Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00173
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: August 3, 1975
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00173

Full Text

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THE school system in Trinidad
& Tobago today threatens to
become a beastly blackboard
jungle if current trends continue
and people's faith in a national
plan is not quickly restored.
The only possible way of
salvaging our future now is by
calling the valid spokesman of
the country together in a Con-
ference of Citizens to take posi-
tion on the Government's short
and long-term plans for educa-
Only such a conference
stands a chance of reconciling
the policy confusions and the
social conflicts created in the
education system by nearly two
decades of Government brambling
and bungling.
The Ministry of Education
must now be pressed to publish a
White Paper setting out its own
interpretations of the current
crisis and stating precisely how
the Government will be proceed-
ing from here.
We in Tapia have no doubt
that the response of the country
Swill be to throw this PNM admin-
istration out lock, stock and

Then it will be time for the
alternative plan, one which is
very sure that sense make before
book and that actions speak
louder than words.
Right from now Tapia pro-

poses our own programme, a
series of measures which, far
from being advice which this
Government could take, is con-
firmation that the Government
must go.

We propose:
to retain the mixed system;
to launch in January 1976
an experiment in diversification
in eight key prestige schools;
to democratise and decen-
tralise education by activating
opinion at the Conference of
and then to give opinion
constitutional permanence in the
form of a vibrant National Coun-
cil of Education, a chain of Locall
Advisory Committees, and a
complete set of Boards for all
secondary schools;
to anchor the diversifica-
tion of curricula in more practical
modes of local, national and
regional certification;
and, to devote a larger share
of national resources to a rapid
build-up of new capability in the
education system by earmarking
for the purpose revenue diverted
from the Special Unemployment
Levy and raised from additional
sales taxes.
These measures in the con-
text are both reasonable and
feasible. Their only handicap is
that they need a Government
which the country could trust.


Now For


THE Tapia Election Con-
vention will now begin
with a September As-
sembly in Port-of-Spain
and not on August 24 at
the Naparima Bowl, San
At its greeting on Mon-
day July 28, the National
Executive has decided on the
change of plan "in the light
of the political climate
created by the education
Following a decision by
the Council of Representa-
tives on June 22, Tapia origin-
ally proposed to hold anl
Election Convention in three
Assemblies Manning the late
half of 1976 and culminating
in the celebration of our
Seventh Anniversary on Nov-
ember 16.
A revised schedule for the
Convention will now come
before the Council at its next
meeting carded for the Tapia
House, Tunapuna, on August
The Education Crisis now
calls for a campaign within a
Public Meetings held in
Port-of-Spain and San Fer-
nando on July 23 and 30 are
to be followed by one-night
stands all over the country
including Point Fortin on
August 13 and La Brea on
August 6.

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Clive Lloyd "The 'est '-nings.' have seen at Lords"

C.L.R. on W world Cup Cricket

THE match at Lords
between the West Indians
ind the Australians was a
great and historical event
- one of the great land-
marks of cricket history
and social development.
Most of all,lords is a great
centre of the British way of
life and culture and it was
very British on that day.
The British people were
there in their large majority
and they filled the ground. I
particularly looked at the
pavilion which they filled to
the last seat. They were, as
usual, very sober and looked
on with a lot of interest and

The excitement was in-
troduced into the game, not
only by the play, but by the
West Indian spectators who
were present. It is clear that
the British have now learnt
to accept. West Indians for
what they are.
The ground itself was in
beautiful order. The wicket
at Lords has a reputation for
helping pace bowlers. On this
occasion it did not assist the
pace bowlers at all. As far as
I can remember, one ball
looked as though it was about
to get up and that is about all.
Some commentators have
said that at times the ball
kept low.Why should ta ball
keep low? I didn't see any

batsman in trouble because
the ball kept low. All the
batsmen who were stroke
players could mrake their
The physical surroundings
were a part of the old Britain
and in the centre were two
representatives from far parts
of the world, Australia and
the Caribbean.
So there they were, the
British people who shaped the
circumstances in a game they
had created and who were
very present, and in the
centre, trom different parts
of the world, two representa-
tives, in their own way, part
of the British tradition playing
a game. To me it was quite an

Now, in addition to the
fact that it was a very good
wicket the umpiring was ex-
cellent. There was very little
quarrelling and everything
went peacefully. The West
Indian spectators ran onto
the field when they thought
the game was over but the
moment they saw that it
wasn't, they ran back again.
It was a very different
situation from what obtains
in the U.S.A. and parts of
Latin America.
At the end of the game
the West Indians paraded in
front of the pavilion and had
a wonderful 'jump-up' to
celebrate their victory. The
'jump-up' is a West Indian
social practice. I have a lot of
experience of British people
and saw some of them join
in, not many, but the rest of
them accepted it for what it
That is what was going on
that day and anybody who
sees only that balls were
bowled and runs were made
was not really looking at what
was taking place an historic
event for those of us who
constitute the English speak-
ing peoples and who play the
English game.
And now I want to speak
about the teams. The West
Indians won and they were
entitled to win. They played a
West Indian game; it was
neither an English nor an
Australian game. Serious as
it was the West Indians put
their stamp on it.
It was a one day game and
they went at the bowling from
the beginning. That is how
Kallicharan got out, flashing
Continued on Page 12

Vol. 5 No. 31

30 Cents





,L4 1

TO say that the country
is deeply troubled about
secondary education and,
more particularly, about
its two-tier structuring,
with its attendant pro-
blem of conversion into
Junior and Senior Secon-
dary, schools, would be
to put it very mildly
The privileged classes
in our oligarchic society
are now distraught at the
prospect of the disappear-
ance, from September
1976, of the all-age
secondary school, govern-
ment and Assisted.
They recoil in anguish as
they contemplate the likeli-
hood of their boys and girls
being consigned to the three-
year, shift-system, Junior
Secondary schools.
Superior socio-economic
class has provided their
children with a better chance
of doing well at the annual
Common Entrance examina-
tion, helping them to secure
exhibitions and free places in
the all-age schools.


This advantage, combined
with the 20% allowed the
Assisted schools and with the
influence privilege has -
always and everywhere been
able to exert, has enabled
them to look with compara-
tive complacency from their
sanctuaries in the all-age
schools at the trials and
tribulations of their more
unfortunate brethren in the
Junior Secondary school,
with its three-year instead of
an automatic five-year GCE
course, with its baneful shift
system, with its loss of
seventeen (17) weeks of
schooling over the three-year
period, with its little or no
extra-curricular activity, with
its inferior pupil-teacher and
graduate-non-graduate ratios,
and with a 14 plus examina-
tion awaiting the children to
decide which of a compara-
tively small number will pass
on to a further two-year
course of an academic, techni-
cal or vocational nature.
It will be observed that I
have not mentioned one of
the strongest objections of
the privileged to the destruc-
tion of the existing all-age
schools and that is that these
schools tend to insulate the
classes against the masses
because of the close correla-
tion between performance in
the Common Entrance
examination and socio-
econRnic class.
These considerations pro-
vide the real context for the
almost violent reaction to
conversion,that is if we want
to understand what is going
on. It is therefore idle, if not

worse, to pretend that the
Church schools stand in the
way of our implementing the
Education Plan. There are
about as many all-age Govern-
ment secondary schools as
denominational ones.
It may surprise the man-
in-the-street though I
doubt it to learn how much
interest even Ministers of
Government display in getting
their children into Church
schools, the best ones, the
most prestigious ones, regard-
less of .the religious persua-
sion of those Ministers. The
oligarchy to which so many
of us belong knows the value
of quality education.
Properly staffed private
secondary schools are very
expensive. And so, with the
prospective passing away of
the all-age school the privi-
leged see the whole bottom
falling out of their world.
Their anger and their anxiety,
however, may yet work for
the common good for it may
lead the Government to both
see and feel the necessity of
having another look at the
15-year Education Plan.
Nor should we under-
estimate the growing sophisti-
cation of the broad masses of
the people. They are per-
fectly aware of the advantages
offered by the all-age schools
in facilitating upward move-
ment in the social and econ-
omic spheres. How else can
we explain the Prime Min-
ister's directive to the Minister
of Education to find 4,000
additional places anywhere so
long as he finds them.
And let us not assume that
the under-privileged are not

aware of the poor GCE per-
formance in the all-age
schools, that they do not
realise that the 6,500 Junior
Secondary children, with no
vocational schools to go to,
will not be doing well in the
senior secondary courses they
are being consigned to and
that the vast majority of
them will be ending up no-
where, shepherded into the
wilderness. They know.


The whole country, there-
fore, classes and masses, can
be counted on to provide
solid backing for any demand
that the Government eschew
crisis, ad hoc, expedients.
Before the public takes
a single step, however, the
Government must be asked
and the Government must
answer one question of prim-
.ary and fundamental impor-
tance, namely: Does the
Government's decision to
provide an additional period
of two-year's secondary edu-
cation for all the children
completing the Junior Secon-
dary course this year (1975)
mean that it has decided to
offer a five-year course to
all entering upon secondary
In other words, does the
Government now equate free
secondary education with a
five-year course beyond th e
11 plus? This question must
be put and answered before.
we can expect to get any-
where in our deliberations.
Many people believe that

elections, constitutionally
carded for next year, explain
the "generosity" which has
provided the additional two
years for all,Junior Secondary
pupils graduating in 1975.
They also believe that the
same thing will be done in
1976 and in the years that
follow because it will be
politically impossible to
reverse the process.
These people can be very
wrong. If we add the 5,370
pupils admitted to the all-age
schools in September 1972
to the 6,500 Junior Second-
ary graduating -this year
(1975), we get a total of
11,870 proceeding to the 4th
year of a 5-year course.
This figure represents
39.5%, or substantially less
than half, of the 30,032
children of the 1972 11 plus
age-group appearing in the
population projections of the
Education Plan. (page 7).
The 11 plus age-group
numbers 33,200 today (1975)
and according to the same


I. '- "Our printing-plant is open at
The Tapia House 82-84 St. Vincent
Street, Tunapuna.

Kindly phone orders to: 662-5126.


