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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00174
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: August 10, 1975
Frequency: completely irregular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00174

Full Text


Vol. 5 No. 32


s,-.-- ir-ulij SUNDAY AUGUST 10 1975-
,,- 1 :- .*,' .;..Y O5 M .-

'WGi c eSw fnt


Laventille

Homework

Centre

Planned
PLANS are afoot to
establish a Homework
Centre in Success Village,
Laventille in time for the
coming September school-
term. Among the main
promoters of the idea are
Yaxsee Joseph, Champ
Vesprey, and Neville
Maynard, all old Vigilante
hands, practised in the
ways of community self-
help.
Decision to found tie
Centre was taken at an
Education meeting held at
the R.C. School on Tuesday
July 22. Tapia Secretary,
Lloyd Best addressed an
Action group of public-
spirited local citizens on
"An Education Plan Pl for
Laventille."
Besttold td he gathering
that for nearly 20 years
Success Village had had a
record of failure in public
education as in everything
else. the government tried.
He went on to outline a
Seven-Point Plan for die re-
form of national and local
education.


ACTION GROUP
In a lively and practical
discussion following the
address, much attention was
devoted to the experience
which the Vigilantes Group
had had in 1969-70 with its
programme of community
education spanning 11-plus,
School Leaving and '0' Level
requirements.
The meeting felt that yet
another bid should be made
to organise large-scale ap-
prenticeship programmes
with industry in Laventille
as part of post-primary
training.
After much exchange it
was decided that Laventille
first needed a hard-core
action group with the politi-
cal clout to put terms to
industry an." Government.
The Homework Centre
was then chosen as a Project
which would not only bring
practical benefits to people
in Laventille, but would also
serve as a rallying point for
dedicated citizens and public-
spirited friends from other
parts of the country.
A Committee of five per-
sons was set up to draw up a
plan of operations and to
report to the Action group
within a month:.


QUARRY SE


DS


OUT S.O.S CALL


THE people in Quarry
Drive up behind
Champs Fleurs have
sent out an S.O.S. for
help. A stone's throw
over the ridge, half-mile
behind the mango-vert
tree, lies Caiman Village
which has just got water
in time for the elections.
Quarry Drive does not
expect any such luck.
The cry in the Village
is now for self-help. Up
where the road forks to
Knob Hill on the right, a
road has already been
built by blood, sweat
and tears.
Suddenly, the political
boys are promoting a
Village Council in order
to keep the party in
control of the people.
On Tuesday July 22, the
Council had the installa-
tion of officers. People
say that it is not going to
work because long time
now, the party group
done mash-up.
Caiman Village, Quarry
Drive, everybody fed up
and looking for a change.


THIS Sunaay August 10,
the Tapia Council meets
at the House in Tuna-
puna. Representatives
will assemble to plan for
the first Assembly of the
three-part Convention
now scheduled to begin
on September 28 at the
Seamen and Waterfront
Building in Port'of-Spain.


We call Tapia because
we not getting satisfac-
tion. They taking over
$18 every year and is
over four years now we
not getting water in the
line. Not since the owner
of the Quarry burst up
the pipe.
It was Sunday morn-
ing, bright and early and
strangely, nobody seemed
to be staying late in bed.
The man speaking ex-
plained:
I waiting now for the
WASA truck to come so
I could make some tea.
The water they put in
the drums don't serve no
useful purpose because
all the drums open and
people does pass and do
what they like. If you see
the condition of them
drums!
Some of the villagers
used once to get their
water from a natural
spring. Now so much
rubbish coming down in
the water and the latrines
making the source un safe.
Now if a place ketch


fire, everybody footee
burn up.
Sadly the speaker
mused on the fact that
le "spend $84 and
change to make a con-
nection, but you think I
ever get a drop?"
Apparently, the most
water Quarry Drive gets
is ravine water which
comes in floods and
torrents. A Villager.com-
plained that the way they
cutting up the land on
top making mas with the
usual water pattern. One
day in the broiling sun,
the ravine just come
down like that.
Mr. Castle is the Presi-
dent of the new Village
Council. His house is a
very famous land-mark.
Ten years ago when he
built it, tractors, jitneys
and trucks were all able
to climb the hill and take
the road over the ridge.
All the materials for
this house were delivered
on spot. Now the road is
a ravine six feet deep by
five wide. Water washing


I Council Meeting


starting time is 10
a.m. and the Chairman
will be Mickey Matthews
of Fyzabad, Denis Solo-
mon being out of the
country.
Also on the Agenda is
the opening of the Tapia
Campaign Headquarters


at a location recently
leased in Port-of-Spain.
The afternoon Session
of the Meeting will take
the form of a Seminar
on Constitution Reform
aimed to finalise the.
Memorandum to be sub-
mitted to the Joint Select


away materials now, left,
right and centre. People
does call it the Special
Works Programme.
Now that the elections
are coming, the Govern-
ment is suddenly becom-
ing interested in these
problems.
For years, the street
lights eh have no bulbs.
We tired complain. We
complain to the person
who say that he repre-
senting the Quarry people.
Two years now, no
bulb in this one; since
1970, that one break
during the revolt. That
is to tell you about
this Government neglect.
Wilton Hinds came
here in October 1974
Victor Campbell came
twice, but I don't think
they so bold face as to
come back again.
The bridge by Harry
James where they used
to keep the Community
Centre under the bottom
house, they vote $7,000
for that bridge eight
Cont'd on Page 11


Committee of Parliament.
Papers are to be pre-
sented by Allan Harris,
Krishna Ramrekersingh,
and Lloyd Best. Discus-
sion is expected to centre
on Parliament and on
Fundamental Rights.
Council Members are
reminded that they must
make their own arrange-
ments for a working lunch.


SPECIAL INDEPENDENCE ISSUE


August 31


POLITICS IN

.41- TRINIDAD& TOBAGO


'i THE LAST


QUARTER CENTURY


- --~-.-- ---~-






-PAGE 2 TAPIA
THE recent events in
India have served to
shatter a myth as well as
to focus a spotlight on
what may very well be
the most important politi-
cal and indeed philoso-
phical issue of modern
times. Can Democracy
survive?
Indira Gandhi's actions
are not in themselves
unique. Whether we focus on
the State of Emergency,
whether we look at the in-
carceration of her opponents
or even when we look at ler
most recent coup, the post-
facto legislation designed to
nullify the charges against
her, the fact is that all those
things are almost common-
place in many of the political
systems of the world today.
What is significant is not
so much the nature of the
actions but the fact that they
took place in India. The same
India which, until these un-
fortunate events, had been
widely regarded by so many
as the shining example of
the vindication of their faith
in the possibilities of a demo-
cratic society in today's dis-
ordered world.
Only in January this year
as India celebrated its twenty-
sixth republic day anniversary,
one commentator, G.S.
Dhillon, writing in the Indian
and Foreign Review, was
moved to comment on those
factors which, to his mind,
constituted "a lasting guaran-
tee of success of the demo-
cratic order in India."
"Foremost among them,"
he wrote, "is the democratic
temper of the people them-
selves; a temperament prone
to tolerance, adjustment and
harmonization, (and) a view
of life based on the recogni-
tion of the validity and.worth
of the individual."
And in looking back over
the twenty-five year history
of Independent India,Dhillon
asserted that "It is in, with
or through parliament that
the drama has been played,
which, in a democratic order,
is perhaps only as it should
be."



UNDER ATTACK
Now with a ruthless swift-
ness, Indira has exposed the
emptiness of the democratic
pretensions. Parliament,
cleared of her elected oppo-
nents, is now the willing
accomplice in the destruction
of its own authority, and the
courts of the land stand
mocked as ineffectual
guardians of the nation's
constitutional integrity.
This shattering demise of
the "world's largest demo-
cracy" is but the latest in a
series of blows which have
served to push back the
boundaries of that part of
the world which is pleased
to consider itself firmly
planted in the democratic
tradition.
Nor have the blows been
confined to those recently
created nations, primarily in
Africa and Asia and here in
the -Caribbean where any
anti-democratic reality might
easily be laid at colonialism's
door. The democratic order
is under attack even in those
societies where by no stretch
of the imagination could it


Real Promise





of Democracy


be claimed that democracy is
"an alien transplant".
For it is in these very
societies that much of the
spirit of revolt which now
grips the world is to be found.
And the responses of the
powers-that-be in these socie-
ties is no less fundamentally
anti-democratic than in the
newer nations, as Nixon's
escapades testify.




ALL ITS CHARMS

Yet it seems that Demo-
cracy has. lost none of its
capacity to charm. For wher-
ever there are those who rise
'in anger against the estab-
lished order they invariably
do so in the name of "true
democracy"" whatever their
specific ideology.
And no matter how re-
pressive and brutal the
responses of the established
order, such regimes are care-
ful to insist that all is done
in the name of the people
Sand for their benefit. Making
one's country safe for Demo-
cracy is just as vicious an
Exercise as making the world
safe for Democracy.
If then the idea of demo-
cracy retains all its charms
why are its frontiers being
so inexorably eroded?
It was Abraham Lincoln
who gave the definition of
Democratic Government
which still has the widest
currency. "Government of
the people, by the people
and for the people." And
while it appears that the "of'
and the "for" are easily
obtainable or at least easily
claimed, "by the people"
Seems to be an infinitely
more difficult proposition.
The more critical questions
then are; just when are the
people ready for Government
(and, by extension, for
democracy), how are the
people readied for Govern-
ment and by what means is
Government given to the
people?
The last question is really
most easily disposed of. There
are already in existence in
various political systems
throughout the world so
many elaborate mechanisms
designed precisely to bring
the "people into the corri-
dors of Power", as we say in
Tapia, that one has a whole
range of models from which
to choose.
The real question is how
are these models given the


breath of life, how are they
made functional?- In short,
how and when are the people.
ready for Government?
Here is where we are
faced with the really madden-
ing paradox. For on the one
hand the responsibilities of
democratic government can
only be learnt by direct
participation in and responsi-
bility for democratic Govern-
ment.
And yet the question
must be asked, how is it
possible to.establish the in-
stitutions of a democratic
Government and society, and
more importantly endow
them with truth, in a context
where the people have little
or no conception of what it
means to participate as active
agents in such institutions?
Institutions without people
immersed in the traditions of
participation and responsi-
bility are but fictions of the
democratic vision incapable
of withstanding the on-
slaughts of autocracy.


