Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00165
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: June 8, 1975
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00165

Full Text
162 EAST .78 SiRE~i

o no N v o j1




HOW long will the wicked reign
over our people? Tapia is calling
on the Senate to pass a vote of
No-confidence in the PNM Gov-
ernment. On Tuesday last, June
3, notice of the Motion was
handed to the Clerk of the
Senate. Next morning Senate
President Wahid Ali declared the
Motion in order and opened the
way for a Debate anytime after
the required 12 days have passed.
Tapia will be sharpening
weapons for Tuesday June 17,
the day when such a major
motion should properly be
placed on the Order Paper. It
would be surprising if the Gov-
ernment side were to take up
such an early challenge.
House Leader Boy sie Prevatt
is expected to galay as usual; the
Government are known to be
scared of any open discussion
least of all of the repressive
policies they have been inflicting
on the country ever since in
1969, the Prime Minister declared
a "fight to the finish."
Tapia is seeking an indict-
ment on five clear counts before
the bar of opinion across the
country. They cover a multitude
of the Government's sins includ-
their deliberate mishand-
ling of the Wooding Com-

their wilful neglect of
long-term planning leading
to a failure to take
advantage of the revenues
from oil;

their incompetent manage-
ment of the public utilities;

their ruthless restriction
of fundamental rights;

and, their incredible
bungling of foreign policy.

On entering the Senate in
October 1974, Tapia assumed a
trusteeship of the collective'
voice. 'Opinion mandated our
Senators to speak for the nation.
The text of the resolution
reads as follows:

The Government have want-
only disregarded the valid hopes
of the country on the question
of Constitution Reform, and,
following the publication of the
Report of the Wooding Commis-
sion, have conveniently ignored
the many and repeated demands
for an expeditious handling of

the matter in such a way as to
involve all sections 1of public

The Government have
proved themselves utterly incap-
able of taking advantage of the
vastly increased revenues from
petroleum to promote the
enduring welfare and upliftment
of the people of Trinidad and

The Government have wil-
fully substituted crash program-
mes and half measures for res-
ponsible long term planning so
that intolerable burdens and
hardships have been imposed on

the country with regard to the
provision of basic services such as
water, transport, health and
education, so much so that there
now exists a full-scale crisis in
regard to public utilities

By their failure to ensure an
equitable distribution of the
country's income and wealth,
and to create adequate avenues
for political participation, the
Government have contributed to
a breakdown of peaceful and
harmonious relations at the
industrial, political and social
levels, and have time and again
failed to impose law and order
by the device of restricting
fundamental rights and freedoms
and muzzling free expression in
the communications media

The Government have re-
peatedly antagonised our CARI-
COM partners and our Caribbean
neighbours by the substitution
of undiplomatic outbursts on the
part of the Prime Minister for
judicious planning in the field
of regional co-operation

The result of suph .a gross
dereliction of duty at all levels
of governmental responsibility
has been to maintain our country
on the brink of a revolutionary
upheaval throughout the period
since the election on May 24,

That this House register a
vote of no confidence in the
Government of the day.



AFTER seven sold-out per-
formances in the city and
San Fernando, Valentine,
the people's calypsonian,
returns to Queen's Hall for a
final performance of the
praise winning production
"Poet and Prophet".
Calypso lovers were more
than enthusiastic in response
to this dynamic young artist
in what was hailed as one of
the most important cultural
events of the year.
Hundreds were unable to
obtain tickets for the earlier
performances, hence Artistic
Director Astor Johnson of
the Repertory Dance Theatre
has accedcd to many re-
quests for an additional
The prograilllc remains

the same, under the musical
supervision of Pelham God-
dard, and top artists like the
Mau Mau Drummers, Andre
Tanker, Errol St. Hill and the
New World Choir will again
be appearing.
Since Sparrow in the
Sixties, Valentine has been
the only calypsonian to pick
up the challenge of a full
length concert, let alone
prove his ability as a com-
poser and performing artist
in one.
Tickets are on sale at
Sealey's Men's Store,
Frederick Street and at the
Hall from 5.00 p.m. on the
day of the performance
which takes place this
Sunday, June 8, at 8.30 p.m.
Admission prices are $4 & 5.

vol. 3 I NO. 23

30 Cents

-- -- -1 -- -- -I

------------- I`


The Police The Public, The Press

To Serve Unto Death

Lenny Grant

THIS started with coming
upon the second issue of
TRINTOPOL, the organ
of the Trinidad and
Tobago Police Service. I
had happened to notice
the unfamiliar masthead
as I glanced in passing at
the newstand at the corner
of Duke and Frederick
Streets, Port-of-Spain.
That has been what you
might call a newstand of
record. For years it uset to
be the only place you could
get months-old copies of The
Nation, the out-of-print PNM
2", a 16-page tabloid, with
50% advertising and better
layout than the Express these
days, clearly hopes to be
around for some time yet,
and I for one would be
willing to bet on its staying
What does it have going
for it? Well, the advertisers
are showing more faith in
the initiative than they
showed in early issues of the
BOMB, the Express and the
short-lived 1973 Weekend
Mirror. And even established
house organs like the Catholic
News get advertising support
now more out of a sense of
piety and loyalty than any-
thing else.


But the police are par
excellence the defenders and
protectors of property, and
as policemen are made to see
themselves as guardians of
national "security", the
insurance business can't help
but take due notice of
TRINTOPOL, and the evi.
dence is, they have done so.
Yes, there used to be-
Dialogue, the Government's
newspaper, a previous public
sector initiative in print
journalism, which took no
ads. The difference with the
police paper is that though
you may grumble about the
vapid puffery of its contents,
you can't argue it's a waste
of taxpayers' money if'it is
seen to be paying for itself.
Apart from the insurance
firms, you can identify the
public sector itself as another
main source of advertising
revenue for TRVITOPOL, to
judge from its second issue.
There are contributions from
NIS, T&TEC, National
Breweries, and you could
perhaps add here, the
Montano-owned Plaza Im-
But the biggest thing the
paper has going for it is the
commitment of the police and
Government establishment
to an exercise in public
relations. And the character-
istic mark of this exercise is
that it is seen to be some-
thing other than an approach
tr normal police work.
policee Commissioners and
3ters of National Security

may come and go, but the
misconception remains. Pub-
lic relations as extra curricular
Commissioner Bernard put
up the neon-lit arch at the
entrance to St. James Bar-
racks with the two life-size
photos of police officers -
intended to be a welcome
sign presumably. But he. did
nothing effective about the
way members of the public
are treated when they go to
police stations. And that
includes lawyers and doctors
going to see prisoners, as
recent events have shown.
So public relations means
sending u uniformed police-
women to talk on TTT and
GBU talk shows, officers
/ chosen for no other reason
but their ability to deliver
the ponderous official line
with due gravity and stern-
But when you yearn to
see a police face, in a mile-
long traffic jam caused by
two drivers who hit one
another in the middle of the
road, it's then you don't see
it male or female.
"To Protect and Serve" is
the motto chosen for the
police by Commissioner May.
Now this motto is carried on
all police vehicles, giving to
the observant gloomy con-
firmation of a shocking
decline in the standards of
public sector sign-painting.
The motto appears in the
masthead of TRINTOPOL
beneath the emblem of the
Police Service, a star of David
in a circular wreath, all
topped by a crown. The
front page carries a message
from the man who coined
the phrase "The Commis-
sioner Speaks" which sug-
gests (?) an editorial policy
for the paper.


As Mr. May sees it, ;the
paper should contain con-
tributions from members of
the police Service "their
news items of interest, such
as articles in general, social
activities, e.g. weddings,
birthdays, anniversaries,
obituaries and pictures. And
by members of the pub-
lic writing to the editor and
asking questions which we
will do our best to reply."
The paper is only one of
the areas in which the Tony
May police administration is
attempting to advance the
public relations work. The
Public Relations-and Welfare
Branch under Senior Supt.
Grell was formed last year. I
understand from a policeman
that very little is going on in
the Welfare Department, but
Public Relations is surely
,going guns.
On the same day that
Supt. Grell was dedicating
TRINTOPOL to the develop-
ment of "esprit de corps"
within the Service and "rap-
port" with the public Com-
missioner May was holding a
press conference on the St.