It may surprise the man-in-the-street
- though I doubt it to learn how
much interest even Ministers of Gov-
ernment display in getting their
children into Church schools, ......
The Oligarchy to which so many of us
belong knows the value of quality



Tank Top Jerseys

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Available at the House Ring 662-5126

projections will be .38,940
by 1980. A free 3-year course
of secondary education for
all is going to be very costly,
though, .until a proper esti-
mate of costs is made,
balanced against the country's
resources, we can not say too
costly. .
Those who think that the.
Government has decided upon
the 5-year course for all see
the 6,500 passing from the
Junior Secondary as represent-
ing 100% of the graduates.
They would, perhaps, be
better advised to -see the
1975 total of 11,870 as re-
presenting 39.5% of the 1972
11 plus age-group of 30,032.


In other words, political
necessity or opportunism
could be responsible for the
Government arriving at its
planned percentage of "ap-
proximately 37% in 1980"
for Senior Secondary schools
(Education Plan, page 34)
somewhat earlier but it is not
exceeding it this year.
If 1976 is to see full con-
version, then Government will
have to provide senior secon-
dary places for 15,390 who
have just gained places. This
figure represents 43% of the
1975 11 plus age-group of
33,200. But by 1978 things
will. have straightened them-
selves out.
I am therefore suggesting
that what the Government
may be doing this year is
sticking to its 37% for senior
secondary education, includ-
ing in that percentage "12%
technical." (Plan, page 34)
Vocational schools, when
they are built, will, perhaps,
increase the percentage, but
Government is emphatically
not committing itself to free
secondary education for all up
to 16 plus however much
some people may think that
things look that way.
In the circumstances, it
seems eminently reasonable
to require of the Government
that it issue a statement ex-
plaining the full meaning of
its present course of action in
the secondary education field
and what its policy implica-
tions are, if any.


Governor General and wyec with Dame Hida Bynl)c and her Lhusband o.rfice

The G.6 In a Fine Castle with:

III Ilu' of,-job spec~lcd~atiil.'


Lennox Grant
"There goes a man I like and
admire. "
Where? Where is the
high public figure about
whom I could say that
and mean it? Watch them
in the newspaper photo-
graphs, toasting each
other and making up to
cocktail-party women; the
glass in hand, the double
chin, the' overweight
paunch so incongruous
somehow on a Brigadier
accepting a Boy Scout
A man I like and admire.
So would the Governor
General like the people of
this country to consider him.
On that note two weeks ago
ended the AMPLE produc-
tion of "Conversing With
It was the last of a series
that had begun with the
former Governor General, Sir
Solomon Hochoy. The
twenty-four other "guests"
presented by the hosts,
Alfred Aguiton and Astra Da
Costa were encouraged to talk
about themselves and all that
made them into what they
are today.


Sir Ellis Clarke became
Governor General at the time
of the 10th Anniversary of
Independence celebrations in
1972. His first notable public
action (or non-action) was to
refuse to ride a police horse
to inspect the parade, or to
bedeck himself in the plumes
and sashes of an imperial
viceroy's uniform.
And that was quietly
accepted as being in keeping
with the times, if not long
overdue. But there was some-
thing, still, that was faintly
ridiculous about "inspecting"
a military parade while hold-
ing onto the rails in the back
of an open jeep and wearing
a lounge suit.
Now, give Jack his jacket:
not for Sir Ellis all the trap-
pings of a past colonial
grandeur. "Hi fella" instead

of "Your Excellency". It
might seen. disrespectful, but
if no offence is meant and
affection and admiration are
connoted by the familiarity
of the greeting, then it would
be all right with him.
What do we see of a
Governor General to like in
the first place? It's a relatively
new experience for us -
having a Governor General.
What can a ceremonial head
of state do to endear himself
to the populace? Nothing, it
would seem, but to be a
ceremonial head of state.
There's the salutary lesson
of the unhappy Dame Hilda
Bynoe, of course, who chose
a time of national unrest to
address to the people remarks
that Eric Gairy had not
vetted (and certainly would
not have vetted).
Her passing from the
Grenada scene occasioned
hardly a ripple. Her trip to
Britain for a refresher course
in medicine was a small news
item in the papers.
Yet her resumption of
medical practice is probably
a return to a more useful and
fulfilling way of life than that
ot head of one these little
Caribbean states. Irony
indeed: in this "age of the
union" the highest office in
the land is perhaps in need
of a new "job specification"
to save it from becoming just
an end-of-the-line sinecure for
some idle and self-indulgent
old man.
The British monarchy?
Yes, the British monarchy at
least has centuries of tradition
behind it. And Queen Eliza-
beth rides her horse in which-
ever of her uniforms is
appropriate to the occasion.
No sweat.
And we here still sweat to
express ourselves decently in
the Queen's English. But the
only Governor General's any-
thing that is of any impor-
tance here is the Governor
General's Cup at racehorse
In return for having to sign
their assent to all kinds of
repressive laws, what do
Governor Generals get? Only
more humbug, it would seem.
We shunt onto the office
we want to revere most in
the land all of the demeaning


Sir Solomon in his plumage;
a shrewd judge of his times.

struggling to come out from
"His Excellency". Yes, here
is a more "human" subject.
The drama of the
General striving to appear the
regular guy who dances with
all the girls is always available
for Candid Camera.

The GG as swinger might
well have been the angle were
it not constantly defeat-
ed by the bald bullet-head
and the inescapable short-
legged, prosperous barrister-at-
law appearance. So it's the
GG trying; to demystify and
humanise the office that, if
the truth be told, has never
carried any of the mystique
or charisma, since power
Continued on Page 10.

lunched with the best and
worst of them, and gave his
"messages" full of harmless
but appropriate platitudes at
Christmas, New Year, Inde-
pendence and so on. A man,
if not content with his lot,
certainly not burning with
any sense of mission, or
wanting give expression to
any more dynamic concep-
non ot his given role.
So that, looking back, the
profile of Sir Solomon as
Governor General- appeared
somehow to have been lower
than Sir Ellis' now. One might
say Sir Ellis appears much
more to enjoy his work, to
plunge into it with much
greater gusto.
This of course is sensed by
the press photographers who,
in fascination, click cease-
lessly at the "Hi fella"

functions of state, all the
pointless little appearances
and receptions which, for
some reason, must be graced
by the presence of the one
state official who clearly has
nothing else to do.
Well, that is a reason.
"Under the kind patronage
of ." probably still sells
some more tickets. The
"patronage" here probably
represents the- state's blessing,
approval, encouragement of
the laudable( i.e. "charitable")
ends of the undertaking at


Comparisons are said to be
iniquitous. But I must notice
that Sir Solomon' Hochoy's
programme was much more
entertaining than Sir Ellis'.
Sir Solomon has wit at least,
and savvy. He never hesitated,
answered all the questions,
clearly enjoyed himself tho-
roughly, but said nothing at
all that was controversial or
quotable in the front page of
the next day's Sunday Guard-
A little Chinese boy from
Blanchisseuse, he rodepn a
jackass' back to school in
Arima, then to St. Mary's
College, but was no Island
Scholar. He didn't recall what
he came in test half a century
ago, whom he beat and who
beat him.
His success as a labour
conciliator, he now reflects,
had to do with the impression
he gave to all oarties of being
-low fence".
And Sir Solomon had
been there. For whatever he
was he was no low fence
over which every and anybody
could jump to get where they
wanted to get. It was a shrewd
assessment, by a shrewd man,
Sir Solomon.
So he wore the plumes
and sashes and rode
on horseback, as he no doubt
shrewdly judged his times
required him to do. And he
just managed not to be the
one to sign the historic 1970
State of Emergency declara-
And he sipped and supped
and drank and dined and

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Tapia, 82,St. Vincent St. Tunapuna,
Trinidad & Tobago, W.I. Telephone 662-5126.

nor Circumstance


Q: Around the world, govern-
ments are giving much thought
to possible new approaches to
economic relationships between
the developed and developing
countries. What is the significance
of all this?

A: I think we have just begun our
explorations of what is involved in
remaking our international economic
system. The system we have been
operating with since the end of World
War II has served much of the world
very well. But we must recognize that
there are many countries whose well-
being has not advanced very far in
this period.
We are beginning a new explora-
tion of how the benefits of the world
economy are in fact divided among
the countries of .the world. We are
asking questions or certainly the less
developed countries (LDC's) are asking
questions about the basic nature
and structure of the system.
In the past we viewed the
interests of the developing countries
very simplistically. We used to think
that if a developing country's gross
national product grew faster than its.'
population, indicating an over-all rise
in per capital income, that the system
would be seen as adequate. And if the
percentage rise in per capital GNP
should be higher for the developing
countries than for the. developed
countries there would be some hope
over some long horizon that the
LDC's could eventually catch up with
the more advanced countries.
But many of the less developed
countries recognize that much .more
is involved in economic development
than just income growth. They are
seriously concerned about how income
is distributed within their own societies
and about the structure of their
And furthermore, they have
found that the dependence they felt
on the richer countries in an earlier
period has not been lessened at all by
their economic growth.
The LDC's are seeking more
from the economic system than just
income growth. Their goals are a lot
more sophisticated and complex' than
we previously thought.