But knowing this it is all
too easy to dispense with the
institutions until such time as
the people have learnt their
responsibilities. Under such
conditions they never will.



DREAMS OF MEN
It may be that the very
charm of democracy is its
most serious problem. The
idea of democracy has accrued
unto it over the years an
almost charismatic promise
which the reality is incapable
of delivering.
The real promise of demo-
cracy is the liberation of the
people precisely through
putting into their hands the
instruments of decision. And
it is from the experience of
making the vital decisions
which will affect their lives
that, in time, the knowledge
of their capacities, their
limitations and the measure
of their responsibilities will


Assistant Lecturer
Lecturer
Senior Lecturer


corne.
But somewhere along the
line the democratic vision was
inflated out of all proportion.
Democracy became synony-
mous with the most beautiful
dreams of men for the best of
all possible worlds.



NO PARADOX

It is not that it is wrong to
dream of a world where
peace, equality and justice
reign supreme. Although one
may be well advised to limit
oneself simply to seeking a
better world.
'The problem arises, how-
ever, when these dreams are
pinned with religious faith to
particular ideologies and
particular systems. For when
the apocalyptic transition
fails to materialise, the in-
evitable retreat is to the ex-
cesses of despair.
The truth is that our
dreams of a better world can
only be made flesh by the
people of our world. And it is
here that democracy can and
must hold its own. For its
promise is the liberation of
people from the bondage of
irresponsibility and thus the
liberation of their commit-
ment to the larger tasks of
mankind.
There is thus really no
paradox. Not unless we are
really afraid to place our trust
in the people, which is the
same as being afraid to trust
ourselves. In which case it is
certain that we dream no
dreams.


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SUNDAY AUGUST 10,1975



Government by





the People: The


THE UNIVERSITY OF THE SOUTH PACIFIC
Laucala Bay, Suva, Fiji
ASSISTANT LECTURER/LECTURER/SENIOR LECTURER
IN ECONOMICS
Applications are invited for the above post. Candidates
should have a good degree in Economics with post
graduate qualifications. Preference will be given to Candi-
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Statistics.
Salary according to experience and qualifications in one of the
following scales:


MICHAEL HARRIS






SUNDAY AUGUST 10, 1975


Greg Chamberlain

BRITAIN- has run into
new snags in its dogged
efforts to get rid of its
largest remaining colony.
A fresh wave of fear
is gripping the 130,000
inhabitants of the sleepy
territory of Belize, in
central America, that
they will awake one
morning soon to find
troops from neighboring
Guatemala in the streets
and that Guatemala's
president, Gen. Kjell
Laugerud, has replaced
the queen as their head
of state.
For the latest round of
talks between Britain and
Guatemala over the latter's
150-year-old claim to all of
Belize collapsed last month
after only one day when
Whitehall rejected a Guate-
malan compromise proposal
to slice the timber-rich
8,800-square-mile colony in
half, with Guatemala annex-
ing the southern portion.
The Guatemalans, spurred
on by reports of oil in Belize,
have now begun a new bout
of sabre-rattling and interna-
tional loooying.


Belize sinking fast into





Guatemalan Quicksand


Britain is expected to
accuse Guatemala at the
U.N. General Assembly next
month of preventing Belize
from attaining the Indepen-
dence Britain says it can have
whenever it likes.
Apart from this show of
protection, there is precious
little to comfort the Belize-
ans, who are a mixture of
Spanish-speaking Latins and
Indians and English-speaking
Africans.



NO GUARANTEE

A tightening of border
controls and jamming of Radio
Belize in country areas has
recently been added to the
familiar strident anti-British
Jingoism ofGuatemala's press
and the declarations of its
diplomats on the Belize
question.
Guatemala also continues
to hold without trial a Belize-
an tanker captain, Hubert
Eiley and three of his crew,
who were arrested four
months ago when their ship
sank and its cargo of fuel oil
fouled the coast of Guate-
mala, which is said to be
seeking some 40 million


Chile refuses to admit


U.N.


CHILE has advised the
United Nations it was
withdrawing its earlier
agreement to a visit by a
Working Group of the
United Nations Human
Rights Commission "until
a more propitious
occasion."
In a statement issued on
5 July, the Chilean Govern-
ment said that a "campaign
of lies" in United Nations
forums such as the Interna-


tional. Labour Organisation
and the International Women's
Year Conference was pre-
judging the Group's investiga-
tion.
It added that the panel had
been gathering testimony
from exiles and fugitives from
justice who had been outside
the country for more than a
year, and that Soviet-inspired
disturbances in Chile had
been planned to coincide
with the Group's arrival.
The Working Group,


sterling in compensation.
The affair has led to the
abrupt replacement of the
Guatemalan consul in Belize,
who reportedly resigned in
disagreement over his govern-
ment's handling of the case.
Countrywide anti-Guate-
malan demonstrations have
been mounted by the increas-
ingly-powerful opposition
parties in the colony. The
Guatemalan consulate in
Belize city has been stoned.
The International Odyssey
of secret diplomacy under-
taken by the Belizean prem-
ier, Mr. George Price, over
the past seven years to
obtain a defence guarantee
for his country against a
post-independence Guate-
malan invasion has, moreover,
been fruitless.
British Prime Minister
Harold Wilson recently
categorically ruled out a
British Defence guarantee and
the British Ambassador to
Mexico even hinted that
Belize might like to be
annexed by Guatemala.
Canada ,and the United
States have also turned a
deaf ear.
Mr. Price has failed as well
to make a public dent in the
solid backing for Guatemala


headed-by Commission Chair-
man Ghulam Ali Allana
(Pakistan) which had been
gathering in Lima, Peru for
the Chilean visit said on 10
July that it had been proceed-
ing with a completely open
mind.
The panel added that it
was "below its dignity" to
answer intimations that it
might be involved in a politi-
cal plot against Chile's
security or sovereignty.
The Group said that two
requests that Chile reconsider
its last decision had remained
unanswered. The Group added
that it would not be deterred
from carrying out its assigned
mission of assessing the
human rights situation in
Chile.


THE BEST PLACE TO BUY BOOKS


ANY KIND OF


T OStephens
PORT OF SPAIN SAN FERNANDO


by the rest of Central America,
and the Caribbean Basin's new
sugar daddy, Venezuela, has
declared its support for
Guatemala's right-wing rulers.
The only plus recently has
been the formal renunciation
last month by President Luis
Echeverria of Mexico's long-
standing but inactive rival
claim to Belize. But along
with Britain, only the Com-
monwealth Caribbean bloc
has come out firmly in favour
of Belize's Independence.
Ironically, in spite of his
tireless efforts, there is
diminishing confidence at
home in Mr. Price, whose
long-entrenched People's
United Party (PUP) came
within 17 votes of losing its
parliamentary majority at last
October's election. (three
govt seats were won by a
combined majority of only
17)
Despite the Premier's
denials, the conservative
opposition accuses him of
being "soft" on Guatemala
and charges that he is pre-
pared to give away part of
southern Belize in exchange
for a "make-believe settle-
ment" and Independence.
Four of the six opposition
M.P.S. in the 18-member


Premier George Price of Belize


Parliament sit for the southern
sector which Guatemala
demanded at last month's
talks.
Unfortunately, Mr. Price
and the PUP have a long
history of secretly playing
off Britain against Guatemala,
especially in the early days
before internal self-govern-
ment in 1964. Many regard
his regime as being in hock
to Guatemala. They point to
the Belizean flag which, curi-
ously, is almost identical to
Guatemala's, and to his
recent deal for Guatemala to
take over Belize's phones and
communications within the
next 18 months.
Mr. Price has carefully
kept the opposition out of
negotiations with Guatemala.
The opposition leader, Mr.
Dean Lindo, is campaigning
against Independence "for the
time being" or at least before
any settlement is reached
with Guatemala. He wants a
referendum or new elections
after a settlement and has
been to Britain to drum up
support. But Mr. Price, with
his support faltering, has
predictably ignored this
demand.


I-


Decentralization


key issue in Cuba's


Constitution Reform


Caribbean News
CUBANS, who haven't
had a constitution since
Fidel Castro overthrew
the Batista dictatorship in
Jan. 1959, will spend the
rest of this year studying
& debating the draft of
the Western Hemisphere's
first Communist constitu-
tion, published in Havana
in April.
SPremier Castro's plan is to
inject some democracy into
the Communist one-party
system in Cuba and to decen-
tralize the state apparatus by
electing provincial assemblies.
The constitution calls for
local assemblies to eventually
run production units & local
services, although central
organs would still control
activities at the national level,
such as sugar-grinding.
The final draft of the 141-
article constitution will be
approved by Cubans "older
than 16" in a referendum
expected to take place in early
1976.
The draft proposes an
elected national assembly of
360 to 400 members, which
would select a 31-member
state council.


Some proposed guarantees
are the right of free educa-
tion, free health service; food,
clothing and education for all
children, a job for everybody.
"Machismo," the traditional
obsession with male virility
and domination, would be
fought by the constitution,
which would guarantee com-
plete equality between wife
and husband.
Small farmers, who grow
most of the island's coffee &
tobacco, following the Castro
gov't's break-up of estates,
would retain ownership of
their land. Their type of
farming is not seen suitable
for collective methods.


Rights Team
Unesco Features


---I


TAPIA' PAGF 5






PAGE 4 TAPIA
,---------


SFocus


on the


Region



Greg Chamberlain
THE French government
and a number of private
bodies have enraged the
inhabitants of the French
South American depart-
ment of Guyane with a
plan to settle some
40,000 Indochinese re-
fugees there, almost
doubling the present
population of 52,000.
The Guyanese say the
"invasion" by the refugees
of France's largest remaining
overseas possession, will
create a dangerous "Palesti-
nian-type situation" in the
colony and also seriously
aggravate the current massive
unemployment rate of some
60 percent.
The plan, which has not
yetbeen officially announced,
-involves mainly Vietnamese
currently stranded in Guam
and the United States and
dissuaded from returning
home by US officials for
propaganda reasons. Others
will come from the 5,000
war refugees which have so
far arrived in France.
The scheme was thought
up by a rich anti-communist
South Vietnamese senator
now living in France who
feels the United States "sold
out" the Vietnamese people.
It has been adopted by
several private groups in
France who are handlingthe
problems of Indochinese
refugees.
An extensive dossier has
been presented to the French
government, which is ex-
pected to approve the plan.


