Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00178
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: September 7, 1975
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00178

Full Text

Vol. 5 No. 36


^ /

Santa Flora Rap
ON Saturday August 30th, the
Santa Flora Tapia Group, hosted
what came to be known as the
'Santa Flora Rap' at Hilltop
House. It was a full day of
activities which brought most of
the South Cadre's together. The
men chiefly responsible for
bringing off this highly successful-
occasion are Annan Singh and
Michael Billy Montague.
The Santa Flora Rap was a
political occasion there- were
6 full addresses and a lengthy dis-
cussion session but more than
that, it was a day of social inter-
course, friendship and camaraderie
for all the Tapia people who
came out to thismini-Assembly.
Several members -of the
National Executive were on hand
to share the occasion with the
hardworking cadres in the South.

Vessigny Group
THE formal launching of the
Tapia Group in Vessigny took
place on Thursday August.2Sth
192-5 -Present at the launching
"were- Michael Billy Montague,
Annan Singh' and Arnold Hood-
from the south as well as Mickey
Matthews, Beau, Tewarie and
Lloyd. Best of the National
After a number of speeches
and a marathon discussion ses-
sion, an interim planning com-
mittee of three Stephen
Douglas, Wilkie Marshall and
Hollis Alexander was set up
until a date could be fixed for

Mar acas Hike
THE Maracas Valley Hike and
Picnic has been postponed from
Sunday September 7 to Septem-
ber 14 instead. At a meeting last
Wednesday night, a Joint Select
Committee of Tapia Groups from
up and down the vale decided on
the change to accommodate the
parang side.
All other plans remain as is.
That includes, the hike, the big-
cook, ilie wearing of jerseys, the
political rapping, the all-fours and
the all-day. Tapia people from
all over are invited to come by.
PO.S. Gayap
DOWN at our Port-of-Spain
Centre, a big renovation job is
taking place. On Saturday Sept-
ember 6, Ivan Laughlin will be
leading a self-help Gayap to
advance the work in one big
We hope that Tapia people
with building skills will come
along to throw in a hand. We
need electricians, carpenters,
masons, decorators, painters, and
cooks. Call the office at 662-
5126 or Ivan at 662-5729.

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Seoe Inside Me g 2.

Council Meeting

THE September Council meeting
will come off at the Tapia House
in Tunapuna on September 7 as
originally planned. The National
Executive will meet on Tuesday
September 2, right after the
Senate Debate of the Tapia
Moticn of no-'onfidence.
The bigjob at both meetings
will be the finalisation of plans
for the first Assembly of our
National Convention which
comes off at the SWWTU Hall,
Port-of-Spain on September 28.
Members of the Council and the

Executive are reminded that firm
phans are to be drawn up for
transport to the Assembly.

1. Minutes of Previous Meeting

2. Reports from Executive
A) Business Reports:
1) Administrative Sec.
2) Business Manager
3) Acting Treasurer

B) Political Reports
1) Editors Report
2) Campaign Manager
3) Community Sec.
4) Community Representatives
5) Secretary's Report

1. Seminar discussion
Executive Responsibilities.

30 Centr

_ _._ _


0 A,



. ..x ro l

Dear Mr. Best,
I am writing to you in an
attempt to clarify a problem
which confronts me in my
relationship with the move-
ment. I came one Sunday
ago to attend a meeting of
Tapia onlyto be told that it
was an executive meeting.
My intention really was
to see for myself how Tapia
policy is formulated to see
the decision making process
at work. I do not know
whether Tapia is a one man
Let's give Jack its jacket.
You are Mr. Best the leading
theoretican of the movement
and perhaps the finest intel-
lectual the Third world has


I realise that Tapia is not a
one man show from an
ideational perspective. But I
wanted to see for myself.
Somehow Tapia is already
divided into a core of higher
echelon and lower echelon
members; divided between a
core of hard and soft. Is it
expected that the soft core
tow the line in Tapia internal
I also want to express a
skepticism about the function
of mere personal commitment
as a vehicle of social mobilisa-
tion. Personal commitment
mobilises the intellectual
because he is attracted by
ideology, by the philosophy


of the movement or party.
Is personal commitment
the technique of mobilising
the masses the rural agricul-
tural proletariat, the working
class, the unemployed? Ideas
do move people; i have no
dispute with that but they
move the intellectual not the
What stake does the Indian
agricultural proletariat and
the working class have in
From my reading of the
Chinese and Russian revolu-
tions I believe that without
the Sino-Japanese war in
1937 or the 1914 war, Lenin

would have still been ranting
and raving in exile; Mao and
the CCP would have been
confined to Yenan and Yenan
Sure the Bolshevihks and
the Chinese communists were
organised but they had a
limited impact in mobilising
the a masses.

War gave mobilisation a
new dimension whereby the
opportunities for a broader
mobilisation and commitment
to communist policies was
seized in peasant nationalism
and communist power.

Johnson examined the
impact of the CCP in getting
support before and after 1937
and concludes that "the war
induced anarchy and the or-
ganisation of guerilla resist-
ance gave the Chinese peasant
masses new experiences and a
new history. Their common
action in defending and gov-
erning large areas of occupied
territory and in solving
specific political, economic
and military problems laid
the foundation for social
That is to say that the
masses of China were socially
I am not advocating that

Will Tapia Find

A Strategy

To Win The Masses?

Dear Brother Ian,
I sincerely hope that you do
not mind our taking the liberty
to publish what was essentially a
private letter. We do so only
because some of the very ques-
tions which you articulate with
such lucidity in your letter are
the same questions which are
being asked by concerned people
throughout the country about
The Tapia strategy of mobilisation
has never failed, in the seven years in
which we have been on the national
scene, to arouse anxieties in those who
support us, derision from those against
us and confusion in the majority of
citizens who are surveying the political
scene in the hope of discerning some
movement capable of taking the
country beyond the barren wasteland
of PNM Government and politics.
That this is so is not surprising. The
departure which Tapia insisted in
making from the start was away from
the "electioneering gimmickry" of
whichFyou have so correctly identified
Williams as the pastmaster and into
the world of "unconventional politics",
All unconventional politics means
is a method of political action which
radically departs from the traditions
and conventions of the past. So that
instead of the old colonial politics of
overnight parties, crowd manipulation,
and adventurist escapades in to agitation
and confrontation Tapia has sought to
emphasise Community organisation,
community participation and control
and political education and discussion.
But you would no doubt appreciate
that precisely because this is a change
from the conventional and the known,
and because too, it is operating in the
context of a situation where so many
others are still perpetuating the admit-
tedly more spectacular but certainly
more ephemeral methods of the past,
it was bound to cause confusion and
take some time to be understood.
None of which of course,specific-
ally answers your question. Have we,
in the seven years in which we have

been here trying to build an uncon-
ventional political movement suc-
ceeded in mobilising the below ?
But the focus on our method of
unconventional politics is necessary
in order to elucidate the answer to
your question which may be just as
confusing but which I shall try to
explain. For the answer must. be in
part yes, in part no, but for the most
part we do not know.
Let us take the no first. When
Tapia was founded we had hoped to
build to a movement solidly grounded
in the communities throughout the
country and charactensed by visible,
vibrant and irndependent local groups
everywhere. It is quite obvious that we
have not been as successful as we had
The main reason for this, I thinK,
lies in the fact that our projections
made iii the relative freedom of 1968
failed to forecast the swift erosion of
political freedoms, the brutally repres-
sive stance that the regime has come to
adopt and the resulting fear of open
political association which has been
engendered in the population.
Significantly, we feel it is a fear
which stems less from the spectre of
police and military harassment and
intimidation, which is so prevalent
today, than from the more subtle but
more overwhelming control which the
Government wields over the economic
livelihood of men.
Yet y9ur question can also be
answered in the affirmative if only
because, in spite of the enormous
obstacles to political association some
of which I have tried to outline above,
(there ate obviously many more which
can be added) Tapia has succeeded
not only in forming solid local groups
in some communities hut also in un-
earthing men in many communities
who are committed to our vision and
are prepared to do the work of
spreading the message.
And it is here I think that I need
to emphasise that there is no such

distinction as you posited between
a "soft" and 'hard" core in Tapia
The very method of mobilisation
under present conditions precludes
There is no way. even if it were
not philosophically anathema, which
it is, for any central organisation in
Tapia to bridle the initiative of the
cadres in the communities or to force
them to toe any "party line". Not if
we want the message to spread and
not when the most important vehi-
cle we have now and are going to have
at all in this period is the dedication
and enthusiastic commitment and
active involvement of the men in the
And the fact is that throughout the
country today there are men who are
doing all the work necessary;selling the
paper, arranging meetings, speaking at
them, formulating policy and strategy
which they think suited to their local
communities and organising local
groups, and who are doing so with
precious little direction from the
central office.
The question, however,still remains
- how much have they succeeded in
mobilising the citizens in the com-
munities in which they are-doing the
political work? And the answer to this
must honestly be we do not know.
They are, of course, signs that a Fire
is burning e.g. the steady increase in
the number of groups we are putting
down but the truth is that Tapia has
never brought out any massive crowd
of people which is the one sure sign
of at least widespread significance if
not support.
But does not youth very astute
analysis of the Chinese and Russian
Revolutions give you an indication as
to why this is necessarily so. Tapia is
a national political organisation es-
pousing a vision for the reconstruction
of the whole society.
We never had nor do we now have
any base in any automatic constituency
which we could mobilise and parade

