Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00175
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: August 17, 1975
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00175

Full Text

30 Cents



FOWLS have no business in cockroach
party, the old folk always say, so that it
was no surprise to me to find out that
Tapia had been excluded from the list of
V.1.P.'s (Very Impotent Politicians) who
Mr. Panday recently announced he was
inviting to hold discussions on the forma-
tion of a United Political Front.
Actually the announcement that Mr. Pan-
day was throwing a Party came as no surprise.
In the first place with the elections no more
than a year away it is once again the season
for plenty parties and plenty balls. In addition,
Mr. Panday has never tried to hide the fact
that he has always been interested in becoming
party-leader. All he ever lacked was a party..
But Mr. Panday is nobody's tool.
To be sure he has been trying very hard
to acquire one. He first tried to make his play
in 1966 with the Workers and-Fanrers' Party,
but that turned out to be a fiasco. It really
hard to lose your deposit. So that when
Rampartapsingh invited him-to become the
President of the Sugar Workers' Union, lhe
abandoned his youthful marxism and went
into Trade Unionism.
But Panday never lets the grass grow
under his feet. Mr. Rampartapsingh soon found
himself without a'Union and back behind the
counter of his shop. Once Mr. Panday found
himself in control of the All Island Sugar
Union, he lost no time trying to convert his
Trade Union constituency into an automatic
political party.
But Mr. Panday is nobody's fool. He was
not about to enter the firing line all by himself
and lose his shirt-again. Not Mr. Panday. Not
when he had Mr.Weekes the everlasting bobolee,
and Mr. Shah, the supercool' military revolu-
tionary, both waiting for a opportunity to
rush the brush and get paint.
And so, early this year, the "Mighty
Baby" was born. The United Labour Front
was born big and stupid. Against all rational
advice and without doing a shred of political
work, the leaders made their big grandstand
play. They huffed and they puffed and one


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August 31







August 24th

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L I I II I1I -SC s~g~g~sUi~ ~P~-B~ ~




Vol. 5, No. 33

if Mr. Panday has his way plenty cockroach go
Just look at the list of political parties:
N.J.A.C., the Pan-Africanists;
U.R.O., the super-orthodox marxists:
D.A.C., led by Arthur Napoleon, who.
as the blue-eyed boy in the P.N.M.,
first enunciated the concept of "tran-
quality and stability in our Industrial
Like Alice, you bound to say it looks
curiouser and curiouser.
But everybody who have eyes to see will
notice that Mr. Panday invite the D.L.P.
Now everybody know that it have two
(three) DLP's. Mr. Jamadar own and Mr.
Lequay (Capildeo) own. So how come Mr.
Mr. Panday ain't see and ain't tell nobody
which (who) DLP he invite. That funny, eh!
Now Mr. Lequay can't afford to stay away
and let Mr. Jamadar go. and Mr. Jamadar can't
affc-d to stay away and let Mr. Lequary go.
After all they both claim to represent the true
true DLP.
But Mr. Panday is nobody's fool. And he
have plenty balls. He busy inviting everybody
to bring they party, but way Mr. Panday
Party? The ULF was never a party even when
Jacobs and Millette. formerly of UNIP, were in
it. After the blows it get the other day it can't
fool nobody. So way Mr. Panday Party?
Well the plain fact is that Mr. Panday
ain't have no party. But after the discussions.
is a safe bet that he going to have one.NJAC
and URO really cannot be expected by Panday
to play hansy-pansy with the -DAC and the
many DLP's. Basdeo is merely taking their
names in vain to create what Mr. Slhah would
call a diversion.
But Mr. Panday is nobody's fool .Whether
Jamadar or Lequary (Capildeo) both go or they
stay away guess who intends to end up as the
spokesman for the DLP. So it looks like what
we really have is a discussion between the DAC
and the DLP led by a relic of the WFP. And if
that sound to you like we back in 1971 with
the ACDC-DLP. I can't really blame you. My

windy morning in San Fernando Tony lMay
blew them all away.
But Mr. Panday is nobody's fool and he
was cool. HE had made sure before the mas-
querade that he had honed out with 'die
conimanies the main points of a new agreement.
While Mr. Weeks is still in the Industrial
Court trying to get a new agreement and Mr.
Shall is still looking for recognition. Mr. Panday
is sitting around the table with the Board ol
Caroni Ltd. to sign his new agreement.
After that it was only a matter ol time
before 'we ound out just how Mr. Panday was
going to try again Nowwe know. And to give
Jack his Jacket it is the slickest play yet. And

PAGE ~I 2 Al UNA UUS 717

IN A WEEK of decisive
action, James Alva Bain,
former Permanent Secretary
and former Administrative
Comptroller, fired Sports
Editor, Tony Williams, and
hired Ed Fung.as Programme
Director. All by himself.

In his wake. Bain left all
the questions unanswered
about the motives behind his
continuing drastic actions at
610 Radio, where rumours
of witch-hunt are widespread
and reports of a list of heads
still to be rolled are whispered
with anger, fear or glee.

NINETEEN persons em-
ployed at R.J. Shannon
& Co. (T'dad) Ltd. are
reported to have lost their
jobs since workers in this
establishment j o i n e d
battle with management
for recognition of the
Transport and Industrial
Workers Union (TIWU)
as their bargaining unit.
The workers have
accused the Registration,
Recognition and Certifi-
cation Board of the In-
dustrial Court of siding
with the company's
management, by failing
to deal expeditiously
with its recognition ap-
plication and also by
rescinding an original
Letters to the Board's
Chairman from the Branch
Secretary at Shannon, and
the Chief Organiser of TIWU,
have protested the Board's
delaying tactics and called for
an early decision.
The worker-management
dispute at Shannon has been
simmering for several months.
One dismissed worker, has
been carrying out a daily
vigil for the last year in
protest of his dismissal after
several years of service.
This example of de-
mocratic protest and vigilance
led other workers at Shannon
to take up their own
grievances with the manage-
Today, the situation is one
of stalemate with management
and workers holding to their
The Registration Board
and the Industrial Court was
established, in theory, to
resolve such conflicts or to
avoid differences reaching
such bitter stages. In practice,
however, the Industrial Court,
has an ambiguous inconsistent
record one time in favour
of worker, next time favour-
ing employer.

Chairman Bain, it seems,
is answerable only to himself.
Thus the two other 610 Board
members George John and
Farfan, denied any knowledge
of the appointment of Fung,
who himself, claimed to have
a letter of appointment signed
by Bain. The Board in fact
seems to be ineffectual in
influencing or restraining
Bain, the mountain climber.


Curiously, the letter of
dismissal served on Williams,
was signed by Bain and not
by General Manager, Frank
Thompson, who had dished

out the axe notices to Raoul
Pantin and Leo de Leon, the
first two persons to fall victims
to the paranoid witch-hunt.
If the dismissals are justi-
fied then there should be
clarification of this issue. If
they are the result of the
UCIW branch at 610 dishing
our revenge for old scores,
then this should be made
If new Manager, Thomp-
son must make a clean sweep,
to create an administration
in which he can operate most
efficiently, then say so.
Radio 610 is today a place
of fear,.of unhappiness or of
blood-thirsty glee; factors
which affect the performance
of the radio station.

InS an o''

The Transport and In-
dustrial Workers Union in
particular has often com-
plained of the delays by the
Court in dealing with its
matters before the Court.

The present procrastina-
tion and contradiction of'its
own decision in the Shannon
case, can only bring the Court
and the Registration Board,
into further disrepute over
Its powers of independence.

Caribbean Certificate of Youth Education
University Boiling Pot
Spoil the Rod, and Spare the Child
U.W.I. Heritage or Hangover
Agricultural Education in India
National Dialogue
Cuba is Now a Giant Classroom
Save Our Children
Cadec Education Workshop
Education in Latin America
Education for Living
Child Care and Family Education
Education in Cuba
Schools Breeding Revolt
New Philosophy Needed in Education
Examinations and Education
Education for a Humane Society
Education Plan Doomed
Not National Consultation
A Prerequisite for Education Reform
Education for Votes
Carlton Gomes Don't Chinks Now
No Jobs in Art
Schooling Only Part of Education
New Elements Needed in Education
Teachers in Politics
Gov't Places Junior Sec. Grads.
Education Crisis Remains Unresolved
Ministry Must Publish C.E. Pass List
PNM Chickens Coming to Roost
From Shift to Make-Shift Education
Education Plan Put to Country
Numbers Racket Has Gone Too Far
A Beastly Black Board Jungle
Gov't Must Answer One Question
Education at the Crossroads

The internal bloodletting
has been matched by a nose-
dive in the station's perfor-
mance. With the exception
of the yankee dee-jaying,
standards haveplungedat NBS
610 Radio.


The newscasts are read
badly, the music is haphazard
and the current affairs pro-
grammes which make the dif-
ference between a juke-box
on the air and a radio station
have all but disappeared in
response to Bain's Editorial
The station's staff is
responsible to the Board but
Bain is responsible only to
himself. Who is responsible
to the people of Trinidad
and Tobago.
Bain, for some still obscure
reason, was appointed Chair-
man, in spite of his self-
confessed ignorance of radio
or communications, in front
of someone like Geoige John,
Government's P.R.O., and
former newspaperman.
Since his appointment,
Bain seems to be on a mission,
which it would be naive to
put solely on his shoulders.
Obviously, there is a larger
design which is to cut off the

Vol. 1. No. 1.
Vol. 1. No. 2.
Vol. 1. No. 6
Vol. 1.No. 22
Vol. 3. No. 23
Vol. 3. No. 38
Vol. 4. No. 9
Vol. 4. No. 18
Vol. 4. No. 18

Vol. 4. No. 22
Vol. 4. No. 23
Vol 4. No. 27
Vol. 4. No. 29
Vol. 4. No. 30
Vol. 4. No. 34
Vol. 4. No. 36
Vol. 4. No. 37
Vol. 4. No. 41
Vol. 4. No. 42
Vol. 4. No. 44
Vol. 4. No. 44
Vol. 5. No. 1
Vol. 5. No. 5
Vol. 5. No. 10
Vol. 5. No. 19
Vol 5. No. 25
Vol. 5. No. 25
Vol. 5. No. 27
Vol. 5. No. 28
Vol. 5. No. 28
Vol. 5. No. 30
Vol. 5. No. 31 & 32
Vol. 5. No. 31
Vol. 5. No. 31
Vol. 5. No. 33

radio station from reporting"
the news accurately and fhlly.


