Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00168
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: June 29, 1975
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00168

Full Text
V,; No 2('









Labour Day Celebration

Robert Lee
Joker of Seville
St. Lucia

PAGE 6&7



T triumph
in World Series


30 Cents

Story Page j.

pp1s~~" lr 9 I

~g~~B~li~P~$s~ -- -- --"B~a~






SUNDAY JUNE 29, 1975

Miclca' Harri

NO thunderous applause erupted
from the audience in homage
to his contribution, no boister-
ous voices asked for more.
Instead, as the session concluded
and the audience filed out,
there could be heard the unmis-
takable rumblings of intense
disappointment buttressed by an
undercurrent of real anger. And
then came the boos.
Naipaul smiled his melan-
cholic smile as he left the stage.
He had declared at one point
during the question period, in
apparent perplexity, "I don't
-understand what is wanted of
me." But the truth must be that
he knew and just would not or
cduld not oblige.
It was, if not an historic
occasion, a significant one. Vidia
Naipaul, celebrated author and scholar,
consumate villain to some and super-
star to others, in delivering the
feature address at the Opening Session
of the Symposium on "The East
Indians in the Caribbean" made one
of his rare public appearances in this
Lbng before the scheduled
starting time of 730 p.m., and in
spite of the heavy rain which had
been pouring down for about three
hours before, the auditorium of the
John Kennedy complex on the
University Campus was packed by an
eager audience which waited in
patient expectation to see Vidia walk
a stage at home.


And truly it was a marvellous
thing. In the forty-five minutes in
which he spoke, reading from jottings
which, he informed us, he had
hurriedly made that same day, he
succeeded in opening up to the
audience a vision of the immense
complexities involved in one man's
search for himself.
He began with ignorance. Ignor-
ance both in the sense of the trivalisa-
tions and distortions encountered in
the writings on the Indian condition,
fewin any case, and, in the more
important sense of the ignorance of
the Indians about themselves.
One could not escape, in trying
to understand the nature of this


i.. ii.i-

ignorance, the influence of the
colonial past. The primary legacy ot
the past was the imposition on all
peoples heir to it, of a severely
restricted vision characterized by an
"odd attitude to people." An attitude
which classified people simply in
terms of their relationship to and
behaviour within the prevailing econ-
omic system.In short as work-machines
It was an attitude which
refused to concede to the individual a
past and a personality and therefore
robbed the individual of pride. But
the typical reaction to this has been
no more liberating. It has involved the
magical attempt on the part of leader
to escape the complexities involved in
admitting diversity by a resort to all-
embracing nationalist terminology
which also serves to strip people of
their personality.


The second major feature con-
tributing to the lack of self-awareness.
among the Tndians was the tvne of
culture from which they originally
came.-The bulk of the Indian com.-
munity were of the peasantry andl
came from a region which had
remained largely untouched by the
Reform movements in India during
the 19th Century.
This old culture was one i:n
which virtually every facet of life,
every action of- the individual was
fixed in an immutable pattern, 'all
questions were already answered and
all ritual perfected. The result was
that it was not a community much
given to self-examination or to
writing its history.
The changes which have occurred
within the Indian community today
have thus come almost by stealth
largely unperceived by those to whom
it has been happening. Indians today
have become part of the colonial
culture and have begun to live as
though the past can be denied; they
have become in fact people without a
The essential point though was
not the fact of change itself but the
fact that this change coming largely
unperceived had not been understood
and when change is not understood
people flounder and becomeirrational.
The task of understanding the
Indian condition today therefore was
the task of recapturing and understand-
ing the past and acknowledging it
fully and frankly. If the fact that
Indians today stood at the nether end

of the process of change made this
more possible it did not; however
nmake it any easier.
"There is no magic in a particular
racial inheritance." Naipaul stressed.
The past of any culture will only be
discovered through scholarship,
rigorous intellectual labour. Unless
this was so, "self-awareness" would
forever be locked within the confines
of magic and ritual.
Ritual in itself was not to be
scorned. In most cases it served to
provide a spiritual link between man
and his earth and his past. But it had
to be understood for what it was. "The
last thing self-knowledge, should do is
make us provincial and narrow."
Nor, he went on, should self-
knowledge be used for political
assertion for this was only to corrupt
it and turn it into a nihilistic phen-
omenon. For true creativity comes as
much from a sound intellectual life as
from a sound political life.
hI this society there could be
no growth, no advance without self-
knowledge and the intellectual rigour
which this demanded. Illustrating this
assertion with the case of Argentina
Naipaul felt that that country was
iluW gOl1it tLHOu-L ii n i ducs
precisely because it had failed intel-
lectually, failed to face honestly i's


In the end Naipaul stated that
his had been a plea for rationality.
But no sooner had the first question
been asked than one suspected that
for most of the audience the plea
would fall on deaf ears.
And as the question period pro-
gressed and Naipaul again and again
refused to answer obviously loaded
questions, and for the most part took
the opportunity to exhibit his skill at
the swift repartee and the disdainful
silences, it became obvious that
audience and speaker were growing
further and further apart.
One wonders whether it could
havebeen otherwise. Rationality is
riot'easy to achieve at the best of
times but when the participants start
off from two entirely different points
of view then it is almost impossible.
The irony of it all, though, and
one which Naipaul must have keenly
appreciated, was that the very recep-
tion which the audience, three-quarters
of whom were Indians, accorded him
at the end, only served to underscore

the validity of all that he had .said.
For Naipaul, in explaining the
lack of Indian self-awareness in terms
of the culture of the past as well as
the attitude inculcated under the
colonial condition, was pointing to a
fundamental condition which made it
impossible for the Indian, whatever
cultural distinctions he brought to
the situation, to completely divorce
himself from the rest of the society.
The point is not that the search
for the past is wrong. Naipaul is right,
it is a fundamental necessity of our
growth. But one cannot bend the past
to suit the conceptions of the present.
,The colonial experience is also part
of the Indian's past and he shares its
legacies vith all other races in the
And if he does then he must"
share the "limited vision" that is at
one end of that experience and the
reliance on niagic that is at the other.
To be explicit, the Indians in this
society are as much plagued as any-
one else by the incapicating impo-
tence and contemptuous self-view
bequeathed by the colonial condition.
For to far too great an extent
the journey to self-knowledge has
turned out to be nothing but a vigor-
ous assertion of ritual devoid of the
philosophic or intellectual underpin-
nings necessary to the task.
Such assertions will flourish
over time however, only if involved in
periodic conflict, in which case a
perpetual emotional exuberance never
leaves room for doubt, or if it finds a
kind of lifetime legitimacy in the
creation of a leader who it is perceived
embodies all the virtues of the race.


On Wednesday night then
aipau! -as offered the role of
-Mystic Messiah. Shortly before he
spoke Naipaul had been handed a
4-page stencilled statement headlined
"Naipaul and the Blacks". The only
indication of authorship was the word
MUKDAR across the top of the page.
The statement asserts that for
some time now Naipaul has been "a
serious problem of the black (negro)
academics and writers of the Carib-
bean." The situation has arisen, it is
argued because Naipaul is "the most
successful of the writers in the Carib-
bean" and has thus upset the "immedi-
ate yearnings of the blacks (negroes)
to appear to be the leading writers,
and the politicians and sole repository
of Knowledge and leadership .. ."
Naipaul apparently was not
inclined to accept the offering. His was
a much larger view of the search for
self-knowledge. An attempt to locate
oneself in time by trying to compre-
hend the entire historical process of
which one is both creation and
Naipaul referred to Ortega
writing on Spain in the.1920s. Diverse
groups, Ortega argued, do not get
together because they feel drawn to
each other like the members of the
family. They only come together for
some overriding purpose, if moved to
do so by some higher ideal, or idea.
At the end he kept muttering
that he was tired, so tired. On that
occasion at least rationality did not
stand a chance.

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Street, Tunapuna.

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Is Each Saint For Heself

"We'll hang Tony May
from the sugar apple tree!"