over some purely sectional, particular
or parochial issue or grievance. TKiaf is-
to say we are-not a Union, we are not
a Church and we are not a organisa-
tion of professionals. Nor do we es-
pouse any ideology that attempts to
gain such a constituency by simply
dividing the world into categories of
race or class.
The signs of our success or failure,
and the answer to your question will
only come at such time as the whole
country is forced to focus its gaze and
to make a decision on an issue which
transcends but incorporates all other
sectional. particular or local issues.
So that we too need that total
event which would give, as you so
aptly put it, "a new dimension to the
mobilisation." And like you we are
advocating neither war nor guerilla
We are not so foolish to believe that
elections will.solve any of our country's
problems but we do believe, given the
experiences of our people, that it is
one event which will precipitate that
national focus on the part of all the
When that happens it is then that
organisation will count. For it is only
the clarity, the sense of direction, the
absolute commitment to purpose and
above all the cadres tested in the field
- all of which can come only with
prior organisation -- that can convert
that opportunity, whatever its nature,
when it comes into "new experiences"
and a "new-history" for all the people.
Have we mobilised the below? We
do not know. But it is absolutely
necessary that we continue to strive to
reach all the people now, infonn them
of our programs, views and ideology,
so that all will know where we stand
and none will be deceived, neither
friend nor foe.
They will make their judgement and
either commit themselves to our vision
or consign us to the dustbin of history.
For these afe always the only two
fates that await the revolutionary.
Your Brother
Michael Harris

we need a war or a guerilla
type action to mobilise the
masses. Far from it.
What I am saying is that
we need to develop a strategy
beyond mere personal com-
mitnent in our dealings with
the rural proletariat, the
working class and the un-
Do you think that the
mere presence of Indian in-
tellectuals in Tapia can sway
the allegiance of the rural
Indian to Tapia? -
Somehow I get theimpres-
sion 'that Tapia is an urban-
based movement. We need
to develop a rural based and
Tapia oriented cadre.
How successful has Tapia
been in communities across
the country?
How many community and
Tapia oriented groups have
been mobilised so far? At the
moment, Tapia is gearing for
Should we be elected in
'76, radical change will come
but it will come from above.
This is what the election
Tapia is going around the
country in an attempt to
drum up support for its
vision, its policy and pro-
Electioneering support and
commitment are two differ-
ent things altogether. Williams
is a past master of the elec-
tioneering gimmick.
Only commitment and
that alone will guarantee
change from the below. Have
we mobilised the Below?
ian Mitchell.

jm~i] I j


THE Mental Health Bill is now law. The fact
that this is so while the Sabotage Act is still
in abeyance is an indication perhaps of our
lack of political experience as a people and
how limited are our views of what constitutes
Tapia vigorously opposed both pieces of
legislation when they were first proposed. Un-
fortunately where the Mental Health Bill was
concerned, we, for the most part, stood alone.
We were unable to convince the citizens and
the organizations who had joined the protest
against the Sabotage Act that the Mental
Health Bill was equally as dangerous.
The danger of the Mental Health Bill is
not that it deprives us immediately of any of
our political freedoms. Although, as we
pointed out, in the hands of this Government
that it will eventually be used so to do is quite

The real and insidious danger of the Bill
is that it perpetuates and reinforces a totally
antiquated view of the nature of mental
illness which allows the Government to escape
their fundamental responsibilities to all the
people; as well as perpetuates a view of what
is a normal state of human existence which if
allowed unchecked can only lead to a danger-
ous equanimity in the face of more obvious
The words of Denis Solomon bear repeti-
tion. As he wrote in Tapia Vol. 5 No. 27:

Care of the mentally ill is not accomplished by
a Mental Health Act. It is accomplished by the
energetic provision and humane operation of a
wide range of services in the fields of health,
and education, transport and Housing; by a

reasonable measure of equality, comfort and
security in the existence of the citizen, in his
employment and in his daily life in ,general.

In the present situation all the Government is
doing in asking Parliament to approve the
Mental Health Act is asking it to assist in
sweeping under the carpet the embarrassing
evidence of their corruption and incompetence
the human detritus of their inadequate
policies in employment and education, trans-
port, health, housing and other social services.
Today we are pleased to publish an article
from a gentleman who himself has been an
inmate of the St. Anns Mental Hospital and a
recipient of what passes here for Mental care
and attention. We leave readers to judge after
reading what he has to say the answer to the
question "Where does the madness lie?"

ON January 19th. 1975,
I noted with interest the
Express paper's endorse-
ment of the passage of a
New Mental Health Bill
which has been enacted
recently. Fundamental to
the existence of a mental
institution is the belief
held by the doctors,
nurses and the public at
large viz. mad people are
Mental illness is equated as
madness. Of course madness is
a dimension of mental illness
For instance, some patients
here are certified as being
From a spiritual "wave
length, I do not subscribe to
the foregoing point of view
but for the sake of argument,
I am going to hold that there
exists mental illness and its
extensionr-insanity. --
It was evident from the
Express front page report that
no clear cut distinction oe-
tween mental illness and
insanity is made. The tone of
the article was tinged with
that societal stigma which
castigates the mental patient
for life.
Perhaps it is thought that
adequate care for the people
could be had at the institu-
tion. But did they have a
reporter virit the hospital and
make a survey about the
quality of mental health care?
I suspect they did not and if
they did not, then perhaps
they would accept an analysis
of the treatment from a
resident patient perspective.


On entering the "Univer-
sity" of St. Ann's hospital,
one is impressed by the
natural surroundings. Massive
trers which bend in homage
to spirit wind, thrive. There is
a spiritual dimension to St.
Ann's which never escapes the
EYE of the Seeker.
Some of the would be
patients are lucky in that
they return to the outside
community. Others are not
so fortunate and graduate
with their Phd's from the
The male patient finds
himself-in either an open or
enclosed ward. The female
patient is allocated to an
open ward but there are
certain restrictions on her
There exists male/female
separation in accommodation
which is unhealthy psychol-
ogically. I personally go to



Male H Ward which is en-
closed. Once there, you are
seen by the head shrinker.
The psychiatrist says that
there is some malfunction of
the brain and he prescribes
medication as he perceives
the nature of the patient's
illness either through his own
inferences or in conference
with his peers.
The doctor argues that it
is his function to modify or
even change behavioral pat-
terns. If this is the case, then
the psychiatrist should also
examine the environment of
the_ patient. .BuAthisiss not


During the interview with
the doctor, one perceives that
he lacks a basic understanding
of the West Indian environ-
ment political, historical,
socio-economic and cultural.
He can not see how the pres-
sures of living in the West
Indian environment are them-
selves root causes of mental
Much of the work on the
inter-relationship between
mental illness and society was
not explored by Freud but
by Erickson in a monumental
investigation "Childhood and
Society". Robert Coles -
Erickson's protege -is taking
his mentor's work further
afield. (See Children of Crisis
and other publications by Coles).
According to our West
Indian psychiatrist, society is
not sick. It is the patient.
Denis Solomon in Tapia Vol.
5 No. 27 puts the case some-
what differently "the pro-
blem is not of people being
mad but of people going mad
in greater and greater num-
Moreover, there are no
behavioral psychologists at St.
Ann's. Perhaps a person
schooled in Skinnerian techni-
ques of positive and negative
reinforcement conditioning
may be of more vital assist-
ance to the patient in modify-
ing behavior.
Such a person could
supplerr.nt the vision of the
psychiatrist. Psychiatry is one
dimensional and simply does
not provide the answers to
the problem of living by itself.

As a discipline, psychiatry Fanon.
must be inter-related with Moreover, there exists at
anthropology, sociology, his- St. Ann's an appealing lack of
tory, philosophy, psychology, qualified personnel psycho-
economics, religion and above analyst, therapist, psychiatrist,
all, some understanding of clinical and behavioral psychol-
the spiritual forces of the ogists, psychiatric social
cosmos. workers and nurses are
The psychiatrist needs to deficient.
broaden his perspective and
recognize the multi-casual
nature of mental illness.
For instance, the dominant
inmate population' of St. BRUTALITY
Ann's is Afro-Trinbagonian
and lower class. Why? Is the Solomon writes in Tapia
Indo-Trinbagonian never ill? Vol. 5 No. 27: "Would a
This does not mean that the White Paper on Mental Health
ndo-Trinbagoniansi never --net ehaps
come up for treatment. They published? Would the Gov-
do, but they tend to inhabit ernment presenting the Bill
the alcoholic treatment center. not have been able to tell us
To find some satisfactory what kinds of improvements
answer to the foregoing ques- in the social service it had
tion, the perceptive psychi- achieved to provide a frame-
atrist must turn to the West work for the operation of the
Indian historian, sociologist, Bill. Would they not have
economist and writer. There been able to tell us how
is a need for analysis of West many trained psychiatrists,
Indian society as it relates to psychologists, medical social
mental illness on the level of workers and psychiatric

nurses had been trained or
were to be trained."
At St. Ann's, group therapy
does not exist. rap sessions
which would involve the
patient, psychiatrist, social
worker and nurse or the sole
clinical psychologist are non-
existent. Anyway, once the
interview with the doctor is
over, you are left in the care
of the nurse.
It seems that brute strength
was an operational factor in
the recruitment of psychiatric
nurses. They meet violence
with violence. Yet they say
that they are paid to observe
..a d-;i ers stand behavior.
Nevert7eless,- b r ut a I y
nurses is the order of the
day. (Recently I have noted
an improvement in nurse/
patient relationship which
reflects success of patient's
vociferous opposition.) The
nurses are dispensers of
medication and of blows like
medicine to a lesser degree.
Continued on Page 11

Laucala Bay, Suua, Flji

Applications are invited for the above post. Candidates
should have a good degree in Economics with post
graduate qualifications. Preference will be given to Candi-
dates who can teach courses in Mathematical Economics or
Salary according to experience and qualifications in one of the
following scales:

Assistant Lecturer
Senior Lecturer

- $F4590 x 209 5635
- $F5951 x 209 7832
- $F8096 x 230 9476

10% gratuity for contract appointment, superannuation contribu-
tions, partly furnished housing at rental of 15% of salary, appoint-
ment and termination allowances. Other allowances in certain cases.
Formal applications should contain full name; date and place of
birth; nationality; marital status; educational qualifications; em-
ployment history and experience; names and address of three
referees; general statement of physical fitness; date appointment
could be taken up. A passport-size photograph should be sent.
Further particulars including an Outline Terms of Service are
available from:

The Registrar (Post 75/49)
University of the South Pacific
G.P.O. Box 1168
Suva, Fiji
to whom completed applications (6 copies) should be returned by
13 September 1975.