Trinidad & Tobago
CARICOM Area
Other Caribbean
North America
United Kingdom
Western Europe
Bound Volumes 1973
Bound Volumes 1974


SUNDAY AUGUST 10, 1975



U NHUI*[ ii1









rHH L---B -B H0


To a growing number of

Guyanese, their country seems

little more than a whore, chain

to France, and ravished by a


ined


greedy industrial world concerned

only to plunder its riches with no


K


thought


In spite of the strong local
opposition, the dispatch of
the refugees will fit neatly in
with President Giscard
d'Estaing's decision earlier
this year to launch a crash
programme to develop 34,700-
square-mile Guyana's vast un-
tapped mineral, agricultural
and forest resources


RACIAL PROBLEMS

The aim is to build up
France's stockpile of raw
materials as a defence against
new attempts by poor coun-
tries to force the rich coun-
tries to pay higher commodity
prices.
The refugees, of varying
social origins, will help to
build and operate the new
industries planned for un-
developed Guyane, such as a
project just announced to set
up a wood pulp factory


for the inhabitants


drawing on Guyana's 31,000
square miles of forests, which
cover about 90 percent of
the semi-Amazonian territory.
The aim is particularly to
direct them into growing rice
and sugar, apart from fores-
try. A number of Dutch,
American and French firms
have drawn up projects.
"The trouble in Guyana
is that the people there
don't want to work," Col.
Louis Rouvroy de Saint
Simon, head of the Franco-
Khmer Friendship Associa-
tion, which is involved in the
plan, told me, dismissing
Guyana's unemployment
problems.
"But the Guyanese have
nothing to. be afraid of. The
refugees won't eat them."
Alain Vivien, the French
Socialist Party's spokesman
on colonial affairs who has
been following the affair
closely, called the scheme
"illogical" however.
"It is not humanitarian
and will merely create a lot
of dangerous political and
racial problems," he com-
mented. "It doesn't give the
Guyanese economy a chance."


or their future


Many see the plan as the
latest of scores of grandiose
madcap schemes over the
years to develop Guyana
which either evaporated or
failed disastrously, amid
French governmental mal-
administration or neglect.



UNEMPLOYMENT
The refugee plan comes at
an explosive juncture how-
ever. Three months of anti-
French, pro-independence
black nationalist unrest.
which led to deportations
and subversion charges, late
last year has set Guyane
politically aboil.
"We are for development,
but not at our expense,"
says Guy Lamaze, a 35-year-
old schoolteacher who is
leader of the pro-independence
Guyanese Decolonisation
Movement (Moguyde) and
.was one of those deported
briefly to Paris last year.
"We must have control
over our natural resources.
Our wealth is being stolen
by foreigners. 95 percent of


$15.00 T.T.
25.00 W.I.
17.50 U.S.
21.00 U.S.
l11.20 U.K.
14.00 U.K.
$20.00 T.T.
24.00 T.T.


With


French money invested here
leaves the country again,"
he stresses.
Lamaze denounces the
refugees plan as "colonialist"
and in line with other
schemes imposed on Guyane
in the past. "The presence
of so many here would create
a Palestinian-like situation on
the continent with all the
consequences. We resent
Guyane being a dumping
ground for everyone and
everything."
The most visible thing
dumped recently in Guyane
is a regiment of 1,500
Foreign Legun troops who
turned up in September 1973
after being expelled from
Madagascar as anti-French
sentiment rose there.



PLUNDER OF RICHES

They have been in Gayane
ever since, officially building
roads and other projects, but
also contributing much racial
tension to Guyanese society,
whose largely African popula-
tion is firmly controlled by
a small group of whites
mainly from France and
Algeria, most of them with
colonial attitudes and prac-
tices of another era.
Since the troubles last
year, France has been dis-
creetly building up its military
forces and hardware in the
department, both to ensure
unrest does not erupt again
and to protect the new de-
velopment schemes.
There are now some
5,000 troops in the depart-
ment, or one agent of "law
and order" to watch over
every 10 Guyanese.
To a growing number of
Guyanese, their country
seems little more than a
whore, chained to France,
and ravished by a greedy in-
dustrial world concerned only
to plunder its riches with no
thought for its inhabitants or
their future.
The winds of change may
however, begin to blow again
after November, when neigh-
bouring Surinam, which has
similar problems, becomes in-
dependent from Holland, and
begins efforts to take control
of its economic destiny.


I Savacou


1963-1972


* Subject and author entries in one alphabetical sequence
* Comprehensive coverage of all articles
* Supporting cross references


Professionally prepared by a librarian at the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine,
the Index includes an Introduction by Dr. Gordon Rohlehr, Head of the English Depart-
ment, which places the publications in a social and historical context.

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I







SUNDAY 'AUGUgT 10 1975







India: Walking An





Ideological Wasteland


TAPIA PAGE 3


From Race Today

THE personal survival of
Indira Gandhi as Prime
Minister is not the ques-
tion that faces India
today. The events of the
last few weeks, culminat-
ing in the arrest of 700 of
Indira's political oppo-
nents, including a min-
ister, Chandra Shekar,
from her own Congress
Party, have been seen in
the Western press as
either a paranoid reaction
of overkill from a
parliamentary democrat
turned dictator, or a
personal power struggle
on the weary stage of
Indian parliamentary
democracy.
It is this constitutional
heritage of British colonialism,
coupled with the demands of
the Indian population for a
government which may not
supply the bread but is forced
to stage the circuses, that has
triggered the political charade
that pulls into the arena of,
current history the whole
direction of the Indian nation.
The High Court Justice's
ruling, that Indira should step
down from office till such a
decision .:as giveii by :thc.
Supreme court, was upheld
by the preliminary hearings
of the Supreme Court which
considered Mrs. Gandhi's
application.
The opposition parties,
altogether outnumbered in
Parliament by the Congress
who have held power since
Indian Independence in '47,
have staged a mass agitation
programme to force Indira to
go.
It is.in the short term their
one tactical objective which
they feel will provide the
parliamentary crisis from
which they, right or left wing,
'socialists' or outright free
enterprise parties such as the
Old Congress ofMorarji Desai,
can create a parliamentary
stability of their own.




FASCISM

Gandhi's reaction, the
imprisonment of her oppo-
nents, the clamp-down of
severe censorship on all
publications and the expul-
sion of the Washington Post
correspondent from New
Delhi are continuing demon-
strations of the impossibility
of governing India under any
form of social democracy
short of police measures and
unquestioned fascism.
Such has been the reaction
of a supposed socialist state
to all the forms of extra-
parliamentary power that the
people of India openly and
avowedly seek.


Mohandas Ghandi, a useless pacifism


The Railway Strike of last
year, the Jayaprakash Narayan
Movement which started in
Bihar, the toppling of the
Gujerat Legislative Assembly
ana the resounding election'
last month of anti-Congress
parties to the power of that
state, are symptoms of this
energy, the shape that the
class struggle has taken in its
most public forms in the last
year.
The Railway strike was
the pronouncement of India's
as yet small but by no means
negligible industrial proletariat
on the material misery that
the mixed economy, the Five
Year plans and the struggle
to accumulate capital or
borrow it from the Soviet,
bloc and International mono-
polies, has imposed on India.
This industrial proletariat,
child of that very scheme of
political development upheld
by the police and the army
under Nehru and now under
his daughter, have become the
material victims of the cruelty
of that accumulative process
(call it 'socialist' as Indira
does), and in the Railway
strike and its aftermath, it
declared its determination to
end it.
The history of Indepen-
dent Indiahas been the history
of the creation of classes
with power bases in city and
country which would deliver
the vote and ensure the con-
tinuation 'of such a parlia-
mentary democracy with
Congress as its one party
choice.
The policies of the party
have resulted in the enriching
of the landlords who are a
minute proportion of the
70% of Indians who still draw
their sustenance from agricul-


ture, through the nationalisa-
tion of banks, the provision
of fluid capital, irrigation
schemes, fertilizer plant, gua-
ranteed marketing facilities
and price fixing.
It is these landlords, ruling
now over the exploitation of
a peasantry which is suffering
the forced divorce from the
means, of production and is
left with nothing to sell but
its labour power on a fiercely
competitive market, who
deliver the vote to the parlia-
mentary warlords of India
through bribery, coercion and
on occasion naked violence.


ARTICULATION
The significance' of the
J.P. movement as it is called
in Bihar, which has for the
last eighteen months been
calling for an end to 'corrup-
tion' and for an expression in
political terms of the aspira-
ions of the population as
opposed to an election of*
those that manifestly fail to
represent them, is that it
marks the limits of the dem-
ocratic revolution in India.
The failure of the develop-
ing J.P. movement is its
inability to articulate the
material demands on which
the opposition to the 'corrup-
tion' of elected regimes is
based. The failure to articulate
demands is. only the verbal
counterpart of the failure to
analyse the struggles of the
Indian population, the indus-
trial proletariat, the agricul-
tural labourer, the peasants,
the communities of the
Indian cities who live off the
revenue of the wage workers,
in a material perspective.
Most damningly, it is the
'moral' focus of the J.P.