I MIGHT have heard
wrong but that's the song
which came from the
TIWU' contingent of the
CPTU-ULF Labour Day
Rally in Fyzabad.
There was quite a
confusion of sounds in
the Tesoro Recreation
Ground at 3.15 p.m.
when the parade of
workers arrived to circle
the field once then to
stand at ease as it were
on the grass or to sit in
the stands.
The OWTU Free French
steelband had been set up
in the sun near the entrance.
Before the parade arrived
from the Hall of the Revolu-
tion, along the one-mile
distance Commissioner of
Police Tony May had limited
them to, a few of the
panmen and the drummer
practised funky rhythms.
I hardly noticed as they
snapped out of it, donned
red .shirts and stood ready to
greet the arriving marchers
with Earl Rodney's "Steel-
band Music."
The march had its own
music. A cadet band in
khaki playing "When the
Saints Go Marching Home."
African drummers associated
with the Lengua Village
OWTU contingent. Tassa
drummerswith no identifying
banner near them.
And then the singing. Led
by the microphone, the
strains of "When the Saints"
echoed along the length of
the crocodile that passed
before the stands and wound
round the field.
But the steelband only

s any Grslt Reports

t e Lab our Day

e obratlion Staged by

C.P. T. LF in Fyzabad

changed to Kitchener's
"Tribute to Spree" as the
younger people in the parade
seemed more attracted to the
calypso, rhythms than to a
voice- urging the marchers
to "show them our strength
and march where nobody can
stop us, where we sweated to
The steelband continued
after the other music had
stopped, pulling, as steelbands
always do, an ever-widening
circle of listeners and dancers,
while the microphones were
removed from the tray of a
truck which had been in-
explicably parked in the
centre of the field some
distance away from a covered
platform set up before the
stands, which was decorated
with large photos of George
Weekes, Gandhi and Nehru.
When everything was
finally in place, the stands
fast-filled up with early
arrivals and marchers, seeking
the shade, and the micro-
phones mounted on a four-
foot high rostrum, the OWTU
Free French had to be called
upon to stop.
The chairman was fiery
and commanding. But his
face couldn't be seen; he
didn't.introduce himself, and
nobody called him by his
name. It was a problem all

right. The rostrum was too
high, so that the speakers'
faces were obscured by the
banner hanging across the
Nothing daunted, the
chairman went about setting
the tone. He got loud roars
of "Yaaa-iss" when he asked
if they wanted the govern-
ment to resign. He called
again for a louder reply -
"Let the deaf bitch hear!"
Meantime the leaders had
alighted from the back of
the jeep where they rode -
George Weekes, Tubal Uriah
Butler smiling regally and
waving a palm frond, Joe
Young wearing a red beret,
Basdeo Panday, slight, and
grinning broadly behind his
dark glasses.
See Basdeo Panday
lovingly hugging the grey-
bearded patriarch from be-
hind as the old Butler was
helped down. See the four
leaders seated behind the
rostrum, the exposed bald
pate of Butler being fanned
by a man-in-waiting.
Somehow Butler made
them all look like his body-
It was a warm sunny
afternoon- in Fyzabad. Sno-
cone and ice-cream vendors
and the bar did well, giving
much proof of the peculiar
Southern taste for Barbados


I don't myself go along
with the criticism that Trini-
dadians turn everything into
a fete, an excuse for mas and
rum-drinking etc etc. So I
wasn't put off by the drink-
ing and so on that was as
much in evidence as if the
occasion had been a sports
meeting. It's just the way we
do our things. The presence
of rum, one learns, dosen't
necessarily reflect any degra-
So what if all the rum
shops were open in Fyzabad,
and a holiday atmosphere
pervaded? Nobody seriously
expects people to devote
their Labour Day to grave
reflection on the role of
labour etc etc.
It was just lunch time
when I got to the Hall of
Revolution. There were flags
in abundance. Loads of
placards kept arriving. People
were strewn about the main
road sheltering from the sun
under the eaves of the shops.
I was at the corner when
A.N.R. Robinson drove up.
Slim Andalcio whom I met
there is now, refreshingly
Inside the Hall of Revolu-
tion the leaders were lunching
together on the stage. All,

that is, except George
Weekes. Things didn't look
like they'd come to much.
There were people about -
the TIWU contingent seemed
to be lunching together at
the back of the hall.
John Humphrey sat to
table on the stage but he
walked in the road for the
From my position in the
stands later on at Tesoro
grounds, I picked out, James
Millette, Allan Alexander and
Lennox Pierre.
I looked on with great
interest to see what would
happen when the chairman
called "Brother A.N.R.
Robinson" and "Brother
Jamadar" to come up to the
platform. But the proceedings
weren't stopped for the
brothers to make their
entrance, and I never
observed them on the plat-
form at all.
Literature abounded. The
cleaners would be certain to
know there had been a grand
gathering of the left. I:paid
25 cents for a copy of Soviet
Weekly, a British-printed
tabloid marked "5p".
But Challenge, the URO's
paper was free, as was The
Vanguard copies of which
were repeatedly pressed on
us by some small children.

NUFF issued a Labour Day
solidarity pamphlet which
listed Tapia among the
"bourgeois oriented parties"
against which it warned
oppressed people; it listed
Rudy John as the 14th NUFF
fighter to have fallen; and it
called for the nationalization
of the multinational corpora-
tions and the import and
export trade.
I read through Challenge's
highly critical analysis of the
ULF which concluded flatly;
"The defeat of the ULF is a
logical defeat." It condemned
as an empty slogan The
Vanguard's front page head-
line for the Labour Day
paper "Let those who labour
hold the reins", and denied
that there was any unity of
outlook in the ULF.
It would seem that Basdeo
Panday had himself spoken
out against the distribution
of Soviet Weekly at ULF
Still, Panday called loudly
from the platform for a
United Political Front. He
brought greetings from
"thousands and thousands of
sugar workers" (who, were,
of course, not themselves
present) and poured praise
on Butler as the "Father of
the Labour Movement".
Panday's call for a United
Political Front drew acclaim
when he asked for it.
The resolution "The
Enemies Within" read with
great drama by Clive Nunez
was also received with
It called for the resigna-
tion of the government, the
repeal of anti-worker legisla-
tion and the restoration of
human rights, free and fair
elections before the end of
1975, but for no united
political Front.

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1~ -i~;r --

Lloyd Taylor

ON Sunday June/ 15,
1975 a number of the'
Burgesses of Port-of-
Spain turned out to
witness or to participate
in something called City
Day. The celebration was
organised by their City
Council and was ostens-
ibly held to mark the
Restoration of the~Rights
of the Municipality by
the Colonial Office 61
years ago.
These burgesses, approxi-
mating 700 or 0.01 per cent
of their total number, at
first genuflected, sat or
knelt against the pews of the
Trinity Cathedral where they
congregated for a special
Ecumenical Service.
Thereafter they flowed
across Woodford Square and
lined the route to watch the
parade of Police, Rangers,
Scouts, Cubs, Guides, Path

Finders and Brigades march
pass to the Police Band's
-rendition of Kitchener's
Spree Simon, while His
Worship the Mayor, Shriva-
prasad-,took the salute.
The marchers were crisp
and smart in step, but there
were no full platoons from
the Military and the Coast
Guard. And one sensed a
kind of dolly-house attitude
about ,the whole affair. The
parade was thus an entire
spineless column.
Finally the representatives
made haste for the Town
Hall's foyer and auditorium
to join their immediate
associates and their party
counterparts from San
Fernando and Arima. Here
drinks were served and sipped;
glasses gently clinked. Here
too palms met and glances,
smiles, and howdy-do's ex-
It occurred to me then to
ask: City Day for what and
for whom? Clearly the
burgesses had not asked it

publicly, and for the most
part may not have even given
thought to the question.
While the large majority of
the city's 73,000 citizens
having no political relation-
ship with the City Council
quite unsurprisingly stayed
In fact the City Council,
might just as well have been
located in Bird Island. For so
remote and so neglible has
been the impact of its
political authority that many
thousands are still blissfully
unaware that such a celebra-
tion ever took place.
-Nor too, was the ques 'on
ever posed. For the very
obvious reason that it is the
furthest thing from the minds.
of His Worship and all those
other persons in official
positions to do so. Why
after all these years of abject
prostration to the whims of
Central Government should
such a serious note be

necessary before items of
expenditure be deemed sanc-
But the Council would
countenance no withdrawal
of its power and its respons-
ibility except in so far as it
found it necessary for some-
one other than its burgesses
to finance the deficit for the
many projects and -plans
governed by local jurisdic-
The Council saw no in-
compatibility between receiv-
ing Government grants and
standing on it own feet. Its
citizenry, it had contended,
had contributed the major
share of enrer' revenues
through excess taxation.
If the Council was asking
the Colonial Government for
what it did not collect, it
was nevertheless askinR for
monies centrally collected
from amongst its citizenry,
in order to meet its growing
The Colonial Government
insisted that the Council stop

its undignified mendicancy
and take steps to increase
the rates on the services it
supplied its burgesses.
And one wonders, with
the wisdom ofhindsight,why
did the Council not adopt a
strategy which called instead
for a reduction of its
citizenry's contribution to
general revenues to make
greater levies to itself pos-
sible? And so make the vital
connection between taxation
and representation.
Yet with Imperial Govern-
ment there is no guarantee
that it would have worked.
The sentiments that instigated
the Council's protest were
as much for local self-govern-
ment as they were against
colonial rule and imperial
In any case the Colonial
Secretary was to argue that
it would be unfair to the
rest of the country were it to
accede to the Council's
Continued on Page 10