Margaret's Lane police-army-
exercises in which 25-year
old Keith Smith was shot
dead by Police.
Mr. May was clearly in an
expansive mood that day in
November last year. "The
public," he declared, "should
thank God they have a dedi-
cated police service." He
called Senior Supt. Burroughs
who had directed the opera-
tion a "fantastic leader".
Trumpeting the triumph of
the heavily armed police and
soldiers over a group of
young men, the Commis-
sioner said that the men who
had reportedly shot at the
police were known to be
supporters and members of
an organised gang.


The St. Margaret's Lane
incident is one of those
police exercises that bear
remembering. It involved,
among other things, what the
Express reporter called "a
dramatic siege on Belmont
by the police and Regiment."
For several hours, it was
reported, the forces cordoned
off the area and conducted
house-to-house searches.
There was no mention of
search warrants, we may
note in passing.
The police story was that
a trap had been laid for their
Flying Squad whose mem-
bers had done well to come
out of it with only one
Needless to say, there ii
no conflicting account.
"Efforts to obtain an eye-
witness account of the shoot-
ing from residents were

futile .. as the people
were in a state of fear," the
Express said.
This member of the public,
at any rate, is not concerned
to enter into any whodunit
analysis of these "shootouts".
It is futile. The plain fact is
that those brothers ill-
advised enough to play mas
can't be afraid of powder,
and that the police and other
forces of the state still appear
to have enough firepower to
outshoot all comers in a
So in Fyzabad last week
the public shut themselves

SNew World Moko a Tapia

inside as a gunbattle betwe
a lone fugitive and t__-
Flying Squad raged. Residents
came into the picture at
about the same stage as the
rest of the country who read
about the shooting of the
"most wanted, man".
Not so the Whit Sunday
shooting of 15-year-old Brian
Greene in San Juan by a
policeman. A group of
"concerned citizens" has
reportedly volunteered to
give a different version of
the incident from the one
the police gave.
It is not a little odd that

a SavaOCOu

1963- 1972

Subject and author enl-ies in one alphabetical sequence
Comprehensive coverage of all articles
Supporting cross references

lPofessionally prepared by a librarian at die University of the Wst Indies, St. AugIustine,
the Index includes an Introduction by Dr. Gordon Rohilchr, Hend of the English Depart-
ment, which places the publications in a social and historical context.

Order your copy by filling out and returning the following form to the Tapia House
Publishing Co. Ltd., 84 St. Vincent Street, Tunapuna, Trinidad and Tobago (Tel: 662-

Please sena me ... copy/copies of the West Indian social Sciences Index.

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---- --' I I--cc~---~---


rAuc- IAf'IA


Judge, Jury and

Executioner too

ON two occasions within
the last two weeks the
Police have constituted
themselves Judge and
Jury and summarily
executed two alleged
criminals, one a fifteen
year old youth, whose
guilt or innocence will
never now be established
in a Court of Law.
Unfortunately 'for the
future of this country many

other-wise humane people, it
would seem, have come to
accept institutional violence
as correct and justifiable
when it is applied to people
who have been accused of
crimes or of political activities
opposed to the present
It must be insisted how-
ever that a society founded
upon the suppression of the
rights of some Of its members
cannot long endure, for the

Sg C e al ,...

g" *IDa

eyewitnesses always give a
different version of incidents
from the one the police
give. And when you consider
that in so many cases there
just cannot be independent
eyewitnesses, you can't but
feel worried anytime you see
policemen swaggering about
with their fearsome auto-
matic weapons.
Indeed the trend seems to
be to discourage people from
observing what the police do.
This is the clear meaning of
the March 18 ULF.procession
in San Fernando, when
reporters were beaten and
their cameras seized.
The next time round, you
think those reporters will
find themselves anywhere
close to the action?
My own guess is that some
of those reporters must now
be wondering whether they
really saw all they reported
that they had seen, so
quickly have JATT and all
the parties who ventured
protest gone back into their
The journalists have for-
gotten already that it was
(then) Senior Supt. Randolph
Burroughs who told them
yes, they could pass, but was
later nowhere around to
stop his men from cutting
dey ass.
There is no denying that
in so far as public relations
consists of the ability to get
your own position across
through the media, the police

already have excellent
machinery for it. In this
sense, (now) Acting Assistant
Commissioner Ramdolph
Burroughs is the natural
Public Relations Officer of
the Police Service and not
Mr. Grell, who is only the
head of the Department so
And you can't deny either
that, as aPRO, Mr. Burroughs
has class. Look at it: less than
three weeks after assuming
full command of crime-
fighting in the Service, he
executes a raid on a cockfight
gayelle that yields 400
prisoners including Johnny
In the light of the known
fact that cockfighting, despite
its illegality,has gone on here
with relative impunity, this
raid had the effect of showing
up all his predecessors in the
post and, in the public
mind, especially Deputy
Commissioner Ramdwar dur-
ing whose absence it took
The focus is, as always
on Burroughs, the doughty
crime-fighter, the leader of
the gallant and peripatetic
Flying Squad, holder of the
Medal of Merit (1969) and
the Police Medal for Meritori-
ous Service (1962).
In much the same terms
TRINTOPOL carried on the
front page of its May issue
a feature on Mr. Burroughs.
The story was old hat, for
that kind of promotion has
been done with infinitely
greater effect in the national

curtailment of the rights of
the few inevitably and inexor-
ably escalates into the
curtailment of the rights of
the majority.,
The entire citizenry is
demeaned and diminished by
injustice perpetrated in its
name and those who prate
loudest about a jealous
mistress most dishonour the
law when her- majesty is
We have always upheld the

ii !1

That the result has not
been to project your neigh-
bourhood policeman as
someone to love is apparently
a source of grief to some
newsmen as, for example, the
BOMB's David Chase who
would smear critics as "cop-
haters" and then plead with
them for sweet reasonable-
That message is not
reaching the young members
of the "tempo Train" club
who demanded of a plain-
clothes policeman on Corpus
Christi that he show his
identification before being
allowed to enter their fete.
The policeman stuck a hand
into the waist of his pants,
pulled out a gun and said:
"Look my identification


Despite what they all say,
the reporting of this kind of
incident never enjoys the kind
of play it deserves. So we
remain wanting to know
whether it is crime-fighting
success or that Corpus Christi
incident that is more typical
of police operations.

The dependence of the
media on the police as sources
of news predispose them not
to want to rock the boat by
asking difficult questions or
taking an independent line.

But democracy's greatest
defence lies not in the
destruction of "subversive"
forces but in a healthy
skepticism about the way
officials try to explain their
use of power; a jealous con-
cern for rights and vigilance
against their possible viola-

legal tradition which holds a
man innocent until proven
guilty but in recent years
we have seen a shift to a
double standard in this
regard depending on the
status of the person accused.
Nothing more demonstrates
that such a dangerous shift
has occurred in practice than
the attempt to entrench it in
legal principle by the intro-
duction of the Anti-Sabotage
We have had Caton, and
Santa Claus and Tenia and
a whole host of others killed
in the past few years and we
have been told only that they
were killed in shootouts with
the police. No one will ever
hear their side of the story.
They are dead. The "balance
of probability" with a_ven-


In these latest killings the
police stories as published in
the daily papers certainly
,susceptible of alternative
explanations. A man who is'
hunted and emerges from
concealment into an open
area may very well have
done so in an attempt to
surrender. Again we will
never know.
It seems now that all the
police have to do to render
themselves immune from any
action for killing any citizen
.is to posthumously label the
the dead as "guerilla."
Over the past nineteen
years we have witnessed an
erosion, steadily increasing in
momentum, of the rights of
the citizens of this country,
and a corresponding and
frightening increase in the
number of arbitrary and
despotic actions by a small
but seemingly powerful group
of policemen.
Those in this group of
"the lord's anointed" bring
only dishonour and danger to
the vast majority of the men

and women in the Police
Service and the resulting high
rate of resignations from the
service in the context of
national unemployment of
over 17%.
Such actions, of course,
do not only affect the rest of
the Police Service, they carry
over to the majority of the
population and breed dis-
respect for the law and its
custodians which manifests
itself in the alarming increase
of hostility to police person-
nel and in the persistence of
lawless behaviour.