~ I~

-IF Is saa


Project Workers:

Pawns in a Political


Lloyd Taylor


Hamlet Joseph.


Hamlet Joseph, better known
as Yaxsee hails from Success
Village, Laventille. For a
period of nine years he was
without employment. His
first opportunity to work
came with the introduction of
project work which was made
available largely as a means
of alleviating the social ten-.
sions in "depressed areas".
As a checker employed
'with the Special Works and
as a keen observer of the
seasonal relationship between
/M jnqjrv i 'mnI11)I'~t )F

principal contributors to the
inefficie y which exists for
as long as we have known
'project work'. In fact I think
it is the other way around.
Which is to say that the
absence of materials is the
contributor to workers not

Q. What is the process
by which 'special' jobs or
tasks are undertaken in
an area?

Q. Yaxsee recently in
the Senate you had cause
to deal with an expendi-
ture variation of $21
million ear-marked for
Special Works. You
argued then that Govern-
ment was merely using
the workers involved as
pawns, for political ends.
How do you justify that
view from your past

un upsurge in emptuyment un A. Yes. When I made that
'project work' and elections A. There is no one way statement in the Senate it
campaigning Yaxsee is part- or means by which 'projects' was not something that I was
icularly well placed to make are tackled m the areas. A inventing for my own political
a judgement on the current project can come about by ends. All Special Works
focus by officialdom on the three main means. In one workers know this to be
Special Works schemes. case the village council true.
through its representatives can We allknow that it is on
make representation on behalf two occasions only that this
of its residents for new jobs Government believes that
,~,~axsee do you-agree--- i e arepr people _!lve use for
..a- r Or it could be done by money. Chrisunas and around
that work handled by individuals in a particular area Election time. For those are
Special Works workers is where there are no councils the only times when the
generally inefficiently by approaching the appropri- labour force is unbelievably
done? ate Ministry for putting down large.
a road, or drain or building if This may perhaps be
A. I am not to clear as to they see the need for it. better seen if we restrict our
what you mean by ineffi- And thirdly the Representa- observation to a special year
ciently done, but I do know tive himself can act on behalf of great significance to the
thai productivity is not high ofconstitutents. lives of our people.
on the Special Works Pro- But my case in central That year is 1970. A year
gramme. If this is what you Success Village has been a which Tapia labelled the year
call inefficiency my answer is radical departure from the of the 'February Revolution'.
yes. norm. In 1969 we started a It was a time when the
movement known then as the Black Power Movement cata-
Vigilantes. That movement pulled unto the stage of
began catering for Laventille history. A time when people
Q: It is generally in a way the Government in all walks of life from the
accepted by all and never did since it took office child in the school to the
sundry that the workers in 1956. man on the project took to
themselves are the princi- We organised sports, en- the streets in their thousands.
pal contributors to that courage classes from the In that year the labour
inefficiency. How true is Common Entrance to the force on the projects rose
that view? G.C.E. Advanced level, from gangs of 13 to gangs of
And every Sunday morn- 30 and 40 people on a single
ing we would spend long project. You talk about in-
A. People who make those hours cleaning a drain or a efficiency.
charges are normally people sidewalk or a road. We also Well it did not matter then
who know the least about saw to it that we placed bins what was the size of the
Special Works. Special Works for the disposal of rubbish project or what were its
workers are no less efficient all over the area. That I must demands. It was all one public
than workers in the private say was no easy task yet it expenditure effort to keep
sector or even in the Min- was performed voluntarily, black people from off the
isteries of Government. Sometime soon after the streets and to win their sup-
I know of no way to founding of the movement port once again for the 1971
produce efficiently if one the Government found it elections.
lacks the basic means of necessary to call in the Chair- I remember distinctly one
production. It is the same man of that Movement in foreman explaining to a
thing with workers on Special 1970 for 'consultation'. supervisor that there were no
Works. Production can be The result was that the materials on the job and that
seen when there are available. Chairman of that Movement even the implements (tools)
materials with which to do in 1970 for 'consultation.' were insufficient for the
so. The result was that the amount of people he had on
The moment you don't Chairman resigned his job on the job.
have the required materials the waterfront, and he and The reply to that explana-
which are needed for the his movement given charge of tion was that the foreman
type of work you are doing, three or four projects. was not to worry his head
you are at a stalemate. And Some were new under- about those things, so long
this explains why some jobs takings others were old jobs as he made sure that the
which would have normally that were never completed. I people on his gang were not
taken a year or so to cor- must say therefore that the on the streets marching.
plete are four.and five years months of hardwdrk bore The elections came and
in progress. some fruits. And that is how weht, and the numbers on
So it is not true to say I happen to be on the pro- each gang were reduced to the
that the workers are the ject. original 13. Today it is not

more than 14 in Success
Village. Perhaps it is only
slightly different for other

Q. Tell me something
Yax. Project work in its
two-pronged focus on
depressed areas, and on
'better villages' began as
early as 1957. That is
nearly 19 years ago. Over
the years more and more
persons have been em-
ployed, more and more
money spent both in
relation to the increase
numbers and the increase
in prices over the period.
But surely a few of the
workers must have been
working ,more than all
the others over that time.
That spells 'service'. What
account is actually taken
of that?

A. I'll tell you. I also had
cause to inform the Senate in
the debate you referred to
that I wqs told by the Direc-
tor of Special Works, by an
economist in Whitehall that
service counts only when one
acquires either sick or annual
The fact of the matter is
that Government has had no
serious plans for either giving
people full employment or
full compensation. Special
Works happens to be one of
the many instruments that
have been used to keep people
impermanently employed.
Take the instance of one
Minister telling me that any
man sent from another con-
stituency to work on a pro-
ject in his constituency would
get no work. Not even if he
has 16 years service. It is the
constituency representative to
see to it that his people are
Now you have to consider
the position of such a man.
Whose responsibility is it to
administrate project work?

Q. What trends in the
direction of political
manipulation have you
gleaned from recent pub-
lic pronouncements?.

A. The fact that Govern-
ment is spending millions of
dollars with little concern is a
clear indication that they are
only marking time with 'pro-
ject' workers for election
To spend $17m in 1974-
and appropriate a further
$21m in 1975 without a gua-

rantee of materials to do the
work are clear signs of political
games on the horizon.

Q. What do you know
about Government plans
that has not yet been
made public? Or through
the grapevine as it were?

A. I know for a fact that
Government is planning to
spend millions of dollars in
the area of Special Works next
year .... the year of elec-
tion maybe? Let me detail
their plans a little for you.
In addition to the jobs
which the Sea Lots office is
responsible for government
intends to use the Urban
Redevelopment Council to
carry out a number of pro-
jects in different areas.
Already that body is in
charge of three projects in
the Laventille area. Different
areas are earmarked for pro-
jects with special emphasis to
The office of a Parliamen-
tary Representative, and Re-
presentative for the area to'
which I belong is being
expanded for conversion into
which I belong is being
expanded for conversion into
something like a Labour
So that in 1976 we are
certain to see a change in the
office of that Representative.
That is from Parliamentary
Secretary to Chief Labour
Recruiting Officer for Special
Works. A large scale weeding
programme is expected to be
carried out by women in gangs
of 12.
It is quite clear that the
intention would be to regain
power or office in the 1976
elections or whenever that
will be. If you doubt me then
you just consider the pros-
pects in store for maintenance
of the areas weeded.

Q. Any predictions you
care to make about the

A. It is hard for me to
make any accurate or clear
cut prediction. Yet 1 am
sufficiently convinced that
there is no way by which the
PNM can win the election by
this cheap device.
I am satisfied that the
PNM has to go, and that
people want it so. It is con-
temptuous to believe that
the people can be bramiibled
by any massive bribe. And it
is time that workers on the
project are counted like
workers everywhere.



.France's rich and
jealously-guarded south
American territory of
Guyane have renewed
their charge that a joint
U.S.-French plan is afoot
to swamp a budding pro-
independence movement
there by settling tens of
thousands of Indochinese
war refugees in the
Mr. Olivier Stim, the
French overseas territories
Minister, has denied that the
spectacular plan was being
seriously considered by the
French government.
A small advance party of
Vietnamese has now however
arrived in the Guyanese
capital, Cayenne, to prepare
for the expected arrival in a
few weeks time of a first
batch of refugees in conjunc-
tion with the French govern-
ment's master plan for a
crash development of Guy-
ane's huge untapped mineral,
forest and agricultural re-
It is thought some 5,000
will arrive by the end of the
year, and eventually about

40,000 are, expected, thus
almost doubling the terri-
tory's population of 52,000.
The nationalists are calling
the plan "genocide" against
the Guyanese people and a
blow to hopes ofeven limited
Questioned during his re-
cent visit to Cayenne, 'where
he unveiled the details of the
development projects, Mr.
Stirn admitted the existence
of such a plan but said that
in the required settlement of
sparsely-populated Guyane,.
priority would be given to
French citizens, either from
Metropolitan France or from
other French colonies.