Q: Could you identify some of
the major specific issues the
developed countries and the
developing countries confront in
this international process?
A: I think we should start by look-
ing at the issues the developing coun-
tries themselves are raising. The focus
of world politics for many years to
come is likely to be the issues the
developing countries want to discuss
and which the developed nations are
also prepared to discuss.
At the top of the agenda are
commodity arrangements. They. are
other issues: trade, access to markets,
questions relating to control over
industry, multi-national corporations,
and a whole series of other issues. But
at the very top of the list we find

Q: ,Developing countries some-
times claim there is a secular
trend for the prices of their im-
ports to rise more rapidly than
the prices of their exports. Is this
a valid complaint?

A: Raw material prices in general
have not deteriorated relative to the
prices of manufactured products. But
prices for the raw materials that'
developing countries export have
deteriorated, with the notable excep-
tion of petroleum.
One should recognize that.
developed countries also export raw
materials. The United States is a major
exporter of food, coal, and other raw
materials. An index of the' temperate .
agricultural products plus .some
metals exported by developed coun-
tries such as aluminum would reveal

EVER since the Oil Producing Coun-
tries seized the time and took control.
of the production, marketing and
pricing of their petroleum at the end
of 1973, the issue of the reorganisation
of the entire structure of International
trade has been at the forefront of the
debate between the rich nations of
the world and the poor ones.
That this should be so is not
surprising. In the first place the
example set by OPEC was quickly
followed, with varying degrees of
success, by other raw nmterial pro-
SThe prospect of the rapid proli-
feration of now-for-now cartel each
trying to. manipulate the production
and pricing of its particular product
is not one that suggests any long-term
stability in International trading

arrangements.. -
But perhaps of even greater sig-
nificance is the fact that.the measures
adopted by the Oil producing coun-
tries gained their potency more from
political action than anything else and
the arguments of the economically
poorer nations have been' couched not
in economic terms, but in political and
above all moral ones.
What the first point has meant is
that the richer nations, for their own
economic stability and development,
could hardly afford to ignore the
demands being made by the poorer
countries for restrucutring the Interna-
tional system.
But what the second point
means is that any such .reconstruction
is going to have to be far more radical
than aty simple redrrangement of

price indices. In short what is at stake
is nothing less than a re,.portionment
of the resources of the world in order
to achieve greater international equality
in the material standards of living of
all peoples.
Those who perceive 'this are
already addressing themselves to
designing a blueprint for "A New
World Order." Here we present the
views of American economist
Lawrence Krause, which are significant
if only because they go far beyond the
official U.S. position, which represents
perhaps the most recalcitrant position
adopted by any of the richer nations.
Krause is currently attached to
the Brookings Institute in Washington
and is widely regarded in the U.S. as
one of the foremost experts in the
field ofInternational Economics.

An International

Marketing Agency?

that there has not been a deterioration
of these prices relative to the price of
exported manufactured goods.
Why are the developed countries
so lucky as tobe exporting these kinds
of raw materials, while developing
countries are so unlucky as to export
other kinds? When producers in a
developed country see the price of a
raw material they are producing start
to deteriorate, they shift out of the
production of that commodity into
commodities whose prices are stable
or rising. For example, as cotton
prices in the southern United States
started to decline, cotton farmers
shifted 30 to 40 per cent of their
acreage into soybeans, because soybean
prices have been rising.
Poor countries, almost by defini-
tion, don't have this capability. They
practice traditional farming methods.
Even if they wanted to shift to soy-
bean production, they would have no
way to get soybean seeds, or the credit
they would need to learn how to
produce soybeans.
Poor countries are poor essenti-
ally because they cannot adjust their
production to changes in the market
system, and therefore they lose the
market opportunities they could have
if their economies were more flexible..
Now is there any way to break.
out of this cycle? I think there prob-
ably is but we haven't quite found
the political secret yet. The ability of.
a poor country to transform its econ-
omy can be helped from the outside.,
But- this involves a fair amount of
interference in a way that is politically'
unacceptable to both host and donor
countries. This is a very difficult pro-
Q: Secretary of State Kissinger
said at Kansas City in May that,
the United States is prepared to"
discuss' new arrangements in ,
individual commodities, on a
case-by-case basis, as circum-
stances warrant. This language is
similar to language U.S. spokes-
men have been using for many
years, but there is a feeling
around Washington that 'some-
-how this means more today. Is
that true?
A: Yes, I think we now realize that
we need to take a fresh look at com-
iaoditias the raw material issues. I
. hink we must be'more than '"sympa-
thetic" to the views of others'on com-
moafty. issues. We have to take the
initiative here. I also believe that a
system to deal with commodities will

work only if it is comprehensive.
There has recently been a condi-
ton approaching anarchy in com-
modity markets. We need international
obligations and procedures to safeguard
supply access as well as market access.
We must recognize the need to re-
establish the rule of law in commodi-
ties that bears equally on producers
and consumers.
This is not only an issue between
developed countries and developing
countries, because developing coun-
tries import raw materials, besides
exporting them.
Traditionally, the United States
approach to commodities has been to
..rely upon supply and demand factors
in competitive markets. In fact, the
two or three times international com-
modity agreements have been in effect,
they proved very difficult to maintain.
There were administrative problems,
and substantive problems, and many
observers concluded that any such
arrangement was not practical. I think
that conclusion is wrong.
Indeed, we have never had a free
market for international trade in com-
modities. Even theoretically I think
free market ideology would not be a
correct basis for commodity policy
for products from exhaustible natural
In a competitive market, you are
unlikely to get the proper price for
an exhaustible resource unless there is
a forward market that anticipates the
exhaustion of the resource. The com-
modity will bring pricesthat are too
low, and as a result the present genera-
tion. of consumers will benefit at the
expense of future generations of
consumers. The market has also shown
itself susceptible to price instability,
interruptions, and disruptions. Believe
we can make arrangements for dealing
with commodities that will work
better than the free market.

Q:' In practical terms, do you
think commodity agreements can
be devised that will help develop-
ing country exporters and also
be acceptable to developed coun-
try importers?
A: I think our objective should be
to design a system that will be accept-
able to producers and consumers,
"whether they are developing coun-
tries or' developed countries.
I think we would want a scheme
that involves stockpiling under inter-
national control, so-that producers
can always be assured of a market for

their current production at some
minimum price and consumers could
be assured of more stable prices. The
consumer would benefit also from the
guarantee that his supplies would not
be interrupted, because the stockpile
would meet market requirements in
the event of a shortfall in current
The internationally controlled
stockpile should be large enough to
accomplish these purposes. Once a
producer has invested in the facilities
for producing a particular commodity
he should be guaranteed an outlet for
all of his output to avoid the ineffi-
ciency of underutilising the investment.
Secondly, there should be agreed
principles for setting the prices that
would trigger intervention by the
managers of the stockpiles a mini-
mum price that would trigger pur-
chases, and a maximum price that
would trigger sales.
There should also be agreed
principles for changing these margins.
For exhaustible resources such as oil
and mineral ores these trigger prices
should rise over time. There are
theoretical reasons, but there are
practical reasons too: unless the prices
of exhaustible resources rise, the
resources will be consumed too
quickly and we would not develop
substitutes to replace the resources as
rapidly as they are exhausted. But this
does not mean that you would put
artificially high prices on these com-
modities, which I would see as a design
for disaster.

Q: Why?
A: Because production would be
stimulated greatly in excess of con-
sumption forcing the stockpile to buy
ever increasing amounts. Eventually the
system would collapse.

Q: Why do you say such a sys-
tem should be comprehensive?
A: You would want to trade off
producer interests and consumer in-
terests within each country to build
up support for maintaining the whole
series of agreements. As long is agree-
ments on commodities are fragmented
and handled on a case-by-case 'basis
tley will fall apart when put under
stress. What I am suggesting is a.
scheme that has interacting elements
that reinforce one another and form a
viable whole.
It will take a fair amount of
.money to finance all of this, and here
Continued on Pg. 10.



An Interview with

The former President

of the Dominican

Republic: Juan Bosch


(Prensa Latina)

THE historic confronta-
tion between the United
States and Latin America
is grounded on the fact
that the US economic
system is heading for
death while Latin
America moves lifeward,
declared former Domini-
can president Juan Bosch,
in Caracas.
The United States re-
presents the heart and the
head of the capitalist system,
which is deathward-bound,
added the leader of the
Dominican Liberation Party
Bosch spoke at a press
conference at the Venezuelan
Press Association (AVP)
during his recent visit to Cara-
He asserted that the latest
errors committed by the
North Americans include the
trade act. "That is one of
their big blunders."
Under the trade act the
US discriminates against im-
ports from countries belong-
ing to associations for the
defense of their raw materials,
especially the oil nations.
The Dominican political
and literary figure declared
that the measure will have to

be cancelled or else it will
hurt the United States itself.
Bosch became president of
the Dominican Republic on
February 27, 1963. His gov-
ernment was the first con-
stitutional administration
after thirty years of dictator-
ship headed by Rafael
Leonidas Trujillo.
Seven months later, Bosch
was overthrown by a coup
d'etat instigated by the US
In April 1965, US forces
militarily occupied the Domi-
nican capital to prevent the
victory of an officers' move-
ment led by Colonel Francisco
Caamano that sought to
restore the 1963 Constitution
and the Bosch presidency.
The dialogue with the 64-
year-old former president is
fast-following, and filled with
anecdotes on his participation
in the recent Russell Tribunal,
and his also recent visits to
Cuba, Belgium, Spain and
He also speaks of the US
intervention in his country
and the stepped-up penetra-
tion ever since.
"The US Marine occupa-
tion was designed, really, to
enable the US to take over
the country, which is just
what has happened, in econ-
omic, political, military and
territorial terms".