In a just and humane
society their must be a
willingness to tolerate dissent
and to allow it expression.
No one must be denied his or
her rights because of the
unpopularity or absurdity of
In the end we know, how-
ever that expedience is a
ruthless and remorseless
master. This corrupt, incom-
petent and nepotic regime
not only cannot afford to
move against the gangsters in
the police service but must
actively promote and defend
their interests.
This is why a Police officer
could stand in open Court
and be forced to confess that
he had knowingly sworn
falsely to obtain a search
warrant and not only be not
disciplined but shortly there-
after be promoted, and not
one of the men whose/
honour, rooted in dishonour
stands, dared bark..
But for the vast majority
of citizens silence is not a
recourse. We have not only
our honour to lose, but our
freedom as well.The response
of thewitnesses to the shoot-
ing of the young boy
recently was both refreshing
and heartening. An indica-
tion, it is hoped that we are
learning our lessons. The
defense of our freedom is the
peoples business.

T- t- --

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Trinidad .& Tobago, W.I. Telephone 662-5126.

THE question 'Who rules Jamaica
in 1975?' is best approached
rhetorically: Has there been any
significant (upsetting) changes in
Jamaica in recent years to shift
power, wealth and privilege
away from the traditional ruling
class? Defenders of the status
quo will, of course, offer two
main sets of factors to qualify
as turning points in the recent
history of Jamaica, as far as a
shift in the balance of power is
concerned, viz:
(a) Jamaican "Indepen-
dence" in 1962
(b) The accession of Michael
Manley into the office of
Prime Minister in 1972, after
the scandalous and inept
headship of Hugh Shearer.
It is my aim (a) to dispute such
claims by showing that there has
been no qualitative and very little
quantitative change throughout the
period since independence, (b)but to
suggest, at the same time, that such
changes that have occurred are
nevertheless significant from a his-
toricist and futuristic perspective. I
plan to show that the basic socio-
economic reality of Jamaican life has
not changed from the early 20th
century to the present day in spite of
the two supposedly important turning
points, and that there has been a
definite circulation of elites but no
corresponding circulation of power
and wealth.
No one can dispute the fact that
by the early 20th century Jamaica,
like other Caribbean societies, had
become dominated, over-run and over-
awed, economically, by a white foreign
capitalist class in concert with a small
group of "native" whites, coloreds,
Syrians, Inquisition Jews and Chiang-
Iai-Shek Chinese. Today, they remain
entrenched in Jamaica and are repre-
sented by such mouth-piece organiza-
tions like the Jamaica Employers
Federation, Jamaica Chamber of
Commerce and the Jamaica Manufac-
turers Association.


The fact of foreign ownership
and foreign exploitation may be
illustrated by reference to two "pro-
gressive" sectors of the economy:
Bauxite and Tourism.
Jamaica is the world's second
largest producer of Bauxite, respons-
ible for producing 20% of the world's
production. But the Jamaican Bauxite
industry is completely owned and
controlled by six giant U.S.- Canadian
multi-national corporations Alcan,
Alcoa, Anaconda, Kaiser, Reynolds,
Revere. Together these companies
own 7% of Jamaican land 191,000
acres, with lease rights to 23% (i.e.,
they have the option to buy it when-
ever they want).
They have come to own most
of Jamaica's central interior, expropri-
ated through under-handed "block
busting" techniques. While Mining
Regulations demand that companies
put such land into the rearing of
cattle, in 1962 Alcan and Reynolds
reared 19,547 head of cattle, but only
18,484 in 1970. (Jamaica Daily News,
March 27, 1974).
Up until 1973 the Government's
earnings from bauxite depended on a
system devised first in 1950 and
revised in 1957 and 1966 whereby
Jamaica obtained 26 per ton, and an
Income Tax levy of $2.25 per ton
based on profits which brought us
altogether a meager $25 million as
late as ,early 1973 (when Michael
Manley increased our revenue to $170
," on by imposing a levy of 7.5%
ll aluminum sales). Since the
itum is processed abroad the bulk


y 1Dennis Forsytne concludes
his examination of
Jamaican Society since
Independence. In this article
he examines the economic
conditions in the country.

of the employment created is done
abroad. In Jamaica only about 9,500
persons are employed by the industry,
170 of whom are expatriates but
who, naturally, occupy the top posi-
tions in the industry.
In the Tourist industry the
picture is no different. Long being a
tourist haunt, air lines do skyrocket
ing business in taking tourists there,
so much so that at certain times of
the year one needs to make reserva-
tions as long as six months in advance
of the date of travel. Our great depen-
dency on Tourism may be seen by the
fact that it accounts for 20% of our
export earnings and ranks second to
the Bahamas in terms of the total
number of tourist arrivals, and while
in the period 1961-67 the industry
grew at a rate of .8%, in 1962-68 it
grew at a rate of 3%. (Bryden, Tourism
and Development.)
Our government has actually
fostered this industry directly through
fiscal policies, staff training and pro-
motion, physical planning and control,
and indirectly through the develop-
ment of support infra-structures and
iltilities. In spite of our investment in
this industry there, it is increasingly
realized today that we have had a raw
deal. A very high proportion of these
hotels are owned and administered by
foreigners, and local proprietors are
relegated to the ownership of guest
houses which account for a very small
percentage of total tourist beds.
Foreign employees receive about 43%
of the income paid out by the hotels.


The operation of the public
utilities sector is a good index of the
efficiency of a society. Yet in Jamaica
this is one of the greatest sore spots.
The general inefficiency in the opera-
tions of the Jamaica Omnibus Services
and the Jamaica Public Service Com-
pany has proven beyond a doubt that
private (foreign) ownership of the
Utilities is not the answer for they are
concerned more with huge profits
rather than people's welfare and
continue to fleece the people through
higher and higher rates.
For instance, Stone and Webster
is a giant foreign corporation that con-
trols the J.P.S. Co., yet electricity
operations are very bad on the island.
And in the fifties when it became
necessary to reconvert our electricity
system from the old 40 cycle system,
the J.P.S. Co. did not want to incur the
$8 million conversion cost, which
meant that the Jamaican government
had to pay it through a special sur-

charge on consumers.
Certain social inequities naturally
flow from this general state of the
economy. In 1943 only .3% of the
black population earned over tS
per week, while for the "coloureds" it
was 5.6%, 41.5% for whites. 5% for
Chinese, 17.8% Syrians, and 33.5%
Jewish. Large farms of over 100 acres
were similarly mal-distributed: .7%
among blacks, 4.9% among "coloureds",
43.3% among whites, 3.7% among the
Chinese, 2.2% among East Indians,
5.5% among Syrians and 50% among
the Jews. (Broom, A.S.R., April,
Educational opportunities were
similarly stratified, so that 48% of the
white Jamaicans attended secondary
school, 10% of the "coloureds". but
only 1% of the black population. In
1969 a study of black adults in rural
areas of Jamaica found that 37% could
not read, and an earlier study in 161
found that 38% of Jamaican farmers
could not read (Bolland,S.1.S., Marchl
In 1961, among 60 Jamaicans
identified as men of greater influence,

1/3 were white although only one
Jamaican in every hundred is white.
(Moskos, The Sociology of Political
Independence). It was also found that
3/5 of the members of the most
prestigious social clubs of Kingston in
1960 were -white expatriates, creoles,
Jews and Jamaican whites. (Lowenthal,
West Indian Societies).
The most serious and most
imposing aspect of the Jamaican reality
is the high rate of unemployment
against the dreary background of
rising prices. About 20% of the labour
force have no jobs; another 20% get
work now and then; and another 30%
have jobs but they earn incomes wK:'m
are too low to provide adequately.
them. So only about 20% of the hl.ic
population earn enough to live ,:.
Chris Lawrence. General Secretar o:
their Independent Trade Union Mo,,
ment, at a conference in Montreal,
May 1973, pointed out that almost
75% of the labour force earned less
than $10 per week.
Predictable consequences follow.