V*



LI9


Jayaprakash ANarayan: a failure

movement that revives the
ghost of Gandhism around
which the body of Indian
capital took shape.
The parliamentary parties
in opposition to Indira
Gandhi at this moment, who
are attempting to seize the
energies of the anti-Indira.
moment and couple them
with the material aspirations
of the population, have no
such perspective either.
The leadership of this
opposition, in the person of
the ex-finance minister of the
Nehru regime, Morarji Desai,
or any of the other leaders of
the Jan Sangh (a free enter-
prise party with electoral
tactics which one may call
cultural fascism) or the Praja
Socialist Party or Samyukta
Socialist Party, offer the
people no less corrupt an
infra-structure of government
Their material strategy
finally resides in the removal
of the controls that Congress
imposes on die growth of me
International Monopoly Capi-
tal sector of the economy,
those industries and individuals
which draw salaries and divid-
ends, and profits from the
private sector of the Indian
economy.
They can only offer the
population of India the
material advance and exploita-
tion inherent in the shifting
of balance from capital invest-
ment by the Soviet bloc to
capital investment by the


of airsis and arricularion.

international Company bloc.
The left wing parliamentar-
ians on the other hand, in-
cluding the imprisoned poli-
buro member of the Com-
munist Party of India (Marxist),
Jyoti Bhsu, offer the Indian
population a programme of
revolutionary development
through and in spite of the
parliamentary institutions,
seeing state power as a
weapon they can wield in the
interests of an advancing
proletarian development.
They offer India 'socialist
accumulation' through its own
efforts as Samora Machel and
the Communist Parties of
Cambodia and Vietnam offer
the national revolutions of
Mozambique, Cambodia and
Vietnam a programme of
maternal advance through
blood sweat, tears and a
certain degree of puritanism.


PERSPECTIVE
These choices can be
characterized as parliamentary
commodities on offer to a
sceptical population, because
there are no signs in India
that the struggles of the
population have taken either
of these alternatives to heart.
They remain in the cruel
programmatic that have pro-
vided the Indian nation with
no perspective that breaks the
bounds of nationalist material
advance.


.
~6~6~

i








PAGE 6 TAPIA
Continued from last week
IN principle, there is
nothing wrong with the
Government's 15-year
Education Plan if you
regard the Plan simply
as a set of objectives.
We do need a first tier of
Secondary Education up
to that point whlre we
can afford to educate all
the children in the coun-
try. Ideally, if we were
starting the world anew,
we could simply proceed
to establish a set of
Junior Secondary Schools
to make the bridge
between the Primary
School system and the
Senior Schools open only
to the few we can afford
to offer further full-
time schooling.
Ideally. What is impracti-
cal about such a scheme in
the real world of Trinidad
and Tobago is the absence of
a sense of process political
process, technical process,


cultural process. The Govern-
ment has never had any
sense of limitation psycho-
logical or material, because
policy is in the hands of a
single individual who zig-zags
every so often in the cause
of nothing but his own
political survival.
Other interests in the
country enter the picture
only as mendicants whose
periodic supplications are
grated as it becomes
politically convenient. They
can exercise no rights as such
because politically they have
abdicated their responsibility
to become organised for bar-
gaining. In the context of
Doctor Politics, the question
is always who you go put
which means that people have
abdicated their right to have
political alternatives. They
block or limit Ekecutive de-
sign by the exercise of power
never by the exercise of
responsibility.
The Church in education
has been an excellent case
in point; it blocks, obstructs
and limits; it extorts con-


cessions but on education, it
has never taken a clearpoliti-
cal position largely because
its Christian component has
been part of the imperial and
foreign sector. Up to now,
only the Indian denominations
could have taken clear politi-
cal position though the
paralysis of the DLP has
so far ruled it out. It re-
mains to be seen what will
happen amongst the Christians
now that Pantin and Abdulla
must localise their political
perceptions.


WILLY-NILLY
The Presbyterians are
something of a special case
and in some ways, they
seem to be in the strongest
position of all to lead the
entire education system in-
to the greener pastures.
Apart from being the least
fanatic and sectarian of
the denominations, they
have a long experience of
education and they are
more practised than the
others in the ways of local


control, howev,. you
choose to define the latter.
Moreover, they form anr
important bridge betweenn
the Afro and French
Creole Christian tradition
and the New World Carib-
bean Muslim and Hindu
culture.
Perhaps, to a discerning
eye, not concerned to see
a Cowboy and Indian
scenario between the
Church and the State -
for whatever political mo-
tivation as in time we will
no doubt discover and deal
with the Presbyterians
appears to enjoy a potential
for creative and radical re-
form. Radical reform, to
be sure, within a framework
of tight organisational dis-
cipline that characterises a
good part of their work.
1he failure of the country
and of the denominations to
take clear political positions
on education in the sense
of accepting responsibility for
the direction the system takes
- has created a Government
habit of simply summoning


SUNDAY
people willy-nilly to national
and personal consultations.
There is said to exist a
National Education Council
but it plays no part in this
process of exchanging in-
formation. There is none of
the concept of give and take
so central to the politics of
participation.When ever there
is a crisis looming for the
Executive, there is ad hoc
consultation as part of an
inevitable settlement from on
high. The most recent call
by the Prime Minister is
merely the last of a ludicrously
enduring series.
It is significant that at
these meetings of so-called
education interests, the
Ministry of Education ap-
pears in what is an ex-
ceedingly low profile. It is
the Prime Minister and his
Permanent Secretary to
whom the supplicants must
always address their pleas.
Where for heaven sake,
are all these PhD's and
masters of education
planning? Is it not a straw
in the wind that some are


WE have been arguing
that the decolonisation
of education dictates
the maintenance of the
so-called Mixed System
including Pr i v a t e
Schools, Assisted de-
nominational schools
and State Schools in a
very rich.variety. Even
the post-eleven di-
visions must remain in
a number of primary
schools.
The central purpose
of retaining this ap-
parent anarchy falls in-
to a twin of objectives.
The first is to open a
door to experimenta-
tion in a country where
the blind have for 20
years been leading the
blind along a road to
ruin.
The second aim is to
confront the problem of
social equality in the
existing-corridors of quality
education rather than to
continue to dodge the issue
by housing the multitude
of poor-peoples' children
in certain Junior Sec-
ondary Schools or on
certain shifts or in certain
forms or streams in some
given Junior Secondary
School.
Obviously, there has to


be a programme of social
and technical diversifica-
tion in the current prestige
schools even while the
long-term dynamic of
equalisation comes from a
conversion to a so-called
two-tier system of Junior
and Senior Schools, all
equipped by experience
with plant and curricula,
as with teachers and ad-
ministrators able to cope
with the demands of a
permanent transition.



EXPERIMENTATION

In concrete terms, the
implementation of such a
programme can only mean
a pilot scheme of experi-
mentation in a carefully
selected number of schools,
so setting in train a process
of winning national ap-
proval, of engendering
educational resources in
and out of school, of com-
mitting teachers, principals,
parerits, pupils and poli-
ticians alike.
Perhaps the most crucial
area in this process of
simultaneous decolonisa-
tion and reconstruction, is
the area of certification.
What. we have to see here
is that the certificate is a


way of specifying the out-
put of the education
system and therefore of
pointing to the required
input.
The ends invariably
force scrutiny of the
means. This is certainly
the case at the present
moment when the change
from the old College
Exhibition to the eleven-
plus has certainly re-
organised the already
atrocious Primary School
in many ways for the
worse.
By the same token, the
current GCE programme
dictates the programme of
work undertaken in the
secondary school and
sacrifices so m e where
between 83% and 60% of
the pupils on the alter of
so-called academic educa-
tion.



CERTIFICATION

The Tapia Seven-point
Plan focuses sharply on
the current practice of
awarding certificates only
to that favoured oligarchy
which satisfies the
examiners in the GCE but
which has seemed incapable
of providing any spiritual


EDUCATION





NUMBERS R





HAS GONE


or intellectual leadership
to take us out of clerkdom.
The most backward
people in the country are
to be found in the Uni-
versity of the West Indies
among the so-called in-
tellectual classes. Among
the latter, the watchword
is wahbeen and grog and
every excuse is found for
wallowing in living, the
most fancied of all the
excuses being that politics
is hopelessly futile and
that, in any case, no move-
ment here is radical enough
for us, champions of the


workers and farmers.
The issue here of course
is the extent to which the
quality education of the
existing prestige school-
system is quality at all
except in the political
sense that power ne-
cessarily invests itself with
excellence.
In Tapia we do not
deny the capability for
excellence which exists in
the pestige schools but we
maintain our discrimina-
tion in regard to current
output and we propose
that this capability will be
optimally exploited and
systematically expanded
only if certain kinds of
social and p o litical
pressures are deliberately
introduced into these
privileged preserves of the
education system.



NO MAGIC

The proposal that we
are advancing for the re-
form of certification is
meant to start a process of
fertilization within the
selected schools, a cross-
fertilization between:
Social studies ap-
propriate to the demands
of the two-island city-state
republic, democratic, parti-
cipatory, humane;
craft studies adapted to


the ingenuity, the wit and
creativity for Atechnologi-
cally independent civilisa-
tion not power-drunk on
the gigantism, the ar-
rogance and impotence of
current Atlantic civiliza-
tion;
academic studies which
carry the capacity for
philosophical speculation
beyond the requirements
of animal life.
Once this process is
initiated by deliberate in-
tervention at 14, it then
sets up a pressure in the
lower school and by ex-
tension in the Primary
Schools.
In other words the
School Leaving Certificate
being proposed by Tapia
not only guarantees an
abandonment of the eleven-
plus, as the Government
announcements are doing
in an intellectual and
practical void, but also sets
up the specifications for
an appropriate replace-
ment.
Clearly, there can be
no magic in simply making
a declaration that the I1-
plus will disappear or that
the GCE (or some such
Caribbean Certificate) will
become merely a subordi-
nate component of a Sec-
ondary School Leaving
Certificate awarded at
Preliminary, Intermediate,
Final and Higher Levels.


Your Family is well





fed with



rga Blue Band






Ib -" on Bread


__







UGUST 10. 1975
calling for the Minister's
head to roll while Her
Majesty's First Minister has
been whispering to people
that he has never agreed
with the hare-brained
schemes from the Ministry?
Meanwhile the whole
Construction industry is
flying up and down the
country in helicopters
settling from on high as
usual where to build six
Junior and six Senior
Secondary Schools bb
September 1976. It is
cear that another magic
deliverance is coming to
keep us in Babylon for
good.
This method and style
of administering education
is bound up with the in-
gredient which is so con-
spicusouly lacking in the
15-year education plan.
That missing ingredient is
praxis. the marriage of talk
and action, of theory and
practice, of plan and im-
plementation.
The othersectorinwhich
this ingredient is dis-


tinguished for its absence
is of course, agriculture,
specifically the notorious
Crown lands Project. In
neither instance it is
feasible to resolve the
problem by recourse to
foreign "investment" so
the incompetence of the
administration is sticking
out a mile.