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The High Season of Crisis 1975
Letter to CLR 1964
Benevolent Doctatorship

- Krishna Ramrekersingh
- Lloyd Best
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The Tapia House, 82-84 St. Vincent Street, Tiuapluna,

After less than ten years
of penetration, the US-based
global conglomerate Gulf and'
Western runs over 100 firms
in the Dominican Republic,
he added.
"G&W already owns more
than a third of the country's
arable land".
It has also taken over the
hotel business, beaches and
other aspects of the tourist
trade, added Bosch.
He stated that in studying
the US actions and the plan
put into practice since the
1965 intervention,he came to
the conclusion that the pro-
gram was not laid down by
an administration but by an
entire class.


"It wasn't a plan of the
government of Lyndon John-
son, since had that been the
case, the succeeding admin-
istrations of Richard Nixon
and Gerald Ford would not
have follo-wed it' in such
methodical fashion..
"The plan is none other
than reconstructing pre-
revolutionary Cuba in the
Dominican Republic: that is,
control over the means of
production, the tourist trade,
and gambling, with the coun-
try turned into a house of
prostitution", charged Bosch.
But now, he added after
their Cuban lesson, they use
greater military controls. In
Cuba they had military in-
fluence, but direct control
only at the Guantanamo base.
In the Dominican Republic,
they now exert control, not
just influence.
As an example of the on-
going process of takeover of
the nation's resources, Bosci
said that recently the gov-
ernment of Joaquin Balaguer
gave Honduras Mining, which
is US-owned, a concession on
the continent's biggest gold
mine. The Dominicans have

Ex-President JTan Bosch.

yet to find out the terms of
the concession, he indicated.
Bosch said that at the
Russell Tribunal in Belgium,
reports were presented on
the control exercised by the
the transnational corporations
in several Latin American
countries and recommenda-
tions were made for fighting
For one thing, the Tribunal
recommended. tht't since the
.corporations are global, they
be fought globally, though
within each country there are
particularly appropriate forms
of struggle.
The former president
charged that the US com-
panies are also conducting
cultural penetration in his
country, through control of
the cinema, television and
much of radio broadcasting.
"However the more they
step up and extend their inter-
vention the more the Domini-
can people's resistance grows",
he stated.
He declared that the
people are certain to win that
struggle. "hIn fact, you can
say we already have won it,
because it's been won at the
international level."

Bosch provided a brief
account of the development
of capitalism in the Domini-
can Republic.
It was very backward in
arriving at capitalism, and in
its modern form that system
was brought in by Trujillo,
which partly explains his long
dictatorship. Previously, there
were "capitalist islands",
namely the US owned sugar
mills, and even when Trujillo
died, US investments
amounted to less than 150
million dollars.
The tyrant's family had
come to own all but one of
the sugar mills, the Romana,
now owned by the omni-
present Gulf and Western.
Trujillo didn't take over
that mill because he needed a
sugar quota on the US market,
explained Bosch. In addition
he built two more mills, one
of them among the biggest
Trujillo became the heir to
the first national bourgeois
group. He also headed the
army and the state, and ran
political activity.

Continued on Page 10.




IF we are actually going to do
something about education, the
current dispute over conversion
becomes largely a phony one.
The old talk about how many
tiers the education system should
now have is useful mainly to the
propagandists who want to give
the impression that education is
now free, and that we are heading
to a five-year course for every
child up to the age of 16+.
Whether we have a one-tier
system of all-age schools or a
two-tier system of Junior Second-
ary and Senior Secondary
Schools, some children are going
to get be er opportunity than
others; that cannot be avoided.
Given that our teaching service is
as yet not equal to the needs of
the time.
That our curricula, even in the
so-called academic areas, are sadly
That our physical facilities are only
slowly being established and not least,
that our social order is wickedly
inequitable, there is simply no way
in which we could now provide the
same Junior Secondary schooling for
Those who have privilege and
power and pull will either protect
their own children in the all-age
prestige schools, or they will see to it
that there are certain elite Junior
Secondary Schools largely immune
from any zoning restrictions.
In the last resort, they will opt to
establish private schools which will
cost them dear, but will cost the
country dearer to the extent that the
best teachers are wooed away from
the public system by gold.
The real meaning of the current
dispute about conversion is that there
does exist an oligarchy of privileged
elites prepared to fight to hold on to
current advantages.
After years of complacency, they
have suddenly sprung to life. They
will get considerable support from
the disadvantaged classes.
The man-in-the-street no longer
trusts the Government's zeal for re-
form and reconstruction and every-
body senses that progressively better
education for all demands the mainte-
nance of the quality if not of the
prestige schools.

Years of consistent betrayal have
made it impossible for the Govern-
ment to continue to be the champion
of an expanded number of places at
the expense of an increased national
capability for quality education.
Even where the case for quantity
is valid, the Government will not
convince the country; the numbers
racket has simply gone too far.
We now need a different kind
of discussion embracing matter other
than school places and costs and pupil
teacher ratios.
The honest question for an alterna-
tive government is how best to share
the quality education among the
varying social interests so as pro-
gressively to be able to increase the
capability of the education system?
After the experience of 18 years of
decolonisation of education, thesad
fact is that there exists no satisfactory
The case for the mixed system
is simply that it permits the greatest
opportunity for an experimental
approach to the difficult task in hand.
Even if it were possible to create
either a one-tier or two-tier system by
1976, the monolith would be nothing
short of menace. Fortunately, it
would be physically and politically
impossible to convert: the mixed
system will remain intact for a while.
What we must therefore do, is to
make an exact inventory of the
educational resources which exist in
the country, and venture some measure
of the capability which these re-
sources represent.
Then we could proceed to a
programme which would harness
these resources in the best possible
fashion, conceivably with the help of
certain strategic new facilities designed
and located specifically for the purpose
of activating what already exists.
At the moment there are six types
of establishments in the mainstream
of the Secondary Education system-
1. Post-11 Divisions in the Primary
2. All-age assisted schools with
and without sixth, forms;
3. All-age State Schools with and
without sixth forms;
4. State Junior Secondary Schools;
5. State Senior Secondary Schools;
6. Private Secondary Schools.
Next there are certain outdoor
facilities for training and learning
which, with appropriate arrangements,
could become an integral part of the

"There is no greater homage I can give to
Fidel Castro and his government than to say
that if we could in the next five, dr six years
obtain a dynamic mobilization of the talents
of youth similar to the one in your country,
I and my minister of Education would sleep
more soundly than we do today."
Eric Williams June 20, Isles ofPines, Cuba.

We must find out what our children
really need and then demand it as of right.
Interim solutions may have to be accepted
but permanent decisions must never be taken
until they have been thoroughly tested and
accepted. We want equal opportunity for all,
but we must also make sure that the product
of our Catholic schools should not be merely
enlightened citizens but shining examples of
the christian ideal.
Clive Pantin June 29, Catholic News.

The Academic schools have been accused
of snobbery and prestige-seeking. The new
system which will distinguish between Aca-
demic, Technical and Vocation school gradu-
ates will not remove this snobbery; but may
even increase it.
Nigel Boos July 20, Catholic News.

SUNDA). 14

a 0

A 0

education mainstream.
These fall into five groups. The
aim must be to capture them and put
them at the service of the schools,
where necessary by upgrading them,
registering them, inspecting them and
subsidising them.
The establishments are:
1. Reading, Information and
Library Centres
2. Laboratories and workshops
3. Youth camps, Technical
Schools, Craft Centres, Farm
4. Apprentice places in com-
merce, industry, artisanry, agricul-
ture, government, etc.
5. Sporting and recreational
Finally, there could be a National

Service Establishment which might be
brought' deliberately into existence
with a view to providing a nexus of
integration and mobilisation, crucial
for activating everything else.
Once we begin with such an
inventory of actual and potential
resources, we see how absurd it is to
focus attention on the minor conflict
that now exists between the Church
and the State.
Frankly, neither the Church nor
the State in the years since we have
avowedly embarked on the decolonisa-
tion of education, has launched any
frontal attack on the problems of
The Concordat of 1960 has had
one major consequence only: it has
made available education free in the
limited sense of abolishing fees. The
whole question of school meals, school
books, school umrorms, school trans-
port has been left severely alone. The
question of homework centres has not
been raised at all.
The vast expenditures now made
by parents in a multitude of private
schools and the colossal costs incurred
by industry, commerce and even gov-
ernment in the conversion of school-
graduates into competent working
cadres have had remarkably little place
in the discussion on education.
The fact of the matter is that we
are still concerned with the education
of that privileged 20%, said to be fit
for academic education. For the
nation as a whole, we have made only
gestures in the direction of education
for life.
We established Modem Second-
ary 3 year schools only to let them
drift in the direction of academic all-
age schools in spite of the rich experi-
mental results they could contribute
to the formation of national policy in
regard to comprehensive education.
We established a Polytechnic
which is not a Polytechnic at all. We
have planned Junior Secondary
Schools which are turning out to be
primary schools in the sense that at 14
their graduates are still not fit for
living. With parents afraid to loose
(lose) their children on the labour
market, we are now inevitably finding
places for these graduates in the
academic senior or all-age schools.
It is crazy, crazy, crazy; the
Government has no concept whatso-

It will be observed that 1 have not men-
tioned one of the strongest objections of the
privileged to the destruction of the existing
all-age schools and that is that these schools
tend to insulate the classes against the masses
because of the close correlation between per-
formance in the Common Entrance examina-
tion and socio-economic class.
C. V. Gocking August 3, Tapia.

Mr. Mahabir told the packed conference
hall it was important to state that the PNM
acknowledged there was a problem and this
had to be tackled and solved as quickly as
possible. He said Government was not un-
mindful of the protest of parents and several
persons and organizationss more important
still, the motives of such protest.
July 14, Trinidad Guardian.

The Education Crisis is neither definite
nor of urgent public importance.
Vice President of the Senate.