Continued on Page 9

Ocho Rio's

E MAR ort Antonio

Kaiserl Ph Por Esquivet
Rocky Point


he Famine And i

The Family Fortune

HAITI has' announced
that 150,000 of its people
are starving to death. The
statement over the week-
end (23 May) by the
government of president
Jean-Claude Duvalier, son
and heir of the late Papa
Doc, that famine is ravag-
ing a- 1,500 square mile
area in the north-western
Peninsula of the island,
seems likely however, as
in the case of Ethiopia
last year, to provoke
more controversy than
The official communique
added that an "emergency
programme" had been devised
for the drought-stricken area
of a quarter of a million
people where it said a
"natural catastrophe" hhad
now reached "alarming and
spiralling proportions" com-
parable to the crisis in the
Sahel Region of West Africa.
Haiti's arid northwest has
long ranked with north-
eastern Brazil as one of Latin
America's major human
disaster zones, but the
Duvalier regime has always
vehemently denied it until
Five years ago, a British
reporter described scenes of
women in the area offering
their children to strangers at
10 pence each and said
50,000 people were dying
there each year. The govern-
ment retorted that there had
"never" had been famine in
the northwest. It called the
report an attempt to discredit
the economic achievements
of the "Duvalierist Revolu-
With an estimated 50
million sterling of public
funds paid into the Duvalier
family's Swiss Bank accounts
in 18 years of power how-
ever, there has been precious
little sign of an economic
revolution for the 5.5 million
people of Haiti, which
remains the poorest country
in Latin America and among
the 10 poorest nations in the



United Nations officials
recently named Haiti as only
second to Upper Volta among
32 countries most immedi-
ately threatened with famine.
Tens of Thousands of
people have lost their homes
over the past few years
through floods caused by the
the government's failure to
do anything to halt the
country's chronic soil-erosion
or to maintain roads and
bridges. The government
always pleads lack of funds.
However, only two weeks
ago President Duvalier in-
augurated a one million
sterling mausoleum in Port-au-
Prince originally meant for
his father's-body. At the end
of last year, amid much
nationalist fanfare, the
regime extracted 2.9 million

sterling in increased royalties
from the American Bauxite
Firm of' Reynolds. This
money is reliably reported to
have been paid into Swiss
Banks within a few weeks of
it being received.
Relief aid to Haiti, when
it does not stick to the fingers
of government officials, is
almost entirely in the hands
of United States aid bodies
and church groups. CARE
currently pumps about two
million dollars worth of food
aid annually into the north-
west, where it has been
operating for thepast nine
years with a staff of 200
Haitians directed by three
north Americans.
But their heroic efforts to
build roads, schools and
clinics are all too often
obstructed by the regime



which, apart from its ineffi-
ciency and corruption. Sees
the northwest principally as
an area where many exile
invaders have landed and are
still likely to land. Security,
rather than feeding people
comes first in the northwest.
Papa Doc banned the use of
cropdusting planes in the
northwest for fear they might
somehow switch to bombing
the Presidential Palace.
The last attempted inva-
sion, in September 1973. Did
indeed take place there, near
mole St. Nicolas. Also,
revolutionary Cuba is only
46 miles distant.
The aid bodies .are con-
founded too by their own
government, which has always
backed the Duvaliers because
of their strong anti-commun-

ism. The recent resumption
of full-scale U.S. economic
aid (4.8 million sterling this
year) and increases by other
countries led by a culturally-
covetous France (3.5 million
sterling). Has done little but
reassure the Duvaliers and
their allies in the country's
elite that they can safely
continue in their old ways.
The Haitian doctors who
do not emigrate thus continue
for the most part to stay in
the comfortable surroundings
of Port-au-Prince while
disease, including recent epi-
demics of malaria and
anthrax rages unchecked
through the countryside and
nearly half of all Haitian
children continue to die
before the age of five.
Th e remoteness of the elite
from the problems of areas

like the northwest was re-
flected in a recent appeal by a
Cabinet Minister for people to
stop using charcoal for fuel
(as a conservation measure)
and use instead gas. Hardly a
commodity within reach of
peasants with an average life-
span of barely 30 years
already wrestling with the
government's racketeering in
The Duvalier regime has
never shown any real interest
in rural improvement. Its
officials are more keen on
signing spectacular contracts
with foreign "developers" to
build hotels and casinos. Other
potential sources of kickbacks
have appeared recently with
the discovery of huge copper
(and also gold) deposits in
northern Haiti. Some of this

is in the famine area. But the
chances of any of the benefits
reaching the local inhabitants
are very slim.

THE exiled Haitian
Federation of Christian
Trade Unions last week
appealed to the world
not to send aid to the
government of president
Jean-Claude Duvalier to
help relieve the famine in
northwestern Haiti. Any
aid sent to the govern-
ment would be stolen,
the Federation said.
President Duvalier an-
nounced last Friday that an
"emergency plan" had been
devised to cope with a famine
affecting 150,000 people in
the region, which has long
suffered from severe drought.
For years, the Duvalier
regime has denied that any
such serious situation existed
in the northwest, which is
only 46 miles from Cuba.
The Federation said aid
should be handed over
directly to the International
Relief Organisations working
in Haiti, who would admin-
ister it themselves indepen-
dently of the government.

Jean Claude Duvalier

The tragic motive behind
the admission of the famine
may well be, as some Haitian
observers suggest. A simple
ruse to attract more relief aid
which can be stolen, as was
some 175,000 sterling collect-
ed abroad in 1972 to help
6,000 Port-au-Prince slum-
dwellers made homeless in a
In his New Year message
this year, President Duvalier,
the owner of half a dozen
expensive limousines and
almost as many luxury villas
and motorcycles, talked of
the need to live "without
waste, ostentation, or gro-
tesque luxury," which he
said "insults the poor."
On past showing however,
the fainting children with
bloated bellies in the north-
west are unlikely to get much
from the Duvaliers except for
the usual public announce-
ment of a personal for several
thousand sterling from the
young president which is not
likely to find its way out of
his bank account.

Greg Chamberlain

The Trade Union Group
charged that the Duvalier
regime's "anti-national, ex-
ploitative policies" were at
the root of the famine. The
admission of the famine by
the government had shown
that only a few rich families
benefitted from the regime,
while the rest of the country's
5.5 million population were
subjected to "indescribable
indignities and death by
The Duvaliers, the Federa-
tion said, had in their 18
years of power turned the
Caribbean Republic into a
"cruel concentration camp"
where tens of thousands of
people had been shot or
tortured to death, and one
million more than a sixth
of the country's population
- forced into exile.
It called for international
help to make it possible for
exiles to return to Haiti and
support trade unions fighting
to re-establish basic dem-
ocratic rights and freedoms

United Nation officials recently named Haiti
as only second to Upper Volta among 32
countries most immediately threatened with
famine. Yet President Duvalier only two weeks
ago, inagurate a one million dollar mausoleum
meant for his father's body.



Haa :Ei1 s





President Carlos Andrez Perez of Venezuela

Resumen: The first question we would like to
put to you regards the problem of multiplicity in the
formulation and conduct of the Venezuelan foreign
policy in the Civil Service. Whether i t is the effect of
progress, of incompetence, or for whatever reason,
Venezuelan foreign policy is carried out by a great
many departments. The Ministry of Mines conducts
the petroleum policy. There is a Minister of State in
charge of International Economic Affairs (no less).
The Foreign Trade Institute also plays quite a role in
formulating and conducting the foreign policy. The
Labour Ministry is in charge of relations between the
Venezuelan State and the International Labor Organ-
ization; the Ministry of Education of those with
UNESCO. The Ministry of Defense has its Mili-
tary Attaches serving in various parts of the world,
and its operative system is practically autonomous;
the Ministry of Health is in charge of relations with
the World Health Organization; the Ministry of
Agriculture with FAO; the Central Office of Informa-
tion with the news media.
Are we to believe that it is impossible for the
Ministry of Foreign Affairs to have sufficiently cap-
able personnel to enable it to deal with all the
Nation's problems with regard to its foreign policy?
Is it impossible to devise some formula for co-ordina-
tion so that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs should
hace the final word regarding the conduct of
Venezuelan foreign policy? This, I think is imperative.