Internal differences over
union representation and
personal differences have been
exploited by management to
establish a restrictive policy
to cut off the nation from
commentary and criticism.
Thus Tony Williams was
dismissed for criticising the
Turf Club. In his day, Tony's
brother, would have launched
an even more bitter attack
on such bastions of colonial-
ism; today such attacks are
reserved for neighboring


Ed Fung, who returns to
610 after many years, must
find himself in a very curious
situation. The Chairman fires,
makes Editorial policy, the
Union rules, and his pre-
decessor after many years of
competent service, was dis-
missed without reason.
Beyond signing overtime
vouchers and making up an-
nouncer rotas, will Fung be a
mere front-man for the Axe-
tion man Bain?

Lloyd Best
Sally Harmer
Earl Augustus
Indian.& Foreign Review
Lawerence Carrington

Denis Solomon

Lloyd Best
Sheilah Solomon
Prensa Latina
Lloyd Best
Bhoendra Tewarie

Denis Solomon

Denis Solomon
Sheilah Solomon
Lloyd Best
Selwyn Ryan

Michael Harris
Bhoendra Tewarie

Lloyd Best

C.V. Gocking
C.V. Gocking


Jimmy Bain Again

Tapia Bibliography on Educattion

__1~1~~ I




Mr. R. Sampat-Mehta,
Political Leader,
United Freedom Party,
The Lee Building,
69 Frederick Street,

Dear Sir,
This is to acknowledge your letter of July 14,
addressed to Lloyd Best, together with the enclosed
portion of your memorandum to the Joint Select
Tapia is convinced that Constitution Reform
should be a matter of urgent national concern. As
you may well be aware over the course of the past
few years Tapia has sought consistently to bring
this issue into the national focus through our educa-
tional work in the field and through our publications,
through our participation in the deliberations of the
Wooding Commission and most recently through our
entry into the Senate.
Our failure to ignite greater public interest in
the question of Constitution Reform has been com-
pounded by the determined effort on the part of the
Government to play down the issue, and in no small
measure by the refusal of significant opposition forces
to seize the opportunities presented to them to agitate
the issue in such- a way as to bring it alive. By that
omission, the opposition has played directly into the
hands of the Government.
Yet every issue of national import, from the
restrictions on public political activity, to the re-
strictions on the right of canefarmers to organise

1- -

themselves in the manner they wish, to the attempt
on the part of the Government to introduce further
repressive legislation in the shape of the Sabotage
Bill, even down to the vexed question of reform of
the procedures for elections, a whole succession of
issues, points directly to the paramountcy of the
question of Constitution Reform, that is to say, to,
the pressing need to redress the imbalance of power
between the ordinary citizen and the government by
widening the scope for citizen participation so aS to
secure more firmly our individual liberties and our
collective well-being.
To that end, Tapia continues to urge the
summoning of a Constituent Assembly, a national
conference of citizens, to settle the basic rules by
which the nation is to be governed. Such an Assembly
must gather the representatives of the many and
diverse interests that constitute our society. We are
confident of our people's ability to effect an
honourable and workable compromise out of their
initially conflicting positions.

As a way of preparing the ground for such an
Assembly, Tapia is ready to participate in any
attempt to advance the political education of the
citizenry by exposing the various options that exist.
The conditions are that such occasions be open to
the public, that all political organizations be invited
and that the identity of the participating organizations
be preserved. We would not wish to run the risk of
holding back the process of political education and
blocking the flow of information by burying the
legitimate diversity of political opinion beneath a
spurious unity promoted by back-room manipulators.
Your invitation to us to join in a "crusade"
does not make clear what you have in mind. It is
for this reason that we have spelt out the terms on
which we would participate in any venture. Such a
weighty matter as Constitution Reform demands a
setting conducive to calm deliberation and genuine
We thank you for your letter.
Administrative Secretary
Allan Harris

Policemen:Sacrificial lambs on

Altar of Political Expediency

Dennis Pantin

THERE is something
drastically wrong with the
operations of the Police
Service, when three un-
armed persons can be
shot dead in the process
of being apprehended or
questioned. One has to
wonder whether the
Death Squad made
famous in Brazil by
groups of off-duty police-
men, operates on-duty in
Trinidad and Tobago.
The individual policeman
can make a mistake, but the
instances of police-citizen
mishap is now approaching
epidemic proportions. The
average policeman,seems to
be programmed to consider
the mass of the population,
particularly if black, poor or
scrunting to be a personal
menace, a scourge to be re-
moved from the face of the
This is the psyche being
I'.,. by the 3-months train-
ig : the St. James barracks,
the other training at the top-
secret garrison at the back of
Caroni and in the day-to-
day operations of the police
Tony May, Randolph
Burroughs, Babb, are as
responsible for the death of
the -three persons killed
recently as are the policemen
who pulled the triggers.
Fundamentally, however,
the blame must rest with the
political leadership with
Padmore, Pitt, Hudson-
Phillips (who supervised the
early militarisation of the
police service), Williams, the
entire clique of political
elites must take their place
before the court of the people

and account for their mis-
management of the country
- the rootcause of the social
situation which breeds these
The Police Service is but
the first line of defense of
the political regime. The
tragedy is that when the in-
dividual policeman is caught,
he is put up as the sacrificial
lamb. It is naive to dismiss
the entire Police Service as a
grouping of psychopaths bent
on the annihilation of the

The point is that as the
economic situation in the
country becomes more dread
- as unemployment increases,
housingbecomes scarcer, food
dearer, the disease spills over
into the streets in the form
of marijuana pushing, petty
theft, and armed robbery.
In attempts at survival, the
people sometimes take to
desperate forms of reparation
for their distress. The answer
to this call lies in drastic
economic reorganization, in-
creased avenues for political
participation, self-criticism,
utid improvement in the
welfare sector.
Instead, 'this government
responds blindly by passing
repressive legislation I.R.A.,
Sedition Act, Firearms
Amendment Act, Sabotage
Bill, Mental Health Bill.
It is the ordinary police-
man who has to enforce the
political legislation and pro-
tect the political leadership,
which increasingly hides
behind enclaves around the
The legitimate protest of
the nation lead to-physical
confrontations with the police
in the streets of Port-of-

Spain, San Fernando or even
in the Queen's Park Oval in a
simple football match.
The policeman who is
facing the brunt of the
public's anger is under tre-
mendous strain. On .the one
hand, the regime establishes
a palace corps an elite" or
- political force which guards
the political leadership and
family, and enforces its politi
cal legislation.
This sets up conflicts
within the- Police Service
itself. The political force
grabs the limelights, gets the
perks and promotions, while
the less political police officer
finds himself stagnating and
subject to the same abuse by
the public which cannot dis-
tinguish -the good from the
bad and the ugly.
The arming of the police
sets up the psychological
trauma, known as trigger-
finger. The constant avail-
ability of a pistol or rifle sets
up in the individual the urge
to use it.
When his training estab-
lishes the poor, black and
scrunting as the ultimate
enemy, then the reaction of
reaching for the gun and
shooting the enemy becomes
an almost automatic reflex
when the police officer finds
himself in a conflict situation.
The Commission set up to
investigate the disturbances
at Teteron in 1970 estab-
lished a high incidence of
mental disturbance among
soldiers. There is no doubt
that since 1970 in particular,
members of the Police Ser-
vice have been under even
greater strain.
Yet one wonders to what
extent is there any'monitor-
ing of the psychological state
of the policeman on the beat;
confused by his role of buffer

between the people and the
ruling regime.
One day he is hunting
communists in the hills, the
next day, the man who has
sent him on this mission is
hugging up Castro, rapping
with Mao Tse Tung, signing
agreements with Breshnev.
Members of the Police
Service, like all other citizens
must decide whether they
will support a regime which
uses them as cannon to make
fodder of the people. He must

search his conscience, look at
the economic situation of his
family, his friends, his neigh-
bours and decide whether his
lot is with that of the people
or that of the oligarchy.
In the Police Service
there is need for disarming,
policemen, for psychiatric
assistance. More importantly,
there is need for a different
type of training for the
policeman to see himself in
a different role than that of
shooter of persons.
There is need for salary
and dress reform. For a dif-
ferent system of promotion
and recognition. There is also
need to place the Police
Service under a more inde-
pendent jurisdiction than
that of the Minister of Na-
tional Security or the

Our coverage of


is unsurpassed anywhere

for focus and point.

Keep abreast of the

real currents in the

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Tapia, 82,St. Vincent St. Tunapuna,
Trinidad & Tobago, W.I. 1 lephone 662-5126.

A Constituent Assembly:

Tapia replies to

Invitation from Mehta

L,, I -- I --- I--- ----




BC Blaclmail

in Socialist Style

THE Working People's
Alliance of Guyana is the
latest issue their stencilled
paper DA YCLEAN has
accused the Burnham Gov-
ernment of levying what it
has termed "A Scraven Levy"
on the Public Servants of

There is a big outcry
among public servants em-
ployed by the Guyana Gov-
ernment. Why? The PNC is
staging the biggest and mosi
brazen hold-up in its history,
in a money- raising drive for
the PNC August Congress.
There seems to be a mas-
sive PNC campaign to squeeze
from the public service, army-
and police the sum of between
two hundred thousand and
three hundred thousand
dollars for the PNC August
Congress from government
employees alone.
In each Ministry, the
Permanent Secretary is no
longer a servant of the people
but a tool of one party, the
,PNC, a minority party, which
"won" the 1973 elections by
misusing the army and which
is now picking the pockets of
that army.