The Rights that were
restored are the- rights of the
burgesses of what was then
the Borough of Port-of-Spain
to elect their local govern-
ment administrators.
These Rights were sus-
.pended in 1898 over a
protracted dispute initiated
in part by the Central Gov-
ernment's refusal (then the
Colonial Office in imperial
Britain) to finance by grants,
an excess of expenditures
over revenues in the Budget
of the- Town Council.
The Council was equally
adamant about not increasing
taxes 'on house rates from 5
per cent to 7 per cent as a
condition of accepting a
grant of $24,000 per year
out of general revenues for
the next ten years.
In the conflict the Colonial
Office urged the Council to
stand on its own feet, but
went on to propose that a
high officer of Government
be Mayor a measure that
was found absolutely incom-
patible with the spirit of
local self-government. While
the Council rightfully opposed
the stipulation that the
Governor's approval be

.., --- -
- -
*i r*


THE five Central Ameri-
can countries are
engaging in an attempt
to restructure the
regional Common Market
22 years after the signing
of the first integration
Important divergences; of
opinion have been emerging
at the sessions of the CAN
(High Level Committee)
made up of presidential
delegates from Guatemala,
El Salvador, Nicaragua, Hon-
duras and Costa Rica.
The Central American
Economic Integration Secre-
tariat (SIECA) proposes to
replace the present treaties
and to transform all the
bodies of the Common
Market into a new structure
to be known as the Central
American Economic and
Social Community (CESCA).
The project also seeks to
set up a CESCA Council,
Commission and Tribunal
which would take over the
functions now carried out
by the SIECA and the CAN.
The plan to revitalize the
region's economic integration
includes among its aims the
improvement of the living
standards of the Central
Americans, the promotion of
economic and social develop-
ment and the political and
economic reaffirmation of the
The program includes uni-
form tariffs that would cor-
respond to an integrated
development in industry,
agriculture and other sectors
of the economy of the five
Also under discussion are
different positions in regard
to the mechanisms to correct
balance of payments deficits,
apply technological and
scientific innovations and
joint regulations for foreign
The High Level Committee
(CAN) plans to hold 10
meetings through the end of
July, the deadline for the
presentation of the plans to
the governments of the area,
after failing in their attempt
to finish their work by
December 1974,although the
Committee was already two
years old by the latter date.
Costa Rican President
Daniel Oduber declared on
January 30 this year that he
did not consider possible in
the short run an agreement
to restructure the Central
American Common Market.
He added that such a
restructuring must be looked
upon as a first stage in
integration. The second would
be the regionalization of the
'Caribbean in an economic
association and the third,
agreements among Latin
American regional associa-
The most controversial
issues at the CAN meetings
in January and February
were the free movements of
the labor force around the
five countries, the"political-
economic aspects of foreign
trade, the common regula-
tions of foreign investments,
uniform social security
legislation and the revision
of agrarian structures.
Economic and Social
integration plans in Central
America go back to 1952
'when Guatemala, El Salvador,
Nicaragua and Honduras took
steps to establish mutual
tariffs and a free trade zone,

Central American States

Make Another Attempt

At Economic Integration

Texaco and Exxom have the major share of the petroleum industry.

a project joined by Costa
Rica a year later.
After numbers of attempts,
on June 10, 1958, the five
countries signed a Multilateral
Treaty for Free Trade and
Two years later the Treaty
on Central American Econ-
omic Association, the basis
of the Common Market,
went into effect.
The pact contemplated
the perfecting within a maxi-
mum of five years of a free
trade and tariff equivalency
market in order to proceed
to a regional customs union.
The unification of customs
barriers and the drawing up
of a common foreign (that is,
extra-regional) tariff were
initially the most concrete
and important steps.
In addition, with the
creation of the Central Ameri-
can Monetary Council in
1964, an effort was made to
promote the establishment of
a common currency, the
Central American peso, which
thus far is simply a conven-

tional unit at par with the
United States dollar.
These aspects were not
designed to include the
traditional exports such as
coffee, bananas, meat and
beef cattle, cacao and cotton,
the main lines of the five
countries. -
The establishment of the
Central American Common
Market (CACM) and the
application of some of the
mechanisms contemplated in
the integration treaties have
led to a deformed economic
growth that includes a
relative diversification of the
area's productive structure.
It is believed that this
year or next, the share of
industry in the gross internal
product of Guatemala, El
Salvador, Nicaragua and
Costa Rica will approach 40
to 50 pr per cent.
Growth and the produc-
tive diversification attained
have been based on the
retention of deep differences
between the social classes of
the area and its dependency

on monopoly capital.
The delegations of Hon-
duras and Costa Rica coin-
cided in stating before the
CAN (High Level Committee),
in February, that while 50
percent of the Central
American population receive
just 13 percent of total
income, 5 percent obtains 31
The US-controlled cor-
porations and finance agencies
wield a great, virtually deci-
sive influence on economy
and politics in Central
This is inevitable; SIECA
reported at the end of 1974
that foreign investments rose
from 400 million dollars in
1960 to 755.3 million nine
years later.
In that same period the
liquid earnings obtained by
those investors tripled, going
from 23.3 million to 78.6
million dollars.
SIECA also reported that
in the sixties, no fewer than
46 among the most lucrative
companies were fully or

partially bought by foreign
United Brands, Standard
Fruit (owned by Castle and
Cook), Sears Roebuck, Fire-
stone, Panamerican Airways
and Grace line, all US-based
corporations, are the most
important companies in the
In the refining, marketing
and exploration of petroleum,
Exxon and Texaco hold an
almost absolute monopoly.
David Nott, a specialist of
the London publication
Bolsa Review, put out by the
Bank of London and South
America, wrote that the
"excessive stress placed on
the creation of a free trade
zone came at the cost of
forgetting efforts for a
unified tax reform and the
growth of job sources."
The creation of different
institutions that were to
standardize the relations
among the integrated coun-
tries did not bring success
to efforts to attain genuine
Thus, for example, be-
tween 1961 and 1968, the
ministers of Economy of the
five countries met only
The outbreak of the
Hundred Hours War between
Honduras and El Salvador in
1969 pointed up the con-
tradictions present in the
self-styled "integration."
The armed clash also
showed the failure of the
Central American govern-
ments to solve key problems
which now, six years later,
are thwarting fresh efforts to
revitalize the regional Coni-
mon Market.
(Prensa Latina)

I The closer you look,

Corf ilIJ the better we look.