Salom: Your question listing the scattered
functions practically answers itself. Because there is
indeed an anarchical dispersion of functions within
the Venezuelan State which is not only reflected in
our international policy and in the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs, but also has other manifestations
which are no less serious. Sometime ago I read the
Merhav report on Agriculture in Venezuela and there,
too, it was stated that it was impossible to solve the
agricultural problems of Venezuela and face the food
crisis and all it involves without first making a very
thorough revision of the anarchical situation existing
in the institutional brder with regard to Agriculture.
There is indeed a dispersion of functions as
regards foreign policy, and one of my endeavors (and
I have the President's full authority because it is
what he wishes and his decision) will be to co-ordinate
id shape a cohesive international policy. According
the Constitution, in Venezuela, international

policy is framed by decision of the President; it is a
very complete and clear attribution conferred by the
Constitution to the Chief of State. But the interna-
tional policy is executed by the President through
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
The natural organ for communicating abroad
is the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. This must be made
quite clear, and this is necessary, ,particularly at a
time when the position of Venezuela before the
world must be definite and consistent. We cannot
shape a foreign policy today and a different one to-
morrow. Consequently, it is not only in the internal
administrative order of the Venezuelan State that it is
important to co-ordinate and articulate foreign
policy in the departments you have listed; it is also
necessary that our foreign policy be very firmly
supported by public opinion and by all the political
sectors of the Nation.
For this reason, too, I will be very zealous in
keeping public opinion informed, the Opposition and
all the political parties without reserve, and the
various groups of public opinion in the country. This
is important because the foreign policy must be a
single policy, and that must be the Nation's policy.
Consequently, it is also important that both at home
and abroad capable people should be employed by
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and I shall take good
care that capability and probity be the only prere-
quisites for holding such posts.
We must overcome that mental, psychological,
political and administrative underdevelopment con-
sisting of distributing diplomatic posts among
personal friends or for political reasons.

Resumen: In line with the same idea, I would
like to say that I am concerned about the circum-
stance that each new Minister feels it is his duty to
threaten the country with two things: the co-ordina-
tion of foreign policy and the reorganization of the
foreign service as the executive arm of that policy.
What I am concerned about is that to the extent that
for fifteen years separate groups have been formed for
managing international relations through the different
departments mentioned, the struggle for co-ordina-
tion will clearly involve internal politics and the
conservation of decision-making areas already con-
quered. What I am worried about is what directly
concerns the Ministry of Foreign Affairs when speak-


The issue of recolonisation oft
occupied much serious attention.
Ever since the Prim eMinister o
public glare the truth or falsity of his as,
In addition it would seem that
Caribbean colleagues has now led to a gi

between Trinidad and Tobago and othei
Yet the question of Latin Ame
designs on the Caribbean is not new. Wh
capacity to act upon those designs, and
International affairs in the light of her
Tapia here reprints an interview
news service with Venezuelan Minister
Escovar Salom.

ing of its reorganization, because I envisage an
enormous organization chart with new men and new
functions without first taking an inventory of the

Salom: I agree on the importance of your
question and with the part added to it by Jorge
Olavarria. There is indeed a habit in Venezuela,
which is also a product of underdevelopment; it is
that each time there is a change of Ministers, or of
Governors, or a cabinet change, or whatever, the new
officials arrive in office with great plans and new
organization charts. There is nothing I am more
suspicious about than organization charts because
they frequently are a substitute for the facts and
create dangerous illusions, and there are many people
who think that as soon as they have an organization
chart they have a functioning "reality". I would not
like to become subject to this compromise, and if I
did, it would be to the smallest possible degree.
Now, the basic thing is that there certainly are
capable people working at the Ministry of Foreign
Affairs and in the whole Foreign Service (including
all -those areas mentioned by Jorge Olavarria at the
beginning which are dispersed), and there are people
with the kind of experience that should be used to
advantage, and people who have, for one reason or
another, left the political party to which they
belonged, or the ministries; these people should be
utilized in some way because we cannot afford the
luxury of losing anyone who is capable and able to
make a positive contribution to the nation.
Thus, without making grand plans because to
me grand plans are subject, I would limit my reply to
saying that the services of all these people will be
used to advantage. Now, traditionally, the Ministry
of Foreign Affairs has not been treated with con-
sideration. Since I have been a member of the Foreign
Policy Committee of the Chamber several times, and
served as its chairman twice, I have had many
opportunities to say that for a long time the Ministry
of Foreign Affairs has been viewed with contempt
because in the past when the small town politicians,
the policy makers of the times, did not understand
international policy the only policy they could think
of was petty and parrochial.
Now we have realized that there is a whole
world policy international, continental, or trans-
continental which is more important and has more
repercussions than amere localpolicy. This is also the
product of an underlying reality. Sociologically,
Venezuela was, until a short time ago, a ruralcountry.
Our society has been patriarchal and paternalistic,
and in a society influenced by a strictly agrarian style
of living, and even pastoral, a very complex diplomacy
was not indispensable.
Moreover, Latin America did not figure in world
policy; the small countries had no influence; they
were marginal and they were left outside the centers
of world power. Today, the situation has changed.
New factors have been incorporated to the world ,
balance. The so-called Third World countries
now have influence; they produce raw materials which
are important to an industrial society. The indus .;,J
society has become accustomed to thinking that x
materials were not very important, and we are tcj'.-
moving towards a valuation and a revaluation of tlis
All this goes to explain the nature of the
situation at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and of our
international policy. For the past fifteen years, with
the revaluation of democracy, in Venezuela, the
Ministry of Foreign Affairs has become increasingly
important notwithstanding its shortcomings, or
whether it may continue to have a few.

_ ~____P*~WSls~WEllff*P1~IR~---- ~-~-~1~-~i I~~-----Cale~L-4XR~CLJ~~Weba I

UNE 8, 1975

ie Caribbean has within recent weeks

7ened up the whole issue to its present
ertions have been debated.
the charge by Williams against his
ave deterioration in the relationships

Caribbean countries, particularly

ican, and specifically Venezuelan,
zt may be now different is Venezuelas
zow Venezuela perceives her role in
changed capacities.
, done by members of a Venezuelan
fExternal Affairs, Dr. Ramon

There is no doubt that each Minister of Foreign
Affairs appointed by the democratic governments has
made a positive contribution which cannot be dis-
regarded, and whenever necessary I will endeavour
consult with them making use of their experience.
The Foreign Affairs Advisory Committee which I will
convene very soon will also, contribute to this effort,
and I will also be in touch with all the Ministers and
former Presidents of Venezuela to shape one single
foreign policy,

Resumen: Mr. Minister, many people who know
the personal political history of President Carlos
Andres Perez expected (judging by the manner in
which the presidential campaign was conducted) a
more conservative international policy. For many
people the international policy of President Carlos
Andres Perez and of the present Government appears
to be directed towards the left as if an olive branch
were being extended not only to the Government of
Cuba, but also to the Government of Peru and to all
the so-called Third World countries which in general
terms are oriented towards socialism in its various
forms. Some people are of the opinion that this
seems to bring about a confrontation between Vene-
zuela and its ally, friend and client of many years,
the United State.
Do you think that Venezuelan policy in this
regard is really suitable? How would you define it in
relation to the world, to the three great blocs in
which the world is today divided, counting the Third
World countries as another bloc?

Salom: Well, President' Perez's international
policy may indeed seem different to what some
people thought it would be, but this is not the fault
of the President; it should be attributed to the
deficiency of information in some sectors regarding
his program which was announced before the elec-
Now, I do not believe that Venezuela's interna-
tional policy can be accused of any special color
because it has only one color, the color of the
interests of a country like Venezuela within the
context of other Latin American countries similar
to it and those of the Third World, which is a
generic term for the developing countries. As regards
the United States, our natural market for oil and
main buyer, I would like to make it very clear that
we are not interested in a confrontation with the
United States as a country, nor is it the purpose of
the Government of Venezuela nor of the President
of Venezuela to bring about a confrontation with
the United States.
But obviously, even when relations with the
United States are normal, as they are at present, we
may have important, and even fundamental differ-
ences in assessing some facts causing some lack of
equilibrium in the relations between our countries.
What happens is that,in Latin America perhaps we
haven't been too well accustomed to the use of formal
language in our international relations and to the
fact that circumstances like the one mentioned can
arise when a country argues with the point of view
of another country, or regarding interests, without
this being a reason for an open confrontation, and
much less for psychological warfare.
Our intention, and fundamentally the intention
of the President of Venezuela, is to seek international
co-operation within the wisest possible, and one of
these very important areas is, of course, the United
States, a country which has been Venezuela's main
buyer, a country which has relied, and rightly so, on
Venezuela's loyalty in meeting her commitments,
because in times of great difficulty in the history of
the United States our oil deliveries have been timely


Foreign Affairs Minister Dr. Ramon Escovar Salom.

and prompt, and because, throughout history we have
had all sorts of relations with the United States.
I would like to make it very clear that we have
no intention of confronting anybody. We want a
peaceful Latin America, a united Latin America, and
not a Latin America committed to any bloc of world
violence. Because of this circumstance we do not
adhere to any other bloc, unless it is to the general
bloc of the United Nations and to international
organizations such as the Organization of American
States, which whatever its failings is a body that
permits a rational approach between the Latin.
American countries as well as a rational search for
better solutions in the future.