Guyana in order to raise fimds
for the Party Congress which
is scheduled to take place in
In its editorial statement
the Alliance' which is com-
posed of four left-wing groups
in Guayna, emphatically de-

Each P.S. has received
orders from Dr. Reid, the
"full time General Secretary"
who is pMinister of National
Development and Deputy
Kabaka and who is paid by
the State as a full time
Deputy P.M. and Minister.
Each P.S. is faithfully, like a.
slave, carrying out these
The orders seem to be
that each senior P.S. or
General Manager is told to
make a "voluntary" contri-
bution of $300 to the PNC
August biennial Congress.
Each Head of Department or
Junior P.S. has to pay $250
if he earns more .than $1,250
per month.
.If his salary is under
$1,250 the officer must pay
$200. A P.A.S. must pay
$150. An A/S (Assistant
Secretary) or A.A. (Adminis-


Minister acknowledges

Colonisation Plan

Greg Chamberlin '

IN Paris last week terri-
iories minister, Olivier
Stirn was quoted as say-
ing that French citizens
would have priority over
Vietnamese refugees in
plans to settle the remote
and undeveloped French
South-American Depart--
ment of Guyane (French
Commenting in a radio
interview on a French press
report of a plan to ship some
40,000 Indochinese refugees
to Guyane, Mr. Stim, who
is currently visiting Guyane,
admitted that he had been
approached about such a
But he said the new
settlement of Guyane would
be firstly by French nationals.
whether they came from
France, the Caribbean pos-
sessions of Guadeloupe and
Martinique, or from the In-
dian Ocean Island of Re-
They would be given in-
centives to settle there, in-
cluding land, he said.
Guyane has never been
popular with the French. It
was famous for decades as a
prison colony, and its re-
moteness and unhealthy
amazonian climate has kept
most people away. Its
34,700 square miles contain
only 52,000 people, mostly

Earlier this year however,
the French Government de-
cided on a crash develop-
ment programme for Guyane
as a way of tapping its rich
resources of minerals, land
and forests toprovide France
with an adequate stockpile
supply of raw materials of
its own.
S Mr. Stir spoke of these
projects during his visit to
Guyane this weekend.


The press report, in the
left-wing daily "Liberation"
last week, suggested that the
plan to settle the Vietnamese
refugees in Guyane would
fit in well with the govern-
ment's development plans.
It said the scheme had
been thought up by a retired
South- Vietnamese General
now living in France and
been supported by several
private French groups deal-
ing with receiving the war
refugees, mainly from the
United States.
The paper reported criti-
cism of the plan by the
French Socialist Party, and
by Guyanese nationalists on
the grounds that it would
worsen the country's serious
economic plight, including
massive unemployment, and
would also create a
"Palestine-like situation"
with all its attendant politi-
cal, economic, social and
racial problems.

nounced what it called "the
gangster-like attempts to rob
working people of their hard-
erned pay. The Editorial
went on to charge the ruling
P.N.C. or funning a "Mafia-
like "operation.
Tapia reprints a shortened
version of the editorial.

tative Assistant) has to pay
$100. (Clearly there must be
a lot of asses among these
P.S.'s and A.S.'s). a Chief
Accountant also has to pay
Since the PNC claims to
be "Socialist" it is claiming
to levy smallest amounts on
the lowest paid workers. In
some Ministries and Corpora-
tions, the lowest paid em-
ployees are told to give what
they can afford. But in some
of these a limit is also fixed.
In some cases it is $5. In
others it seems to be $16.10.
Generally, the PNC mafia
is- not as "socialist" as it
looks. They are forgetting
their newly learned Marxist
principles. In some cases, they
are levying 10% at the bottom
and 12% at the top. At any
rate, against all ."socialist"
principles, the Kabaka's Mafia
has told certain public ser-
vants that their minimum
contribution is $16.10.
It is known that the
soldiers of the GDF have had
to pay several times taxes for

the rebuilding of Congress
Place-destroyed by the PNC
Mafia in a fire we have not
heard much about. Now they
demanding new bribes for
In most ministries, perhaps
in all, the workers have been
told to pay their Party bribes
to the regional office of their-
district, get a receipt and
and show this to the P.S. or
A.S. who will note the name,
receipt number and amount.
This must be done by August
These lists will then be
sent to the Office of the
Prime Minister where the
Chief Money Changers will go
through them and take note
of those who did not pay,
like the Devil and his angels
counting souls.'
The PNC is relying on
fear. It expects that because
of fear all the souls will pay
their fedual dues to keep their
posts. If this is socialist think-
ing and practice then
Mussolini was the Africans'
best friend.
What are the lessons to be
learned from this latest choke
and rob attempt of the money-
1) The doctrine of the
paramountcy of the party is
not an attempt to control
Ministers, but an attempt to
enslave the workers and the
whole people.
2) Senior Ministers are
expected to pay $1,500. This
only shows how rich they are.
The Party knows that they
have surplus earnings. It
knows also that they can
make up all of that in al-
lowances and trips ab.oad.
The lower class employees
cannot do this. They must rob

their families and unemployed
friends to support the PNC.
3) The PNC believes that
government employees work
with (for) the PNC and per-
sonally with (for) Mr.
Comrade Burnham, Q.C.,
who is the PNC, according
to its constitution. So the
PNC is demanding ledual dues
from those it "gives" bread.
The work you do for your
money is not enough. You
must pay your fedual obliga-
gations to the feudal syperiors.
They demand th.e scraven tax.
4) Feudal obligations in
Guyana take the following
forms: Money for the Party;
the body tax or tax in flesh
on women;forced members of
PNC; forced acceptance of
will of the Leader even in
personal matters; carrying out
all instructions legal or illegal;
withholding of opinions which
the rulers do not accept;
joining the National Service
to get certain benefits;loyalty
to the PNC andthe Kabaka
to bet a job.
5) The PNC began by "in-
viting" public servants to
Congress. Then it "ordered"
them to march. Now it is
levying heavy contributions
of money on its fedual serfs
The report is that they will
next levy a regular amount,
on workers for the party if
they get away with this levy.
6) It is now clear that the
Public Service Union and the
others representing public
servants, the Police Associa-
tion and the Army "Shoot
out" are nothing but puppet
organizations of the govern-
ment, joining in the exploit-
ation of the working people.

We go to any

length to do

our job!

We installed suspended ceilings ontwo of AMQCO'S
offshore production-platforms over twenty miles out at see some
time ago. It was a.hew experience for us, but it was all part'of
our job The lrdustrial and Building Products Division of
L. J. Williams Limited:
Apart from installing suspended ceilings, we also construct
- ..... shop fronts and partitions for business places. install NACO
Louvre Windows and custom built Roller Shutters. and apply the
ultra modern 'Fleto finish to walls and floors
Also,'we supp Kwikset locks. Gibbons Ironmongery.
S... world-famous Evo-Stik 528 adhesive and Resin-W woodwork
.. adhesive. Ibiboard, laminated plastic sheeting and Ibi Ace
depbrative plywood, and more!
-If we- have a service you could use. give us a call at 62 3866
We'll go to any lenthjto help you

'. J".L. A. Williayns. '

- "--


Panama is not A

U.S. Invention

Writer Ricaurte Soler, 43, professor of the history of ideas in
America at the National University of Panama, has written
numerous works on the topic of Panamanian nationhood.
Between hisPanamanian Thought and the Conception of Nation-
hood in the 19th Century, published in 1954, and his book
Ideological Forms of the Panamanian Nation he engaged in inten-
sive activities in fhe study of essential issues. For eight years
(1960-68) Soler edited TAREAS (tasks) magazine and pub-
lished basic books by Justo Arosemena and other Panamanian
A graduate of the University of Panama and the Sorbonne
in Paris, soler visited Cuba early in 1975 to serve as a member
of the panel of judges for the Casa de las Americas annual
literary contest.

Prensa Latina

~n, .r,
rtr :." 'L;
I' -;.


-r. 1..~ .r
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THE government headed by General
Omar Torrijos has begun an effort of
national reconstruction in all spheres.
Culture figures among the most urgent
requirements within the Panamanian
order of priorities. What essential
measures have been enacted in that
Without any doubt the most im-
portant is the Educational Reform.
With Aristides Royo in the Education
Ministry, this plan is going forward.
Early it is still in its beginnings, but
the essential goal has been perfectly
defiried: to attain a maximum of
cultural dissemination at all levels.
That is one of the basic principles of
the Reform.
The other is the creation of very
close links between school and pro-
duction, something really new in our
country. In the twenties and thirties
some headway was made by the idea
that education should not be cut off
from practice. But, on what basis was
the problem posed?
The underlying idea was the prag-
matism of William James and others,
whose thinking wielded.a decisive in-
fluence in Panamaman teaching at the
Now, however, the formulation
takes on a different coloring. We still
accept the notion of linking education
and practice, but the new thing in
Panamanian history is that now there
is emerging a state economic sector
that did not exit before. For instance
we have a sugar mill, the Victoria,
which the oligarchy claimed would be
a failure, but under state management
it's been a complete success.
There are plans to take over the
direction of four or five more mills
either as outright state ventures or
as state-cooperative structures.
Another plan is for the state to
run tomato processing plants. Also,
the Community boards, which had a
more or less theoretical existence, are
now really beginning to take over
productive functions.
So the new thing is that Panamanian
education from now on will develop a
state economic practice. This poses

contradictions with the oligarchy,
which oppose the reform. They don't
say so publicly, but right now their
strategy isn't to confront the govern-
ment but to "oligarchize" it.

Q.At what grade is the education
reform being applied?
A. In principle it takes in all levels,
from pre-school through the university.-

Q. These problems call for studies.
Literary essays can be a way of going
more deeply into them. For instance,
how is the Canal problem reflected
in the context of present-day Pana-
manian literature?
A. Essays are very much linked to
political problems of the past and
present. The magazinesTareas and
Loteria have published articles on
Canal problems by such authors
as Carlos Bolivar Pedreski, Carlos
Ivan Zuniga, Javier Gorostiza and
others. The list is a long one. Of
course, the issue is constantly dis-
cussed in newspaper articles.