There is speculation in
Cayenne that the refugees,
most of whom are in camps
in the United States which
are due to be emptied and
closed by December, will
simply be issued with French
passports. France has never
succeeded in persuading its
nationals to emigrate to the

SUNDAY SEPTEfiER 7, 1975 /

French Guyana:

unhealthy, sub-amazonian
climate of remote Guyane,
which won fame only for its
dreaded prison colonies, in-
cluding devil's island.
The first group of refugees,
whose largely middle-class
anti-communist origins would
not seem to make them the
most suitable of frontiersmen
and women, is reportedly
being shipped to Guyane in
connection with a projected
giant pulp mill to be built by
the American firm of Parsons
and Whitmore. Mining and
rice cultivation projects are
also planned.
The United States and
.France will provide several
million dollars each to' back
the mass emigration plan,
according to sources in
Earlier this year, president
Giscard D'Estaing announced
that France would step up
development of Guyane, its
largest overseas possession, in
order to build up France's

stockpile of raw materials,
as a defence against new
attempts by poor countries
to force the rich countries to
pay higher commodity prices.
The 34,700-square-mile
territory is almost entirely
undeveloped and is 90 percent
covered with forests, valuable
deposits of bauxite and gold
have already been discovered.

The refugee scheme origin-
ated with an exiled right-wing
south Vietnamese senator
living in Paris, hut Guyanese
nationalist groups claim there
has now been a high-level
political agreement between
France' and the United
The main nationalist group
in Guyane, the pro-indepen-
dence Guyanese Decolonisa-
tion Movement (MOGUYDE),


has said the plan will create
a racially, politically and
economically dangerous
"Palestinian-type situation"
in Guyane, among whose
largely-African population
there is already a massive 60
percent unemployed.
Forty-two percent oj'
Guyane's civil servants are
whites brought in from
metropolitan France. The new
expansion projects will push
this proportion even higher.
Guyane erupted-into three
months of anti-french pro-
independence unrest late last
year which resulted in depor-
tations and subversion charges
against eight nationalist
Since then, France has dis-
creetly built up her military
forces and hardware in
Guyane, which is officially a
department of France, t, a
total of some 5,000 troops
and police or one agent of
"law and order" to watch over
every 10 Guyanese.

Alex Grey Reports from JAMAICA

Teachers Kings in the ghse

TEACHER in Jamaica
has been for a long time
an honorific title. No
longer. It might have
become a term of abuse.
The reason for this is not
easily discernible, To
begin with its an historic
In the era of emancipation
the Mico (the first teacher
training college of the West
,Indies both in Jamaica and
Antigua) provided a stepping
stone from subsistence farm-
ing to better things. Initially
just teaching. But eventually
it became the sine qua non
for aspiring youngsters in
Antigua's Mico was not a
great success but it too gave
hope. But in Jamaica almost
all post First World War
achievers were Mico' gradu-
ates. They were coached for
the overseas exams from
Junior Cambridge to London
B.A. (hons.)
Our present quasi-Minister
of Foreign Affairs (actually
Parliamentary Secretary ir4
the Prime Minister's Office
charged with shaking hands
with all foreign dignitaries
visiting Jamaica) Dudley
Thompson, is a good example.
A teacher in 1938-(and a
fervent loyal British patriot
at that) he became a flight
lieutenant during World War
II and then a barrister; now
he has arrived. He combines
affluence conspicuous and
real with being a socialist
member of the Senate and
the Jamaican cabinet.
But any Ministry, any
Statutory Board and most
professions are peopled in
Jamaica with ex-Miconians.
They stick together and

perpetrate the myth of the
Mico. But the myth is for all
practical purposes dead.
For, in the first place, the
women of Jamaica seem to
have realized that being a
male teacher often used to
be the only qualification for
a headship. That is no longer
as easy as it used to be.
Then the young males
themselves have realized that
their role of superman has
ceased. They often retain the
pretentiousness and strut
along the corridors of.their
schoolhouses with an air of
conqueror but the difference
has gone.
The peacocks called male
teachers are no longer secure.
The most conspicuous revolu-
tion has taken place in the
secondary schools. Lack of
intellectual as well as charac-
ter superiority has relegated
the teacher to an inferior role.
Trevor Rhone's currently
running play 'School's Out'
makes that very clear. Half
educated and conservative
overeducated rub shoulders
in the staff room and the
result is disastrous. Neither
understands the other and even
natural vigour and wit
deteriorate into banality and
the avoidance of all respons-
ible action in the class-room
where the teacher ought to
play his major role.
The Ministry ut Ignorance
(called Education) does not
help. Their minions seem evn
less educated than the class-
room teacher; and the rate of
their progress with a file
makes a snail seem a racing.
Just at the moment the
teachers of Jamaica are
facing two crises. One is more

unfortunate than the other.
In Lucea (at the Westernmost
extreme of the island and in
the poorest of Jamaican
parishes) the Headmaster of
Rusea's High School has been
re-instated provisionally. Two
school boards had wanted to
get rid of him and now a
board of commissioners are
to watch over his misdemean-
For misbehave he did and
shall but as a consumate
politician he managed to con-
vince the students, the parents
and what is most important
the Minister that he has what
it takes..
To the students he poses as
a friend of the poor and black
(a clenched fist can get you
far even in a Mercedys); the
parents are persuaded that he
is the only educat-r who will
get their children through
examinations (never mind the
fact that three quarters of his
staff resigned in protest
against his inability to make
a time table or keep a
promise); and the Minister was
convinced that should he file
the illustrious headmaster,
the PNP-the ruling party-
would loose the seat of Lucea
in the next election.
(1 hope they do, if nothing
else but for the fact that the
Reverend gentleman occupying
that seat now is, has been and
shall be a rascal).
But the school is a mess.
The Headmaster pro-tern will
most likely behave for the
short term of supervision and
then be re-appointed on a
permanent basis. God help
The other crisis is less
funny and has cven tragic
over-tones. A young UWI
graduate at a Junior Second-

ary School becomes more and
more disillusioned with the
Headmistress (worthy wcman
though. she is) and begins to
form a- cell of discontent.
He despises (for perhaps
good reasons) the official
leadership of the teachers the
JTA and therefore does not
think it worthwhile to refer
his complaints to them. The
cell finally became himself
and a lady colleague.
Their too vehement pro-
tests led to termination of
temporary appointment (oh
how convenient are these
temporary appointment). The
young man and his cell-

mate are deprived of a profes-
sion desperately short of
strong and hard working
members and yet the Schoci
Board, the Headmistress and
even the Teachers Associa-
tion do not seem perturbed.
I am. The symptoms of
the malaise are typical. Low
'pay, worse conditions .. if
a strike should come again to
the fields of academe it will
be a far fiercer affair than the
one that I participated in the
early sixties. Purging the air
of hypocracy it might do
some good, but, as so often,
it may becloud the issues
rather than clarify them.

Greg Chamberlaib

From Devils Island

To New Eldorado






Tapia House 82-84 St Vincent Street Tunapuna

The poet reflects on others who
had embarked on a similar quest.
Kirpalasingh, Naipual's fictional hero
had asked distorting questions, but
had reached no conclusion. Sum-
marily, Questel dismisses him for
having mercely posed the question.
The reference to Kirpalsingh is
interesting. Readers of The Mimic Men
will remember Kirpalsingh as an
alienated youth who finds it impossible
to come to terms with the fragmented
society that produced him. As an
East Indian, Kripalsingh sees himself
as a picturesque Asiatic, the most
recent arrival in a world whose very
fauna and flora have been imported.
From an early age, he is convinced
that 'to be born on an island like
Isabella, an obscure New World trans-
plantation, secondhand and barbarous,
was to be born to disorder. From an
early age, almost from my first lesson
at school about the weight of the
King's crown, Ihad sensed this'.
As a boy, he sees-history in the
landscape', but his response to the
natural world is poisoned by feelings
of impermanence deriving from the
notion of shipwreck. He sees the
society as one comprising diverse
groups of shipwrecked people who
have reached only a superficial under-
standing, and can make no link with
the landscape. No such link, Kripal-
singh argues, is possible since the
psychic coherence they seek can only
be gained 'within the security of their
own societies and the landscapes
hymned by their ancestorss.
To seek deeper involvement with
people of other races in this artificial
world is to run the risk of 'violation' -
a key word in the novel. By way of
compensating, Kripalsingh loses him-
self in dreams of a mythical Aryan
past. Isabella, for him, is the New
World in miniature, an amalgam of
the British Empire, a yoked gathering
of races wnose forced .interactionL

pssssd in teve bginninfrces eac
possessed in the beginning.