ABSTRACTIONS

When the Government
finally falls in the con-
summation of the February
Revolution, we shall have
the task of charting a new
direction. It is therefore
important to understand
the departure that a Move-
ment for Reconstruction
will of necessity have to
make.
The weakness and the
strength of the old regime
lies in its capacity for
mouthing robber-talk and
for waily-waily jab-jab. The
charisma of the anti-


colonial movement lies in
its capacity to shoot down
large abstractions such as
indenture, slavery, capi-
talism, multinational cor-
porations, recolonisaton
and the like, purely as a
manner of speaking having
little to do with actual
policy.
For a small and ap-
p a r e n t1 y insignificant
people, rendered impotent
in a struggle at the level of
empire on which the sun
could never set, it was vital
to deal in large historical
forces and to deal in them
with a violence of rhetoric
and a belief in the power
of the world.
There was no need for
any moral insight into the
ambiguities of revolu-
tionary transformation and
the ambivalence of posture
which is the normal con-
dition of people. Born for
a role of unresponsible
the leaders if they had
paused to master the
modalities of 'responsible
process.


Cast in the drama of
David and Goliath, theirs
was Afrt in which the
only cceivable strategy
was excess. The trauma of
the present is that in so
much of the younger op-
position, this culture of
impotence survives, and
as in the case of the In-
dependence leaders, super
militant presentation re-
peatedly sells itself for
higher social and political
purpose until the mo-
ment of truth arrives and
one from ten leavesnaught.


FRUSTRATIONS

If we did not seize some
such interpretation ot the
Independence Movement
in this country, there
would be no explanation
whatsoever of the madden-
ing incapacity to im-
plement the simplest
measures imaginable to re-
form the education system
or any part of the old


colonial structure.
T h e Government's
analysis of the problem
matches anything we can
ourselves do in Tapia but
when it comes to marching
orders, they have been un-
able to lift a finger and
not even 20 years of
practice has made them
any more efficient.
Like so many of the
people who oppose them,
die PNM is incapable of
,building e n d u r i n,g
structures; they have no
concept whatsoever of how
loyalty is won. Notions
such as slavery and capi-
talism, or such as the
masses and the classes
throw little light on actual
people.
These concepts are the
stock-in-trade of the dis-
advantaged wnen we have
not yet found the leader-
ship and the organisation
to lift us above mere anger
and indignation into the
realms of responsible and
higher purpose.
The revolutionary


TAPIA PAGE 7
crisis In this country is
coming now to its climax
because our people are
ready, after seven lean
years of upheaval, to be
lifted out of negative re-
actions to the frustrations
we have accumulated for
so long.
The crisis has now ex-
ploded in education be-
cause we can no longer
advance the edification of
our children by exercises
in paper planning. The old
colonial education system
which we inherited from
the British has exhausted
its capacity to develop on
the basis of vastly expand-
ed numbers and enormous
extensions of plant. We
will not escape the beastly
blackboard jungle unless
we hasten now to build
up the productive capabi-
lity of education and to
realise that reconstruction
cannot be an act of grace
by the high and mighty
but -ia process of revolu.
tionary commitment or
the part of little people.


I CRISIS


JACKETT L'oy


Best


TOO FAR!


The abolition of the
11-plus has nothing,to do
with the erection of places
since the problem of
allocation of pupils within
the Junior Secondary
School system would still
remain to be solved -
even if we did manage to
do away with shifts and to
make zoning acceptable to
the privileged elites.
What is needed in the
education system is a
principle of allocation
(streaming) which is in-
herent in the form of certi-
fication constantly adjusts
to suit the changing needs
of cultural revival, techno-
logical progress, and parti-
cipatory organization.
This can only be found
by experimentation which
launches a frontal attack
on the rigidities of an
enduring colonial kingdom
ruled by a bunch of
essentially third-rate sat-
raps, whatever the noise
they manage to manu-
facture about the need for
decolonisation.
For nearly 20 years Wil-
liams has been surrepti-
tiously attacking and there-
fore effectively supporting
racism and clericalism in
the system of education.
His notorious speech to
the Seventh-Day Adventists
is only a re-statement of
orthodoxy, the mixture as
before, significant only be-
cause it releases informa-


tion which the Government
normally hogs for itself
through its incapacity to
match the colonial ad-
ministration in publishing
the relevant Annual Re-
ports.
We can now anticipate
a repudiation of Carlton
Gomes and his technocrats
- another low manoeuvre.
in time for the coming
election. Nobody will be
surprised if great play is
made of the end of the
cleven-plus; but all of us
who understand the prob-
lem know that in one way
or another, the eleven-plus
- a grading at 11 will be
with us for many years to
come.





CHOICES

Honesty on this account
sets up its own imperative
in the form of a new
pattern of certification
which would teach the
teachers something about
the needs of the lower'
school in the context of a
Tapia-type School Leaving
Secondary Certificate.
For some time to come,,
people are still going to
weight the GCE component
of the Certificate higher
than the other cowl-
ponents. Nobody needs to


be fooled by that. Colonial
habit is going to militate
against examinations and
evaluations that are home
grown. There are also all
kinds of formidable dif-
ficulties in establishing
proper arrangements to
test merit in the new craft
and social studies.
Yet there is. denying
,w


value of the change being
hefe proposed. We are
initiating a process as
distinct from an apocalytic
morning. Genuinely new
choices would become
available to students within
'he same school, within
the same administrative
framework, the same
cultural tradition.



OPPORTUNITIES

There is a colossal
number of students who
stand to gain from the
proposed curriculum even
in a school particularly
in a school-such as say,
St. Mary's College.
A good 55% of the
students could benefit
from an opportunity to
do a GCE Course in Basic
Maths, Practical (General)
Science and Commerce
plus six months in a Youth
Camp doing Carpentry, the
rest of their energies being
spent on the acquisition
of the humanities along
with everybody else in the


school.
A graduate from this
school would be an
excellent candidate for
becoming a Master Car-
penter or Mason of whom
we need a multitude in
the construction trade so
that the Prime Minister
could no longer have the
excuse that the building
programme is holding up
education.
Such graduates would
very probably be the people
to intitiate all those small
firms including me con-
struction firms necessary
to the emergence of the
touted People's Sector.
It is a question both of
s o c i a I context and
technical command. The
social context would yield
not only contacts but in-
sights and perceptions into
other worlds and confi-
dence. This is the real case
for the mixed system and
for multilateral education
in comprehensive schools.
It is into such a system
that we must now in-
troduce to the sons and
daughters of the have-nots


and that is the explosive
issue that this completely
phony PNM administration
has been avoiding over the
years with one Concordat
after another.




POPULAR OPINION

It is the issue that Tapia
will never avoid. That is
why the most important of
all the proposals in the
Seven-Point Plan of ours
is (1) that we assemble
the sovereign voices in a
Conference of Citizens
where they are certain to
take political position and

(2) that we next in-
stitutionalise p o p u I a r
opinion in School Boards,
Local Education Au-
thorities and a Working
National Council. Needless
to say, we will only come
to these options when the
Government finally dis-
appears, flushed down the
drain of history.


. I


EMPLOYERS

The National Insurance Board is recalling ALL
1974/75 CHERRY-COLOURED CONTRIBUTION CARDS for exchange
immediately.
Stamping spaces on these Cards expired on Monday
28th July, 1975 and therefore, NEW CHERRY Cards are
required to continue stamping from Monday 4th 'August,
1975. 5
You should ensure that all your employees sign
their Cards and any change of their address is reflected
on these cards before exchange.
All National Insurance Cards that are CHERRY in
colour INUST be exchanged with the Board in order for a
proper Contribution Record to be maintained for your
employee and for you to continue your obligation undeL
the law.



rib

THE NATIONAL INSURANCE BOARD
1,


___ ___ u






PAGE 10 TAPIA


SUNDAY AUGUST 10. 1975


A Soul Comes in




From the Ice ?



Interview with Eldridge Cleaver



ELDRIDGE CLEAVER, one time leader of the Black Panther
Party, U.S.A. was forced into exile three years ago. Then, his
parole was revoked, and the only alternative to San Quentin
Prison was a period in exile. He travelled extensively through
the 'socialist' world, out of which, experience he makes the
generalisations we reprint below. He was interviewed by Lars -
Olof Franzen, a Swedish correspondent of the People's News
Service. Article reprinted from RACE TODAY