Q. Has this always been the case or
is it just since Torrijos?
A. Especially since January 1964, the
time of the great anti-imperialist
demonstrations. Conservative estimates
place the number of demonstrators
in Panama City and Colon three days
running at ab out 100,000 Panamanians.
The population of the capital was
was less then than it is now, so the
size of the crowds is that much more
In the confrontation with the US
soldiers stationed in the Canal Zone,21
people were killed and 330 injured.
The US presence in my country is a
constant stimulus for nationalist,
anti-imperialist demonstrations. The
situation is really very tense in that

Q. How does Panama withstand the
ongoing attempts at cultural penetra-
tion throughout Latin America by the
United-States government?
A. The penetration is obvious. How-



ever, there's always been a great
resistance, which is even expressed in
some secondary aspects. For instance,
people are careful about language,
that is, in completely spontaneous
fashion they withstand the constant
and strong US influence when it comes
to their expressions. It's clearly a
grassroots affirmation of our

Q. Soler, you began your cultural
activities through philosophical studies.
Then you switched to historic and
sociological matters. How do you
account for the change?
A. By the real situation of the Latin
American countries. The present con-
text obliges us. to tackle more con-
crete themes. I studied philosophy
and history in Panama, then in
France and finally in Mexico.
My writings have centered increas-
ingly on history and sociology, I must
admit. My main topic of course is the
Panamanian nation. I've set out, to
the extent of my possibilities, to
reassess our national history.

Q. This includes a new version of the
thesis that Panama was a United
States invention?
A. That is precisely at the center of
my concern. Of course, Panama's in-
dependence from Colombia was at-
tained in 1903 under United States
influence. In reality the world is un-
aware of the meaning of the pro-
gressive attitude of the Panamanian
commercial bourgeoisie of the nine-
teenth century, as well as that of the
repeated attempts to obtain separation
or self-rule from Colombia in that


Many Latin American writers reach
the too-fast and too-facile conclusion
that Panama was a US invention. For
us that is a vital and terrible matter.
Those who hold that view play
right into the hand of Theodore
Roosevelt's thesis, that is, the man
who said, "I took Panama." We
Panamanians believe that you can't
judge a country's history by one
event; we think that an effort needs to
be made to understand Panamanian
society as a whole.
That's why this concern emerges
constantly in our literature. We con-
duct a permanent quest for our
colonial routes and attitudes of the
19th century.

Q.In your book IdeologicalForms
of the Panamanian Nation,
you address yourself to that topic.
Justo Arosemena, a figure who is
fairly unknown to the rest of Latin.
American culture, emerges with
singular force.
In seeking the country's roots,
have you also set out to publicize
the work and action of Arosemena?
A.-Justo Arosemena was the main
theoretician of our nationality in the
19th century. So we feel that study-
ing him is vital for us. He is really a
very significant intellectual figure. If
he is little known in Latin America,
and that is undeniable, it's because we
Latin Americans are very ignorant
about each other.
For Panama, Arosemena has about
the same significance as Marti does for
Cuba. One of our present goals is to
help make Justo Arosemena better
known outside Panama.

Our printing-plant is open at
The Tapia House 82-84 St. Vincent
Street, Tunapuna.

Kindly phone orders to: 662-5126.


'~Z~ iS.,


I i I

_ _~ ___i




P RIN T I N & P U S HI M .G. 61.


THE country is deeply troubled
about secondary education and,
more particularly, about its two-
tier structuring, with its attendant
problem of conversion into Junior
and Senior Secondary Schools
in 1976. Such conversion is not
However, if the public is to
take an intelligent interest in this
matter and express opinions that
are relevant and worthwhile, it
must understand precisely what
is going on and what Government
is planning. The public does not
know. Everything is ad hoc.
The Government must be ask-
ed, and the Government must
answer, in clear and unequivocal
language, t h i s fundamental
question: Does its decision fo
provide an additional period of
two years' secondary education
for all the children completing
the Junior Secondary course this
year (1975) mean that it has also
decided to offer an additional
two yeras not only to those
children who entered the Junior
Secondary Schools in 1973,
1974 and 1975 but also to those
other children who will be en-
tering after conversion in 1976?
In other words, does the Govern-
ment now propose to equate
"free secondary education for
all" with a five-year secondary
course of some kind grammar,
technical, vocational beyond
the 11 plus? Put simple: is sec-
ondary education now going to
be a five-year course, free and for


Solutions, for example, that belong
within the more limited framework of
the Education Plan may be quite
different from those that are feasible
within the broader framework of sec-
ondary education for all up to the age
of 16 plus. Government must give a
lead. It must have some idea of its
intentions. It has information and
access to information not always
readily available to other organizations
and individuals.
Many people believe that elections,
constitutionally carded for next year,
explain the "generosity" which has
provided the additional two years for
all Junior Secondary pupils graduating
in 1975. They also believe, however,

Those who think

that the Govern-
ment has decided

upon a five-year

course of free second-

ary education for

all 11-plus children

would, perhaps, be

better advised to see

this years 6,500 as

a happy coincidence.

that the same thing will be done in
1976 and in the years that follow
because it will be politically impossible
to reverse the process.
But these people can be very wrong
indeed. Let us look at the matter a
little more closely. Seven thousand
and forty children were admitted in
1972 to the Junior Secondary Schools
and 6,500 have now completed the
three-year course. In 1972 5370
children were also admitted to the all-
age secondary schools, Government
and Assisted, and have just completed
the third year of the five-year course.
We therefore have a total of 11,870
children who entered secondary
school in 1972, have now completed
the third year and are about to enter
upon the fourth year of a five-year
course being provided for all, on in-
structions from the Prime Minister to
the Minister of Educatiun. The figure
11,870 represents 39.5% of the 11
plus 1972 age-group of 30,032
(Education Plan, Population Pro-
jections, page 7). The figure very
closely corresponds with the 37% of
the same Plan (Page 37,4.26.
Those who think that the Govern-
ment has decided upon a five-year
course of free secondary education

for all 11 plus children see the 6,500
passing out from the Junior Secondary
Schools as representing 100% of the
graduates. They easily conclude that,
when the 6,500 figure jumps to 10,000 -
and then to 20,000, as it will do in the
years ahead, the same 100% will in-
herit a five-year course. They would,
perhaps, be better advised to see this
year's 6,500 as a happy coincidence
that has permitted the 100% of Junior
Secondary graduates, together with
the 5,370 from the all-age schools, to
fall within the 39.5% total envisaged
for senior secondary schooling. In
other words, political necessity or op-
porturism can be the reason why
Government is anticipating, but not
exceeding, its planned percentage of
"approximately 37% in 1980" for
Senior Secondary Schools. The 24 1/2%
discrepancy is of no great moment.


If my line of reasoning is correct,
the Government will have to do for
the 1973, 1974 and 1975 Junior Sec-
ondary intakes what it has done for
those of 1972. Public morality would
seem to require it, and from a practical
point of view it will be no big thing.
This year (1975) 10,000 children en-
tered Junior Secondary. They will
graduate in 1978. If the Junior Sec-
ondary drop-out rate continues, they
will number 9,200. With the 5,390
from the all-age schools the total
number of thrid-year pupils will be
14,590 or 43.8% of this year's 11
plus age-group of 33,200 Places will
have to be found for them. By 1978,
however, we should have a number of
vocational schools which, with our
plans for industrial development,
could absorb the additional 6.8%.
I am therefore suggesting that what
the Government may be doing this
year is sticking to its over-all 37% for

SThe decision to

raise the number of

Junior Secondary

admissions to Senior

Secondary is clearly

political. But we

must keep an open

mind and if it is

something more, if

the Government

proposes to extend

'free secondary

education for all"

to 16 plus, then it

must tell us so.
\._ .t

Senior Secondary education and not
really going beyond it. Anticipating
1980 but not exceeding it. Had there
been no election in the offing, it would
perhaps have struck to its original
35% of the total 7,040 1972 Junior
Secondary intake or 2,464 as originally
planned. With an election in sight, it
has brought forward its planned 37%
for 1980 and been thus enable to
accommodate the entire 6,500
graduating from the Junior Secondary
Sector. It cduld be as simple as that.
There may therefore be no reason
whatever for believing that the Gov-
ernment has any intention of departing
from the main provisions of the 15-
year Education Plan. Indeed the Govt-
ernment can claim that at no time has
it committed itself to the definition
of secondary education as equivalent
to the five-year course for all. It is
only the euphoria arising from tie
slogan of "free secondary education
for all" that has led people to believe
so. There has always been a five-year
or even a seven-year course for some
but that is for the GCE. the nature and
purpose of which prescribe that it
must have that duration.


In 1961, for example, when sec-
ondary education was made free
schools like Woodbrook, St. James,
Diego Martin, South-East Port-of-
Spain were all three-year Secondary
Modern Schools. They were only con-
verted into five-year schools in 1964.
Nor was the case for extending GCE
education altogether indefesible. At
that date 16.8% of the 11 plus group
entered the existing all-age schools and
though the strict professional educa-
tionist might have said that that figure
was satisfactory, allowance has to be
made for the politician with parents
and children pressuringhim, demanding

an extension of that type of education
that leads to the professions and so
many other forms of gainful employ-
That secondary education could
cease after three years was therefore
nothing new in 1967-68 when the
Education Plan introduced the three-
year Junior Secondary School. What
was new was the two-tier system and
this is the crux of the matter.

It is in this context of a Five-year
and a three-year course existing side by
side as part of the history of our
educational development that we must
examine the charge that allocating
ooys aiia girls to two couiscs at dif-
ferent lengthsconstitutes discrimination
against those who enter the Junior
Secondary Schools for a three-year
period. This is not so.
The Common Entrance Examina-
tion which we all wish to see go as soon
as we can place every 11 plus child in
the second stage of his education, was
devised as a means of discovering those
best suited for the grammar or academic

type of education. This was its primary
purpose. Ihis is the nature of the
examination. We have extended its use
as a merit yardstick to choose ad-
ditional children for places which are
in short supply. Indeed the Junior
Secondary system, with its 14 plus
examination, keeps the system open
by providing opportunities for the
late developer in the Junior school to
join the academic and technical streams
at 14 plus.