The education Kripalsingh receives
does little to equip him for the task
of coming to terms with his milieu.
It is Euro-centred. From the start, it
alienates him from the mudstained
toilers of the rice and sugar cane
estates for whom he can feel only
alien pity. He despises them. To
be descended from generations of
idlers and failures', he writes, 'an
unbroken line of the unimaginative,
unenterprising- and opposed, had
always seemed to me to be a cause
for deep, silent shame'.
The rest of the novel traces Kripal-
singh's years of exile on the Continent
where he had hoped to achieve psychic
security, his hollow search for com-
.mitment as a politician back home and
his eventual return to England to
compile his memoirs.
Further engagement is out of the
'A man" he- writes, 'I suppose,
fights only when he hopes, when
he has a vision of order, when he
feels strongly there is some con-
nection between the earth on which
he walks and himself'.
For Kripalsingh the circle is closed.
Crippled by education, tainted by
personal weakness, he is 'that most
finished product of unfinished
creolization', a member of the colonial
middle class.
Questel rejects Kripalsingh's as a
flawed model of West Indian manhood.
living here, he feels certain that some
connection exists between the earth
on which he walks and himself. He
/rejects Kripalsingh's hollow brand of
politics, 'but', he asks himself, Ihow
be judge as well as witness?' How
can he live here and be detached
.spectator of a situation in which he is
himself involved. He doesn't spare


himself: he is free to leap.
'Who will advocate
the may to
windward (pg. 24)
who will
sling the last stone?'
Like everybody else, the poet
wonders which Moses will arise to
lead us out of this wasteland; in more
accurate terms, which David will arise
to sling the decisive stone of history
against modern day Goliaths.
you without
sin (pg. 24)
pole. "nart from
the polemicist
anathema to
Here he is addressing himself. He use
of 'you' indicates his distance from
the string-pulling jugglers of the society
whom the people have learned to
In Part II of the poem, we see him
refelcting on love and the need for
relationship. But even here meaning-
ful contact is difficult:
'Our coming together
was as
as the twinning of cities
Her voice dumb
her every kiss
a diphtong of
Such was the bought
of love
netted in a lover's threw!
We return to the outer world:
circle around
though there
is no carrion (pg. 25)
only the oncoming rain
The failed vision of youth is piercingly

The Keskidee 's
vision has
struck in its -'throat'(pg. 25)
But youth perseveres:
and still
the inch
worm measures
the mari-
its length
minds its own
for profit or loss'
The fear of growing stagnation is
movingly hinted at in the lives:
'4 frog leeps slowly
across the road
as my mind
leaps slowly across
the frog
as the road leaps
leaking fears as
my ruined gutter


The scarred face or an excavated hill-
side becomes symbolic of withered
faith. Even despair has suffered at-'
as the
scarred mountainside (pg. 26)
spare despair
thrown and
The poem wheels to a close as the
donkey cart halts near a museum.
'all art
becomes (pg. 26)
The tone of these final lines is one
of wry humility. All art, Questel
seems to be saying, is ultimately use-
less. He has given voice to his most.
urgent thoughts, and now they lie
frozen on paper, like artifacts in a
museum.:He too has ended up merely
posing the question. His thoughts and

words have made nothing happen.
In his search for a committed art,
Questel feels me need to establish a
living bond with society. Poetry as
frozen utterances-quiet thoughts iced
on paper must give way to poetry
that reaches out and stirs people to
act. We saw evidence of this in 'Only
Believe', one of the leading items in
last year's ISWE production, 'Tanti
go see we'. 'Only Believe' featured a
dynamic interplay between the solo
voice, Questel's and the group voice
(the audience).
In an article entitled 'The Carrion
Time' published in Vol. 4. No. 24.
of Tapia June 16th 1974, Gordon
Rohlehr speaks of that type of writer
grows out of direct, and often
disastrous contact with politics. He
generally aims at immediacy, the poet
becoming both priest and politician,
the audience congregation and brother-
hood', He lists such poets as Winston
Daniel and Abdul Malik (Delano de
Coteau) as examples.


Questel's search for a committed
art may not necessarily lead in this
:direction, but one anticipates a heater
emphasis on poetry like 'Only Believe'
or productions for the theatre. His
ear for speech rythms and the
dramatic brilliance of 'Man Dead To-
day' certainly hint at dramatic talent.
If in 'Linkages', he rejects the
hollow play acting of Kripalsingh's,
in the 'Epileptic Boy of February'. he
etches the portrait of a man whose
profound sense of commitment drove
him to make the crucial leap from
self to politics.
The Epileptic Boy of the poem is
none other than the Chairman of the
National Joint Action Committee,
Geddes Granger. Questel's Granger is
a tragic figure possessed by a vision of
futility and a need to right existing
evils. It is an accurate portrait. One
remembers Granger lambasting the
bankruptcy of our education system
and the callousness of a society that
prize market above human value.
The silence of the post-colonial
era was decisively broken by a rebel
who that despite the achievement, of
independence, the society remained
colonial. The road-and-pipe politics of
the fifties and the mamaguy achieve-
ment of the sixties were rejected as
In Questel's poem, Granger emerges
as a lonely man who challenges
history, only to discover new di-
mensions to his loneliness. 'Indouciant
to the price of ruin', 'incoherent to
history', he makes the crucial leap,
and ends up completing the journey,
since the snail never leapt;
It is a portrait of the rebel baffled
at the blindness and indifference of


continues hi


A Book of

Victor Questel&i


Tapia Vo



the world he has sought to save. His
obsession with the vision of waste
afforded by the backward look is
captured in the lines
'hung up on a
rack and
ruined rear-view-mirrored
vision of reality'. (pg. 42)
It is a vision that makes him
'drunk on the rum
that is language
as he stomps
'his message
to a staccato
satchmo beat'
tpllepuc' evokes the image of a

Our printing-plant is open at
i. The Tapia House 82-84 St. Vi-cen
Street, Tunapuna.

j Kindly phone orders to: 662-51 26


mew .

-mml m-

'4. f

'**. -3-

.BER 7,1975
el-.-... i --- ,,. --------- -- -


Rcrieuic of


Poems by

hson Gonzalez

5 No. 34

.. 2


man struggling desperately to make his
vision public, to convert deeply held
convictions into terms apprehensible
to the mass. He is at one and the same
time identified with Satchmo, the late
jazz musician, Christ and Krishna,
religious inspirers of the dominant
Chrislian/Hindu, African/Hindu social
group and the Baptist shephard/folk-
His protest mobilizes scores of
the perennially frustrated who 'bom-
bard the streets! singing for their
sanity? Again one should note the
fleeting overtones of Carnival sensa-
tionalism in 'bombard' The popular
bomb tune then, as we all know, was

Power to the People. But Questel sees
mgre than what is sometimes too
facilely dismissed as the Carnival
spirit in these marches.
Questel's view is deeper and more
compassionate. The marchers are sing-
ing for their sanity. Imagine a col-
lection of individuals of the type
portrayed in 'Down beat', and the
point is made. 'The Epileptic Boy'
has been driven to make common
cause with the dispossessed of the
streets whom neo-colonial politicians
have failed.


In his 1970 play In a Fine Castle,
Walcott dismissed the mood of the
1970 uprising as yet another manifes-
tation of the mindless ole mas
propensity of the Trinidadian. Naipual
too, in. an article published in the
New York Review of Books (Sept.
1970) saw it as part of the general
mimicry whose roots lay in slavery and
the fantasies of power to which its
victims were prone.
His leap, however, is an anticlimax
and the portrait of the tired 'rebel
which emerges is etched with telling-
tense with a
terra -
cotta tension
he makes no
bears the tension
beneath the skin'.
Terracotta is an earthen ware material
used for making vases. The implica-
tions of this image are terrifying.
In his bid to challenge history, the
Epileptic Boy has ended up being
reduced to a clay figurine, an archaeo-
logical. find. From living subject he
becomes object. One notes a parallel
here between the closing note of
linkages' and that of the lines just
quoted. In both cases we sense the
poet's fear of today's living act, poetic
or political, becoming tomorrow's
frozen utterance.
The ultimate questions raised by
the rebel are reduced to a mutter
'making your
he grunts
the questions
trane asked'.
'Stations' here has a dual meaning.
The original February 23rd march
included a visit to the Catholic
Cathedral in lent. Hence stations of
the Cross. 'Stations' may also refer to



the police stations at which detainees
were ritualistically held and. cross
examined. There is also an extension
of the Christ-image. Granger becomes
scapegoat and victim, exiled on his
Via Dolorosa for a young 'pee-green'
society whose promise is already
worm-infested. In this mood of grim
reflection,Te realizes that the ominous
bamboo clump cryptically referred to
buried in the wind'
The style of the Baptist shepherd was
a style that Granger (preacher,
mourner) certainly had
and thrice on Sundays
a black Billy
his blues
to hell'
The media, then, help to prolong
oppression as
'Somewhere in the corner of
his skull
tiredness grows
The weight of the society's tiredness
rests on-this hero/clown (Satchmo)
Despite the cul-de-sac note on
which these poems end (linkages' and
'Epileptic Boy') Questel's Prelude as
a whole retains an 'open' quality.
There's nothing fixed or definite in his
stance as doubter and flounderer. His
comments never harden into settled
judgements. Ceaseless questions and
questioning are the major features
of this poetry, capturing as it does the
the mood of Caribbean peoples at a
crucial stage in their history, when.
faith in the old order is crumbling aid
no alternative has yet crystall7ed.
One is likely to, encounter as wide
a spectrum of reactions to the present
situation as are reflected in this poetry-
pin, cynicism, selfmockery, doubt and
faith. It is a poetry of becoming.