Resumen: Mr. Minister, there is a very important
country, Indonesia, also an OPEC member, and a
great oil producer with which, to my knowledge, we
have had no diplomatic relations. This omission is
somewhat curious because of all the OPEC countries
I understand it is the only one with which we have
no formal diplomatic relations. Is there any intention
of remedying this apparent omission in the near

Salom: It is certainly necessary. We must
establish diplomatic relations with Indonesia,.and
perhaps something also could be done about trade.
But the omission you mention may perhaps be
explained by the fact that until a very short time
ago some countries were very far from each other.
Today, Geography has become more manageable, and
even more voluntary. I think that one of the political
phenomena of our times is the emergence of what we
could term "voluntary geography". Countries can
draw nearer to each other, or extend their relations of
all kinds by an act of will; within this "voluntary
geography" process would be the concrete possibility
of establishing diplomatic relations with Indonesia,
for drawing nearer to this country and for a better
understanding of the things that can serve to further
this purpose.

Resumen: Mr. Minister, at your last meeting with
foreign press correspondents you stated that until
now international policy had been a preserve of the
great powers in which a nation not belonging to this
privileged group had no role to play. Obviously, the

situation at present corresponds with your observation.
Now, when Venezuela enters a field forbidden to her
until a short time ago, has the nation a general
statement ofinternational policy, that is to say, a new
platform of general principles with an appropriate
doctrine for meeting the new conditions; or, con-
versely, is it condemned to facing the new problems
arising from the new situation by limiting itself to a
sort of "first aid" station treatment, doing what it
can when faced with an accident?

Salom: I think that your statement that the
international policy should not be subject to "first
aid" station methods is quiet right. This should not
be, not only as regards international policy; we must
also put an end to a "first aid" attitude in all areas.
What happens is that in countries such as ours the
State and the Government do not always learn the
facts quickly enough, and I think this is a problem
of underdevelopment, it is a more complex problem.
Even in the larger countries it is necessary to
improvise because the world today is what I would
call "sudden". What is happening in the world today
is best described by this world. Everything that occurs
is too sudden, too unforseen, and I think that the
unpredictability ratio rises day by day. Consequently,
it is my belief that in creating a policy a certain
margin for probability and a certain fluidity-and
more flexibility must be introduced because we
cannot have rigid rules and doctrines which have
been extracted from strict apriorisms.
When speaking of doctrines I would therefore
separate two concepts. First: we cannot have a
doctrine which in itself is frozen, put into a freezer
and taken out.as needed;but we can adopt a strategy
because by its very nature strategy is flexible: but
more than thinking about a doctrine 1 would think
about a strategy to follow. And I believe that a
strategy would certainly have some priorities. In the
first instance, strategy consists in having a position
regarding world interchanges. The world cannot
continue to be managed on the basis of a lack of
equilibrium. Secondly, it would be necessary to think
very seriously about making all the conceptual
contributions, as Antonio Aparicio says. for structur-
ing a non-oppressive world order.
This adjective is not used in the traditional

Con't on Page 8

I I I -----l----~as~P~rxs


From Page 7

sense of the word, it has much more substance; non-
oppressive order means the correction of world
imbalances and that it be known that there can be
no balance in the world without the just, honorable
participation of the developing countries, of the poor
nations, or of the backward nations according to
their variants. Because this question of development
is not a mechanical concept either. Then with regard
to the Latin American order, we have to do every-
thing necessary to ease the integration process. I say
ease because by nature an integration process is
difficult. You know very well how much, in con-
ceptual terms, the European Common Market has
cost, and what it continues to cost in terms of
applying decisions on tariffs and on many other
fiscal policies. Well, this would also be a basic-
priority for a foreign policy.
The other priority would be to draw closer to
nations similar to Venezuela, to the so-called Third
World countries. I think this is important. When we
talked before about Indonesia I agreed with the
remark made because I believe that our policy in
Africa and in Asia is important, even if many of
these countries are very different to each other. We
cannot separate ourselves from this context.
Then, in the immediate order of policy,
Venezuela must attend to her geo-political importance
within the Continent. We are a country of the Carib-
bean; we are a country of the Atlantic; we are a
country of the Andes; we are a country of South
America. This, therefore, defines aseriesof exigencies;
it imposes on us a series of obligations of an interna-
tional order, and within this whole geopolitical and
geoeconomic context we must also frame a strategy.

Resumen: I would like to pass on to a series of
questions we have prepared on specific problems
concerning the nation's foreign policy. We will start
with the first one. The Secretary of State of the
United States, Henry Kissinger has been studied and
analyzed as few politicians have been during the past
few years. His books, his papers, his reports, even his
life have been analyzed in terms of the policy he
The analysis which Kissinger makes in his books
on international policy in the atomic world, his study
of world peace following the Congress of Vienna,
makes us think that he is a man who views the world
in terms of its relation to the power politics of the
superpowers. Now, unluckily for him,s something
absolutely unpredictable has happened in the past
three years. No futurologist has been able to predict
it nor has, there been a study capable of forecasting
it a substantial modification in the balance of
power in the world. A new power has emerged in the
world, basically represented by the oil producing
and exporting countries, which by virtue of military
world balance are threatening the superpowerful
nations, the developed nations, with imposing a
series of commissions which until a very short time
ago could only be imposed by threat or by force.
This leads to a query of considerable impor-
tance.At this time, with a man like Henry Kissinger
in office as Secretary of State, a man who thinks and
acts in terms of power politics, added to the circum-
stance that since Nixon's disappearance from the
American political scene, the foreign policy of the
United States seems to be based on all sorts of
threats (which is a form of power politics).
Do you think that as a member of Western
Civilization, as the only country in the area having
important oil reserves within her borders, as a
member of OPEC' and and as a participant in that
society which created the new power which is OPEC,
Venezuela has a role to play as a catalyst, as a
possible mediator between the different sectors of
the world which do not seem to be reaching accord
on fundamental questions?

Salom: Your question is essential and funda-
mental. My opinion is that Dr. Kissinger's thinking
in relation to restoring the world following the des-
truction of the Napoleonic Empire is, in fact,
founded.on the managing of the balance of power.
At that time, the only way to re-establish this balance
in such a small world as the world of the 19th
Century, was to manage the two or three factors
which came into play. That was very simple. That
balance was difficult, but it was also simple because
it was not as extensive as today's balance.
The substantial change which has occurred is
that the balance of power today is supported by a
much more complex infra-structure. The interests of
the classic powers of the 19th Century were limited;
the technological complications of today were
absent. War was always a possibility because it was
not sufficiently devastating to be inconceivable, as it
today. In fact, there were a series of political,
nomic and psychological elements which are
-nt today in a very different form.

I think that power politics, to be correct, must
today be based on all the powers which make up the
world. And one of these is the Third World, because
they form a group of countries which do not have
the technological sophistication to make them
participate in war, in a military confrontation having
possibilities of being successful, but which does make
them participate actively and fundamentally in the
economic and political balance. But there is something
yet more important which is in a critical condition -
The conceptions of an industrial society. So you see,
power factors are not the only things in a critical
condition. I think that this is what is at the bottom
of the question.
The industrial society (and we are seeing it
today) as you have just said, had not foreseen any-
thing that is happening now. Futurology, whose
creation was influenced by the belief and illusion of
making technological provision for the future by
computers and, electronics is showing us that noi of
this can be predicted. Almost all the calculations and
projections of the futurologists have been absolutely
insufficient or unproductive for the needs of'today
(like some estimates I read some five years ago on
the G.N.P. of several countries).
Actually I have never had much faith in this
.type of forecast because the facts and experience
show that they cannot withstand confrontation. In
the end, however, I think all this will lead to a more
balanced civilization. Thus the energy crisis will serve
an educational purpose in the world. Too strong a
belief had been placed on the strength of technology
and on the prestige of the industrial society. Perhaps
the outcome will be a simpler man, a better citizen
dwelling in society.
I do think that the fact that there is a crisis
of large automobiles and that the gadgetry of the
the industrial society has been considerably discredited
industrial society has been considerably discredited
is beneficial for the world. It is not that I expect a
return to rural society, nor to pastoral contemplation,
but I do think that excesses of too dramatic a nature
have been committed which should be corrected, and
the energy crisis will serve to do this.
We have conflicts which are larger than the
institutional instruments available to us: there is no
doubt about it. But the means for meeting these
conflicts are always created after they have occurred;
it is always so. That is the only way through which
change is produced always -The league of Nations
was replaced by the United Nations. For a few years,
the United Nations itself suffered from a tremendous
lack of understanding from the world. Because
things were demanded of it which it has-not the
capacity to give.
A few days ago I was speaking with the Secre-
tary General of the United Nations, and I said the
same thing that many people wanted it to give
what it had not the capacity to give for it does not
have the proper instruments. But this does not mean
that the United Nations is useless. It is a forum, and
a forum is preferable to war. Wars have been pre-
vented; conflicts have been deflected and fires have
been put out. So we cannot be unfair to it. It should
not be the recipient of such an implacable attitude
of censure.