What They are Saying

- I -I

ever of how to translate plans into
implementation. Every project which
they launch comes back to cramming
students for Junior and Senior Cam-
We must fashion a plan for
comprehensive education in the sense
that the schools would employ all the
resources of education and address
themselves to education for living and
therefore to education for the entire
100% up to the age to which we can
afford to keen all our kids in school.
Let us assume that age is 14
years. As yet there has been no case
made for 14 and there can be no case
made for 14 or for any other age
unless we raise the whole question of
social equality, income distribution
and priorities in the all-round
development of the nation.
We may well find that the desir-
able age is 12 or 16 depending on
our policy with regard to full employ-
ment, to national service, to adult
education programmes and so on. But
let us say that the age of cut-off is 14.
The issue then becomes how
best to allocate the resources amongst
,competing claims. Unless we are think-
ing of education as housing for child-
ren in the daytime, this is not just a
question of finance, nor simply a ques-
tion of places. It is a question as we
have already stated, of how to dispose
the current productive capacity in such
a way as is socially and politically
acceptable while providing the best
means of progressively expanding the
productive capability of the system.


Further, it is a question of how
to do the above in a context where
experimental information is limited
and cannot be borrowed wholesale
from the experience of profoundly
different countries such as United
States and Britain. We must have the
wisdom to act and we must temper it
with the humility to experiment and
to leave room for continuous adjust-
ment as we try out programmes and
In such a context, it is pointless
to become hung-up on the virtues of
the Junior Secondary school. Obvi-
ously, the Junior Secondary School -
as hoped for is bound to become

central to the new system of education
for reasons both technical and social.
The dynamic of expansion in educa-
tion is clearly the initiative of the
State which on grounds both of man-
power planning and political necessity,
will be disposed to top-up primary
But the emergence of the
Junior Secondary School as the king-
pin of the system must be seen as a
process a process starting from a
position where other schools already
possess a certain technical command, a
certain administrative coherence, a
certain cultural tradition and a certain
power to legitimate as well as to
service programmes of reconstruction
and reform.

There can be no apocalypse by
which a Benevolent Docfator or an
oil bonanza can suddenly command
the Junior Secondary School to be
appropriate to all our needs. Thete has
to be a development from where !y_
stand at the moment to where we
wish to go. Such are the modalities of
change if we wish to avoid recurring
crisis meetings in the White Hall and a
vast array of white elephants up and
down the country.


The Tapia plan for the crisis
therefore focuses on an experimental
programme meant to achieve certain
concrete objectives. We wish to diver-
sify the prestige system both technic-
ally and socially by beginning in eight
schools carefully selected for their
capacity to carry out the radical
changes in curriculum, to utilise the
outdoor resources potentially available
to the schools, and so to engage the
imagination of the country as to
persuade us of the validity of the
entire enterprise in reconstruction.
In other words, the Tapia plan
seeks to find the ingredient which is
missing in all the programmes of the
present administration. We cannot
perpetuate the colonial assumptions
that the country operates under mili-
tary discipline and that we can simply
hurl instructions at people and expect
them to perform. The science of dem-
ocratic government is to hang the flag
of change on the poles of growth that
already exist in the system.
The eight schools that we would
propose for the experimental pro-
gramme in diversification are QRC,
St. Mary's Presentation (Chaguanas)
Naparima (Girls), North Eastern, San
Fernando Secondary and the Abbey
School (Mt. St Benedict)'
The immediate aim would be to
introduce a multilateral programme
at the level of 14+. We envisage three
sets of options open to the 14 plus.
The first would be Social Studies for
all students, the second Craft Studies
and the third Academic Studies. Every
student who graduates from the school
would be given a Secondary School
Leaving Certificate made up of the
three components. Each student would
choose a mix of studies to suit

UST 3,1975

Education Crisis

Not Urgent

Says Senate

AT last Tuesday's sitting of the
Senate, The Acting President
ruled out of order a Tapia call
for a discussion of the education
Denis Solomon proposed to the
Chair a motion to adjourn the House
on a definite matter of urgent public
Canute Spencer insisted that
while the education crisis was imnpor-
tant, it was neither definite nor urgent.
The submission by Senator
Solomon reads as follows:
I wish to inform you that at the
twentieth sitting of the 1974-75 ses-
sion of the Senate I intend to request
leave to move the Adjournment of the
Senate on a definite matter of urgent
public importance, to wit:

1. The summoning by the Prime
Minister of a number of groups and
interests to discuss changes in the
Education Plan consequent on the
Government's decision to place in
Senior Secondary schools, for the
school year commencing in September
1975, all graduates of Junior Second-
ary schools.
2. The uncertain implications of
these arrangements for the future of
the 15-year plan as a whole; the un-
certainty of methods to be used for
placement of pupils into technical,
vocational and academic streams; un-
certainty about curriculum to be
taught and about the provision of
trained teachers; and uncertainty
about the costs of the proposals and
how these costs are to be met.

3. The extreme anxiety, on all
these counts, of pupils, teachers,
taxpayers and citizens in general,
as expressed even in protests and
public demonstrations leading to
police intervention.
In the absence of clear Govern-
ment statements on all these matters,
and in view of the evident impossibil-
ity of efficient implementation of any
such programme in the six weeks that
remain before the new school year, it
is my opinion that Parliament should
address itself to the question without
I have the honour to be, Sir,
your obedient servant.

Senator Denis Solomon.
29th July 1975.

aptitude, interest, and ability, subject
to the needs of ovcr:l programming
and time-tabling of course.
Broadly speaking, the SociaL
Studies covering humanities such as
sport, drama, language and communi-
cation studies, Caribbean History,
Geography and Civics could be the
responsibility of the individual school.
The Craft Studies could be
arranged largely as an outdoor pro-
gramme involving placement of students
in regional centres, youth camps and
apprenticeship positions in industry
with a certain amount of basic science
and mathematics being organised at
the level of the indoor school pro-
The Academic Studies will
proceed along much the same lines as
at present. Some students would do
eight or nine '0' Levels and a lot of
craft as well. The average student
would take perhaps three '0' Levels, a
craft specialization plus the Social


One suspects that such a pro-
gramme would be much more attrac-
tive and much less disruptive than at
first appears. For one thing, a great
deal of time is now wasted in second*
ary schools on deadly rote, on endless
proses and unseens and pointless
repetition. The opportunity for a
whole form to spend a term at a Youth
Camp or as apprentices in industry
acquiring certain skills would immedi-
ately add point and relevance to the
rest of the curriculum.
Moreover, in the early years many
students would probably just
acquire a skill and leave with a mini-
mum of O's to become the master
craftsmen the country so badly needs.
These people would also provide the
teachers for the Junior Secondary pro-
This is how the system would
expand and people would find their
appropriate levels of interest in a
context where the choices are juxta-
posed within single prestige schools and
where the graduation of craftsmen will
be taking place at a time when there
are excellent rewards to be earned in
exchange for discipline and skill.

To be Continued Next Week

- I- ---

A FEW years ago the
"Mirror" wrote about the
Village without a Rum
Shop. We didn't have one
until fairly recently. We
have one now. So if the
intention of the story
was to bring our village
"up-to-date" we have
"progressed" Vessigny
Village in La Brea has its
own Rum Shop.
Considering the peaceful
nature of the people who
live here. Weighing this
against the many setbacks we
have suffered and are still
facing, this village may
appear to the outsider as one
to pity. One to sympathize
with. One to hope for. One
to love. Whichever. Right on.
No' one knows about us.
No one seems to be interested,
willing or able to stretch out
a helping hand We have
been reduced to this looking
forward for what should be
really ours, in the form of
favours. The people of
Vessigny are fed up of being
treated as non-citizens. Con-
sequently we are going to
mould a society here that
would be an example to the
Now, what do we have?
What do we need? What are
we hoping to change? There
are so many things that the
story would take a whole
newspaper. However, I shall
endeavour to touch on the
more burning ones just as
they flow on my mind as I
We are all aware that the
fifteen year Draft Plan for
Education was not really a
plan. That was the alias for,,
the "Draft Hope" However,
this would take another
The point is, we were
given the old Antilles Co.

storeroom to have it converted
into a Secondary School. It
was converted. Yes, it was.
It was divided into class-
rooms, Blackboards, and staff,
students, and the other natural
things that go with a school
were "inserted".
The same dark and hot
atmosphere of the storeroom
days still prevail, and children
are sick over the bad state of
the furniture they have to use.
And now, in the middle
of all the confusion, when
all the planning in education
seems to be carried out by
people furthest from this
important area, now plans are
made for the school. Not to
make it better, but to take
our children out Thank
But then thank God for
what? For causing our child-
ren to have to settle in to
new conditions in a new
school. For causing parents
to have to dig into their
shallow pockets to search for
transportation money? Or for
causing other younger kids to
be forced into the "store-
room" of frustration!
I believe that for once we
could have been spared being
mixed into the general national
mess. Why not? Weren't we
left out of all national "chari-
What is there for our
youth: Our young at heart.
Our adventurous folk? I have
not left out one soul in our
village under these three areas.
Such are our people. What is'
there for us? What for our
after work involvement? What
for leisure, pleasure or what
have you? Our Rum Shop
and our beach?
We might be reminded
that we do have a savannah. I
wish we could safely call it
so and really use it as one.
What can we really accom-
,plish on a field that is abodt

. New World m Moko Tapia

60 yds square at most. What
happens on the little plot?
In the football season,
footballers get their fling and
who ever wishes any other
form of activity has a choice
to watch or not to watch.
Same for other seasons.
And then our Community
Centre. Yes, we had one. Our
villagers might be condemned
for this. But should we really
be? We had a fairly hardwork-
ing bunch of people who
kept things going really fine.
However, their political
connections and their apparent
misunderstanding of the pur-
pose of a community Hall
caused factions to be set up
outside of the council. Con-
sequently there was nothing
to really bind our people into
a body. Decline set in.
Observing the downward
trend and attempt was made
to rebuild our Village Group
and our Community Spirit.
This produced the most
unusual and the "most un-
kindest cut- of all".
Elections were held in the
council. A new executive was
duly elected. They pledged to
put life back into the village

and soihe meaning into that
life. And what did they get.
The "Old Order" like all other
holders of the reins held fast
to books,money among other
"Community Develop-
ment" -was called in, and not
surprisingly, it was learnt that
they were powerless to do
anything. Well then if they
can't who is we?
Despite all setbacks
though, our new Executive
took us through the prelimin-
aries of the Best Village
Contest with little success but
great satisfaction. But then
the strain was to heavy and
the help from "above" did
-not come. So like the Arabs
- Tents folded.