Gonzalez's poems form a far less
united collection than Questel's. At
first glance they seem little more than
a collection of snapshots sprinkled
with philosophical tidbits. The poems
in 'Cadence' moreover, seems to have
been written over a fairly extended
period, some before 1970, others
during and after. The result is a
thematically uneven collection.
Une or two poems explore in quite
general terms such universal problems
as poverty, moral confusion and loss
of faith. 'London to Newcastle' is an
album of slides taken during the poet's
tour of England. 'First Friday Bell' is
a touching elegy written to com-
memorate the death of the poet's
mother. Cane Ballad', the only experi-
ment in dialect, is a weak attempt to
enter the consciousness of a disillusion-
ed estate worker. The strongest poems
are 'Cadence', 'Decision', 'Hey Alfie'.
'To...and 'First Friday Bell',' All
except the last named reflect the
poet's response to the social and
political life of the country.
'Cadence' is a satirical poem in
which the society is portrayed as a
huge steel orchestra, awaitingdirections
from its musical conductor:
'Oh listen to that cadence
of suspense of suspicion
and pause suspended
while the maestro massa (pg. 51)
with arms upraised
freezes the status quo '.
The maestro-massa is of course the
political authority figure (Prime
Minstrel)' who assumes a variety of
roles in his bid to hoodwink the
populace and consolidate his coirupt

rule. One of his more insidious roles
is that of patron of folk culture.
In 'To...' he appears as an aging
patrician who 'visits pan-tents, hosay-
tents, wears 'apats and wolfs hops
and pudding in public, doffs jacket
and tie for sports coat, beads and
scarf'. The satirical note is' mute in
this poem. The author's private despair
becomes prominent.
'To...' seems to have been written
sometime in 1971 when the Mutiny
Trial was in progress. If so, it grew
out of a mood of disillusionment
following the reverses suffered in '70.
The author is driving along the
Highway. He yearns for a Keatsian
detachment from mundane things, a
desire contrasted somewhat heavy
handedly with the stark realities of
the passing world.
'cawing corbeaux skip across the
ominously symbolic, while the
body of the god, Pan, asphyxiates
the Laventille roundabout, and
the leper man, buying motor-car
send shivers through my bones'
The title 'To...'becomes clear when
we realize that the author is uncertain
as to which direction his country is
headed. The sense of cyclic futility is
strong in the closing lines;
'for Fanon,s and Carter's long
goes on, onward and onward
through the void
the glare, the wasteland of iron
in a nihilistic wonderland
where only the presence of a loved
can give some balm and moisten
a heart grown sere and dry as dust'
In 'Decision', the satire becomes
shrill. The author actually uses an
epigraph from T.S. Eliot to point his
'from generation to generation

Men learn little from others 'ex-
In this poem, the author is a de-
feated figure in whose gaze rebellion,
reaction, political disunity and a
demoralizing lack of direction are
resuced to farce.' Abstract terms like
'vituperative illogic' and 'insecure ad-
ventures' walk through this poem.
Satire springs from a perception of
Undoubtedly, Trinidad in the '70's
with its glaring instances of disparity
between word .and deed, stated aim
and performance, is rich soil for the
satirist. The satirist in our situation,
however, runs the risk of laughing too
loudly. It is all too easy for him to
forget that he too is caught up in the
'Hey Alfie' is the strongest poem in
'Cadence. It is a powerful comment on
a nation's emptiness and lack of di-
rection as revealed in music. The
musicians in this poem are shown as
hollow performers who lack a true
sense of self. Failing to explore their
'subliminal pain', they can express
nothing authentic. 'Limpwristed
drummers' look best while 'smiling
beatitic behind the gazed eyes of the
committed behind dark shades which
screen past and heritage and boldly
blow bluesy the id, the ego, the
identity'. The hollowness of this
contrived jazz performance is under-
score by the crass setting in which
it is staged:
'the cracked notes
and split banknotes
among spilt coffee
and cracked plates
cracking balls
as crushed balls
wail a song ,
for manhood.

Some of the poeins published in
SCORE will no doubt be fixtures in
future enlltholo!ies of West Indiar





Lennox Grant
THE figure seated on the
couch at the far end of
the floomy living room
was Carol Addison, sing-
ing star. We sank into
the low moriis chairs on
either side of her. The
chairs were set in an arc
looking over a large rug
to the TV at the other
end of the room.
She was doing something
to. her mass of black hair, and
her head hung forward over
her chest. She was in home-
clothes: sleeveless, hip-length
cotton blouse and miru-
skirt; bare feet.
I don't know \whether she
had been expecting us just
then. but her attitude was
decidedly off-duty that
Saturday evening. She seemed
fully at ease, and got up only
to put on the lights.
She was at the end of a
seven-week period of leave
from her Clerk Il job in the
Inland Revenue Department.
Fourteen days of it had
been recommended by her
doctor. Nervous tension.
Yes, she was alright now.
Had visited Antigua and done
some sewing in the time. And
singing work too. It was a
busy year, her busiest since
the start of her public career
in 1969-70. Almost every
week-end there would be a
booking for a performance.

In May this year she
signed a two-year recording
contract with KH Records of -
Port-of-Spain. Then there'd
been this three-month Satur-
day night contract at the
Hilton; five months of
weekends at the Penthouse;
regular rehearsals at the Radio
Trinidad studio all the while.
A new 45 would be
released the following week
"rve Got The Notion" and
"You and I", to follow her
recording of "My Love" which
has sold 10,000 copies and is
still moving, a big success in
Trinidad and Tobago terms.
"Carol Addison in Concert"
was being planned for the
SWWTU Hall on Sept. 21.
There were bookings for per-
formances over the next three
months in other places.
For an artiste in Trinidad,
that means a lot of work, a
sense of being much in

demand, and success. Evening
News and Sunday Punch puff-
makers now bubble over her
in terms like "Soul Queen"
and "the Caribbean's Number
One Female Vocalist".
Such a crown could be as
burdensome to bear as a
cross, and were it a matter of
just that, the slight physical
frame of Carol Addison,
couldn't quite make. But her

head isn't turned.
She may still wear that shy
smile and roll her eyes up-
wards at you, but her voice,
as she talks, suggests mature
She accepts that she's got
a good thing going but she's
not overwhelmed by the
thrill of the idea. As the
centre-piece of an operation,
she knows that things are

being taken care of on her
behalf, and this knowledge is
the basis ofher self-possession.
So I thought I noted, as
she talked, her desire to keep
alive a distinction between
Carol Addison, the person,
and what might be called
The Carol Addison Produc-
tion. At times it appears an
almost aristocratic detach-
ment from a range of pedes-


Carol Addison




62 Queen St., P.O.S.




fian functions that have been
delegated, as it were, to
another department.
She could speak of it in
the third person. I asked
what would be her next big
step, and she replied:
"An LP is being talked
But it's not 'as if all she
does is to come in on cue. I
was intrigued by her cool
assumption of class, the way
she appeared to be presiding
over it all.
When I asked if she didn't
find the two-job routine very
taxing eight hours each day
in the Inland Revenue office
and so many hours after that
rehearsing and performing,
especially on weekends, she
"Oh I have things fairly
organised. I've got a regular
set of musicians, a settled
repertoire and all that."
Here she was alluding to
the efficiency of The Carol
Addison Production, the
chief architect and director
of which is Junior Brown, the
tall, side-burned figure whom

she introduced when hejoined
the company in the Addison's
living room.

She calls Junior her musical
director. He's also her
arranger and conductor of the.
band ofhighly-rated musicians
with whom she works. He's
also ler business manager,
publicity agent and chaperone.
For Junior, it's all, quite
literally, a labour of love.
And he dosen't conceal his
pride, satisfaction and devo-
tion to duty.
Carol has become "defi-
nitely interested" in learning
music and studying an instru-
ment. "This," she said "is
vitally necessary in com-
municating with musicians."
"Right now I have to
depend on Junior to interpret
to them the way he thinks I
might feel. I have ideas of my
Junior explains another
aspect of his role: "I am the
one who always gets the bad
name. People say 'Carol,
you're beautiful, but your
manager dread'."
To get a close-up of The
Carol Addison Production,
Uoyd Taylor and I find our-
selves at the "Independence
Breakdown" at the Arima
Grandstand two weeks later.

Here Carol is performing on
a bill that includes some of
the big-names of the Trinidad
pop musical scene, Tony
Ricardo and the Troubadours,
Kalyan, Wildfire, and the
inevitable DJs Ken Sausage
and Fatman George with
their booming sound boxes.
Sipping Stag a few layers
of humanity away from the
stage, Taylor and I observe
the movements of what he
calls the "Junior Secondary
generation". We are amused
by the illiterate gibberish
Tony Ricardo passes off as
Spanish in one of his songs.
Tony Ricardo goes off and
the DJs take over to fill the
space till Carol Addison comes
on. In the gloom of the stage,
figures are moving about.
Angus Nunes slings his
bass guitar high up on his
chest as usual, Errol Wise
settles his drums, Johnny
Blake, the imperturbable,
plays with dials on his guitar
amp, alto sax-man Lennox
Sam is somewhat obscured
behind the tall loudspeaker
boxes and 'Junior Brown
strikes notes on the electric
piano to tune up the band.
By the time an amber light
comes on to bathe the stage
in light and colour, the band
is going through some cool
funky rhythm. Rennie Bishop
waits for the DJ's tune to
finish before he announces
Carol Addison.

There is much, cheering
from the thousands milling
around and much drifting
towards the stage. Where we
.-Stan it get _a.mer .
Carol comes tripping on-
stage, followed by two chorus
girls, her sister, Cynthia, and
Ann Marie Remy.
"Dig the outfits!"
Carol is grinning widely,
her small eyes seeming to
miss their glasses in the light.
She's in red a flaming red
cassock-type dress, tied with
a cord somewhere by the
waist, with blousy wide three-
quarter sleeves. The neckline
plunges deep, but cleavage is
obscured by a huge crescent-
shaped gold pendant,hanging
from her neck by a heavy

gold chain. A curly red wig
completes the costume.
She designs and sews her
own clothes, she had told us,
with the intention of making
best use of her slimness (five-
foot, six and a half; 106
pounds). She doesn't think
sex has anything to do with
her appeal.
So I decide her outfit was
her own design, but what her
chorus girls are wearing must
be the idea of the management
of the Carol Addison Produc-
tion. They were in black -
skimpy halter-tops, leaving a
large area of shapely torso
exposed, belly button and
hips rolling to the rhythm.
Their hip-hugging skirts or
pants are stripped all the
way down the legs.
Yet it's the chorus girls
who look a bit shy. Carol who
can manage only a wriggle or
so inside her cassock, is quite
at ease.