Franzen: Is there any possibility of
your returning to the United States?
Cleaver: The fact is, things are
beginning to happen to make me
optimistic. I have a number of con-
tacts and people are working for my.
return. 1 think I'll be back in the US
inside two years. In fact, things seem
to be moving far too quickly ribht
now It would suit my plans fine
if I didn't get back till next year,
when the US celebrates its 200th
anniversary as a free state.
(Cleaver says he is com-
pleting work on a new volume of
essays. He is asked what the book is
about)
I'm trying to analyse the
world's total ideological confusion.
What we see happening today, and
what frightens me, is that the super
powers, regardless of ideology, are
being bound together in power struc-
tures which are basically similar. The
US, the Soviet Union, and even China,
which after all one trusted, are
developing common objectives. The
small nations lose out, the revolution-
ary movements get no support, because
one super power will not react against
another's violations ....
LOF: How has your life in exile
affected you? What experiences have
you gained?
EC: I don't want to talk about
personal experiences, I only want to
talk on a political level. All these
socialist states I've visited, from Cuba
to the Soviet Union, have differed
-greatly. But they have one thing in
common. There is no.freedom there,
OK, when you say a thing like that,
people immediately start accusing you
of being a reformist and anti-communist
and Christ knows what else. But I'm
not a reformist. lam a socialist and a
revolutionary,and I can see that in
these countries fantastic things have
been done to achieve social and econ-
omic justice while in the West, we
have freedom but no social or econ-
omic justice but I don't believe in
socialism without freedom, without
freedom, without working democratic
institutions. Shall I tell you why it got
like this, for example in the Soviet
Union? Right, it's because of a mistake
by Lenin. When he threw out the
liberal Kerensky government and pro-
claimed a dictatorship of the proletariat,
he thought a socialist state could be
created directly, without going through
the bourgeois revolution. But you can't
do that, because it's the bourgeois
revolution that establishes the dem-
ocratic institutions. If you skip that
part, you simply create a party dictator-
ship in the name of the people.
(Cleaver goes on to say
that racism is widespread both in the
Soviet Union and Cuba, before Franzen
asks if his view of the US has altered
during his exile)
Yes, it has changed. But
the US has changed, too. As I said


before, I consider it extremely impor-
tant that a society has working dem-
ocratic institutions. The US has shown
that it does. Agnew, Watergate, Nixon.
The disclosures about the FBI and the
CIA, these are fantastic things, and
believe me they're not over yet. Wait
till you see the links between the
Kennedy murders and the administra-
tion begin to creep out! All this shows
too, that our analysis was correct.
Every single thing we said at the end
of the 'sixties' about Nixon, about the
FBI, about the CIA, and about the
police, was true. And after a while, it
came out.
LOF: Aren't you over-estimating
the value of removing a few people
and revealing a number of scandals,,
when the entire underlying power
structure is preserved intact? Are these
disclosures really making a deep im-
pression on people's consciousness.
EC: Yes, I think they are. But
of course it's not just Nixon, it's
everything he stood for, too.
LOF: But there must be millions
of Americans, not least among the
underprivileged groups, for whom these
revelations mean nothing, and above
all, change nothing?
EC: Sure, but all the same it's
no longer possible to fool the people,
it's not possible to fool the American
Congress. Listen, you can fool all the
people some of the time and some of
the people all the time, but you can't
fool all the people all the time.
LOF: A few years ago, you
warned of an imminent fascisi coup in
the US. Are you saying the risk is now
over?
EC: Yes, I am, Of course, there
are fascist politicians in the US.
Wallace, for example, even has a fully
developed fascist socio-economic view.
But to bring about a fascist take-over,
you have to be able to lie to people
without them unmasking you. And I
don't think that's possible any longer.
It can't be done inside the US. It can
still be done in countries where it's
possible to set up puppet regimes. It
was done in Chile, but it was only a
question of time before the disclosures
began to come. For that matter, we
haven't seen the last of Chile yet.
Another thing I've realized is that one
should never over-estimate the enemy's
strength.One should not under- esti-
mate it but neither should one'over-
estimate it. That's why I'm against
exaggerated scenarios about the power
of fascism in the United States, or
suggestions to the effect that the
blacks in the US will be sent into the
gas chambers, just like in Hitler's
Germany. Obviously, nothing like that
is ever going to happen.
LOF: What do you think will
happen then?
EC: I think the worst we can
run into of a reactionary nature is
what we've got right now. I'm pretty


optimistic. It wouldn't surprise me if hasn't been seen since.


America was socialist ten years from
now.
But in that case it would be an Ameri-
can socialism, built on the American
tradition and constitution without
foreign ideological features, and with
a working democracy and with social
and economic equality. Do you know,
in point of fact I've gone full circle.
With various radical slogans on my
lapel. Do you know what I'd like to
put there now? The American flag.
Cleaver goes on to defend
the confrontation politics he advocated
as Information Minister of the Black
Panther Party. He argues that the
killing of 20 or 30 Black Panthers by
police was a high price to pay -
'although some cops got theirs, too'-
but it was right and necessary at the
time).
LOF: Then what do you think
about the Black Panthers' policy
today? In a Swedish newspaper inter-
view, Jonina Abron says your policy
was wrong, that it was a mistake to
urge blacks to arm themselves and
that one must take control of the
institutions by putting up candidates
for local elections, etc.
EC: To take control of the
institutions is to be bought by them.
The Black Panther Party, as it was at
the end of the 'sixties', no longer
exists. Have you heard about the split
in the Panthers? OK, when I was in
Algiers, and Bobby Seale was sitting
in prison, Huey Newton pushed the
party onto a rightist line and gave up
the policy of confrontation. A
majority of the party's members
wanted to continue the confrontation
policy but Huey pushed through his
line and they left the party.
LOF: But Bobby Seal had con-
siderable success when he stood for
Mayor of Oakland. He got over 40%
of the vote in the last round.
EC: Bobby is a wonderful and
unselfish person. I really love him. He
was a clever administrator, but he was
not an independent source of ideas.
When Huey was there, he was depen-
dent on him, and when I was there he
was dependent on me. Now he's
withdrawn completely from all politi-
cal work.
LOF: And Huey Newton ?

EC: Huey took a dangerous
line. Part of our programme was to
organise child-feeding, giving every
small child a proper meal. It was a
good scene, and it started ideally, but
then it grew fat. It was built on volun-
tary contributions in money or goods
from black merchants. Under Huey,
it developed into a sheer black Mafia,
pure gangster stuff. Giving contribu-
tions became a precondition fc. 'pro-
tection.' Huey's party got drawn into
prostitution and the dope trade. Then
he ran off with the cash box and


(Fraizen notes here that
because this account tallies so well
with the police and yellow press
version of the Panthers' activities, he
returned to the matter at the end of
the interview to make sure. he had
understood Cleaver correctly. Cleaver
assured him he had).
LOF: How then do you think
the large black minority in the US
should be organised? What are you
thinking of doing when you go back?
EC: I have no plans for that
type of work. I don't feel today that
one can abolish the police. One must
have a police force to secure individual
people's life and property. I don't
even think the US military potential
should be wound down, because that
would create a -mortally dangerous
vacuum. But the problems are enor-
mous ..
Cleaver goes on to note
that a black middle class is emerging
to shoulder the oppressor's mantle,
and that blacks who have stood for
office have always let down their
people in the end. He cites Leroy
Jones as a classic example, but adds
that after discovering his mistake
Jones is 'one of the toughest Marxist-
Leninists you can meet.'
(The conversation turns to
'political terrorism.' Cleaver says
people should spend less time con-
demning it and more trying to under-
stand why it occurs. 'Create a political
situation where the democratic institu-
tions work -and where economic and
political justice exists, then you have
no political terrorism.' A long passage
follows in which Cleaver recounts his
experience in prison, in particular in
relation to the teachings and followers
of Elijah Muhammed. He goes on to
say that he never regretted leaving the
US because he knew he would have
been. killed if he had reported back to
prison as ordered in 1968).
LOF: But today you wouldn't
hesitate to return to California if
you're allowed to?
EC: No, everything s so differ-
ent now. Reagan's gone and instead we
have a democratic governor, Brown,
Today, 1 wouldn't even be afraid to go
into a California jail, because today I
think I would be able to survive it.
LOF: Does it make such a differ-
ence whether a Republican or a Dem-
ocrat is in power?
EC: It makes precisely that
difference. The police don't kill simply
because 'they're fascists or homnici-
dal in themselves, but because some-
one or some people want them to do
it. I'd meet many people I know if I
went into a California prison. But
many are dead, too. I don't think a
person has so many true friends in
one lifetime, or perhaps I'm a man
who has had unusually few friends.
And almost all of them are dead.











0 0





Special Works People is





People too


Senator Hamlet Joseph defends

Special Works People in Senate


SENATOR H. JOSEPH:
Mr. Vice President, I
only want to raise one
aspect of the schedule. I
am doing so in reply to
Sen. Gatcliffe's state-
ment on the Special
Works Programme.
I know he is con-
cerned but I also know
that he does not have the
real facts.
Let me begin by saying
that Ihappen to work on
the Special Works Pro-
gramme; I am a Checker.
We are faced with problems
on the Special Wbrks I agree,
but when one comes to this
House and accuses workers
of wastage and dishonesty,
I cannot sit here and allow
it to pass by.


It is not true that workers
on the Special Works waste
Government funds, it is not
true at all. In fact, Govern-
ment are allowing the funds
spent on Special Works to be
wasted and perhaps later I
shall give the reason for this.
Let me detail a little the
problems that we face on the
Special Works and perhaps I
could find no better time to
start with, than this year. On
January 20, the Special
Works Programme was de-
clared open. Some of those
jobs, when Government de-
cided to close them down in
January had materials on
them so that when they re-
opened on January 20, these
materials were still there.
However, not all the materials
that were required to con-


tinue the construction work
were there.
On my job, for example,
when we closed in 1974, we
had boulders, gravel and fine
sand but the one thing we
did not have was cement.
On January 27, we made a
requisition for seventy sacks
of cement and this did not
come to us until April 10.
I am also stating here that
no job on the Special Works
since the re-opening had
materials appropriate to con-
tinue the work.
In fact, it was only around
sometime in April this year
that jobs received materials -
that goes for ,all jobs in
Trinidad and Tobago. I am
saying jobs received materials
in April of this year.
Before one could order for
materials, one is given what is
termed a material control
sheet. The problem here is
that you can only order the
amount that is stated on the
sheets.



CONTROL SHEET

For example, if on that
control sheet for the first
quarter you are given 70
sacks of cement, you can
only order 70 sacks for that
quarter, and if you are lucky
to get the full amount
ordered and you happen to
use it before the end of the
quarter, you cannot receive
or order for any more cement
until the second quarter.
So in truth and in'fact
when materials are not avail-
able on the project it must
seem to the residents, it must
seem to people that money is
being wasted. But in fact it
is not the worker who is
wasting this money. It is the
Government's inability to
supply the materials needed
for the continuation of those
projects.
When people talk about
the attitude towards work on
ile project, I want to say
here that I know from ex-
perience that people on the
Special Works projects could
work. They could work be-
cause I have seen them do it
whenever there are materials
and when there are no
materials they may do light
work.
SENATOR TULL: What
do you term light work? '
SENATOR H. JOSEPH;
Like maintenance and so on -
cleaning of drains. A very
interesting thing to note
about the Special Works is


that no one involved in that
programme has a job. Per-
haps, I want to agree with
Senator Gatcliffe when he
said in my words people
need security wherever they
work, and especially on the
projects.
Sometimes you are told,
sometimes by the Director,
sometimes by people in
Whitehall, and sometimes by
the Minister of Finance, that
on Special Works service
does not count.
What do those people
mean by that? They say ser-
vice only counts when you
are in need of vacation leave
or sick leave.
So in truth and in fact,
the man who is working on
the Special Works project
knows he does not have a
job no security. I want to
cite an example of this if I
may.
I could remember some-
time this year a worker on
the Special Works Project
approached the Director for
a letter to take to the Bank,
and the Director wrote on
that letter 'this man is tem-
porary'.