Resumen: We are going to talk about a new
factor of imbalance. The idea behind OPEC, the
philosophy behind OPEC is, fundamentally, that the
countries which have only raw materials, especially

when they are non-renewable raw materials, are
using them in a logical, ordered, consistent, rational
way, creating an economic cartel, behaving, and
justifiably so, as the industrialized nations behaved
in the past to gain advantages for themselves.
Now, the problem is that Venezuela, and
especially the President of Venezuela, Carlos Andres
Perez are behaving like the "enfant terrible" -
dangerous to the great powers because they are
trying to convince the other producing and exporting
countries of raw materials to do what we did with
And this is why lam of the opinion that in the
eyes of certain people in the U.S. Department of
State, Carlos Andres Perez is today a much more
dangerous and 'uncomfortable'personage than either
Fidel Castro or General Velasco Alvarado. Because,
Carlos Andres Perez, a democratic president of a
democratic country, backed by sufficient financial
power to enable him to say what he is saying, is
trying to convince the producers of copper,coffee,
tin and raw materials to utilize their raw materials to
climb out of the underdevelopment in which they
live. And this is extremely uncomfortable for a
country like the United States because it places it in
the contradictory position of having to say to the
underdeveloped countries (which they have tried to
deceive for years with the lie of "aid and friendship"
and international co-operation), "no sir, you go on
selling to us cheaply so that we can continue selling
to you dearly."

Salom: The thing is that the great powers, not
only the United States, but also all the great powers
must understand that the world of today is different.
If they do not understand this, there will be no
understanding, no international balance. I do not
think it rash that other agreements are possible similar
to OPEC's but for other raw materials, because this is
the inevitable fate of the world.
I believe that to the extent that there is less
dispersion and to the extent that the nations group
themselves more about their specific problems, the
international balance is greater. This is sound for the
world; it is good for the public health of the world;
it is suitable. I think that if similar agreements take
place concerning copper, or tin, or any other agricul-
tural or mining product, with coffee, as Jorge
Olavarria mentioned, this is necessary.
The great powers must realize that they cannot
continue shaping world policy unilaterally. This is a
fact. I do not think that it is either rash or exagger-
ated to say so, nor am I forgetting the relative strength
of the developing countries. It is my belief that these
countries must become aware of their limitations and
their possibilities, but obviously, if they have re-
sources which are of world importance, they must
also profit by them.
Venezuela is not a world power, nor does she
aspire to be a world power, and it is to be hoped that
no one will ever think that Venezuela should become
a world power. Nevertheless, we are aware that we
possess an important world resource, which, if good
for the world, must alsobenefit Venezuela. It appears
to me that this is the core of the question.

Resumen: There is an aspect which I think is
vital; a mechanical aspect of your performance as
Minister. Vital; this must be stressed. It is the informa-
Con't on Page 9



Hugh Sifeaer Robert Lightbourne

Michael Manley

From Page 4

There is over-crowding. About 31%
of conventional dwellings have a
density of occupancy of three or more
persons per room. There is malnutri-
tion. Papers presented at the 1972
meetings of the annual congress of the
Medical Association of Jamaica esti-
mated that some 50,000 Jamaicans are
suffering from malnutrition, and that
50-60% of all deaths at the major
hospitals of children under 2 years
were related to malnutrition. And even
when children survived to adulthood
protein-calorie deficiencies increase
their susceptibility to certain diseases

and impair their physical-emotional-
intellectual well-being.
Putting it all together, by linking
these abominable conditions to the
fact of foreign ownership, Wills O
Isaacs, right-winger in the P.N.P..
retorted in 1970 that: "Jamaica is still
a colonial state in spite of all our talk
of independence. I wish to say that
our situation is not good at all .
100% of bauxite is now in the hands
of foreign capital of the 18
sugar estates in Jamaica 70% is
foreign owned 97% of the shares
of the Jamaican Telephone is foreign
Increasingly even the liberal

white foreign press became stirred by
the transparency of injustices in
Jamaica. The London Sunday Observer
Review (Nov. 23, 1969) called atten-
tion to "The Two Jainaicas: Pretty
and Ugly", pointing out that Jamaica
"is a dangerously sick and divided
country. It always has been. The
masters of the sugar plantations lived
in constant and justified terror of
slave uprisings; they stamped out even
peaceful debate or moderate reforms.
The colonial patterns persist. There
are two Jamaicas. The only thing
they shared is a cost of living 20%
higher than Britain's."
The Montreal Star (March 17,

1970) likewise pointed to what it
termed "a littoral of affluence adjoin-
ing a hinterland of poverty, on which
the resorts with the North American
names .. enjoy oases of privilege
and extra-territoriality unknown since
the days of Shanghai International
Settlement." As late as March 27,
1973 the Montreal Gazette commented
on the glaring contrasts in Jamaica:
"While thousands of white tourists
gorge, and tan and tango in the
Caribbean rhythm, squalid black
Jamaica throbs to a different tune -
the ominous stirring of poverty, un-
employment and despair that could
lead to bitter racial resentment."

From Page 8

tion aspect. Information about what Venezuela is,
what Venezuela means, what Venezuela has been,
what Venezuela can become, and above all, informa-
tion regarding the justice, right and truth of her
international position. Up to the present time the
task of projecting the image of Venezuela has been
carried out with an almost criminal banality and
frivolity (I would leave out the "almost"). The
image of Venezuela abroad is bad, and it is our own
fault that it is bad. Millions are spent on absurd
publicity campaigns which go up in smoke while our
embassies do not hare a modest brochure explaining
the country's fundamental issues. Do you plan to do
anything about this?

Salom: It is something fundamental which we
have to attend to because if not we also will become
agents of the world information deficiency. In coun-
tries such as ours there is a deficiency of information,
and much of the misunderstandings about Venezuela's
present position is due to this circumstance.
A few days ago in New York I talked with
representatives of several large multinational enter-
prises stating that their first duty as strategists of
their multinational operations was to understand the
countries where they operate because they cannot
continue with their lack of understanding of the
political context in which these new facts are being
managed; they are not the old facts, they are differ-
ent; and it might be that the facts of today are
different to the facts of tomorrow. They must there-
fore be able to understand matters, and they must
have information regarding the political factors acting
in the so-called Third World.
Now, we have certainly been agents of this
deficiency of information in the sense that we have
exported a folkloric image of our country. What we
have produced is folklore not information, and there
is no doubt that your observation about the "folk-
lorization" of the information we distribute about
Venezuela is justified. As a Venezuelan I am some-
times embarrassed at the kind of image they seek to
give us abroad. It is not the image we want or should
want. For this reason, we must strive to improve it,
and the intellectuals, the journalists, the people who
manage the news media can make a very positive
contribution in this regard. I therefore invite you to
make it.

Resumen: I would like to ask the Minister some-
thing of a general nature regarding Venezuela's
position in the energy crisis area. It is evident that
Venezuela arrives on the international scene with the
image of a monumental Croesus owing to her extra-
ordinary economic "muscle". Now, is this image of
power and security really justified? Politically,
Venezuela is situated within a hemisfere which for
reasons we all know, suffers from a high 'adhesion
deficit'. In a certain way, Venezuela is the Demo-
cratic black sheep in a militarized hemisphere. But in
the economic aspect, the situation is no less insecure
when Venezuela forms part of an economic group

like OPEC within which she is also the black sheep
because she is not an Arab country. Would these two
irrefutable facts justify a certain reserve regarding the
strength and security of Venezuela's present interna-
tional position?