Look close at
Mnc 1Eiearney


SUNDAY JUNE 29, 1975

THE Joker of Seville is Don Juan
Tenorio, the greatest seducer of
all legend. He apparently first
appeared in literature through
the tragedy of Tirso de Molina,
'El Burlador de Sevilla'. Since
then he has been more firmly
placed among the stars by such
writers as Lord Byron, George
Bernard Shaw, Mozart the com-
poser, and now by Derek
Walcott, St. Lucian/Caribbean
poet, playwright, critic.
All treatments of Don Juan
show in varying detail his confronta-
tion of life, his refusal to accept its
ordinariness and limitations, its con-
descending dismissal of man as mere
puppet. Rather than some god, Juan
serves, in the words of Walcott, the
laws of the generating earth.
For him, life begins and ends
in bed', and itis at the sexual borders,
rather than at any other man-made
altars, that he meets life face to face,
and battles it. It is as though by
plunging again and again past 'honor'
and 'chivalry' and the sentimentality
associated with 'love', he will discover
eventually the secrets of the 'Delphic
For him all the old chivalric
myths of quest: the Grail, the Dragon-
that-must-be-killed are debunked and
seen as mere cover-up for sexual c6n-
quest and domination. The natural
'body's need' for procreation has been
made taboo and mythological by the
honorable' morality of civilization
and church A morality that has
created a civilization deadened by
fear and an acceptance of much of
life's natural vigour as sin.
It is fitting proof of the point
of Juan's battle against the world for
life, that he is killed by a stone-cold
statue. As those who believe in life
and the freedom of the spirit, are
always and will always be destroyed,
by those who fear life, who fear
freedom, those- statues of 'human
beings' stumbling in their perpetual
state of 'death-in-life'.
In all this, Walcott has followed
Tirso de Molina and the other writers
of the Don Juan saga. How he has
said it is another matter. The 'stick-
fight' metaphor and all its sexual
implications, that is an important part
of the theatrical setting and playing
of his Joker of Seville, localises and
captures the old Spanish legend in
our own Caribbean idiom. The
'gayelle' (stick-fighting arena) is the
'cock-pit' in which the three-hoir
action takes place.
We see Don Juan's defiant
resistance against the background of
important historical events, familiar to
the Caribbean. He finally rejects the
unfulfilled promises of those events
for that non-historical, non-religious,
non-moral factor that is life, and its
expression of defiant survival, regenera-
tion through sex.
There is, for example, his
rejection of the Old World and his
arrival in the New World, hoping to
find another Eden. Tisbea, the fisher-
girl 'with literary pretensions' he
seduces to make his Eve, only to find
out quickly that she is just like the
girls back home. She wants, like the
others, to accept (quickly) life's
limitations, and become unfree, be-
come wife and mother. 'I am a force,
a principle', Juan tells her, 'all the
others are husbands, fathers, sons!' He
bitterly adds, 'Old World, New
World, they're all the same.'
Through the Moor, Catalinion,
serving man to Juan (excellently
played by Errol Jones) Walcott com-
merits on slavery and freedom/inde-
pendence in the New World. Two
Christian freed slaves take Catalinion
for a runaway slave and try to
capture him. He overpowers them
and teaches them "First you must
ask, will you be a slave." Later on,
he tells them, "You have a chance to
change things, but you accept them.
That's disgraceful."


The Joker of Seville

Robert Lee

Reviews The St. Lucia Production

On his return to Seville and the
Old World, Juan tells his friend De
Mota about the New World he saw.
"Eden was hell". The New World and
its conquest through brutality and
full scale genocide saw the death of
much of the Old World values of
honour and chivalry.
Don Juan is forced to fight Don
Gonzalo (father of Ana, Di Mota's
girl, whom he seduces soon after his
return) and the old man (played by
Stanley Marshall) is killed. Juan is
exiled to Lebrija and here, away from
the cities of Spain, the playwright's
comments refer once again very
directly to our Caribbean situation.
Juan and Catalinion meet some
peasants celebrating a country wedding,
and during the 'preliminary capework'
that precedes his seduction of the
'milk-fresh country bride', Aminta,
Juan notes to Catalinion how most of
the lives and celebrations of these
poor peasants revolve around their
imitation of the rich and bourgeois.
'Isn't it a kind of lust, to curse the
court' and then dress up in the
clothes and manners 'of those who
grind you in dust?'
Juan's seduction of Aminta is
made easier by his flattery of her as
'Duchess Aminta'. His battle for life
among these dead is given power
through the staging here. He seduces
Aminta with saucy talk and flattery,
while all around him, the actors' as
peasants hold freeze positions, caught
in their poses of celebration, the
dead statue-metaphor,
This theme of life versus death-
in-life is highlighted several times
during the play through this 'action'
against 'non-action' technique, where
some actors move and others don't,
remaining 'frozen' or statue-like.
The Adam/Eve/Eden theme is
one of the dominant ones in the play.
And this comes to the fore in the
confrontation of the women Isabella
and Ana, two of'Juan's 'victims'. For

Isabella, exiled to a convent because
of Juan's seduction, Juan,deceiving
serpent though he might be, taught
her choice and freedom, and she is
For Ana (typical image of for-
ever disillusioned spinsters, many of
whom exist in our society as resigned,
martyr-aunts,) Juan was the 'serpent
that flashed into a sword', bringing
not freedom but shame, bringing not
life but death to a father bound by
unreasoning codes of honour and
chivalry. She prefers to remain trapped
in the chains of honour and sentimen-
tality and -respectability, rather than
accept 'the curse of life' that Eden
finally brought.
Walcott, the theatre giant of
the Caribbean speaks for Caribbean
theatre in this play. 'Theatre has eaten
my life. No regrets, mind you!' 'In
this business' says Raphael (Hamilton
Parris) chorus and travelling actor/
director/playwright, 'all a we ketchin'
we arse'. 'I have led this company for
fifteen years (as has Walcott the
Trinidad Theatre Workshop) and the
tears no longer come for mockery or
applause'. For Walcott, the refusal to
give in to the real and imagined limita-
tions of potential Caribbean Theatre,
finds perfect expression in this play
about the fighter Don Juan.
The largeness of Walcott's play
lies in its range of possibilities of inter-
pretation. But then this is perhaps
responsible for the continuing popular
ity of the old legends of Juan, Faust
and Hamlet for example.
Because Walcott is an artist, and
a Caribbean artist (which implies
unique kinds of difficulty where
artistic freedom, and appreciation and
understanding of the artist are con-
cerned,) we can see Juan/WAalcott the
artist, fighting the stone-cold, dead
philistines of Caribbean society, they
who have already destroyed so many

Strong echoes of earlier Walcot-
tian themes, found in his' earlier
published poetry, find their place here.
Adam and his Fall, the green world of
Eden, with all it has meant, in terms
of choice given or shame ,inflicted;
christianity, colonialism, slavery.
These themes of the earlier
poetry and plays, striving as they do
to fight 'nothingness', early 'death-in-
life', find perhaps stronger support in
the obvious cry of Don Juan: 'Life!
I serve the principles of the regenerat-
ing earth.'
There is too, the now familiar
'metaphorical acrobatics' with the
language, the clever use of the pun;
the supporting familiar images e.g.
that of the gull, which one is hard-
put (after several books of poems and
plays) not to identify with Walcott
himself. In one of the most beautiful
songs, La Divina Pastora (sung by Syd
Skipper in the role of Duke Octavio
with great feeling) he says, 'I am a
driven gull/seeking those seas past
In terms of 'What is the play
about' there is still much that can be
said, and the play deserves a detailed
examination. How it was all said and
done opens even further vistas.
Walcott says in a programme
note that he drew from the original
'primarily the pace of its scenes and
metre'. Listening to/the play, one can
not forget that Derek Walcott is first
and foremost a great poet. To adapt
from the programme notes, 'one is
swept along in a torrent of powerful
lyricism, without (immediate) com-
prehension, propelled by the passion
of sound'. Or as Don Pedro (Anthony
Hall) says at one point, 'Words col-
lapsed, trying to match that pace'.
Every now and then, pace and
articulation fouled up the actors and
one couldn't hear very clearly. But the
actors for the most part, handled the
verse and metre well. The changes in
rhythm, from formal 'English' verse