JOHN--JOHN

So in truth and in fact, if
that worker was perhaps
seeking some loan with the
bank, from what theDirector
detailed in that letter, it was
quite obvious that that loan
would not have been advanced
to that man.
People, wherever they
work want to be assured
that they have a job and we
always asked the question,
why is government unwilling
to place Special Works into
the whole scheme of things,
the whole development pro-
gramme of this country?
The answer is simple. The
answer is simply because
Special Works employees
are used as political pawns.
I want to say clearly that
government is not interested
,in seeing any serious work
done in the area of Special
Works. They want it to con-
tinue just like that because it


is one of the means where
men could be manipulated
very easily.
When election is not in
the air, the labour force is
13 or 14 people on each job,
but around election time you
would find that same labour
force increased sometimes to
40 or 50 persons. What is the
reason for it?
SENATOR TULL: Do you
check them?
SENATOR H. JOSEPH:
Of course. And the reason for
it is that government are using
poor people, like myself, on
Special Works for political
gains. But I am afraid Sir, it
would hot work come election.
I am certain about that,
because people are reading
them. Everywhere you turn
in the depressed areas like
Laventille and John John you
find the same cry. People are
aware of the manipulations
by government to use them
as political pawns. I there-
fore, ask that government
take this programme into
serious consideration.
SENATOR TULL: And
abolish it.
SENATOR H. JOSEPH;
You can say that if you
want. But I do know there
are people who depend on
it such as myself for
their livelihood.
I believe the only way
that production can be ob-
tained from this programme
is if the Government view
people as people and not as
tools to be manipulated
around election time for
election purposes.
I am therefore, asking that
Special Works be given some
status where people could be
assured that they are in a job,
where people could be assured
that after a certain amount
of years' work. they can retire
and receive a pension, and I
see no reason why this cannot
be done. In any case, people
on Special Works are just
like people any where else.
Mr. President, with this
little remark I hope that the
Government will view what I
say in a very serious manner.
Thank you.


KIRPALANI'S


IS











d1









and BASIC

We've got what you
need at minimum cost.











KIRPALANI'S NATIONWIDE


SUJNDjOY AUGUST 10, 1975 -


TAPIA PAGE 9






DAGIF 8 TAPIA


OMMUN 'son


--i- ,--
.-,t .. . .- .'-. -,?

.. -~ -

", -" "
,. ....*,... .
..



e..f.. --,
east of Balandra: Cinderella or just the ugly sisters.


Balandra:


Beyond


The Tourist Dollar


Lloyd Taylor

ro build or not to build?
That, is the question
in the wrangle between
the people of St. David
and Balandra Beach
Resorts and Estates
Limited (BBRE)
Where the people are con-
cerned there is no evidence to
show that they are clearly for,
or totally against the con-
struction of a $12m. hotel in
Balandra Bay. They are all
only nominally represented
for all practical purposes, and
are for the most part un-
organised. Not unlike the rest
of us they lack information,
analysis, and by extension
leadership on the question.
Even when we note that
St. David Association of
Village Councils has from all
appearance been agitating on
the issue we do not see the
active engagement of people
such as Iona Lewis of Ram-
panalgas; Immelda Ashby of
Toco: Joseph Lewis of
Cumana; Reyes from San
Souci; or Kenneth Simon of
Grand Rivierre.
It is.Fr. Travers who has
been asking questions and
seeking answers on their
behalf.


POVERTY LINE
Clearly then the issue has
not yet been properly aired
among the people. It is there-
fore not surprising that their
memorandum focused on the
prospect of jobs and educa-
tion.
On questions which are
nevertheless immediate in a
County where the median
monthly income is $99.00 or
50% less than the maximum
received by lose of us below
the poverty line.
More- rec.!lly they have


ings a natural source of joy'.

had the counsel of Susan
Craig, a sociologist, who has
quite rightly questioned the
prospects for employment
from such a construction.
According to an Express
report she charged that "the
area will be made into a
tourist enclave catering mainly
for North Americans and
those locals who can afford
expensive recreation." That
seems to be the only real
prospect.


LIONEL ROBINSON

SBBRE's reply to the
Association's memorandum
promised to consider recom-
mendations and requests for
people of the area to partici-
pate in the scheme. In the
meantime discussions were
undertaken with Lionel
Robinson, Parliamentary Re-
presentative for the area on
all the questions raised by
the Association.
But beyond that disclosure
and the cryptic remark that
"we (BBRE) are planning for
Balandra," a totally mean-
ingless assurance the people
of St. David, and the rest of
us are still in the dark.
First, it is depressingly
significant that the people in
the final analysis have to be
urged to stand up against
Balandra Beach Resorts and
Estates Ltd., so as to ensure
the precedence of popular
over narrow, private and
foreign interests in spite
of the Government's presence
and its agencies in Town and
Country Planning.
Secondly we are yet to
determine on what pegs we
are to hang the decision to


The Balandra Bay Hotel is
not up yet, but the capital
gains spree is off the mark.
Furthermore the capitalis-
ation involves the exploitation
of our recreational possibili-
ties increasingly in the North
Coast. Take La Fillette further
North and West of St. David.
Here is another Advertise-
ment appearing on the same
day: "1/ prime beach free-
hold Beach Frontage; sea and
river bathing; suitable hotel
site or condominiums; Price
$70,000." One might add:
Take it or leave it!
There is a movement 'way
up north' as it were. It began
as a movement of people in
search of bathing and recrea-
tional resorts. Speculators
are now looking to cash in on
that market, extolling the
virtues of the natural and
unspoilt land and seascapes.
There is no telling where
that movement will end, and
who will be in charge; the
few or the many?




CHEAP LAND
The movement has not
been without good reason.
The increasingly heavy con-
centration of people 'taking
the salt' in Balandra Bay and
other areas in St. David
testify to that.
In general we are a people
who are gravely under-record-
ed. ?Vhat is more, we know
more aoout 'going feting'
than we know about 'going
river'. Added to this, is the
fact that there exist few good
public beaches.
The North West Peninsula


- From Tapia'sNew World.

build or not to build.
To the first of these ques-
tions the recurring answer is
that the Government of the
country is obviously not as
vigilant as it is necessary to
ensure the protection of
national interests. As to the
second Government seems in-
capable and is, for all we
know, increasingly unable to
deliver rational planning
Even in the Third Five
Year Plan 1969-1973, its most
rational Plan prepared so far,
the Government has been
guilty of the criminal ommis-
sion of both St. Andrew/
St. David and Ortoire/Mayaro
as planning regions on par
with Tobago, Port-of-Spain
and those counties bordering
the West coast.
That is seen to magnify
itself when we come to con-
sider the national application
of regional planning by Gov-
ernment was geared to analyse
"comprehensively the short-
comings and deficiencies of
each region."
The upshot is the failure to
deal effectively with pro-
blems such as land specula-
tion, spiralling costs of deve-
lopment in expanding areas,
and the destruction of the
environment due to urbanisa-
tion even in those areas that
have been designated Planning
Regions.
It is therefore not surpris-
ing to find in the midst of
apparent uncertainty under
Guardian's Classified Ads the
following: lots from
10,000 feet and up with good
beach frontage 950 per sq.
ft. The New Golf Course and
Hotel area at Balandra, soon
to be developed, will.enhance
the value of these lots."


suffers from overcrowding;
the coastal regions of the
west and south west are
subject to pollution from the
Orinoco River. While Manza-
nilla, Mayaro, and Guyaguay-
are on the eastern seaboard
have been nastied with oil
leaks from AMOCO's wells.
In that context the North
Coast is a veritable Cin-
derella seeking to enchant
only true nature lovers. It
remains one of the few areas
where land is still relatively
cheap. Moreover with its well
forested areas and still very
much in its natural state the
possibilities for development
are enormous.
The first peg upon which
a resolution of the issue must
hang revolves around whether
the Government is ensuring
that the public need for re-
creation is satisfied.
And surely we must avoid
at all costs that situation
where people have no access
to their beaches.
And on the evidence avail-
able especially within recent
times with respect to the
distasteful 'beautification'
schemes undertaken at Caura
and at the Caracas Waterfalls,
the Government has had no
notion of recreational plan-
ning in a frame of reference
which gives any priority to
measures for popular welfare.
So before we can give any
serious consideration to the
Balandra Beach Resorts and
Estates development schemes,
we must first settle the mini-
mum criteria for determining
the recreational needs of
people residing here. We must
therefore,bring into the overall
context of land use, additional
policies for beach-use and
national parks.



CUMANA
Bringing some such focus
to bear on the decision to
build or not to build, im-
mediately highlights St. David
as a high amenity area with
all its natural beauties of
forests, thickly populated with
a diversity of birds and other
forms of wildlife, of streams
flowing into some of the
most scenic sea-scapes that
one can find. One may well
find Balandra and Cumana
to recommend themselves
strongly for consideration in
any scheme of national parks.
These two areas abound in
opportunities for swimming,
fishing, surfing, camping, hik-
ing, sight-seeing and photo-
graphy.
It may still be argued
that our peoples can yet have
use of Balandra Bay inspite
of BBRE's development
schemes. However, what takes
precedence over that prospect
is the necessity for us to
consider reserving areas for
the presently under-recreated
population and for the in-
creasing population to come.
To proceed otherwise would
be to continue planning along
irrational ways.
On this assessment dithe
S12in hotel ought to be a
very long way off. And if it
isn't, then somebody will
have to say why.


