

S. 83 We propose that no provisions in the Con-
stitution be made for this matter, which
should be for the determination of Parlia-

Chapter V Executive Powers

S. 89 (2) Senators should be ineligible for
appointment as Ministers.

S.93 (1) Senators should be ineligible for
appointment as Parliamentary Secretaries.

S.94 (2) The Leader of the Opposition
should be the member who is best able to
command the support of the largest number
of those members in the House of Repre-
sentatives who do not support the Govern-
Chapter VI Ombudsman

No special provision in the Constitution
should be made for the creation of such an office,
which should be a matter for the determination of

Chapter VII The Judicature
S. 112 (4-7) No provision should be made for
reference to the Judicial Committee of Her
Majesty's Privy Council of the question of
the removal of a Puisne Judge from office.

S. 116 (4-7) We hold the same view in this case
as with that of the removal of Puisne Judges.

S. 118 There should'be no provision for appeals to
the Judicial Committee.

S. 119 The members of the Judicial and Legal
Service Commission should be appointed by
the Prime Minister subject to the consent of
the National Panchayat. This procedure
should be adopted also in the case of the
Chief Justice (ref. S. 115(1).

S. 120 (3) (b) The Prime Minister should have no
veto over appointments by the Judicial and
Legal Service Commission to the office of
Registrar-General or Crown Solicitor. The
power of appointment to the offices of
Solicitor-General and Chief Legal Draftsman
should be transferred to the Public Service

Chapter IX The Public Service

S. 128 The Public Service Commission should be
appointed by the Prime Minister subject to
the consent of the National Panchayat.

S. 132, 133 The Auditor-General should be
appointed and controlled by the Senate,
constituted in the manner described above.

S. 134 We propose the same provisions here as for
the appointment of the Public Service

S. 136 We propose the same provisions here as for
the appointment of the Public Service Com-

Chapter X

Declaration of Assets

We are not satisfied that the provisions for
the'appointment of an Integrity Commission and for
for the compulsory declaration of assets by members
of Parliament and specified office holders will ensure
morality in public affairs. We believe that much more
far-reaching effects would be achieved through provi-
sions whereby the Senate, constituted along the lines
we lhve described above, is empowered to establish
Committees of Investigation or to appoint Cominis-
sions of Enquiry into questions of official probity.
More than this, we look to the whole scheme of con-
stitutional changes we are proposing to bring about
die growth of political organisation and the trans-
formation of political lile so as to create those
popular and inl'ormal sanctions which are the real
means of ensuring integrity in public life.

Andre~a Talbutt,
Research Institut for
Study f Yon, 0i't
162 East 76th
ew 8448-



Lloyd Taylor

ENDLESS numbers of
people are knocking from
pillar to post in search of
proper housing. But they
are forever getting wood,
these unwilling victims of
a callous denial of our
constitutional right to
shelter. Is licks, back,
belly front and side.
If we did not know
before, we know now.
After that meeting at the
Ministry of Planning last
The three dozen hope-
ful citizens who turned
up to ialk with Brensley
Barrow now accept pres-
sure as an everlasting
fact of life under PNM
Ours was uncertainty
unlimited as we waited
patiently on the exalted
Minister of State. The
only light on our faces
was the dim half-light of
those backyard corridorg-
up in Trinidad House.
"Is rte next, Mr.
Barrow, Sir?"
The attendant who
ushered us in behind two
partitions' was not just
another orderly. He. was
a policeman on point-
duty, controlling the
traffic through the door.
With the kind of frus-
trations that were build-
ing up,it was a wise
move by the authorities
to introduce the protec-1
tive services. At any
moment, an explosion
could have gone off.
The people have some
chilling stories to tell.

'I -.1 I1L



One woman from 35
Jasper Avenue, Diamond
Vale came to get redress
for damages to her home
caused by a freak storm
on May 17, 1975.
"Since then," she said,
"I've been walking from
Mortgage to Finance to
National Housing Author-
ity.",Her name is Mrs.
"I am frustrated now.
I under mental strain ... I
.come now to Barrow as
my last resort. People at
NHA hiding everytime I
Another victim is
Kelvin Gourmandy, -a
young man who has four
children. He has been
applying to N.H.A. since.


the time he got married
11 years ago.
Is always the same sad
story officials geeing he."
But in the meantime: "I
moving from one district
to the next. My total life
in a mess."

"You Sir?"
"A.G.B. formerly of
Lootoo Trace El Socorro,
but presently at Evelyn
Trace. Same District."
He has been applying
for house since 1960
when the Morvant self-
help scheme came on
stream. He applied again
in 1970.
Now his application
cannot be found. Two
weeks ago the owner sold
the property in which he
now lives without notice.
In fourteen days time
A.G.B. must clear out.
"You see I looking for a
place to go."

"Psst, psst," he warns
me, "Don't mention my
name. It go look bad."
"George Errol Charles,",
replied a man who hails
from Belmont.But he
added, "My story will
take two years to tell."
He could hardly have
been more eloquent.
Another madame there
came from John John.
She is seeking a reduc-
tion of rent. The children
father finding it hard to
pay the $56.00 per
month rent for the
decanting centre and
mind nine of them at the
same time. She too wants
her name withheld.
But what did Mr.
Barrow have to say? I did
not have to ask them. I
heard for myself. Toge-
ther with Hamlet Joseph,
Tapiaman from Laventille
we made. representations
for nine families, all of
Success Village.

All nine come fromn
the same house where a
large chunk just fall off
from the upper staircase.
Some were lucky to
escape with only .minor
injuries to their feet. '
That dwelling is 25
years old. The owner like
he don't intend to fix it.
So that is how come
Errol, Pam and the others
have to find place to go.
Barrow: "Yes Hamlet,
I received your letter
only last week. You know
the problem with hous-
ing, hundreds of people
want. But most of the
houses built are already
earmarked. There are just
not any houses."
"I have sent your letter
over to you know
who Ivan Williams of
National Housing
Authority. Until I get a
reply from him I would
have nothing for you."



/S Ste hens

Pam and children near falling house



I EMPLOYERS You must h11;:1
v(n ir Clilo) yees' N.I. c Ir'ls for sl.mlping.
('oillccl Icll n l i outerr Loc;ll N.I.

O i'InC S I'N- ollI %%:lil tor doi]']i -ric,

For further information
See your district NIB office



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