SUNDAY JUNE 29, 1975

speaking to Caribbean speech, high-
lighted some of the points Walcott
was making. For example, Aminta's
country bookie-ishness, with its pea-
sant yearnings after bourgeois-respect-
ability comes out in the contrast of
her language with that of Isabella and
Ana, the two 'real' ladies.
Also too, there is no doubt in
the minds of the listeners, Spanish
legend or no, that they are listening
to comments on Caribbean theatre,
when HamiltonParris"dialect' rhythms,
let them know that 'in this business,
all a we ketchin' we arse.' The peasants
of Spain's countryside find identifica-
tion with the Caribbean through their
accents'. And of course this is
heightened throughout by the musical
rhythms of the calypso and the
In the New World scene, during
the.seduction of Tisbea ('a swordfish
take she maid') a Shaker/reggae dance
and singing scene takes place. To
quote Walcott in his programme note
again 'Legends (do) find their own
That the American Gait Mac-
dermot could compose music that fit
so well is a tribute to his sensitivity
as a composer in a foreign idiom. And
the composer of Hair must be respons-
ible for the New-New World rock
opera feeling that entered every now
and then. One of the best examples is
Don Pedro's 'The King of Castile'.
But to me, it is all for the good
since Old World and up-dated New
World find fusion through the time-
less, ageless story of the battle waged
by Juan Tenorio.
[he theatrical setting was as all
embracing as theme, language and
music. One saw the Medieval travel-
ling street theatre merged with our
own kind of street theatre seen through-
out the Caribbean, albeit under-dif-
ferent names (John Canoe, Masquer-
ade etc.) and this merged with the
very, very modem rock opera use of
microphones and electronic equip-
ment by cast and musicians.
The performing area, like the
street, was open all around. Arena
style, the audience sat around the
stage. Stage was a cross-platform,
bare expect for an all-purpose box,
and two all-purpose screens. Actors
sang, danced, acted several parts,
fitting easily into the convention of
that kind of theatre. And the audience
immediately, naturally, recognized and
For Trinidadians the setting
perhaps had further significance as
gayelle, stick-fighting arena, within
which the hard drama of survival
takes place. Further enhancing this
kind of community playing was
audience participation, clapping of
hands, singing, answering actors; one
night art actor's God! was answered,
naturally, by Yes? from the audience;
actors moved freely down aisles into
the audience.
In St. Lucia, this theatre was
created in an old banana-loading shed,
which somehow, (despite the often-
heard cry for better theatre facilities)
symbolises the essential, poor, spirit
of Caribbean theatre. It also helped
to keep the particular community
spirit of this play.
In terms' of performance, one
saw a kind of ensemble playing,
where roles were alternately cast on
different nights. One saw sensitive
and comfortable playing between
actors, many of whom have been
.playing together for fifteen years. As
Don Juan, one-saw both Nigel Scott
and Albert La Veau in the role. To
which part each brought something
Where Scott had the 'nervous
-vitality, arrogant courage and sense of
humour' more naturally, La Veau
brought a kind of maturity and
reasoned intelligence into the charac-
ter, seen especially in tile final scenes.
Errol Jones as Catalinion showed
that he is the best and most
accomplished actor the Workshop has.

Brenda Hughes' lighter, mock serious
Tisbea was an interesting variation on
that of Stephanie King who played the
part straighter, showing Tisbea taking
herself and her literary pretensions
Syd Skipper as Octavio moved
from early performance melodramaticS
to a sustained, controlled interpreta-
tion of the man who is all that Juan
isn't. He is Pro-Christ where Juan can
be seen as Anti-Christ. Yet his 'piety-
induced delirium' makes him, in the
end, as 'mad' as Juan in his syphilis-
inspired insanity. They both 'see' a
statue pull (Juan) down to hell!' His
excellent singing voice, the best on
stage, drew applause every night, for
his rendition of the beautiful 'La
Divina Pastora'.
The women, Helen Camps
(Isabella), Carol La Chapelle (Ana),
Norline Metivier (Aminta) are well
poised opposite another, in their por-
trayals of the different effects Juan's
seductions have had on them all.
The humour of Walcott comes
over especially in the part of' Don
Pedro (played with flair by Anthony
Hall). The character descended into
caricature at limes, putting question
marks around the portrayal of Don
Pedro for me. Terry Jones as De
Mota was for me the only imajol
weak performance. He seemed 'out-
of-rhythm' most of lie lime, seeming
toldepend heavily on a stylised kind
of declamatory Shakespeare style,
which didn't fit heie. Stanley Marshall
as Gonzalo -came to lile lfo mei
(ironically enough) in his finii;l scenes,
as the statue taking Juan to hell.
Other credits must go to ('arol
La Chapelle and Noble Douglas Ioi
the dance choreogiapIhy to June
Nathaniel and her fine orchestra; to
John Andrews, one of Walcott's old
associates, who had the difficult joh
of lighting for arena-style playing.
One can still talk in detai;liboul,
for example, the tliemes of honour
seen in different ways fiom Calllllion
through Gonzalo to BaLricio; love and
the search for it; i i identified will

life or not?; the women and their
liberations; the business of losing one-
self in one's reflections The
success of the play in Trinidad and S'
Lucia is proof that Walcott has, in
Joker of Seville, spoken to, and for, a
lot of us, just as Walcott's hero,
Shakespeare did; from nobles to
groundlings, all have left moved, in
some way.
One hopes that much more of
the Caribbean will-see this play. One
wonders too, how the Royal Shakes-
peare Company, for whom it was

commissioned, will react to Joker of
Seville, in all its West Indian-ness.
However, they take it, Walcott
has shown, again, as he did in.Ti-
Jean, the way to a true kind of
Caribbean expression in theatre,
embodying dance and music with its
speech/drama. The elements of our
day-to-day life are here in this
particular theatrical expression. It is
through these songs, dances, speech
(a lot of it) that we battle for our
Life; and it is out of this dramatic
dancing and singing stick-fight that
our resurrection will come.


Long-playing record


original cast album

on sale

at leading record shops

For home deliveries


6374028 or 662-4207

_ I~ I~ ___

__ I ~P~I~_ __


SUNDAY JUNE 29, 1975

Greg Chamberlain

THE Haitian Government
has arrested 20 of the
country's leading busi--
nessmen and the chief
of the Port-au-Prince
customs bureau after
complaints of extensive
theft of food sent from
abroad as famine relief.
More than half a million
peasants are estimated to be
starving in the drought-
stricken north-western penin-
sula. Four weeks ago, the

Focus On The Regionf

HAITI: 20 arrested for Famine Food Thefts

Duvalier regime announced
an "emergency programme"
and appealed to the world
for help. Exile groups later
warned that aid sent to the
Government would be stolen.
The arrests were appar-
ently forced on the regime
by international aid officials.
The businessmen, mostly
Syrian and Lebanese mer-
chants, had been given
permits to import several
thousand tons of rice, beans,

and maize to meet shortages
in the capital.
Their detention, however,
and that of the customs
chief, M. Phalynx Nicolas, is
regarded as more of a scape-
goat to appease the aid
bodies rather than a display
of honesty by the Duvalier
regime, which has itself long
been deeply involved in food
profiteering through a semi-
autonomous State body, the
Regie du Tabac, which is

personally controlled by the
late Papa Doc's widow.
The old dictator fre-
quently rounded up members
of the Levantine business
community without explana-
tion, freeing them only after
payment of heavy "fines."
This cynical interpretation
of the arrests is backed by
the reported detention of
the editor of the weekly
newspaper Le Petit Samedi
Soir, who, in a rare show of

public defiance to the dicta-
torship, accused the Govern-
ment of having displayed
little interest in solving the
country's food crisis.
The editor, Dieudonne
Fardin, called for a clean-up
of government departments,
the dropping of prestige pro-
jects and the. permanent
mobilisation of the armed
forces and the Tontons
Macoutes for road-building
and other work.

' "Grenada will not have to
support Independence, but
Independence will support
.... so said Eric Gairy,
Prime Minister, in attempting-
to justify Independence foi
Grenada. He said this at a
time when opposition groups
were arguing that the idea of
Independence under his mis-
Government was ill-conceived
and doomed to failure.-
It is normal for Indepen-
dent Nations to establish
diplomatic relations with each
other, and Grenada is no
exception; but it seems that
Grenada is the most undiplo-
matic of the lot.
Mr. Raymond LaTouche,
a Grenadian resident of West
Germany, was approached to
fill the post of "Counsel-
General Designate" to West
Germany and he accepted to-
wards the end df 1974.
This eminent diplomat
returned to Grenada some-
time in January 1975 at his
own expense and was housed
at one of the Carifta cottages


Raoul Pantin

Such are the stories told of this raging Atlantic.
As old as that wet morning the mad sailor
tacked East.

Before the tribes sold. And were sold.
Before the useless cadavers were shovelled
not into ovens yet. Sharks'jaws.

Or we jumped: drowning on that desperate swim
back to Africa. One day at sea was enough
to fix this separation for five centuries.

But some ancient anger boils within this furious sea.
Undiminished by time or age or monthly mortgage

All those dead without ceremony!