No injustice is therefore being done
to any child. The Common Entrance
Examination is open to all. It is
fairly administered. Bright boys and
girls from every stratum of society
make it. It is true that the examination
tends to favour those who enjic
superior socio-economic status: bl.
this is true of this type of examine~ ti i..
all over the world. Experts have ;o)
been able to come up with any sort o
test that can quite overcome this ,'
ficulty, and no country, no nation
anywhere in the world has yet, at this
stage of man's historical development,
been able to create a society which
provides equal social and economic
conditions for all. And, even if this
were to be achieved, Nature will still
continue to produce unequal human
beings though not on a class basis
since God is no repecter of persons.
The decision to raise the number
of Junior Secondary admissions to
Senior Secondary from 2,464 to
6,500 is clearly political. But we must
keep an open mind and if it is some
thing more, if the Government propose
to extend "free secondary education
for all" to 16 plus, then it must tell us
so. In such a case it will have to do
an in-depth study. A Working Party,
properly chaired and within representa-
tive membership, with a Research Of-
ficer and Assistants should be set up.


At The Crc

C.V. G

V 0 -

JST 17, 1975
There are just a few other points
I should like to add:
1. Most people do not know it, but
there is a remarkable similarity between
the Junior Secondary School of today
and the Secondary Modern School of
our devisting in 1961. How it has
developed since it became a 5-7 year
school should prove illuminating.
2. To provide all our 11 plus
children with five years of secondary
or second stage education as they do in
North America, for example, is "a
consummation devoutly to be wished".
The question is one of costs and
priorities. There can be no excuse for
not investigating this immediately and
thoroughly. Now that there is what
has been called a crisis in education,
"we must take the current when it
serves or lose our ventures." The Gov-
ernment must have the information
ready to hand and should. publish a
White Paper for public information and
3. If we are going to convert in
1976 and will be placing all our 11 plus
children, including the nation's best
brains and talent and let there be no
humbug about this description in
Junior Secondary Schools, then the
pupil-teacher and graduate-non-

graduate ratios; prevailing there will
have to be radically revised.
A typical Junior Secondary School
houses 1,920 pupils served oy 63
members of staff, that is 1 teacher to
30.5 pupils. South-East Port-of-Spain
which is to open as a new Senior Com-
prehensive School will' begin with
1,295 pupils and 60 teachers, that is
1 teacher to every 21.6 pupils. We can
be sure that when the school gets going
the pupil-teacher ratio will be im-
proved. A typical all-age 5-year school,
formerly Senior Modern, covering a
curriculum almost identical with the
Junior Secondary, 1 teacher to 20
pupils. An "A" level Assisted Sec-
ondary school, 1 teacher to 19 pupils.
An all-age "A" level Government Sec-
ondary School probably better than
The graduate-non-graduate ratios
are even more unsatisfactory. A typical
Junior Secondary School has a staff of
63 of whom 7 are graduates. Of these,
3, the Principal and the two vice-
Principals are administrative and do
no teaching. There are therefore 4
graduates among 60 teachers, that is 1
graduate to every 14 non-graduates.
In the a3' ~ig five-year, formerly Sec-
ondary :-; dern there will be 20
graduates to 8 non-graduates, that is a
ratio of 5 to 2. In an Assisted Sec
ondary all-age school the ratio is 2
graduates to 1 non-graduate. In ihe
Government "A" level all-age schools
the ratio is probably better still.


For these statistics to make their
proper impact, we must convert our
rations into actual numbers.
A comparison between a typical
Junior Secondary School and one of
Governments' 5-year, all-age, "0" level
secondary schools (not Q.R.C. which
is "A'level)will show that if the all-age
school had the Junior Secondary's

The Junior

Secondary schools,

plant-wise, some-

thing altogether and

commendably dif-

ferent. From the

standpoint cfnum

bers and qualifica-

tions of staff,

however, it is only

greatly improved



1,920 pupils, it would have a teaching
staff of 96 instead of the Junior
Secondary's 60.
With a st6ff of 96, the all-age
school would have 69 graduates on the
strength of its 5 to 2 graduate-non-
graduate ratio. The Junior Secondary
has 4 graduates because of its 1 to 14
There is therefore an enormous dif-
ference between the academic levels of
staffing in the two institutions, so
enormous indeed as to constitute not
merely a quantitative but a qualitative
The country has borrowed millions
of dollars to construct expensive Junior
Secondary buildings and to equip
them. Capital costs have been high.
Government has sought to recoup on
current costs by drastic economies in
numbers of staff and their qualifica-
The Junior Secondary School is,
plant-wise, not merely a radical im-
provement on previous post-primary
accommodation but something altogether
and commenaawly different. From the
standpoint of numbers and qualifica-
tions of staff, however, it is only a
greatly improved post-primary depart-
rie:nt and can by no stretch of the
.he imagination be called secondary.
And again, at this point, we take
no account of the shift, the almost
total absence of extra-curricular activity
and other short-comings. Now let us
have a look at non-graduate qualifica-
In a Junior Secondary School, 56
of the 60 teachers will be non-graduate.
Of these 56 there are in any one
school 7 teachers with a Special
Diploma, that is the teacher is Teacher
or Training College trained with
an additional Diploma in subjects
like Home Economics, Physical Edu-
cation etc: 3 with "A"' Level
qualifications; and 46 Teacher or
Training College trained teachers
for primary schools with a six-month

orientation course to fit them for work
in the Junior Secondary sector. The
academic qualification for admission
to a Teachers' College is 5 "0" levels;
some will have an additional 1 "A"
level; most students with 2 "A" levels
think of University.


The Teachers' College diploma is
preeminently a professional qualifica-
tion with the student taking a Special
Subject, generally considered of "A"
level standard. It has been reported
that the Junior Secondary Schools
offer the primary, teacher an additional
two increments and has been drawing
off the best teachers from the primary
schools. None need remind anyone
who has an experience of education
that many a primary school teacher
does better work than a graduate,
especially if the teacher is untrained.
Nevertheless the graduate qualification
is all in all preferable at secondary level.
In the United States, though one
should not press such comparisons,


teachers in primary or elementary
schools are required to have a
Bachelor's Degree in Education. In the
.United Kingdom, according to a Book-
let entitled "Education in Britain"
(British Information Services, London),
page 47, we are told:
"Three-year courses of education
and training for intending teachers
leading to a Certificate of Education
are provided mainly in colleges of
education...An increasing number
of college of education students
now work for a degree (Bachelor of
Education), together with a profes-
sional teaching qualification, by
means of a four-year course." Our
Teachers' College provide a two-
year course.


Are we seriously to believe that we
can consign all our 11 plus children,
including the most academically gifted
and others talented in other ways, to
the Junior Secondary School with its
outrageously unsatisfactory pupil-
teacher and graduate-non-graduate
ratios, with its shift system, with
little extra-curricular activity a factor
that plays so large a part in personal
development, and expect to provide a
satisfactory foundation for "O" level
and "A" level work, leading, as these
qualifications necessarily do, to the
university, to technical institutes, to
teachers colleges and other institutions
of higher learning and training?
4. The Unesco Report of 1964,
which is largely responsible for the
Government's thought crystallising
around the Juni6r Secondary and the
two-tier system, claimed that it in-
clined to this recommendation because
there was no difficulty in converting
the Junior Secondary into an all-age
school indeed what they said on this
matter seems almost to have been

written for this occasion:
"A Junior Secondary School can
be easily expanded into a com-
prehensive or a multi-lateral school
when circumstances make it
necessary to extend education to
more and more of the 15-year
olds." (Unesco, Report, page 8,
para. 11).
I should like to stress that schools
like St. James, Diego Martin Sec.
to take two examples, offer a mine
of information and insights for such a
purpose. They tend to be overshadow-
ed by the prestige schools but under
some able and dedicated principals
they have evolved courses to suit the
varying needs of the children and are,
in many ways, comprehensive in or-
ganization and curriculum.
5. Secondary education up to 16
plus will require courses and an
examination, something like the
English Certificate of Secondary Educa-
tion (C.S.E.), to answer the require-
ments of a sizeable number of children
whose needs will not readily be served
by the grammar, the technical or the
6. The Heads of the Six Major
Religious Denominations and the
Principal of St. Mary's College have
gone on record protesting that the 5
GCE "O" level yardstick for measure-
ing success in secondary schools is
most unsatisfactory. It has been
responsible for the misleading statistic
that 88% of all pupils in our secondary
schools do not justify their selection
and fail every year.


As so often happens in our country,
matters of great importance are raised,
pronouncements follow and then
absolutely nothing is done about them.
This is one such and the presence of
the Prime Minister in the present
discussions furnishes an opportunity
to have something done for the
thousands of children who suffer every
I pointed out in an article some
time ago that the 1963 School Certifi-
cate and GCE Regulations, read in
conjunction with the Syndicate
"1960 Explanatory Notes," provide a
truer and better standard by which to
judge our secondary school pupils and
might be used by the Ministry of
Education, with the help of the schools,
to award a more satisfactory and just
form of secondary school certification.

There may be no

reason whatever for

believing that the

Government has any

intention of depart-

ing from the main

provisions of the

15-year Education






;~~-R 'P

1.- ;
d--c~o Ilr~i~lb~S~R~ ?r
~4~5--C--CL _~~i



Beyond the Reach

of Spiri t Forms


by Victor D.