With a peremptory flick
of her wrist she silences a
prematurely soloing alto sax
and explains that she didn't
plan to sing "My Love" but
has to give in to the demands
of her fans there.
That in fact is the strategy
of success undertaken by The
Carol Addison Production:
_ -gv.e_-thepeople what -they
want, when they want it. So
though Carol describes herself
as "primarily a blues singer",
when she went to Antigua
where they love reggae, she
did reggae.
At the Trinidad Hilton
where the audience consisted
of wealthy over-50 tourists,
she was obliged to flatter
Middle America with things
like "If I Had A Hammer",
"Let The Sunshine In",
"Alfie" etc.
In Arima I get the feeling
at several points, particularly
during "My Love" and

"Words", that she's singing
well within herself. A note
here, a phrasing there suggest
that she wants to take off
into a bluesy, extemporaneous,
wail of a kind associated with
some female black American

"I love gospel music,"
she'd told us. "When I'm in
the position to hand them
what I want it'll be gospel
music. When I started, gospel
music didn't seem to be very
popular. Producers were
scary of backing gospel from
an unknown.
"I don't really portray my
true personality. I think the
Mahalia Jackson kind of stuff
or that lead singer of the
Staple Singers that kind of
thing is more how I feel."
She's made four "45"
records since 1971, two of
which could be called hits.
Her development follows the
normal pattern here for
artistes with talent radio
and TV exposure via Auntie
Kay and Scouting for Talent,
performance with distinction
in local contests like Pop Gear
and Teen Talent.
She made the-rounds of'
them all, singing for cake-
sticking when called upon
and gaining grassroots recogni-
tion as somebody who "could
She was 18 in 1969 when
the turning-point came. At
Inland Revenue where she
started to work thatyear, she
met Lennox Gray. When he
needed female accompani-
ment to perform on ttt's
Parade show, Gray asked
Carol and she accepted.
It was so she met Junior
Brown. He was playing the
piano. He spotted' talent. She
saw the big turning-point in
her career.
"From then on things
began to happen," she ex-

plained. "Junior knew all
kinds of people in the musical
world and he created open-
So she began a new round
of more prestigious and
rewarding performances. With
her needs for musical- direc-
tion, business organisation,
moral support, etc. taken
care of by Junior, she moved
forward confidently.
Some of the finest opport-
unities for Trinidad artistes
come in the form of providing
supporting entertainment to
big-name foreign stars brought
down by local impresarios.
'Thbugh many a time local
talent has outshone the
foreign stars, it was, never-
theless, the foreigner appeal
which filled the hall.
Carol performed alongside
James Brown in 1971, Jr.
Walker in 1972, Freda Payne
in 1973 and Mongo Santa-
maria last year.
It was the gospel-blues
rendition of George Mc-
Cartney's "My Love" which
raised her to current heights.
When people say it sounds
"foreign" they are in fact,
giving it their highest compli-
ment in fact, though over the
last year or two the once
marked difference in quality
between home-made and
foreign recordings has all but
I asked Carol what she
thought people like about her
At first, many people
liked the similarity to Aretha
RFranklin. There could have
been such a similarity, but
she was never my idol, though
I did many of her songs. But
I don't think people believe
I'm a copycat of a foreign
artiste because I'm not. They
think I'm myself when I'm
Still, Aretha was more
popular at one time than she
is now, and Junior, her
musical director, admits that
he is a "fanatic" follower
of Aretha Franklin, Nina


Carol Addison

SUCCESS Village Laven-
tille, is normally quiet and
very seldom, at Com-
munity level, a village of
esprit-de-corps. It takes
something spectacular,
dour or tragic to awaken
this spirit here. But there
are always exceptions to
any general rule and so
we ,eak today of
one of the now notable
exceptions whose reward
was death.


The Day is Wednesday
20th August. One is appalled,
shocked and moved to tears
within and without, as a
funeral procession ofover one
thousand (1,000) people,
children, netballers, foot-
ballers, adults from all walks
of life, wends its solemn way
through the streets of Suc-
cess Village.

The corpse, sad and cold,
lay in its grey coffin, unaware
of the spirit it has evoked in
the hearts of the residents.
The mourners weep, the fol-
lowers weep or are seen with
curious expressions on their
faces. The passers-by and the
lookers on are amazed. What
is really the cause for this sad
Gibson Sylvester, full back
for Aberdeen fell dead ontthe
16th August after defending a
shot from an opposing
play from Snme Football
But this is not all.
Success Village has no
good football facilities. But
Success Village has young

promising footballers and
enterprising ones at that also.
One was Gibson Sylvester.


The rumour was that there
would be no football this
year in this community.
Young men like Gibson did
not take this sitting down.
They took matters into their
hands. Football had to be
played here and the League
which was abandoned, was
started with the help and
assistance of -young people
like this Gibson Sylvester.
The ground, just as in
former years, was as hard as

the stones which covered it
when dry, sodden, slushy and
slippery when wet. It is still
bordered on the west by a six
feet drain. It is still not
squared and a corner is a
throw in. It still has not the
length of the shortest recog-
nised football field.,
But for the Gibson
Sylvesters, there must be
football. We have played
there before, from 1 l61, and
we will play there again. For
the love of sports and com-
munity there must be foot-
ball. As Keith Smith would
put it. 'What no football Dey
mad nah!'
Today Laven tille and
Gibson's relatives mourn. For
the love of football and conm-

munity Gibson is dead and
This death is not an in-
significant one. The mark has
been made. We have our
first Martyr in Football here
in Success Village. We pay
honour to Gibson.


We salute him. a well bred,
quiet spoken, loving and
enthusiastic brother who was
unfortunate to lose his life
because of his love for sport
and his community.
They do not come like this
;and when they do, like
Gibson, they do not remain
long. However in passing
Gibson has left us with a
bittersweet memory
We shall always remember
for there will always be foot-
ball in Success Village. Crater
or not. We owe this to the
memory of a valiant, deter-
mined. and talented brother
who has gone before us.
Fare thee well my brother:
kick ball wherever you are.

Simone, Billy Preston and
Ray Charles.
Among musicians and
others in the business, there is
general appreciation that she
has improved technically and
now can do many more things
with her voice. And there is
another kind of appreciation;
you get from some like a
knowledgeable bass player I
talked to in Arima:
"The thing about Carol,"
he said in some awe, "is that
she does turn on just so. She
don't use nothing."
If she's a lady who sings
the blues, she apparently
wants to strike a different
personality from the tragic
tradition of some blues
But then she may not feel
the need for something-to-
help-her-make-it-through-th e-
night. She does, as I said,
have a good thing going for
her. She enjoys the protec-
tion of the Carol Addison
Production and the position
now of a well-known celebrity
("Look Carol Addison!").
Still, at times, she would
flee from both: the ever-
presence of her manager can
"put a spoke in my wheel"
and the staring public on
Frederick Street and wherever
she goes for her "ent so

An indication that she
chafes at restrictions placed
on her musical impulses came
out as a thinly disguised tone
of mockery when she told me,
in the presence of Junior:
"Some people think calypso
doesn't suit my personality.
But I love calypso."
No big thing apparently.
For the latest "45" he wrote
the music; she wrote the lyrics.
They call it "You and I" in
celebration of successful team-

"We worked so hard
We shared so much
We sweated out
You and I..."



It should not be the desire of
directors especially of Caribbean
musical players to separate drama
from the rest, but music and
dance must be blended into the
texture of the play emphasizing
and reinforcing its dramatic
qualities. This should have been
the main objective of the joint
production by. the Arawaks
Dance Group and the San Fer-
nando Drama Guild in attempt-
ing such production as Dr. Errol
Dr. Errol Hill's Man Better Man.
The Arawaks Dance Group and
San Fernando Drama Guild must be
complimented for producing Dr. Hill's
Man Better Man to celebrate their
twentieth anniversary, and after seeing
the production at the Naparima Bowl
on Wednesday and Thursday evenings
faith in our theatre is instantly
We as Trinidadians must produce
plays in which we see ourselves as
Trinidadians mirrored from the stage
so that we may be able to motivate
audiences and make them want to
regard theatre as a vital need in our
Mention must also be made of the
way in which the publicity of the
production was handled, especially in
relation to the personality profiles
which were published from time to
time prior to the twenty-ninth,
thirtieth and thirty-first of July. Mr.
Reynold Bassant in his role as Public
Relations manager should be compli-

As regards the play itself, I found
myself at certain times possessed with
great rage when proper justice was not
done to the rhyming couplets em-
ployed in the play. Very lew of the
actors paid enough attention to this
important aspect, and it is quite ap-
parent that the director did not think
that good voice and speech were
Dr. Hill's play Man Better Man is
a play of speech, music and dance and
these tools should not be ignored.
The written lines of the play are
beautiful but one must be very familiar
with them in order that the rhythm
and music of this Caribbean master-
piece are not lost, actors must bring
out the poetic genius in Hill as a
prize-winner writer.
I have tried to erase from my mind
the earlier production of this play be-
cause I did not want to be unfair in
my judjement and comments having
seen this play done by an almost pro-
fessional theatre company. The people
who acted at that time were the
cream of the crop, nevertheless that
does not say that the present cast
should not have been given adequate
time to become even a little acquainted
with the poetry, orchestration and
choreography. This was unfair to the
Several times during the production
I got the impression that actors were
not quite sure what was the next word
to be spoken on stage, and sometimes
I realized that they did not understand
the meaning of the words spoken.