These caves hollowed, burrowing the rock face
are broken'mouths silenced.
But silent their screams are disfigured stills
of agony. A

down Grand Anse.
However, towards the
beginning of the last week in
"May, Jimmy Lewis, Manager
of the Cottages gave our
"Counsel-General Designate"
one week to quit and deliver
up possession of the cottage
by May 31st.
This it is widely felt was
done under the specific in-
structions of Gairy ... who
recently introduced a bill in
the Grenadian Parliament
declaring himself to be a
"Grand Master of the Cross."
For the record, the Ex-
Counsel-Geperal Designate is
now renting private quarters
at, his own expense, and
apparently, has not received
to date one cent in salary
S. .which has led some to
wonder whether the opening
statement is correct after all!!
But the questions beg
themselves is the West
German Embassy closed
before it has been opened?
Why was his one Counsel-
Designate kicked out so
unceremoniously? -
It is widely felt that the
action was a sign of "Uncle"
Gairy's displeasure at the
West German Government's
blunt refusal to host him on
an official State Visit.



France Sends

Riot Troops to

Caribbean Isle.

Greg Chamberlain

FRANCE has sent riot
Police and Gendarmes to
a tiny Caribbean Island
whose inhabitants are
refusing to pay their
taxes and have beaten
up government agents
appointed to collect
The Islanders of St..
Barthelemy, a 21-square-mile
dependency of Guadeloupe,
have risen against their mayor
for the past 13 years, M.
Remy de Haenen whu has
declared an end to the 190-
year-old free port facilities
the 2,400 St. Barthois, who
are white descendants of
18th century Breton and
Norman emigrants, have
enjoyed since their days as a
Swedish Colony.
M. de Haenen, a former
French Naval Officer who
came to St. Barthelemy in
1952., wants to bring big-
scale tourist development to
the rocky little island. But
his opponents object to this
kind of progress. They also
point out that the introduc-
tion of customs duties only
applies to the island's
picturesque port capital,
Gustavia, and does not

include the bay on which
Mayor de Haenen's luxury
hotel stands.
Some 150 riot police were
sent in several days ago when
demonstrators occupied the
local hospital and blocked
the Island's airstrip after the
sacking of a young local
doctor, M. Charles Querrard
who is leading the movement
against the Mayor. M.
Querra;d's supporters physic-
ally expelled one of the
Mayor's henchmen from the
island and also tried to burn
down a local mansion owned
by the Rockefeller family.


M. Querrard, who
founded a political party 11
months ago to defend the
islanders' secluded way of
life, largely cut off from the
rest of the Caribbean, against
the kind of incursions of
foreign capital which the
Mayor favours, was arrested
along with three of his aides
and deported to Guadeloupe,
134 miles away, where he
will be tried.




Grand Maste'p

Sacks Hisl




SUNDAY JUNE 29, 1975

Fishermen Ketching

Wholesale Horrors

Lloyd Taylor

dadians might well be
thinking that it-is one
thing for our local fisher-
men to bait fish away
from the threatening
Venezuelan fish-hooks in
the Caribbean Sea. And
that it is quite another,
to land a catch at the
Wholesale Fish Market,
down ai Corbeau Town
on the Beetham Highway.
But little do they know
that it is the same khaki
pants on sea and on land.
For the kind- of pressure
turned-on on the local
fishermen before they could
land a simple catch, have it
checked and weighed, and
finally sold, suggests that
Venezuelans must be liming
down at the Fish Market
jetty too.


For down there the pro-
blems run the whole gamut
of woes including health and
environmental sanitation, the
docking of boats, and the
landing of catch, and the
cool and speedy supervision
involved in checking and
weighing the catch.
No, you don't have to
take my word for it. Take-
any morning you like and
journey down to the Fish
Market. Just plan to reach
for five or for five-thirty.
And you would see what the
people in the fishing business
are complaining about.
Apart from the smell of
fish, the first thing that
strikes you is the noise. From

, -I-

The Port-of-Spain jetty ... dry tide and mounds of filth.

the bustling of crowds moving
to and from the market place,
the hoisting of baskets of fish
or barrels of shrimps on to
trucks parked on the market's
narrow waterfront, the push-
ing trolleys at your heels,
carting fish away, from
heaving a catch on to a
dilapidated jetty, or clearing
the line to use the scale, the
noise is, deafening.,
Everywhere coness the
cry: "Make way!.Make way!"

Men want to get on with
their business. And for a
fisherman who has just
docked in after a long night
battling with every conceiv-
able Venezuelan, or for a
truck-owner fisherman who
has spent the last four-hours
on the road-from Cedros,
Maracas or Mayaro it is
understandable ifhe threatens
to gaff your arse out of his
You discover then, that

the noise is due as much
to the hum of business
activity as it is to the.shouts
of impatienc- of people
getting into each others way,
both in. de and outside a
market place that has long
since outlived its usefulness.
Is 1975 we living in today.
The old fish market built
dey since 1936 or so. And
since it was removed from
Cdrbeau Town where the
Fire Brigade Headquarters
now stands there has been no
manifest improvement, or
updating of ,the facilities or
expansion of the capacity of
the market to keep reason-
able stepwith the demands
by the fishing industry for
better services.
So by the time you make
two turns to get what you
want or to deliver what you
brought natural light has
already shafted the relative
darkness and the tail-end of
the night has gone.
You can see clearly now.
The crowds have dissipated
and your eyes fall on a
dingy, mouldy-looking build-
ing with galvanjsed-iron.walls.
That is the Wholesale Fish
Market. Inside there are
fourteen ice-boxes with a
total capacity of 7,000
pounds. Inside also, but left
of the southern entrance
sits a clerk of the City
Council with a tally book
before lim.
Outside, the building wall
is lined with stalls where
vendors serve coffee, tea, and
float and fried-fish. from
slow-burning coalpot fires to
fishermen and passers-by.
Below its eave, hang thick
strands of cobwebs which
quite conceivably drift into a

*frying pan ever so often. To
be surc vendors have often
complained to the City
Council about the necessity
to clean the eave.
Your nose leads you on.
So you walk, westerly or
south westerly as the case
may be, to the edge of the
waterfront, there to find the
source of the stench that
pervades the entire area.
There, too, corbeaux flutter
clumsily, competing among
themselves for several little-
heaps of decaying fish.
Also visible in the same
vicinity is the piss-poor dock-
ing facilities that are a source
of perennial headaches to
fishermen who either shoot'
seine in the Gulf, or bank
and trawl the-grounds on the
North Coast, scanning for
every manner of fish.


In the first place there is
the jetty protruding forabout
twenty or so feet from the
waterfront, and around which
fishing boats are anchored as
much by the ropes by which
they are tied to the pier as
by the mud and the slush
and the filth that has in part
silted up the docks. Thus it is
the water mark is for the
most part, and for the most
time, way below the level
of the jetty.

Is no water to float the
boats. So naturally the jetty
stands fairly high above
boats' bows and so makes it
difficult for our fishermen
to hoist a catch onto the
jetty. Matters are made worse
when tide dryThewater-mark
recedes some fifty feet away
from the waterfront. Then
fishermen must ketch they
nenen walking through mud
and filth- to tote their
catch ashore.
The people who pay for
this service are some eighty
to ninety fishermen, includ-
ing 15 boat owners operating
at Port-of-Spain, and a
number of other sundry fish
dealers who come to town
from Toco, Mayaro, Maracas,
and Cedros to wholesale
fish. They land roughly 4.5
million pounds of fish each
These people pay fifty
cents for every catch brought
for weighing, a penny for
every ten pounds of fish
weighed, and fifty cents for
every 100 pounds refriger-
ated over twenty-four hours.
Between the years 1971
and 1973, the Estimates of
Revenue and Expenditure
show that they paid to the
City Council some $32,031.
For 1974 they are estimated
to have paid $9,500. And
the anticipated amount for
1975 is $10,000.
The problems down at the
fish jetty demonstrate down-
right neglect over the years,
they preponderate in manifest
official ineptitude which can
only be explained in certain
quarters by long and linear
delays that are always inevit-
able. You complain about
the need for dredging and
nothing is done. All you hear
is talk about the new fish
market that taking five years
to arrive.
Down there is pressure
hautoto for the fisherman.
And they not even closing
the tap on and off like dem
Venezuelans in the sea.