AT Cliff Sealy's THE BOOK
SHOP, there is a powerful and
insightful work on the role of
cosmic forces, racism and col-
lective destiny in contemporary
Zuly history and politics. It con-
tains statements that echo Fanon,
but "Ushaba" is a very individual
and original effort that challenges
all our responses.
"Ushaba" the hurtle to blood
river, is a Zulu Umlando written in
English by Jordan Kush Ngubane. It
examines the Zulu's involvement in
the crisis of colour in South Africa,
by using literary and social concepts
of description and analysis indigenous
to the Zulus. Thus, Ushaba emerges as
a dense study of Zulu culture, without
being simply a sociology text, a history
text or a novel: The work in fact is
described as a Zulu Umlando.
The umlando form of narrative
was used by the ancient Zulus when
they "talked to themselves about
themselves". Ngubane says that Urn
land as a genre was 'developed in
response to the demands of crisis
situations, in. Zulu history and was
meant forl a given type of audience.
It was used extensively in the condi-
tions created by the revolution which:
Shaka the Great led.
Nlgubane therefore in his attempt
to tell the world about the. power;
struggle between the African and the
Afrikaner in his country, uses a
pattern of story-telling once used by
his ancestors, called an umlando.
Umlando was "a vehicle for de-
veloping the collective wisdom or
strength of the family, the clan or
the nation". A narrator using the
umlando genre is called an umlandi.
The umlandi usually has the authority
to speak out because he was present
at the critical moment when history
took a significant swing.
Yet, it must be remembered, as
Ngubane tells us, that the umlandi
must not be confused with the
European historian or the reporter.
The umlandi does not aim at objec-
tivity and bare facts, he is "creatively
subjective". As Ngubane puts it, the
umlandi "deals with idea-forms, the
sub-ective moulds in which events are
first cast. The umlandi is a poet-
historian who can trap and use cosmic
power, his heroes and villains like his
animals and plants are congelations of
idea forms".
Ugubane as an umlandi has chosen
the Zuly involvement in the crisis of
"colour" in South Africa because he
was born into it, and he claims it
has made him what he is. He sees the
problem in South Africa as not one of
integrating the African in the white
man's society; but one in which black
and white are "caught in a compli-
cated clash of conflicting ideals of
fulfilment". What we learn is that the
Zulus are moving, as they did in the
time of Shaka, "to Heavens beyond
the reach of spirit-forms".
Ushaba comprises historical events,
sharp analysis, folk tales, proverbs,
anthropology, poetry and illustrations
of the Zulu mechanics of self-
preservations. The whole is held to-
gether by a sense of imminent re-

venge. Ngubane's statement in his
foreword is worth quoting at length:
Where the historian or scientist
arrives at the truth by analysis,
by compartmentalising reality
and trying to understand
it through the study of its
isolated "constituents," the
creator of umlando uses........
synalysis. He regards all things
as totals of totals. Nothing
exists of itself, by itself and for
itself All things are clusters of
subtler substances or forms of.
spirit-energy; each of them can
be understood only where there
is clarity on their essence. All
things "begin" in this essence
and exist in it as idea-forms or
clusters of vibrations. (p. 5)
Besides saying that it is a sig-
nificant book that takes time and
patience to read, it seems best in
reviewing a Zulu umlando such as
"Ushaba" is, to quote brief examples

of what appears to be the essence of
the work. For example, there are
statements that are not new to us, but
which are made with impressive preci-
In the rural areas, people be-
lieve that segregation is a bless-
ing in disguise; it forces the
Africans to concentrate on the
things which matter most in life,
instead of living for the tinsel
which passes for wealth in the,
urban areas. Land is the most
crucial of these. The Africnas
do not think of it as territory
only; it is their mother. If
woman is the custodian of
human life, the soil is all life;
the umbilical cord is buried in
it to continue the cycle of life;
the soil cannot be destroyed; it
can only be desecrated;..He who
interferes with the soil creates a
cosmic crisis...When the white
man cuts up the soil and claims

-- -I

(A Zulu Umlando written in English)

Jordan Kush Ngubane
Three Continents Press, Washington, D.C.

First Edition 1974

proprietary rights over it, he com-
mits a crime against life; he
practises witchcraft. (p. 160).
The whole of "Ushaba" is abouf
the concept of translating thoughts
into action; the following situation
illustrates this.
The Zulus are great believers
in co-ordinated action..This
explains the fact that they are
eleven 'in this particular (work)
gang. The eleventh man is the
most important in the team;
more important than the fore-
man; he is the gosa or chorus-
leader. He is captain of the crew.
He co-ordinates their exertions
in a way which gives them the
impact and the precision of a
digging machine. Without him
the Zulus work very poorly;
with him they work like a
He never does any digging him-
self, as a rule. The qualities of a
gosa have nothing to do with
digging; he must be a poet, a
singer and -a commander of
men; he controls the efforts of
his crew with the power and
the rhythm of his poetry, music
and the quality of his leader-
ship. Without him the Zulus
will either refuse to work or
complain that the employer
lacks the skill to use human
resources intelligently! (p. 313).
In fact the chants made by the
road gang are generally crude com-
ments on the whites. These com-
ments are seen by the Zulus as
thoughts which they are planting into
the earth which produced them and
in. which their umbilical cords are
buried. The Zulus expect that one
day the earth will produce persons
who will translate their chanted
thoughts into action.
It seems that the umlando as a
genre gives the umlandi a great deal of
freedom in which he can manipulate
fact and fiction while drawing on
several disciplines. The problem
though, ir that I know no other Zulu
umlando and this makes it difficult to
place "Ushaba" in a known and work-
able context.
"Ushaba" will certainly attract
some of our writers, particularly a
poet historian such as Dr. Edward
Kamau Brathwaite whose '"Contradic-
dictory Omens", ana "Caribbean Man
in Space And Time" both stress an
interdisciplinary approach so that we
in the West Indies can see the frag-
ments whole.
For some of us "Ushaba" might
help to explain the tone of a novel
such as Yambo (uologuem' "Bound
to Violence". What is certain is that
after reading "Ushaba" it is worth
re-examining works such as Donald
R. Morris' 'The Washing of The
Spears", a work which examines the
rise and fall of the Zulu nation.
Ngubane's effort also gives balance
to the insights and efforts ofHJ. and
R.E. Simons, authors of "Class and
Colour in South Africa 1850 -
1950". What is certain is that the
Zulus are bent on moving beyond the
reach of spirit forms as once again
black and white hurtle toward The
Blood River.





THE Great Debate on
Public Service Pay is once
more in the news. In a
commendable display of
public-spiritedness, the
PAS has published the
full proceedings of the
exchange last September
between James Manswell
and Lloyd Best.
The publication is currently
on sale at the price of $2.00.
It also contains the statements
made in the communications
medialeading up to the actual
cross fire at the Town Hall,
Port-of-Spain, on September
Headings are as follows:
Best Calls PSA Claim
Manswell Challenges Best
To Debate
Best Accepts Challenge
Pantor's Offer as Modera-
Best's Contribution
*Manswell's Reply
Question Time
The Settlement.
One Special section of the
publication also draws at-
tention to What the News-
papers Omitted from the
transcript. An accompanying
editorial comment suggests
that "When Mr. Best attacked
the PSA proposals he did so

on a wrong premise."
The Booklet also con-
tains a statement reprinted
from Tapia on Jan. 26, 1975.
The Statement is a report
of a meeting held at the Sail
Fernando Town Hall on
January 21, 1975 at which
Lloyd Best first outlined the
case for the OWTU to in-
crease the national income
at the expense of Texaco


Unfortunately the editors
omitted from the report the
plan which Best put before
the oil workers as the essential
precondition for demanding
their 144%, 147%, $800m,
(whichever was more).
The proposal was that
OWTU should outline a full
To maximise the wage
increase from the com-
To distribute the gain
among the Oil Workers so
that the gap is closed
between the lower paid
and the higher paid workers
by some scheme of across

the board dollar increases,
or some meaningfid dif-
ference in % gains for dif-
ferent levels, or perhaps,
by .some combination of
the two.
To lead the way in
schemes of collective saving
and investment aimed to
control the rising cost of
living. There could be a
graduated savings scheme
systematically channelling
funds towards a) Housing
b) Food Production c)
Technical & Craft Educa-
tion d) Small Business for
ex-oil workers
To clarify the urgent
need for full nationaliza-
tion and localization of
the multi-national cotpora-
The case rested on the
fact that any increase in PSA
pay is at the expense of the
rest of the country; any in-
crease in OWTU pay is in
good part at the expense of
the company.
The OTWU demand for
147% is entirely in order pro-
vided they do not damage
the home economy by the
way they spend the money.
The most important thing
is therefore the plan for, the
spending of the gains.-Both
Mr. Manswell and Mr. Weekes


could benefit from devoting
their attention to that.
Publication of The Great


29th SEPTEMBER, 1974.

Debate provides occasion of
some of the required thinking.

Council Ratifies

New Election

Convention Date

AT its August Meeting last
Sunday 10th, Council ratified
September 28 as the date for
the first Assembly of the Tapia
National Convention>-
The Assembly is to come
off at the SWWTU Hall in
Port-of-Spain and not at the
Naparima Bowl as originally
Sunday's meeting charged
the .National Executive to
work out the programme for
the Convention and the
Agenda for September 20. 28.
The Council also considered
Executive proposals concerning the
Tapia Centre in Port-of-Spain,
provisionally scheduled for a
September opening.

A programme of educational and
cultural activities is planned for
the Centre in addition to a revival
Sof Thursday night political gather-
The afternoon Session of the
Meeting was devoted to a Seminar
on Constitution Reform in prepara-
tion of Tapia's appearance before
the Joint Select Committee of Par-
There was time for only one
paper Augustus Ramrekersingh
presented an analysis of Parliament.
The next Seminar is carded for
Sunday September 7, again at the
Tapia House following next month's
Council Meeting.
The Seminar will consider a
Committee Report on Executive

Tapia in Vistabella

A HIGHPOWERED Tapia government, country and the necessity for
team which included He made reference to an immediate and funda-
Mickey Mathews, Volney Tapia's-plan for decentraliza- mental breakthrough.
Pierre, Ivan' Laughlin, tion and pointed out that one He elaborated the Tapia
Beau Tewarie and Lloyd are in which such a pro- strategy and stressed the need
Best, was in Vistabellaon gramme would certainly for permanent political or-
Thursday August 7th. make a difference was in the ganization. In addition, he
Thursday A s Eudcation system. pointed out that what was
The result was a long rap He went on to explain missing in the national life
session which threatened how the highly centralized was what he termed the
to continue into Friday administration that we now "cosmic dimension."
morning. have inhibits meaningful He said that the nation as
Tapiaman from Vistabella, decision making at the level a whole needed to sense a
Julius Clarke, who chaired the of the individual school, higher moral purpose so that
meeting, emphasised in his it could commit itself to the
opening remarks that Tapia STRATEGY tasks of National Recon-
was the one organization in struction.
the country committed to Tapia's Secretary Lloyd The discussion session
real change, as opposed to a Bestgave a lengthy discourse which followed was lively and
mere change of face in the on the state of politics in the covered a wide range to topics.