Peloo and Coolie did quite a lot of
their business in front of the curtain
during which time the stage crew
changed the scene from El Toro to
the den of Diable Papa or the other
way around. This distracted the actors
and broke their concentration.
What struck me very forcefully was
the fact that there were un-related
sound effects coming from both stage
right and stage left: a smashed
bottle against concrete in one instance,
and then a dragging, scraping sound in
the other. Perhaps if the stage manager
had marked off the exact spot where
the beautifully designed curtain should"
have fallen, he would not have had
the unhappy experience of seeing the
curtain dropping unto the table and

The written lines
beautiful but one
familiar with them
rhythm and music

prize-winning writer.

later having to jack the table on its
The semi-abstract setting was too
false. I did not get the fooling mat it'
was long established saloon. As a
matter of fact the bar in El Toro's
moved several times. Diable Papa's
weight also caused his throne to shift
from its original position. In addition
the working lights were too bright,
and during set changes the curtain-
acted as a "scrim"' This too was
distracting and again destroyed the
the business of the actors.
The Drama Guild and Arawaks
Dance Group are now both in their
twentieth year of operation as a drama
group and dance company respectively.
Torrance Mohammed started: "The
year 1955 marked a very significant
change in the history of dance in San
Fernando", while James Lee Wah said:
"For the future, the Guild is striving to
broaden its base with the formation of
the Friends of the Drama Guide".
But perhaps at this stage in the life
of these pioneer groups, we should
not be getting the feeling that the
Guild and Arawaks are serving only to
make Torrence Mohammed and James
Lee Wah famous as choreographer and
director respectively. For instance,
how many other members of the
Guild are given an opportunity to try
their hand at directing or to serve as
.assistant director?


Pogo, played by Alston Daniel was
most convincing because there was
the correct mixture of voice, speech
and characterization, blended with a
keen sense of communication.
Although his poetry was not much,
whenever he spoke he filled the Bowl.
Though there were instances when he
made mistakes, Daniel is going to take

his place among the better actors in
I would have liked to see him do-
ing the part of Diable Papa, yet Carl
Buxo did justice to the part though
with a little over acting now and then.
Joe, portrayed by Paul Dass was con-
vincing, until he dropped the
Portuguese accent, and when he was
not assisted on stage by the other
actors who failed to communicate
with him. At certain points he got his
lines mixed up but covered up this
very skilfully.
The final coronation speech made
by Cracker Jack was lost. Such
beautiful lines I must quote here:
Lily, come forward and take your
Besides the Champion, crown in

of the play are
must be very
in order that the
of this Caribbean

Tim Brisco, conqueror of the field.
Swift as lightening, sharper than
Wizard of Wood, a terror in war,
Brave as a lion whose mighty roar
Spell death and destruction to the
Torrance Mohammed performed
this speech as though he was late for
a rehearsal. and wanted to get things
over with. I almost expected him to
start wiping off his make-up right
there on stage. This great exhibition
of fluffing is unpardonable especially
as it was committed by a-seasoned
actor/dancer who experienced this
play before in the role of a villager
only ten years ago, so I don't see why


his "get-in" was so difficult.
The songs in the play, like the.
dialogue are great and most of them
have been with us for a long time now.
I found myself wondering why some
more choral work was not done. When
Hannibal sang we got the impression
that a lot of serious effort was put
into his work. Perhaps this was due
to the fact that Mr. Foster is an
accomplished folk musician, and like
Minee Woopsa he mastered his part.
These two actors created the emotion
required to heighten some episodes
in the play.

As the playwright Dr. Hill said:
"Movement and grouping should be
devised with a choreographic eye".
And this is one feature which was
sadly lacking throughout the pro-
duction. I would have liked to see the
musicians (string band) as part of the
troubled people in El Toro, not
merely as a hired band for a village
bacchanal unreal people playing in a
musical limbo, unseen.
Although in the play Man Better
Man there is a serious fault in its
construction, the director should have
used his skill and experience to prevent
the serious drop which to my mind
could have been overcome by added
embellishments; for instance, visible
musicians, a greater sense of com-
munication between actors and the
ability of the actors to master the
dialogue of the play. There was the
absence of clarity of the spoken word
and a total disregard for modulation
without which we were unable to
capture the mood required to follow
the action. We also hungered for
movement blending with speech
which is the essence of verse drama.
There is a lot more work needed
for Man Better Man to take its place
among the best. All in all as I said
before, compliments must go to the
director and cast for having the
courage to Produce Man Better Man.

Drama Guild


Ara wa ks

Dance Group





Saturday Sept. 6

Sunday Sept. 7

Price $5.00'

n u-

Adria..B r.46

masterpiece are not lost, actors must
bring out the poetic genius in Hill as a






More Work Needed


Man Better an


From Page 3
There is a particular nurse
who is not happy until he
jooks a bornsee with his
needle. He says and I quote
"I know the secret ofendless
rest- a Largatill injection.
Patients are given over-
doses of medication i.e. extra
tablets which have not been
prescribed by the doctor. That
some patients do find that
premature "endless rest" in
the mortuary comes as no
These nurses do not
attempt to establish rapport
with the patient. Sonmehow
they communicate by their
.attitude that they are a
species apart. They do not
love the mentally ill and the
patient knows this instinctively.
Instead they sit all day
long in their little cages like
monkeys only awaiting the
call to feed their faces in the
kitchen and their unearned
salary at the end of the
One should see the condi-
tions in which they eat and
compare the aforementioned
with the patient. From a
sheer gastronomical viewpoint
St. Ann's caters to the nurse
not the patient. These nurseF
are noionger functional and
humane. There is a tinge of
of sadism in their constitu-
These foregoing inferences
smack a bit of generalisation
because I have encountered


-~ -


TO :

Help us to help
your card is be
your employer.
right to do so or
Check it!

kind and concerned nurses.
But these were the exception
rather than the nonm. To get
a better picture one must
visit each ward and observe
how the nurses operate. Take
Boys Ward for instance.
This ward houses' the
retarded and the orphaned.
On examining the physical
condition of the ward, you
realise there exists a lack of
There were 11 beds for a
ward population of 47 more
beds have antived in iecenty.
There were few linens. Beds
were often mere mattresses.
The wards sanitary condition
is disgusting. As a result many
of the children's skins have
contacted disease.

This state of affairs pre-
sents a sharp contrast to Girl's
ward. Moreover, the boys
are the ones responsible for
the cleaning unlike Girls.
Whippings are frequent. A
belt or a stick is evei on
display. For instance, during
one of my frequent visits to
the ward a nurse told a yonng
boy in my presence "1 will cut
yu so and so if yuh doe take
the dishes downstairs to be
Little did the nurse realise
this was a part of his job.
The nurse in this ward must

......- --


you. Make sure
being stamped by
You have the
nee every month.

act as a mother and father
figure, since these children
have been abandoned by
their natural parents.
The functional nurse needs
must radiate love. In fact
the nurses should have been
specially trained to deal with
these children. There is room
for a child psychologist here.
Boys Ward is built like a
prison cell. In fact St. Ann's
building-complex is a jail and
the nurse functions as a turn-
key. The building complex
reflects an outmoded concept
of psychiatry viz. mental illness
is madness and society must
be protected at all costs.
1 have no doubt that this
locking up of patients accentu-
ates mental illness rather than
cure. In other words St.
Ann's is geared to turning out
mad men and women.
One would like to see
mental illness treated at a
community rather than an
institutionalized level; to see
that the living conditions of
the patient approximate that
the home situation.

There is a crying need for
decentralisation. Centers
should be built around the
country and the St. Ann's
complex converted into a
resident workshop for occu-
pational therapy or a voca-
tional school.
At the moment the treat-
ment of mental, illness is
being reorganised and.retruic-
tured. The adminmistration-
talks about sectorization. Yet
the patients were not con-
SU ked9 -ad .aj i ,^


Eastern Main Rd.. Laveni
SNear to Trotman stre,

Galvanise, Cemen
Blocks, Tiles,
etc, el-.

say in running of the hospital.
Patient's commi-tces to
advise the administration
must be set up.
There exists a lack of
indoor and outdoor activities
in which the patient can
indulge to break the monotony
of spending long hours in the
hospital and often-times
behind closed doors.

One is deprived of the
sensory stimuli of the world
outside St. Ann's. There
must be excursions into the
community exposure to and
interaction with the psychol-
ogically well adjusted. St.
Ann's badly needs a bus at
its disposal.
There must be some in and
out of the ward organisation
of purposeful activity; the
acquisition of some therapeutic
skill to ready the patient for
his return to community and
Occupational therapy does
exist there are 2 occupa-
tional therapists for an inmate
population of 1200 but it
needs to be. expanded since
the daily routine of most

patients is eat, smoke and
sleep., Thii du-nothitig exisi-
ence, saps tthe hfl-ifoce-of the
inmate- j. niost of-themn lead
the exri.en : ..'fa xeetal lc
A parting word to the psychi-
Who- are you to be the
judge of who is mentally fit
or unfit? Have you examined
yourself? Above all, Know
thyself. If you strive for self
knowledge you will spend a
life time in seeking. You
hold an awesome responsibil-
ity for you alone can pro-
nounce the word cured or

Moreover, you have failed
in your task of re-educating
the public and the mass media
about the nature of mental
A parting word to the
nurse. You have been the
biggest let down at St. Ann's.
You need to re-evaluate your-.
self not only in terms of
your function but the values
of the nursing profession.
Your job is humanitarian.
Never forget that.







For further ,,lformiallon
Se yeour districtNIS offic


r, ~gar

le e rs r~astitj.t f 0r
ReSeq, cb 'al Streett
stua~J of
162, 8t l8t1021
NeVJyor'V 8448

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'75 76




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