SUNDAY JUNE 29, 1975

From Page 4

By 1898 Chamberlain
decided that the issue had
been outstanding for far too
long and sought to bring it
to a head. The Council
would either hear or feel. If
it cold not be persuaded
about the wisdom of the
Colonial Secretary's ruling,
then it would be coerced
into submission.
It was in that atmosphere
that a set of financial regula-
tions were stipulated to
govern the administration of
the Council's finances. The
Borough Council of Port-of-
Spain demurred. It would not
be coerced. In the general
discontent, opposition to the
Water Ordinance of 1896
authorising the use of meters
to monitor water consump-
tion triggered off riots.
In the ensuing events the
Red House was burnt to the
ground. Sixteen persons were
numbered among the dead,
and 43 were injured. Coer-
cibn was the ultimate weapon
employed by the Central
Government. The instruments
used in that act of repression
were the blue jackets, landed
from ships in the harbour, a
force of 250 strong Lanca-
shire Fusiliers, and the local
In a nutshell those are
some of the facts that may
have been appropriately, if
not properly, aired on City
Day. They are history now.
But the issues they raised are
as germane to the cry and
practice of local self-govern-
ment, as they were when the
Borough's representative
rights were restored in 1914.
For what this country has
witnessed over the years
since 1956 is a gradual and
progressive whittling away of
those areas of local
government jurisdiction in
exchange for grants from the
general revenues of the
country. Or in other words

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de. ,i~-;:
J J3- q -r
~lb~~~ kf~' ~f~L~~ liI,
'ii. ,. II u'
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I ~B IIIII ~ l]lldl~B

ahnost exactly what the
Colonial Secretary would
have done, except for the
withdrawal of voting nights,
and with different social and
political consequences.
By the early sixties the
Council had lost it major
revenue earning enterprises
in electricity and water to
the Central Government
without compensatory awards,
and in the name of large-
scale economies and of co-
To this day cases of dis-
honoured promises of com-
pensation also hover over the
Cocorite Swamp, the old
Transport Building at the
corner of Park and Frederick
Streets, the lands at Wrightson

Road, and the lands at
Mucurapo earmarked by
former Mayors for a sports
The effect has been two-
fold. One has-been to leave
the burgesses' representative
rights intact, but without any
real issues of representation
or of accountability. The
other is the effective silencing
of local government, and its
transformation into an ex-
penditure committee of the
central government.
So that from 1972 to the
end of 1975 the City Council
would have received close to
$25 millions in .grants or
roughly half of total expen-
ditures over the period.
If that is local government

it is local government respons-
ible to the Cabinet of the
country, and not to the
populace in the community.
But on City Day none of
these issues were raised. It
was left to the Bishop of
Trinidad and Tobago to add
something a little more noble
to the celebration, when he
suggested that Councillors
should search their hearts,
and should put loyalty to
God and to Nation above
that of party.
His remarks, to bL sure,
were received by moribund
hardcore- PNM city support
with considerable displeasure.
"The Bishop was delivering
political slap," thought some
buxom old women who stood

listening in the foyer.
City Day was therefore all
show and no substance. The
Councillors moved from drink
to drink, but were unmoved
by any appropriate historical
If the occasion was for
anybody at all it was for the
oligarchs in power. It helped
to bring' a number of the
old faithfuls together to drum
up support for the coming
elections. Moreover it craftily
shortened the trip to the
Party Convention on
Recolonisation held on the
same day.
By all means call the boys
together over drinks. But
don't use the occasion to
abuse City Day.

*'A'LS g xeUPJ.-CRICT '.I


i _

Mootoo reviews the recently

World Cup Series

A rJust& jler

TriUnh feor

est-indi es

WEW'las0 as -. -~~

Clive Lloyd Man of the Series

THE West Indies justifi-
ably triumphed in the
first Cricket World Cup
Tournament which ended
on Saturday 21sl, and the
bookmakers' predictions
once more proved to be
Thus, the first full intemna-
tional tournament of1 limited
.over ciicket proved anl over-
whelming snucess. It is muchi
mlore Ca general speclalto
sport Iliai Ihe longer live day
lest bu t l Ihe same time it

is no substitute for it.
All Ihe imponderables ol'
weather and wicket, ot
retrieval and recovery Ihio
early mistakes aifc nol ii",-
it is a:s malNiv say, ins talnl
cricket yon do it it list
liile around o not at all.
And in an n111n11s ofl
0(0 oveis theme is sufflTicien
scope to prieven Ii h lied
hitting alone fromll getti-ng
you thieic.
II has also shown thal.t the
traditional slow bowlet luas
to reassess his approacli io

this kind of game. Gibbs,
Underwood and Mallett, all
good bowleis in their ,own
light would not hold their
place on Ilieir respective
teams. 'et, Ithe quick 1i1-
oilndKlox leg spiinner 110111
SIS Lanka, DWI Silva. bowled
ver\y well Itloulghout the
sI ies.
Ili West Indies \wele well
equipped fo lhjs type of
ianill Stoke-mAikers and
batlsilen of cl:.is ilghl down
to No. 7, t\\o c\lrecnely
Continued on Back Page

PI ___




Picket Ministry Of Eucati S


ABOUT twenty-five wor-
ried Barataria mothers on
Tuesday picketed the
Ministry of Education
Head Office at Hayes
Street, St. Clair. The
mothers were dissatisfied
with the Ministry's
attempts to place their
children, Junior Second-
ary School graduates,
into Senior Secondary
The mothers are wary of
what they consider would be
the partial education of their
children. One placard read:
When our Children's Educa-
tion is cut by half What
Results are we expecting?
What the parents want,
more than places for their
children in the Senior Second-
ary schools, is one of the
much needed and long
promised Trade Schools. They
claim that there is an empty
Government building at 7th
Avenue, Barataria and that it
has been empty ever since it
was, built three years ago.
The empty building is
presently being haunted by
limers, weed-smokers and
gamblers. The parents see no
reason why this building
cannot be put to better use:
equipped for use as a Trade
School for children of Bara-

taria and the surrounding
It is said that when
authorities were approached,
the parents were given some
rigmarole story that the
necessary equipment could
not be purchased either in
the U.S. or Canada and
would therefore have to be
ordered, presumably from
Even if the-preparation of
this building takes a further
three months, these women
prefer to await its completion
rather than accept the places
offered in the Senior Second-
ary schools.
A letter, written by the
mothers of Barataria and
signed by them and the
members of HATT who sup-
ported the move, was sent
to the Minister. The letter

Dear Sir,

We the parents of
Barataria are all for the Plan
as it appears on paper. What
we want now are theSchools.
There is an empty Gov-
ernment building at 7th.
Avenue, Barataria. It has
been empty for the past
three years. We think the
building can be used as a
Trade School. We want a
Trade Schoolfor our children -

Parents from all over
Trinidad are meeting with
the Housewives Association
to discuss the problems of
education in Trinidad and
Tobago. There is much con-
cern over the uneasy transi-
tion from Junior Secondary
School to hastily-prepared
Senior Secondary School.
As Government sees the
impossibility of placing all of
die Junior School graduates,
Secondary schools are being
asked to take, in addition to
the normal intake of success-
ful Common Entrance candi-
dates, an additional fourth
form from the Junior Second-


The Ministry is desperate
and pleas from the Principals
of these schools that there is
simply no room fall on deaf
ears. Instead, the Ministry
makes the generous offer of
more staff, seating accom-
modation or partitions to be
used for dividing classrooms.
Of course the question still
remains: Where to put them?
In the case ofoneparticular
secondary school, requests
for more lab equipment and
space for the then -ppulation
were not dealt with in five
years. An additional form,
barring some arrangement like

IHousewives n front of the Mistryv

accepting only students who
do not wish to use the lab,
would certainly burst the
seams of an already tight
Yet by Ministry standards,
this school is better off than
most and would be asked to
take at least one additional
fourth form. One shudders
to even think of the situa-
tions that exist in the not so
well off schools.
So Government seems
bent on hastily creating
Senior Secondary Schools,
plucking them out of the air
as it were, with hardly a
thought given to trivial

oj education

things like planning of policy,
curriculum, continuity from
one stage to the next.
Junior Secondary School
graduates will find themselves,
some of them, wedged into
already filled schools, un-
able to continuii some of
me cuuises begun in these
No wonder the Barataria
parents are making a few
guesses about the type of
education that will be
offered and prefer to wait
until whenever a Trade
School is erected so that
their children would stand a
fair chance in the future.