U Savacou.



* Subject and author entries in one alphabetical sequence
* Comprehensive coverage of all articles
* Supporting cross references

Professionally prepared by a librarian at the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine,
the Index includes an Introduction by Dr. Gordon Rohlehr, Head of the English Depart-
ment, which places the publications in a social and historical context.

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Now the community centre
is an open sepulchre. Our
Village Council is non-existent.
We have newv life now though,
and you are invited to follow
our progress from now on.

I often wonder whether
the taxes paid by my people
is worth the same (dollar for
dollar) with other favoured
areas. I believe that we could
carry on our affairs with
that same amount of bread
and build a better village with
that to boot.
Not that I am asking for
independence or pressing for
secession. All I am trying
to show is that we should not
have to beg for better treat-
ment from Public Depart-
ments. We should not have to
wait for hand outs. We are
paying for services and we are
demanding them.
Let the Postman come as
scheduled. Let him deliver
people's mail to them and
not to their friends who live
near to where he passes. Let
the law enforcement people
not discriminate as to whose
matter to investigate and
whose to disregard. Whose
report to write down in their
Diary,, and whose to note
Let us have a say whenever
we apply for Licences to
have functions and we are
given the blunt "Police objec-

tion" Not granted" Give. us
a chance, please. Leave our
water supply alone. Or, give
us a reason why it has
deteriorated so much recently.
Give us a chance to supple-
ment our food bills. Let us
produce in our own small
way. Each man in his back-
yards Plant tomatoes,
peppers cabbage etc. Rear
pigs, fowls, goats etc. So that
we would not have to face
the super (price) markets
for everything.
Let your health,inspector
give us a chance. Tell him
not to come to our village to
force us to get rid of our
livestock. Instead, tell us,
what we can do to produce
more and to produce safely.
This Vessigny name must
be really blight. I am wonder-
ing whether it should not be
changed to something that
really has a meaning.
What has come out of all
this would take a whole
story, but I shall put it in a
nutshell. We are a frustrated
people. Our life is growing
duller with every day. Our
youths are turning to drugs,
gambling etc. Any advice or
help for us? Tell me of a more
unfortunate village. And we
are not even represented in
Pray for us friends, help
us if you can and Vessigny
Village would not forget to
thank you.

N.J.A.C. Plans



THE National Joint
Action Committee for a
second year running will
be observing August 1st
- August 15 as Caribbean
Liberation Fortnight.
Caribbeani fortnight was
first planned at a Confer-
ence of the Caribbean
Steering Committee for
the 6th Pan-African Con-
gress held in Barbados,
This fortnight period will
be used as a means of assist-
ing the Africans and Indians
of the Caribbean to place
themselves in the stream of
world history and to under-
stand their role in the struggle
for Caribbean Liberation.
N.J.A'C. will be sponsor-
ing a series of Community
functions that will be geared
to providing information
about the reality of African
and Indian history and also
to explore the farce of
These functions will focus
attention on the Caribbean
Reality as it .affects both
peoples. Hence questions

ETC., will all be spot-
This two-weeK period
begins with the commemora-
tion of the Emancipation of
the African Slaves (Aug. 1,
1838) and ends with the
Anniversary of India's Inde-
pendence (Aug. 15, 1947).
In addition to the com-
munity functions there will be
Two NATIONAL Rallies.
The first of which will be in
observance of Emancipation
Day and will be held on
Sunday 3rd August at the
Hall of the People, OWTU
Headquarters, 143 Charlotte
Street, Port-of-Spain. Time 8
The second will be on the
17th August (Sunday) in
California (Venue to be
announced) Central Trinidad
and will take a searchinglook
at the Indians, both in the
Caribbean and in the sub-
continent. All functions are
free and open to all Black
sufferers in Trinago.

West -Indian Social Sciences Index



0 Lord, Let Resurrection

Come to Vessigny

Pollution Council is only more

Political Pollution

Jake Kenny

IT is said that the first
law.in politics is survival.
I would hardly be so
uncharitable as to suggest
that the only reason for
the establishment of the
Pollution Council is the
political survival of the
Minister of Health. How-
ever, the recent announce-
ments in the newspapers
suggest that this is prob-
ably the major factor.
As I have suggested else-
where, the problems of our
environment are extremely
varied but are all generally
inter-related. Solution of one
problem, or talk of solution of
one problem, particularly in a
small country where it be-
comes an item of news when
so many yards of drain has
been cleaned, does nothing
more than keep in the eyes of
the electorate the general
issue, and the suggestion that
somebody up there is doing
something about it.
This sort of thing, however,
does not really have any
lasting impact on environ-
mental problems.


What is needed is not so
much a Pollution Council but
rather a body possibly semi
autonomous, charged. with
the development and manage-
ment of our environment. I
have suggested this principally
because I recognize that the
state, particularly in cases
such as ours, may be forced
by political expediency to act
or not act on environmental
A group of politicians
faced with rising unemploy-
ment, despite their highest
motives, may be forced to
make decisions which create
serious, environmental pro-
blems. In fact, more than
one Minister has stated that
the pollution problem is an
inevitable feature of develop-
The recent news items in
the .press gives some support
for my view. For example, the
rivers which are said to be
heavily polluted include-the
Caroni, Ciparo, San Juari, St.
Joseph and Oropouche.. It is
-time that we recognised that,
the two rivers with the
heaviest pollution are the'
Guaracara river and the Guapo
There is no doubt in my
mind that if we are tp do
anything meaningful about
our pollution 'problem,' we
will have to start with the
Guaracara river. This repre-
sents a major challengee and
perhaps in forcing a solution
to the problem, we wilU be
able to oay that we are truely
anindependent-nation; -..
.Having been involved for
many' years with the subject
of environmental problem, I
am afraid that I have ne-illu-,.

All over the country indiscriminate logging is denuding the fbrcsts.

sions and I do not expect that
anyone will tackle the giant.
I do think, however, that
the Minister or Cabinet might
give us a declaration of sin-
cerity by tackling some of
those problems which do not
necessarily involve the multi-
The Minister of Health
might start first with the
Beetham dump. This is not
--fmeely an eyesore, but is a
serious health hazard for the
people who live on the
Beetham Estate and South-
east Port-of-Spain. Although
we are blessed with winds
which will remove the pol-
luted air each day, the
picture over Port-of-Spain in
the early morning is one of a
smog bank from ground level
to perhaps three hundred feet.


The Beetham dump is
entirely within the manage-
ment of the Government and
surely something could be
done immediately.
Another area in which
government can act is on the
matter of the barge transport-
ing gas along the Blue River.
My recollection is that a,
statement was made by the
Prime Minister saying that the
barge would be permitted to
operate for a few trips so as
to deal with the Christmas
That was two years ago
and the barge now runs
daily. No one knows what
the effect of this increased
traffic is nor does iny govern-
ment body monitor environ-
ment here. At the time of the
Sbarge issue, the problem was
one of fighting a multinational
Today, we have owner-
ship of this operation. It
strikes me that all that is
necessary now, is a simple
executive. decision to move
the gas bottling plant to Sea
Lots. I have seen in an inter-
.ational journal,, that the
Minister of' Agriculture is

opposed to running the barge
through the Caroni swamp. I
wonder what we are waiting
for now?
As 1 have suggested above.
the state is potentially as
serious a destroyer of environ-
ment as is the multinational.
To give an example'of the
sort of thing which has hap-
pened, I need merely refer to
the Bush Bush Wildlife
Some years ago Cabinet,
quite wisely, declared certain
areas of Trinidad and Tobago-
to be wildlife sanctuaries.
Subsequent to this, the Min-
istry of Agriculture, Lands
and Fisheries gave approval to
a commercial concern to
extract wood from this wild-
life sanctuary. I recall a state-
ment from the Forestry
department to the effect that
the wood could' be extracted
provided the animals were not
This sort of double talk
illustrates what I suggest.
Here we have a government
Ministry suggesting that the
trees in a wildlife sanctuary,
which are essential to the
wildlife, may be removed
without harm to the wildlife.
Some of the effects of logging
in this sanctuary have been
fires which have been set by
the wood cutters and a general
degradation of the forest
floor from the use of draft
Animals and tractors.


Perhaps, however, the most
serious effect of logging has
been the opening up of the
forest canopy. Because of
this, Alma was able to flatten
much of the sanctuary.
Thus a ministerial decision
for what can only be described
as modest economic benefit,
has resulted in the destruction
of a wildlife sanctuary. It
would have been far better to.
cultivate the true species
Another good example of
this sort of ministerial irres-

ponsibility may be found in
the recent introduction into
Trinidad, from Guyana, of a
species of catfish which is not
a native of Trinidad. While
conducting some inspections
in the Biche area, technical
staff at this University col-
lected a number of Corydoras
melanistius a species not native
of Trinidad.
Investigations in the area
revealed that these fishes had
been released by the Fisheries
department. One would have
thought that technical staffing
the Ministry would be aware
of the dangers of introduction
of exotic species. Apart from
the introduction of diseases,
there is a potential displace-
ment of local species by the
introduced species ..
The scientific literature has
a host of examples and today,
serious fisheries biologists
approach the introduction of
exotics with great care. I
assume that the Ministry has
introduced this fish with the
hope that it could be used to
supplement export of indigen-
ous species.