. -


Mahoe Bay: "
Mahoe Bay


"Tapia would not flinch from the difficult decisions involved in the rational alloca-
tion of activity between hill and valley, swamp and plain. Our programme here will
be governed by our determination to feed, clothe, and shelter our population, as far
as is reasonable, out of the resources of our own land and to find in these surround-


SUNDAY AUGUST --10, 1975






--5"Z "' .,Sf. 10, 1971


Tapia Education Plan



continues to arouse



serious discussion


TAPIA held the third of
a series of public indoor
meetings to discuss its
Seven-Point Emergency
Education Plan at the
San Fernando Town Hall
on Wednesday evening
July 30th.
Community Secretary,
Beau Tewarie: outlined the
plan to a warm and receptive
audience. The latter part of
the evening was devoted to
questions and comments from
the audience.
In presenting the plan,
Beau Tewarie argued that the
Black Power demonstrations
in 1970 must have suggested
to the government that the
school system was creating
unemployment, growing dis-
content and breeding revolt
by perpetuating a two-tier
caste system of elite and dis-
possessed.
Yet this year he pointed
out, a recent political deci-
sion has been made to house
100% of the Junior Secondary
Graduates in the same kind
of system for another two
years.
This,he said, would merely
postpone the frustration and
at the same time put a severe
strain on the educational
machine which will lead to a
reduction in the quality and
effectiveness of education in


the country.
One had to acknowledge,
Tewarie added, that neither
the physical facilities nor the
teachers are available at the
present time to facilitate a
large-scale diversification
programme in education.
This is why, he con-
tinued, a pooling of all
existing and potential re-
sources as diverse as Post-I 1
Departments in Primary
Schools and a National Ser-
vice Establishment is neces-
sary to take us out of the
present crisis.
In making his case,
Tewarie recalled that in 1970,
after the Black Power Revolt,
the Prime Minister made a
call to Business and Com-
munity Organizations to de-
velop training programmes
and Apprenticeship schemes.
The government had
clearly seen the need to
supplement the existing
traditional system of educa-
tion. But, added the speaker,
they never conceived of this
as part and parcel of a re-
formed education system.
Tapia's integrated ap-
proach to education however,
stressed Tewarie, meant that
Apprenticeship and Training
programmes must be con-
ceived as part and parcel of a
national education programme.
Such an approach, he


claimed, would create work
and study programmes and
would help to promote the
Educational ideal of theory
and practice going hand in
hand.


From Page 1
years. now. How Vic-
tor Campbell go explain
that? Tell me, said an
angry man.
The whole of Quarry
Village is now blasted
vex. "Sham know elec-
tion coming so he take
fork and say he digging
where they plan to put
the water pump down
the road."
Last .time everybody
was taking car from quite
up inside to come down
and vote. Sham was
laughing. He hug me up,
he kiss me up. Every
individual who could


TAPIA PAGE 11


At the same time, the
speaker added, it would
mean that thousands would
be trained for productive
roles in the economy.
In conclusion, Tewarie
said that the Tapia plan had a
quality of wholeness and
cohesion that was sadly lack-
ing in most of the recent
responses to the crisis.
He stressed that the
Tapia plan was making
a genuine attempt to really
come to terms with the real
problems in education, and


vote, vote for Sham. But
this time we go show
them something. We de-
vote so much time to
Party Group No. 8. We
put up hundreds of dol-
lars, we achieved nothing,
no development, no pro-
gress at all.
Quarry Village, like so
many others is caught up
in the horse-trading of
parish-pump politics.
The people have lost all
vision of a better society,
lost all the trust which
could make them wait in
the queue. But many are
still clinging to their
early ambition.
The housing is cxcel-


so was a first step to the
reorganization of education.
After the plan had been
presented by the Community
Secretary, several questions
were raised from the floor.
Members of the Education
Committee were on hand to
answer questions. The ex-
change continued until 10:30
p.m. when Chairman Denis
Solomon closed the meeting.
Further meetings were
carded for La Brea on August
6, Point Fortin on August
13 and for other localities
on dates to be announced.


lent. People have not lost
any of their pride. Every-
body still works hard. In
the backyards, they
plant corn and every
little thing.
The soil is rich, a man
get 19 tannias from a
single root, right up here
in Quarry Drive.
Up on the crest,
where you have a truly
magnificent view, there
is the inevitable gru-gru
beff. Down below the
vegetation is luxuriant
and wild, yielding a great
profusion of fruit. here
is soursop, mango starch
and mango dou-douce,
fig, lemon, breadfruit
and zaboca. The trees
grow tall and slim, escap-
ing the morning and even-
ing shadows of the valley
walls.
. Mr. Tapia, is a real
food basket here in
Quarry Drive. God is very
good to we; is only the
Government. ...........


UFORD ESCORT

AChan...e for the..., Bett3r '',: i.,,.; i.




Ir h-Irr vll*bIlly, ,. nd I lihough her ~r
I unh rnged in I.ngrTh 1 h b.oou. eull
I' -i,',,1h,, lI, ., d [h ,.





,r..mar-,.I. ,.:r, I j.r c, (it 3'O..r.


_ _I _


u ~lartI 111ag7e


I







Mrs. Andrea. Talbutt,
Research Institut for
SStudy of Man, :
162 East 78th Street,
New York, N.Y. 10iQ2l
Ph. Lehigh 5 8448.
S. =_ o


BY THE TAPIA HOUSE PUBLISHING CO., LTD. 91, TUNAPUNA ROAD. TUNAPUNA PHONE


Earl Best
ON SUNDAY afternoon
a huge crowd turned out
to witness the opening of
what must surely be the
biggest ever "minor"
league in this country.
The occP'ion was billed
as a "Trinidad style jump-
up" and, as we have now
come to expect, it lived
up to its billing.
Catelli All Stars and
Huggins Pandemoniums were
on hand at the Orange Grove
Savannah to provide the
music accompaniment for the
waves of gayly clad players -
one 'is tempted to say
revellers who, in em-
phatically non-military style,
chipped merrily past the
salvting base where the Min-
ister of Education and Culture
and the Parliamentary Sec-
retary for sport stood to
"take the salute."
It was a long time before
the last seemingly weary
standard bearer danced past
officials and the panel of
judges (among them Everard
"Gaily" Cummings and the
Mighty Composer)" came out
to inspect the sea of colourful
uniforms.
Red- and yellow predomi-
nated and the waiting parade
looked like a field of tomatoes
and sweet peppers waiting to
be reaped.
One spectator wondered
aloud whether there was any
possible combination of red
and yellow not on display be-
fore us. Anyway, it was one
such combination that got
the judges' nod and Eddie's
Upstarts ran off with the prize
for best team on parade.
As theyhave done so often
in the past, Eddie and his
committee again demonstrat-
ed their determination to
create their own traditions
and opted for a community
personality to kick off the
ball in preference to the usual
publicity-grabbing big name
official.
This year, Mrs. Marilyn
Gordon, a former national


Laidlow's


Hardware
Eastern Main Rd., Laventille

FOR
GRASS ROOTS PRICES
IN
HARDWARE

Galvanise, Cement,
Blocks, Tiles,
Pipe-fitting,
Points
etc, etc.


Eddie Hart League


open


FlobIafVIK'k r,-,aguiC -Pelliltvi' t, .~


athletics and hockey repre-
sentative now resident in
Trincity, graced the proceed-
ings with her presence. There
were ballons and pigeons and
the traditional gunshot boom
as well.
Once Mrs. Gordon's
topeee" had literally started
the ball rolling, the two under
16 combinations battled un-
rewarded for a reduced match
time of half an hour.
It was an' understandably
scrappy affair for it is no easy
thing to play well with such
a huge crowd breathing'down
one's neck.
Crowd control continues-
to be a problem here at Orange
Grove and it is well known
that Eddie and League Sec-
retary Kenrick Thomas have
nightmares over it. How-
ever...!!
The already late start of
the feature game between the
Defence Force and a League
XI was further delayed by
the blatant .insensitivity. of
some generous donor who was
clearly determined to get his
money's worth and insisted -
to the palpable annoyance of
the crowd on having the
the press get a shot of him
handing over to Eddie the


Eastern

Enterprises


handful of balls he had oh
so generously! donated to
the league.
Eddie,' apparently un-
prepared for any such pres-
entation, had to be fetched
from halfway across the field
and was justifiably peeved.
' The Defence Force yielded
a team without national
players Ron La Forest and
Milton Archibald but by no
means a second string unit.
The league team's line up
included Ulric "Buggy"
Haynes (who has since been
omitted from the national
squad going to Surinam on
August 10th) and former East
goalkeeper Tommy Rock.
The average age of the
sauad could not have been
above 21 which augurs well
for East football provided
players can be persuaded to
remain at home and give their
services to their community
teams.
The league team had the
better of the first half ex-
changes if only because the
Defence Force forwards were
too reluctant to shoot and
and left most of the finishing
to local boy Fitzroy "Jack"
Valentine in the link line.
The opposing forwards in


Tel. 62-36774 32819
Address: 76 Eastern Main Road
Laventille.


contrast all seemed intent on
getting one past Ray Robin-
son in goal for the Defence
Force. After the interval, the
DF forwards still tended to
fight shy of the shooting
chances but there was much
less indecision, more planning
and more purpose.
Rock never had too much
to do whereas Robinson at the
other end had a couple of
close calls.
Halfway through the
second half, the left-winger
drifted to the middle to pick
up a low centre from the
right wing and, with no de-


fender close enough to trouble
him drove a low right footer
just inside the near post past
the prostrate Robinson..
The remaining quarter
failed .to produce any more
goals and the large crowd
which had lined the entire
periphery of the field and,
as was the wont, made
frequent inruptions onto the
field of play at moments of
high excitement, went home
well satisfied with the after-
noon's entertainment ponder-
ingpresumablyon what threads
to sport for the annual after -
opening party coming up in
a couple of hours.


'I- ~pec'~


0 9


bulletin

FOR
TODAY

You are required to register
ONCE only. Know your National
Insurance number and use it for
all purposes of National Insur-
ance especially when you are
taking up a new job.


For further information
See your district NIB office


- -- ---------------


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