No Hopes For Bus Service

WHEN the Minister of
Public Utilities visited
the Public Transport
Service Corporation's
Headquarters at South
Quay recently, the public
was inadvertently given
a much-needed glimpse
behind the screen of
pious hopes and half-
truths so glibly put for-
ward in season and out
by their public apologists,
First the situation as it is
today. The PTSC has 221
buses of which only 150 are
in working condition. In other
words some 32% of the
Corporations buses are
operating only at rest.
Furthermore it has been
estimated that an efficient
island-wide bus service at
present would require 635
buses so that with 150 buses
operating at present the
country is getting only .24%
or rather less than a quarter
of the service which they
should enjoy.
Nor are the prospects for
improvement in the next
couple of years anything to
shout about. The PTSC is at
the present time assembling
some 40 buses at the rate of
two to three a week with
delivery commencing in mid-
July. There are also a further
37 buses at the Port-of-
Spain docks and the overall
cost per unit is some
$40,000 fully assembled.
If the rate of assembly is

some of the newly assembled FISC buses

maintained and if the other
buses are assembled and if
the inoperative 'buses are
repaired and kept in opera-
tion then tl, first period of
Assembly should be com-
pleted by mid-November this
year and the'second period
by mid-February 1976.
At that time presuming
that all the above "ifs" are
satisfied the PTSC will have
on the road some 298 units,
not even half of the esti-
mated number needed right


The high probability that
the men on the assembly line
have to a large extent been
taken from the repair and
maintenance sections makes
it extremely unlikely that
the possibility of bringing
the inoperative buses back
on the roads will in fact be
realized apart from the

further possibility that some
of them may be too far gone
for successful restoration.
The cost at present prices
of upgrading the service to
suit present needs would be
in the region of $13.5
million i.e.; some 337 buses
at $40,000. apiece. And
this projection does not take
into consideration the cost
of additional manpower, in-
creased wages and rising
If they started today to
assemble all the buses need-
ed, the project, at present
assembly rates, would not be
completed until the middle
of 1976, but there are no
indications that any long term
contracts have been drawn
up for thd supply of buses
nor that any budgetary
provisions are going to be
made to give the population
the type of public transport
we should enjoy.



l drs. titut for
Re search
study Of Igh I, t, e

New YO lI, 1
-Ph. Leh& 5 5

A Justifiable


From Page 10

good hitters of the ball in
Julien and Boyce. and 'four
fine quick bowlers Julien
who probably swings the
ball as much as anybody
else in England, Boyce who
not only moves it about the
place but can also produce a
ball that really hurries on to
the batsman. Holder whose
strength (making the bats-
man play at everything).
almost proved to be his
weakness in this tournament,
and Roberts, a rare combina-
tion of economy and penetra-
tion, whose faster ball is as
fast as anything in the game
And when like all other
teams in the tournament we
were fishing around for the
fifth bowler, it was the man
of the series, the West Indian
captain Clive Lloyd who was
to take up the gauntlet and
produce the finest spell of
bowling in the final game.
Right down the line and
throughout the series, the
tremendous resources of the
West Indian team (and
remember that two of the
original selectees, Rowe and
Sobers,dropped out) was in


In the opening match
against Sri Lanka, the fast
bowlers quickly demolished
their opponents and gave the
batsmen very little to do.
Against Pakistan the
second most talented side in
the competition playing
without two of their best
players Asif Iqbal, ill in
hospital, and Imran Khan,
back at Oxford for Examina-
tions, we started overwhelm-
ing favourites.
As so often happens we
almost succumbed from a
position of strength. After
feeling thebat of the talented
Majid Khan and the brilliant
young left hander Wasim
Rajah, our early batsmen fell
through carelessness and the
swing of Safraz Nawaz.
It was left to the depend-
able and capable vice captain,
Deryck Murray, with the help
of Holder and Roberts to
sneak home. Once -we had
been brought to our senses
by this encounter I had no
doubts that we were going to
triumph in the series.
So we faced Australia at
the 'Oval in a match that
pitted the great Australian
fast bowlers they.who had
demolished England in
Australia a few months
earlier, hailed by many as
unplayable against the
cream of West Indian bats-

After the Australian bats-
men had been duly sent back
by our swing bowlers, it was
Chappell's hope that his
attack would overcome us.
From very early, Greenidge
and Fredericks showed
exactly who were in charge.
Kalliecharan probably played
the most significant innings
of the series in 'which illee
was completely pulverized
and Thomson had to be
West Indies sailed easily
into the semi finals where
they disposed -of New
Zealand without undue worry.
It was quite clear that the
second encounter against
SAustralia would not be as
easy as the first.
They themselves had
learnt tremendously since
the series started. Thus, they
were able to get the better
of England in the other semi-
final under conditions that
completely favoured England
weather, atmosphere, pitch
but Chappell asked England
to bat first and produced the
young left hander Gilmour.
Conditions suited to
England, who had up to that
time had all the advantage of
the draw, back-fired and
only served to emphasise her
present predicament in world
By the time the teams
arrived at Lords last Saturday
the excitement was at fever
pitch and the ticket touts
who had earlier taken a
beating were fetching up to
+-20 for a ticket.
"Colonialism in reverse"
as the Jamaican folk. artist
Louise Bennett has called it,
had been very much in evi-
dence throughout the series
thus in the Pakistan
West Indies match at
Headingly one understands
that there were more Pakis-
tanis there than any other
At the Oval, the week
before the final, West Indians
by far out numbered every-
body else and at Lords on
the final day West Indians,
one was told, made up about
50% of the crowd.
Australia had the better of
the early exchanges West
Indies, 50 for 3 after almost
20 overs, was not in a healthy
position. But Lloyd who had
been called upon to bat only
once before in the series
launched into the Australian
attack and as he had done so
often for Lancashire at
county level totally trans-
formed the match with a
hundred in even time which
further emphasised that the
Australian bowling attack
had been given an inflated
idea of their strength by the
incompetence of the English

~Meaw" -

A a. .
~- ,' .. *'

batsmen last season in
At the other end Rohan
Kanhai, the elder statesman
not only of the West Indian
side, but.indeed of the series,
was showing that as important
as Lloyd's brilliant batting
was there was another aspect
to the game that involved
mental energy, concentration
and head.
When at the end of 60
overs West Indies had amassed
291 runs, the game was as
good as completed. No one
doubted that Australia was
going to make a bid for it -
they had no choice and
they certainly had the com-
petence to try for it. What
they lacked was the brilliance
to bring it off.
By tea time it was clear
that their position was des-
perate and so in keeping with
this they had to employ
daring and desperate tactics.
When the last recognized
batsman had departed, their
bowlers made one final fling
- a fitting fighting end but
it was always too much for
them and the game ended
in the penultimate over with
Australia seventeen runs
A long exhausting day -
almost nine hours of cricket
on that day climaxing two

weeks playing at a very high
In the end, it was well
summed up by the victorious
West Indian skipper Clive
Lloyd in two statements -
the one that "he was not
worried at the end because
Australia would have to slog
and take chances" and the
other reflecting the total
physical, mental and emo-
tional exhaustion of the
West Indian players: "This
has been a great boost to
West Indian cricket. Now I
am going to drink and drink
and drink".
All the evidence then is
that we are the most
powerful team today. In the
process of triumphing in the
limited over game we simul-
taneously showed that we
have all the resources for the
more comprehensive demands
of the five day tests.
We must now make sure
that we pick the best team to
go to Australia next year.
Most people pick themselves:
Greenidge, Fredericks, Kallie-
charan, Lloyd and Richards
will be the nucleus of the
batting. Rowe if fit must
take the other place, but if
not, I think that Kanhai must
The two Murrays will go
as the wicketkeepers; Roberts,
Julien and Boyce as quick

bowlers; the fourth will most
likely be Holder although"
the young Barbadian Arm-
strong now playing for
Glamorgan will give him a
The other batting place
can go to either Foster (the
wickets in Australia are hard
and fast) or Larry Gomes.
The latter,however, has
shown a tendency to play
quick bowling from square
leg which will not help.
It is in the area of slow
bowlers that we once more
face problems. And if we
face it realistically, it seems
that we will have to retain
the services of the veteran
Gibbs, make a decision be-
tween Willette and Jumadeen
for the other orthodox
spinner position and gamble
on a young spinner ofpoten-
tial for the other place -the
one that comes to mind is
the back of the hand spinner,
Intiaz Ali.