Scientifically, however,
this is quite faulty as any
unit area of habitat can only
produce a fixed mass of
organisms. In other words, if
we develop 'a trade in this
exotic species, it will only be
at the cost of the local species.
This is not to say that we
.might not boost the aquarium
fish trade by means of cul-
tivation of this particular"
The decision, therefore, to
introduce this fish is scientific-
ally irresponsible. 1 am told
now that there are plans for
introducing the Channel cat-
fish from the United States
and to move some Trinidad
species to Tobago. This sort
of foolishness does nto help
the Ministry of Agriculture,
Lands and Fisheries nor the'
Fisheries Department which
is not particularly noted for

Although it is impossible
and unnecessary to try to
find someone or some organ-
isation which can be blamed
for the general alienation of
agricultural land, this is an
area which requires urgent
and imaginative intervention
on the part of the govern-


One Ministry tells us that
by the end of the centur.our
population will be 1.75 mil-
lion people while, the Ministry
of Planning and Development
cheerfully approves the
alienation of prime agricul-
tural land to industry. Farm-
ing is relegated to the gravel
fields of Waller field.
I mention these cases to
illustrate that government
could in fact' create serious
environmental problems and
that one way of minimising
the ravages of governmental
mismanagement, would be to
have some sort of watch-dog
body with powers to stop,
by legal action, the more
foolish official aberrations.
Thus while I note that the
Ministry of Health is setting
up a Pollution Council, I can
predict that, like its predeces-
sor, it will achieve little or
nothing because it only
attempts to tackle a small
part of a part of an environ-
mental problem.
How many people remem-
ber the front page photographs
of a Ministerial party travel-
ling up the Caroni river two
or three years ago? 1 remember
similar news twenty years
ago, but still the Caroni is an
open sewer. The fact that this
Pollution Council is now
made a permanent body and
die sum of ten thousand
dollars is voted, does not
necessarily mean that anything
will happen.
I would however, be pre-
pared to eat my words when
I see some positive action on
the Beetham dump.

'siNDAYk AUGUST 3j .975,.


PAGE 10,

From Page 4
is where I think some resource transfer
can come in. Obviously, this money
should come from the rich countries.
The poor countries will benefit from
such a scheme also, but they would
not be asked to contribute to its costs.
Furthermore, if the scheme works
properly, it will make a profit, be-
cause the international stockpile will
buy goods when they are relatively
cheap, and sell them after their prices
have risen. The profits should go to
the poor countries, becoming a
mechanism for transfer of resources.
If you seek to effect a resource
transfer from rich to poor countries,
you should be very careful not to tie
the transfer closely to thecommodity
itself, because this might end up as a
transfer from poor countries which
import commodities to rich countries
which export them.

Q: You have an extremely
ambitious concept here.

A: Well, since it is so far reaching, I
think you would have to approach it
through two phases of actual negotia-
In the first phase,youwould just




try to establish principles and the
general.mechanism. You would have
to negotiate individual commodities
sequentially but with an obligation
on the part of participants to take
part in all of the agreements on all
commodities. It dosen't have to be
created in one step there are ways
of easing into it.
In fact, larger stockpiles would
help to moderate future inflation,
Therefore, I think we should seize
the present opportunity while prices
are low for many minerals to build
up stockpiles. It would help to
strengthen anti-inflationary pressures,
as well as benefit for instance tin and
copper producers.
You would clearly need at least
four different patterns of agreements.
One for oil alone, because so
much has happened hcre that it must
be handled separately.
Another pattern will be need-
ed for other commodities from ex-
haustible resources, such as lead, tin,

You would need a third
pattern for agricultural products with
long production cycles tree crops,
such as rubber, coffee, and cocoa.
There is a significant problem here
resulting from the failure of the market
to provide good signals for current
investment,because the output from
investment does not mature for six or
seven years.
Agricultural products involv-
ing a much shorter production cycle,
such as wheat or soybeans, pose dif-
ferent problems.
It must be possible to begin
simultaneous negotiations in each of
hceselfour areas, leading into separate
commodity negotiations within each
of the. patterns. /
Clearly some products could not
be handled through any such arrange-
ments. because the market behaviour
has uot been unstable or unsatisfac-
tory products such as coal or
uranium. One should not go out of
the way to interfere in markets that
seem to work satisfactorily, from both

the producers and the consumers
point of view.

Q: Some developing country
Spokesmen have long urged
developed countries to embargo
or place special taxes on all new
production of synthetics and
substitutes that compete with
their export commodities. Is
anything like this likely to
A: I don't think anything like this
is likely to happen. It goes counter to
the whole thrust of modern history.
If the market incentives to
develop a possible alternative to a
natural resource are .great, I think it
will be done. There is just no way to
stop it. One may well argue that
governments should not subsidize the
replacement of imported raw materials
through research and development,
simply because they are importing
these goods.
A well working scheme guaran-
teeing the availability of supplies
might reduce the security need govern-
ments feel to develop synthetics at
high cost to replace imports. I think
this argument re-enforces the value of
the kinds of arrangements we have
been discussing.

An Interview with

Juan Bosch

From Page 5
Bosch referred to the his-
tory of US aggressions in
Latin America:
S "That's nothing new to
the Latin Americans. Now
Venezuela and Peru are the
victims, but before that,
Panama, Guatemala, Domini-
can Republic, Haiti and
Nicaragua all suffered from
such aggressions".
S"Cuba is the only country
inr the region that has defeated
US intervention", stated
Foi Latin America to
stand up to those aggressions,
he added, "all the popular
forces must become unified
to convince the US and the
the world that if Washing-
ton's threats are made good,
it will be in the midst of a
continental bloodbath.
"The rulers of the United
States conceive of politics
only through abuses of mili-
tary and economic might. To
- them, that's what politics is".
He added that although
that's understandable in
capitalism, in the case of the
US, it goes beyond the expla-
nation of the use of military
and economic power inside
the system because "that
country's rulers feel they have
a divine right to exploit our
Bosch stressed that in order
to defeat that drunkennesss
with power, fighting unity of
the peoples is required."
He cited the Cuban case to
point outt that without the
full backing of the people,
the revolutionary government
would not have been able to
remain in power in the face
of the US boycott, which he
called criminal.
Bosch added: "I lived in
Cuba for 19 years and got to
know the manifestations of
the class struggle there. That's
why I can. speak of the
achievements of the Revolu-
Then, for example, he
recalled, the streets were full
of policemen and soldiers,
drivers shouted insults at
each other, and now, all of
that's gone.

The Cubans' pleasant
nature has now surfaced, he
remarked. "When you arrive
in Cuba, from this world in
which we live, you find
human peace there. In Cuba'
you find that the environ-
ment is now made to the
measure of human. beings.
"And all America knows
about what's beingdone there
in public health and educa-
tion. Cuba has left the other


From Page 3
crossed the Savannah from
the Botanical Gardens to
Futility, therefore, and
absurdity inevitably attend
the efforts.
On the other hand: the
newspapers reported the en-
thusiastic reception Sir Ellis
received when he toured the
counties; the Police Band was
in attendance; schools got
half-day; the stage was set,
not to say "Hi fella", but
"Welcome Your-Excellency".
But let me return to where
I began about liking and
admiring high public figures,
if at all possible. There is -
or was such a figure for
whom, I must confess, I have
felt "a little something".
One-time PNM Senator and
Chairman of the Carnival
Development Committee
Ronald Williams has pleased
me on three occasions that I
always remember.'
One was when he wrote to
the management of the radio
station condemning their
hypocrisy (as he called it) in
banning from the air a
calypso in the Calypso King
Competition broadcast be-
cause they thought it
"smutty". (Then) Senator
Williams quoted from Frank
Sinatra' Strangers In The
Night and a current radio
jungle ("Guinness keeps your
pecker up!") to show that
equally sexy lyrics were
broadcast without question.
The secondwas 31 August
1972 when an officious door-

Latin American nations be-
hind in those two fields",
slated the Dominican former
He added that in Cuba he
was impressed by details such
as the third-generation com-
puters that can perform one
hundred thousand operations
a second, designed by Cuban
technicians and built by high
school students. -
That's impressive when


man refused to allow into a
reception the Mighty Chalk-
dust whom he didn't recognize
as the Independence Calypso
King. Sen. Williams, so the
story goes, fired the man on
the spot.
The third was this year
when Mr. Williams, no longer
a Senator or CDC Chairman,
wrote sarcastically to the
Express that if the Governor
General could open his resi-
dence to entertain delegates

you remember that in Brazil,
with a hundred million people
and all that the US interests
have put up there, the sub-
empire of America is unable
to do what Cuba with nine
million has already done.
"Those are very important
achievements. And where will
Cuba be 25 years from now?
It will really be far
In regard to the role of

to the US Pest Controllers
Convention held down here at
Holiday Inn, mayb- he would
accord the Brothel Keepers of
America conventioneers the
same honour Hear, hear.
The Governor General not
only replied to that one, but
he replied with some virulence
too. "Hi fella", but he can't
take fatigue! It wasn't merely
Good citizens (including
me) want those who hold
high public offices to be
people worthy of affection,
admiration and respect. But
it hard these days, yes, it

writers in the Latin American
situation, Bosch stated that
not only creators but all
sensible and sensitive persons
who love our peoples who
are in fact one people- have
a responsibility to fight for
the future.
"And there's but a single
future, the Revolution."
Bosch said that those
who die fighting now know
that they are not dying in
vain, because in historic
terms, the struggle has already
been won.
He added that 57 years
ago there was a single socialist
country in the world, the
Soviet Union, with 80 million
people, while today the
socialist world is made up of
a large number of countries
with a population of one
billion 300 million.
If that's the case, he added,
what has retreated in the
face of socialist advance?
Capitalism. And what does
that mean? That the war
has already been won by the
advancing force.