The Good Shepherd Youth Fellowship
invites you to their
Second Annual Tea Party

& Fashion Show 276
to be held at
Morton Street, Tunapuna.
on Saturday 23rd August 1975
From 1.30p.m.
TEA $2.00

Huggins Pandemoium.

Good Shepherd Youth Fellow-

ship Choir
And other Guest Artistes

THE Institute of Social;
and Economic Research
of the University of the
West Indies in Jamaica
has announced the pub-
lication of a .ew book
of essays entirely devoted
to the study of the
various aspects of the
Caribbean economy.
The book, which in fact
is entitled CARIBBEAN
ECONOMY was edited by
George Beckford and is ad-
dressed primarily to sixth
form students and first year
Among the contributors
are some of the most well-
known names in the field of
Caribbean economics and
social sciences generally
Jack Harewood, William
Demas, Norma Girvan, Lloyd
Best. Kari Levitt and Owen

According to tie announce-
ment from the Institute the
essays contained in the book
are largely concerned with the
dependent nature of the

Caribbean economy.
Copies of the book are
now available at 1.S.E.R.
Offices at Mona, Cave Hill
and here at St. Augustine.


Full CouiBes to G.C.E
LEnglish l)'rncch Spanish Maths
General science. Conenrce History etc.
Qualified Teachers

Fo lukll p:n lieUl i'Contll il ClCiha.le.s M iynv rd. Principal








46~ '.




Dear Sir,
In a written statement
drawn up at the last meeting
of the Grants and Awards
Committee of the University
of the West Indies, the Uni-
versity administrators, as if
m answer to charges of
deteriorating levels of public
accountability, declared that
"...As an autonomous public
institution in receipt of public
funds, its (i.e. the Univer-
versity's) policies and the
results of such policies are
subject to scrutiny and
I wish to challenge the
premise (of accountability)
on two grounds and possibly
to arouse some explanation
from the UW Administration.
The first cause for dis-
agreement is the fact that
students are not permitted to
obtain transcripts of their
University record on graduat-
ing,' or even several years
after leaving the institution.
Can the UWI Adminis-
tration justify this regulation
to the public? Is there any
reason for such asphyxiating
confidentiality, even from
those whom the records con-

Attempts to obtain an
explanation have met with
the rather abrupt and un-
communicative statement
that "...It is not our policy".
This does little to resolve the
original source of dispute.
Policies should not be re-
garded as props for com-
placency, but should rather
be viewed as guidelines for
future progress.
If the UWI is to live up to
the promise of its founders,
it must continually seek to
re-examine its regulations, its
methods of operation, and
perhaps to reflect on its
reason for being.
The second area where
some form of public
accountability is required is
over the length of time cur.
rently being taken to decide
on Post-Graduate Awards.
Several Post-Graduate
Scholarships'for the 1974/75
Academic Year were adver-
tised to students at the
Faculty of Agriculture in
December 1974. These
awards have yet to be an-
nounced even though recom-
mendations were made that


U.W.I. Administration


on issue

of accountability

the applications should be
dealt with as expeditiously
as possible.
Why should it require
seven, six, five or even three,
months to determine these
awards? How can the Com-
mittee justify advertising
1975/76 Awards when pre-
vious 'applications have not
been dealt with?
Most graduate students
would require these funds to
initiate or complete their
research work during the
Summer Vacation. How does
the Administration justify
their withholding such funds?-
Is not the Faculty of Agri-
culture competent to decide
on the awards?
On January 13th, I sub-
mitted my application to the

Faculty of Agriculture for its
consideration. This was
approved and mailed to the
Post-Graduate Awards Com-
mittee at the Mona Campus.
It was received by the Com-
mittee on January 23rd.
The last letter I managed
to obtain (after a few trials)
from the Awards Committee
announced that "...As soon
as a decision is taken by the
Committee we will write you
further on the matter". No
further word has since been
It-is now incumbent upon
the UWI Administration to
determine the reason for the
time lag between the Faculty
of Agriculture (ten days) and
the Post-Graduate Awards
Committee (six-seven months).

I have taken the oppor-
tunity to enlighten your
readers on some of the grim
realities of University life
with the aim of promoting a
dialogue on its operations
between the UWI Adminis-
tration and the West Indian
It is to be hoped that the
University would not con-
tinue to ignore these sources
of irritation, but seek to fulfil
its commitments to the so-
ciety of which it is so much a

Yours Sincerely,

Central Bank Staff

still singing the Blues

Dennis Pantin

BLUES" is the name of
a pamphlet issued by
workers of this institu-
tion now locked in a
struggle with their
The pamphlet, pro-
tests the fact that under
the Industrial Relations
Act, "no person shall be
regarded as a worker, if
he is a member of the
Staff and an employee of
the Central Bank."
What this means is that
Central Bank workers have
no means of redress before
the Industrial Court as do
other workers have no other
industrial Tribunal to settle
disputes with management,
and worse, cannot take any
industrial action in defence of

,their rights.
The result of this last
sting in the whip is that nine
workers of the Bank have
been charged for taking in-
dustrial action. They have
been suspended from their
jobs and face dismissal if
This is the present situa-
tion of deadlock in an in-
creasingly bitter conflict
between management and
workers at the Central Bank.
The management operating
under an absurd carbon copy
of the Bank of England has
established a highly super-
vised caste system, headed
at the top, quite naturally,
and colonially, by a Governor.
The workers have been
engaged in no more radical
action than that of demand-
ing increased wages. In re-
sponse, the management has
overreacted by a series of
intimidatory actions, of

which the suspension of the
nine employees is but the
One example of the
management's paranoia was
the discovery ,by members
of the Staff Association of a
security guard eavesdropping
on their meeting from the
assumed secrecy of a cup-
The first question to be
resolved is the wisdom of
numbering Central Bank em-
ployees among the essential
services (assuming that the
concept of essential service
as defined by the I.R.A. has
any validity). The Ceritral
Bank can no more be an
essential service than the
other commercial banks.
Even, if an emergency
situation were to arise, like a
national strike, then the
Central Bank could be de-
clared an essential service for
this period. Additionally,

even if the Central Bank is
considered an essential ser-
vice, then there must be
some other avenue for re-
dress of grievances.
By sticking to the letter
of the law, the Bank's ad-
ministration is only setting
the stage for the workers'
protest to go underground
with all the ramificationsfor
productivity, discipline and
even security at the Bank.
As it novw stands, the
Central Bank has had a sus-
pect employment policy
which includes political

screening. In one instance,
the brother of the member
of a opposition group was
summarily dismissed, al-
though his job competence
was not under question.
It is well and good for a
Central Bank, in particular,
to establish certain codes of
employment which includes
the question of security. It
is another to introduce a
reign of terror for the simple
purpose of showing who is
boss. Such acts of over-kill
always rebound in the face
of the ruling class whether in
business or government.

40 Cents Each

BlI k Power & National Reconstruction
Gov't and Politics of the W. Indies
Prospects for Our Nation
The Political Alternative
Whosc Republic?
Freedom and Responsibility
The Afro-American Condition
Honourable Senators

Democracy or Oligarchy
Participatory Democracy
The Machinery of Governmentt
Black Power in Human Song
We are in a State
A Clear Danger
Your Turn to Choose (Out of print)l

Lloyd Best

Vernon GockiyU

Denis Solomon
Syl Lowhar
Ivan Laughlin
Michael Harris
Raffique Shah

Tapia House Statements

Our Nation at the Crossroads
Tapia Constitution
Tupia's New Woild
Power to the People


The Failure of ltie 1950's Movement
The High Scason of Cri.is 1975
Letter to Ct.R 1964
Benevolent Doctatorship

Krishna Ramrnkersingh
Lloyd Best
Allan H;,i :r;

PIC Tapia lHouse, 82-84S--i. I 1-bloi r;trc'r 4'hfI,

Four family is

well fed with

Blue Band

on bread

__ ___ __


~----' II--l_ --P-I.Y~--l-~l'-----~IYI~ I



P.T.S.C. Another name

for Total Horrors

Lloyd Taylor

"Bus-stop driver!"
THAT yell thundered up
,front on a Port-of-Spain
bound bus one Thursday
night ten days ago, and
broke the uneasy calm
being kept by about two
dozen other watchful
"You'll take that one
at Arima oui," replied the
driver mere seconds after the
words of the request had
fallen from the passenger's
lips. And the bus lumbered
pass Maturita bridge.


The reply was a mix-
ture of compulsion and
advice, and was of the kind
which, in normal circum-
stances, would have triggered
off a long steups and would
have prompted the passengers
to cuss the driver.
Instead the reply pro-
voked boisterous guffaws
from among us in true un-
inhibited common-class man-
Blast it! That was our
response and it was as it
should be. Miles back in
Sangre Grande some of us
had paid a full forty cents
for what-God-alone-knew

Arnold Hood

Guapo is a real 'one-
horse town' with a popu-
lation of 1,200, one
school, a church, a com-
munity centre and four
rum shops all doing
good business, it is typical
of the many wayside
villages that have sprung
up along the main road-
way in South Trinidad.
Yet it is in this sleepy
district that I predict that
the youthquake which is
certain to shake the founda-
tions of the great wasteland
of St. Patrick will erupt, for
present in it are five active
youth groups, the most
vibrant of which is the
Everton Sports and .altural
Led by an energetic bank
clerk, Mc Arthur Jeffrey, a
young man of tremendous
foresight and dedication to
community upliftment, the
group has become the "think
tank" for the Vance River
In its three years of
existence it has organised
sports meetings, cultural
shows, a football league and
cricket competitions. Annual-
lly at Christmas time it has
sponsored a dinner for the
poor and needy. of the dis-
trict and this year plans to
provide them with a cash gift
as well.

then. Not until bus no. 484
neared Arima did we get
something for our money's
It is hardly worth tell-
ing that the trip by itself was
a minus. For once on
Damarie Hill, Guaico, a few
short miles from base, the
horrors began. The house-
lights blinked, at times sent
off sharp lightning-like
flashes, and the next thing
we knew was that bulbs were
being blown.
For a time all eyes were
glued to the ceiling of ,the
bus. As the malkadie spread.
from light to light, sighs
measured a growing uncer-
tainty about the entire bus
The conductor and
checker watched on in be-
wilderment. And another
light took the count. "This
bus defective," argued the
driver. "Is the alternator
over-charging," he continued.
Something ain't stopping-
something," another felt.
For my part it could
have been the regulator or
the mechanic that was de-
fective. The talk finally rested
on a gear-box that fell out a
bus one time. The focus was
on the PTSC then, the culprit
that over-charged we.
From his diagnosis, the
driver decided to cut his
speed. By the time we
reached Turule, the lights
were down to six. De-
acceleration was to no avail.