The National Insurance Board is recalling ALL
Stamping spaces on these-Cards expired on Monday
28th July, 1975 and therefore, NEW CHERRY Cards are
-tequired to continue stamping from Monday 4th August,
You should ensure that all your employees sign
their Cards and any change of their address is reflected
on these cards before exchange.
All National Insurance Cards that are CHERRY in
colour NUST be exchanged with thq Board in order for a
proper Contribution Record to be maintained for your
employee and for you to continue your obligation under
the law.


- I I

_ I I

THE Repertory Dance
Theatre under artistic
director Astor Johnson
will premiere five new
works for this current
dance season.
These include "Targo"
choreographed by Michael
Steele; a new ballet by Frank
Ashley the Jamaican dancer/
choreographer now working
in New York; "Black Flower",
"GoingHome"and an adapta-
tion of Garcia-Lorca's "Blood
Wedding" choreographed by
Astor Johnson.
The R.D.T. will have the
rare experience of working
with'an outside choreographer,
Frank Ashley who has worked
with Rex Nettleford's Jamai-
can National Dance Company
and with Martha Graham and
Making her second appear-
ance with the company will
be Dyane Harvey who will be
well remembered for her per-
formances last July.
Miss Harvey will dance in
"Black Flower" a role created
by Noble Douglas in the "Poet
and Prophet "show, as well as
three other roles not yet
The company has been
hard at work under its dance
mistress Noble Douglas and
are now in the midst of re-
hearsals of the new pieces.
Included in its cast will be
Edison Carr, Wilfred Mark,
Caudia Applewhite, Roslyn
Charles, Lewt Carrabon,
Allison Guerra and Greer
For the first time in its
three year old history. The
R.D.T. will include me
people's calypsonian "Valen-
tino" as a guest artist this

l- DAY AIEUST 3,1975



75 Season Opens Aug.

Some o' the R.D.T. dancers on stage during the Valentino show earlier this year.

season, along with Andre
Tanker, New World Performers
and the Mau Mau Drummers.
Dates and venues for RD.T.
performances are North

Eastern College, Sangre on the 10th.
Grande on Sat. Aug. 2nd and Night performances are at
Queen's Hall, Thursday '7th 830 p.m. and tickets will soon
through Sunday 10th .with go on sale at Sealey's Men's
a special matinee performance Store, Frederick St., Port-of-

Performances are also
booked for U.WI. St. Augus-
tine and Tobago, dates *for
which will be announced later.

0 3 mo 0



Dear Sir,
I am sending you a
picture of one side of a made-
in-Trinidad sandals, broken
in two separate areas the
toe strap, and the instep belt.
The right side, also gave way
completely in the region of
the toe, and showed signs of
bursting in the instep.
That particular pair of
sandals was purchased for
$10.00 in April of this year.
And in just two and a half
months of use that is the
picture before you.
Had I no other choice but
Bata, in one year's time I
would have spent $50.00 on
gy isuch sandals, and would
stih4 be -looking for a sixth
pair to buy.
Now such a prospect, for
a whole generation that has
grown up on the constant
jingle about there being
"always something exciting
going on in Bata shoes," must
surely prompt us to find out
just who is sharing in this
It is certainly not the con-
sumers cashing in on this much
advertised excitement. In fact
all the people I haey heard
known to wear Bat sneakers,
soft shogs, and f@p. 9ll tyg
gy vhgad nothing 9mmel)-
able to say.

What is perhaps even worst
is the fact that consumers are
being misled into believing
that they are cutting costs.
When for example that part-
icular pair of sandals was
purchased* the nation was
urged in full-sized ads to
"Laugh at inflation as you
scamper home with an arm-
load of big Bata bargains."
So beyond belief were the
savings on reduced items that
consumers were told that
they could save as much as
$20.00 a pair on purchases.
It is clear that some where
along the marketing process
we consumers are being
deceived. Take the pair of
sandals to which I have refer-
red. A close look reveals that
the material glued to the sole
is something that looks and
feels like compressed card-
That means that it could
stand neither water nor the
normal strain involved in
walking, for any length of
I am satisfied that we have
to do something about the
whole outfit called Bata in this
country. We have to look at
tie earnings acuing to our
nationals in the form of
wages to employees, in prp-
gdution and_ marketing, and

revenue to the government.
Against this we have to
measure what the bigshot
owners are making from the
over-valuation of foot-wear,
designed and made to finish
rather quickly.
As far as I am concerned
Bata is guilty of robbery with
aggravation. Something must
be done soon to stop it.
Lloyd Taylor

Dear Mr. Taylor,
All we could say to you
after reading your story
is that at least you are
keeping in step with the

I _



14vin Kallicharran on the go.

C.L.R. Reviews


From Page 1
outside the off stump and
Fredericks who knocked the
bails off when hitting a six.
In addition to the fact
that they played a West
Indian game, they understood
the strategy of the game very
Kanhai batted as though he
had been there for years.
With the third wicket down,
he was not prepared,to see
any collapse. He stayed there
purposely holding up one end
and he only opened up and
began to play his marvellous
array of-strokes when Lloyd
came in and attacked the
Even the last three or four
batsmen, Boyce, Julien and
Murray, played their shots
and as a matter of fact,
Holder came in and the first
ball he faced, he dispatched
with a splendid drive straight
over the bowlers head and
batk to-the pavilion.
That is the way we West
Indians pray but at the same
time we will not forget that
Kanhai, watching the game,
saw to it that there was no
The fielding was remark-
able. I have never seen any
first" class match in which
five men were run out not
even in a five day match, far'
less in one day. And they
were run out, not because
they were running badly
between the wickets.
The West Indians were on
their toes and they were not
prepared to allow anything
to go by. They could see that
their bowling was not as
penetrative as it might have
been and they substituted
for that, some absolutely

superb fielding.
It was noticeable that
while when the West Indians
were batting they could hit a
ball and run two, the Aus-
tralians could get no more
than one.
That was part of the team
as a whole. I haven't heard
people talk about it, but a
team playing that way, catch-
ing and fielding in the way it
did, is a testimony that the
captain has brought the side
toa state of readiness.


Lloyd has not been given
the credit for the team play-
ing in the way that it did. It
is only under a good captain
that they have the confidence
to rise to that pitch. It was
the same under Frank Worrell.
The individual plays better
than normally when he feels
that he can leave things in the
hands of his captain.
I found the bowling a bit
disappointing. It was clear
that Roberts was the fastest
bowler there on that day -
the Australian bowlers Lillie
and Thompson were not as
fast and I believe Roberts is
going to be faster in the
years to come.
The Australians seemed to
have collapsed in the field. I
think I understand why.
What happened was this.
They are accustomed to the
normal field placing two or
three slips, cover, extra cover,
midoff, midwicket etc., but
the way the West Indians
were hitting the ball in a one
day -match meant that you
had to place fieldsmen any-


where to stop, the runs and.
therefore the Australian fields-
men were in positions they
were not accustomed to.
As, a result they were un-
able to watch the play,
visualise the strokes and time
them in the way they would
normally. I believe that had
they been placed in normal
fielding positions, they would
not have missed all those
catches. But the West Indians
had them on the run and posi-
tioned as they were to stop
the runs, they were unable to
take the chances once they
came to hand.
Their bowlers did not im-
press me very much. Gilmour
is a fine bowler, but his
tremendous feat against the
English batsmen was due to
the weakness of the English
batsmen and not to such fine
However, the way they
went at our total of 290 was
very impressive. They never
gave up and that last wicket
stand of 41 runs by two
men, who were most
obviously not batsmen of any
quality, was an exaniple of
pure determination, an Aus-
tralian quality that we have
to accept.
They did extremely well
in that respect and I am glad
to see that something that we
know belonged to Australia,
came out in that game before
it was finished.
Finally, I would like to
say a few words about Lloyd.
I have spoken about his
captaincy and the way he
bowled Walters, who if he
had stayed, was the one who
could have won the game for
Lloyd's innings, however,
was one of the finest innings I

- have svei. I want lo Li-.uj.Ic
myself to Lords. I have seen
two superb innings at Lords,
the first by Hammond in
1938. He played against the
Australians and came in with
three wickets down.
The Australians had a fast
bowler called McCormick and
the notable aspect of that
innings was majesty. He was a
man in his middle or late
30's, and in command from
start to finish, stroking the
ball to the boundary.
The second was an innings
played by another English-
man, Dexter, against the West
Indians a tremendous bowl-

ing team with Hall and
Griffiths, Sobers and Gibbs.
Dexter came in early on a
wicket with some life and he
was never bothered or dis-
turbed. I was sorry to see
him go even though I am
always happy to see the West
Indians on top.
It was a completely differ-
ent innings from Hammond's
which was one played by an
Englishman in the old tradi-
tion. Dexter, was a modern
Englishman playing an innings
and scoring in the way that
they do.


But this innings played by
Lloyd was of a West Indian
quality. He had all the quali-
ties of a first class batsman,
he was not hitting across, he
wasn't playing by chance, his
defence was solid back play
but he was making strokes
that I have never seen from
anyone else.
It seemed that if youover-
pitched by six inches you
went to the boundary with a
tremendous drive, if you
under pitched by six inches
it v-ra ihe hook or pull, if
you pitched on a good length
away it went.
I remember one ball he
could play back to it or he
could have hooked it, but he
put his front foot down, took
it on the rise and hit it over
square leg.
This was the highest peak
of West Indian batting and
altogether one of the greatest
innings I have seen at Lords.
It has made one-day cricket
something that is definitely
going to play a historical role
in cricket matches that we
know now and in the future.


'II El-





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