'lhe group is currently
directing its energies two
major projects:- (a) a mini
Village Olympics and (b) its
annual Independence Sports
Meeting. Eight small villages,
stretching from Rousillac to
Lot 10, are participating in
the first project the main
items of which are table
tennis, cricket, football and
The sports meeting in an
.attempt to bridge the Gene-
ration Gap will feature events
for young and old,e.g., young
versus old tug-of-war and the
three-legged race along with
cycling and track and field
For this programme, which
begins at 1.00 p.m. on Inde-
pendence Day, trophies have
been donated by Barclays
Bank, Angostura and Mr.
John Duncan, a local con-
tractor. There will also be
the Piesidential Trophy, pur-
chased by the group, which
will -be presented to the
winner of the March Past.
Internationally, Everton
has been pursuing programmes

So driver Carl Mason squeezed
the switch right up to the
dashboard. The lights were
all out, and the bus in dark-
ness inside. It was the ulti-
mate act to cut his losses. Or
so he thought.


Then came the sugges-
tion that the speed be re-
duced even more to avoid the
PTSC from ketching up with
the headlights. After climb-
ing a hill, we were about to
round the bend before we
straightened out into Valencia
proper when goat-mouth fall
on we.
Is total darkness now.
We wondering... Jeezan-ages!
What cross is this we have to
carry? The precautionary
measures had proved to be
too late, too early, and un-
necessary. All togetherly, as
the saying goes. Our pre-
monitions were right on
course.And our driver pulled-
up at a stop in Valencia
A commuter wanted to
"This bus defective,
warned the driver.
"Whappen to it?"
"Ah must tell you that
too! The bus defective man!"
Mason was getting hot. See,
is inconvenience for he too.
Serious as it was then,

which will instil a sense of
discipline and responsibility
in members. Added to its
drama sessions, internal de-
bating contests and evening
concerts, the group is soon to

I remembered something
funny and wanted to burst
out laughing. There was this
old woman who must have
been waiting heaven knows
how long, in the same
Valencia for transport and
who just managed to catch a
bus proceeding east before
the weather changed for the
Rain fell eventually.
And heavily at that too. We
felt it. But the old lady was
the only person blessed with
an umbrella to open inside
the bus.
Souffds apocryphaleh?
Well PTSC it seems could
occur anytime, anywhere, in
any form or fashion.
But Mason was deter-
mined not to stay in Valen-
cia. It may have been self-
interest at work; but the
effect was to take his non-
plussed passengers to a point
where-transport could behad
at 8.30 in the night.
"If I have parklights I
going. Arima," be thought
He checked and re-
turned to the steering.
"Any torchlights in
this bus?" came the final
Moments later two
torchlights flashed up front.
On the right a commuter just
behind the driver's seat held
one out through the window.
While the conductor flashed
his through the left side of
the windshield. The lights

launch a series of lectures on
topics such as "The problems
facing modern Youth and
possible solutions", "Unem-
ployment and the Economy"

flickered dimly in- the dark-
ness. -
The next thirty minutes -
after the UTO (Unidentified-
Travelling Object)moved off,
was for us a grinding time,
punctuated only by our up-
roarious "ha-ha's" on the edge
of Arima.
All eyes looked to the
man in the cock-pit for
safety'. While we hoped that
the PTSC would not infect
the entire bus like tbe Blob.
With a Captain, and a
Non-Commissioned Officer
as it were, Mason took com-
mand in admirably Generalis-
simo .style. It was: On the
white line Hosein.
Watch the bridge.
Signal, man behind
want to pass.
There were no mishaps.
Only one suspects in a night
tailor-made for hunting a few
manicous may well have
been lured out by the sickly
beams, and were crushed in
the process.
As for the technology -
intermediate or appropriate?
You might care to ask.
Nay boy, neither!
You see in that instance.
I felt we were journeying
back in time to the point
where our fore-parents once
switched uneasily from the
jack-ass back to a bus seat
and back.
As the legend has it,
one who may have been
called a country-bookie then,
once fumbled for a form of
words to halt a bus that was
taking him past his home on
the Toco route. He ended
up with: "Wo motoo!"
If he had failed entirely
then lord knows what else he
may have done to attract the
driver's attention. A scalpit
The torchlight was
only substitute, and appro-
priate only for a 'develop-
ing' independent country.
Well-oiled for revolution.
It has also been assisting
its skilled members in ob-
taining employment as well
and four such persons are
soon to take up jobs in the
public sector.
Few organizations in this
country can boast of 'an
average attendance of 45
members per week. Everton
Sports and Culturhl Club, a
group of 15-24 year olds can.
To ,see this happening in
such a depressed community
is more than heartening; it-
ignites a long-dormant ray or
hope. Awake, Vance River!
The youthquake is rumbi-



IS J Le ,,.hens

Mrs. Andrea. Talbutt,
Research Institut for
Study of Man,
162, East 78th Street,
New York, N.Y. 10021,
Ph Lc-hieh 5 8448.


b. J~n,




Earl Best
WITH the first leg of the
home-and-away second
round of the Olympic
Games qualifying tourna-
ment over, our national
football squad is faced
with the task of defeating
Surinam by three clear
goals in the second leg at
Queen's Park Oval on
August 24th.
In 1973, in the World Cup
preliminaries we needed only
one-goal victory after drawing
the away game 1-1 and we
won 3-1. This time things
are not going to be that easy.
There was general opti-
mism in the air prior to the
first game and it is reported
that the defeat has not
dampened the spirits of the
squad. My view is that the
reports on the last game do
not give in much to be happy

There is somehow the
impression that the refree
is at least particually to be
blamed for our present plight.
Both the decision to award
a penalty against Tesheira and
the one to d i s a 1 1 o w
"Sammy's" first-half goal
were allegedly "wrong."
"Wrong" decisions not-
withstanding, one gets the
impression that the better
team won. We heard little
about Carter's performance
in goal apart from the fact


Eastern Main Rd.. Laventille
(Near to Trotman street)

Galvanise, Cement,
Blocks, Tiles,
etc, etc.

that he could save neither goal.
Manager Camps, however,
was quoted as saying that
'our midfield players did not
perform as we expected' and
that the second Surinam goal
'came as a result of a defence
Other reports reveal that
we had several scoring chances
in the second half but poor
shooting caused us not to
score. Clearly, then, there's
work to be done on the
whole team if we are.to come
up- to scratch by the time the
return match comes around.

Whatever happens, the
decisive factor : is almost
certainly gbing to be the
finishing of our front-line. La
Forest, Cooper, Llewellyn and
whoever are going to have to
be brought to a state of
preparedness which will make
real chances of half-chances
and goals of easy ones.
Both Llewellyn and La
Forest have the ability to
create their own chances so
that whether or not they get
the kind of support from the
links for which we are hoping
we ought to get a couple of
We cannot, of course, for-
get that the onius is on us to

get goals. With this in mind
one is tempted to plump for
a switch to the 4-24 system
which yielded fruit in the
first round final against Bar-
Still, (and Manager Camps
has segely reminded us of
this on more than one
occasion) the most effective
counter to the one-two, short-
passing style of play which
our opponents favour is really
thoughtful, TIRELESS link-
I feel "sure that Coach
Vidale will opt for the 4-3-3'
at least to begin with. That
will,in my view, be a mistake.
Carpette and co. will
probably find their defensive
responsibilities less weighty
on account of the conditions
undertoot. Wet, slippery sur-
faces, as every footballer
knows, make short passing
difficult and the Surinamese
attacking power is likely to
be adversely affected.
Our links will, therefore,
find it easier to expend more
of their energies on attack
and we have the material
ahead of them to make capital
of good link play.
One cannot overemphasize
the important role the middle-
men have got to play if we
are to win by the required
margin. The description of
Sehal's 80th minute goal
leaves one thing beyond

@ r



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accurately on your N.I. application
form? If not, consult/see your
local National Insurance office.

For further information
See your district NIB office,

dispute: ours was a tired de-
Carpette and co. have got
to be very careful to take
the pressure off the last four
in the early stages of the game
so that in the closing stages
they will have enough energy
left to withstand the onslaught
of the opposing forwards who
will hopefully be trying very
hard to'force the equalizer.
All things being equal,
then, we should put in a
forward in place of the extra
link especially if it.rains.
It is to be regretted that
the selectors have not seen? it
fit to recall "Buggy" Haynes
to the squad that resumed
training earlier this week. He
seems, to be always abik to
assist in defence without re-

during his effectiveness up
front, precisely the attribute
which the additional forward
needs to have.
In his absence I would go
for Michael Grayson to re-
place Gordon Husbands in the
team that lost the first game
because Grayson has a good
shot with either foot, a good
head on his.shoulders and
both the tendency and the
stamina to expand energies
in defence. Paul's fitness not-
withstanding, I would leave
: the rst of the team unchanged.
An early goal and, a cheer-
ing home crowd has often
transformed an ordinary side
-intoa world beating team
and we are. not yet trying
to beat the world. Just Suri-
nam...by three clear goals at
least! Drop by slow drop...