Salom: In the first place I would like to say
that as a Venezuelan I am very much impressed by
the circumstance of what you call Venezuela's
economic "muscle". I think that we will have to
become accustomed to bearing.prosperity, because if
we do not learn tomanage this very sudden prosperity
we will be unable to manage our resources.
Secondly, and responding specifically to your
question, I think that the fact that Venezuela should
have the characteristic'you mention in both areas
does not make the purpose of her national or
international policy unattainable. It makes it more
complex because at the present time it has the
quality of being national, and this specific quality is
not easy to place within an a priori context. This is
the question in general terms. But within this cohn-
cext I think everything that has been done has been
very positive. Venezuela has made herself understood
extraordinarily well in OPEC. Geographically speak-
ing, Venezuela is far from and different to the other
OPEC countries, but this has not been an obstacle
for her being understood in OPEC. And neither does
the fact that Venezuela is different to other Latin
American countries due to her financial and economic
characteristics lessen her possibilities for interna-
tional co-operation in Latin America.
But you should also note something else.
Venezuela co-operated in shaping the destiny of
Latin America when she was a poor country. At the
time of the Independence, Venezuela had no oil and
the Bolivarian strategy was not based' on oil. The
strategy of Latin American integration is prior to the
advent of petroleum. If we were then able to co-
operate as we did, why should we not co-operate now
when Venezuela has her own resources and abundant
financial means?

Resumen: My question was in case there was a
change in the international situation. We have passed
from the Nixon-Breznev honeymoon to a certain
amount of tension. But this tension between the two
superpowers may be temporary, and, hopefully, it
will be. One of the conceivable formulas could be a
new agreement (and here we are entering the realm
of futorology) consisting of Soviet tolerance for
American intervention in the Arabian Gulf in ex-
change for opening the gigantic Russian market to
United States industry and capital, and bestowing on
the Soviet Union the "wonders" of the consumer
society. If this happens, and it is not impossible,
Venezuela would be isolated, not only in Latin
America for political reasons, but also in the area of
world petroleum if OPEC should be strangled or

Salom: I do not believe that Venezuela would
become isolated for any of these reasons. Venezuela
shall always be within a group of countries with

similar problems, and I therefore do not believe in the
hypothesis that what you mention could happen. I
do not believe it, and I do not think -this would
produce isolation because if there should be an
understanding between the two powers, as we hope
there is for the welfare of the world, this would not
impede the presence of the different power factors
which you have mentioned in the course of this talk.
The Third World does not disappear because of this,
nor do the countries of Asia, Africa or Latin America.
I think there is a world context and that world
balance comes about with the integration of all the
factors involved.

Resumen: Mr. Minister, I would like to ask you
something. We have said that the greatest obstacle to
classifying things is oversimplification; such classifica-
tions do not accurately qualify what they wish. But
let us accept them. I would propose, however, defin-
ing the world blocs as follows: the Capitalist World,
the Communist World, and OPEC. Because OPEC is
really a world power today, and the Third World is
not, barely counting F.A.O. activities and the
establishment of maternity hospitals, and it has no
economic or military power.
Accepting this, and taking into consideration
the present economic weight of OPEC in world
terms, which is equivalent to that of the United
States or to that of the Soviet Union, don't you
think that it is risky for Venezuela to have tied her
whole historical fate to the OPEC bandwagon?

Salom: Your remark is interesting, but I wish
to make something clear, a counterobservation, if
you will. First. Venezuela has arrived at a petroleum
and economic agreement with the OPEC countries.
The OPEC countries constitute a strictly economic
cartel. OPEC is not a political agreement: this is basic
and must be constantly repeated, because when you
say there are three blocs you forget that there is a
bloc of countries, call it third World for purposes of
nomenclature if you like, or to generalize, but there
are also developing countries present which have
influence and which are important, as they are
currently demonstrating.
The confrontation which exists at present in
the world is largely owing to raw materials. And
regardless of their importance now, the developing
countries will become more important politically,
strategically, geopolitically and geocconomically.
They have a fundamental importance, moreover be-
cause of their population. This is basic in another
sense. I think that even if the specific area of OPEC
were limited to changes in oil prices in the interna-
tional markets there would always be a policy to
develop. Venezuela does not disappear because of
changes which may occur in the future in the value
of raw materials or in the value of any other product
she sells. That would be to think that a nation can
disappear from the political scene just because there
might be a change in its trade balance at a given
moment. I think that although your fears may be
understandable, this explanation may help to elimin-
ate then.

_ __ __~_


sUNUA JUNE8, 1975

Burnham moves to kill Dayclean

THE Guyana Police have
charged the young Guy-
anese militant and
lawyer, Mr. Moses
Bhagwan with violating
the Publications and
Newspapers Act of 1972
by publishing a paper
called "DAYCLEAN".
Mr. Bhagwan, who is
leader of the Indian Political
,Revolutionary Associates
(IPRA) and one of the
founders of the recently-
formed multi-racial, left-wing
nationalist movement, Work-
ing People's Alliance, is to
appear in the Georgetown
courts on Wednesday June

He is being represented by
a battery of lawyers includ-
ing Mr.Miles Fitzpatrick, who
has' been associated with the
New World Group for a
number of years, Mr. Dood-
nauth Singh and Mr. Ashton
Chase, who is also an out-
standing trade union figure
in Guyana.
Mr. Bhagwan, whose
chamber was raided by the
police before the charge was
instituted last month, is
accused of having failed to
comply with the require-
ments of the Newspapers

In 1972, the Guyana
Government, in a further
move to muzzle the freedom
of expression in that country,
amended the Publications
and Newspapers Ordinance,
stipulating that a bond involv-
ing $15,000.00 must first be
executed before permission
could be obtained for the
publishing of a newspaper.
Previously only fifteen
hundred dollars ($1,500.00)
was required.
It was widely felt then
that this move by the regime
was aimed directly at extin-
guishing "The Liberator", a
newspaper, which was- then
being put out by the Libera-

Employees seek the

Dismissal of Manager

EMPLOYEES at Trinidad
Grain Terminals, the
biggest single importer of
grain products in the
country, are up in arms
over what they charge is
the absolute contempt-
ous and abhorrent atti-
tude displayed by the
present General Manager
who is a Canadian
Spokesmen for the em-
ployees, who asked that their
names not be published,
stated that they are now
contemplating taking their
protests to the Work Permit
Committee of the Ministry
of National Security in the
hope that the work permit of
the General Manager would
not be renewed when it
comes up for review.
In this regard, the spokes-
men stressed that there were
local employees of the Com-
pany who had been working
for even longer periods than
the General Manager and who
were quite capable of effi-
ciently running the affairs of
the Company.
In any case they pointed
out their desire to get rid of
the present Manager was so
strong that they were prepared
to see another expatriate
brought in his place.

They described the atmos-
phere at the Company as
tense and volatile. Many
people are resigning and
those who do not are
affected both mentally and
physically. This has resulted
in the productivity of the
Company taking an altoge-
ther retrograde step.
Trinidad Grain Terminals
which is situated on Dock
Road in Port-of-Spain is a
subsidiary of the large Cana-
dian Firm Intercontinental
Grain Co. Ltd., Alstons Ltd.,
has a 51% shareholding in
the "local" company but
employees claim that it is
almost a sleeping partner.
The real decisions of the
Company are taken by the
owners of the Parent Com-
pany in Canada, the Hervey
Family, who have three non-
resident Directors on the
board of the local Company.
The spokesmen for the
employees stated that they
had on numerous occasion
in the past taken their com-
plaints to the Alston people
but they had been unable to
do anything about them.
Trinidad Grain Terminals
is a multi-million dollar firm
which supplies alll the feed
millers in the Country with
Soya Bean, Corn and Peas.
The Company also has


LA BREA folk gathered
outside the market last
Wednesday night for a
Tapia House Meeting
which went on and on,
refusing to finish. In the
end, the people insisted
that we continue next

Tapia live-wire Arnold
Hood opened the meeting by
introducing Mickey Matthews
from Fyzabad, Annan Singh
from Siparia, Billy,Montague
from Santa Flora, Avril
Callender from Ste. Madeleine
and Allan Harris, Arleen
Henry and Lloyd Best from
Tun- una.
t :.r the opening speeches,
e Team heard that La Brea

is not getting any water at all
these days. We saw a car
passing with water brought
from some far place.
I boil provision twice in
the same water and when I
done, I turn round and had
was to wash some wares in it,
said one woman.
Her remarks were a signal'
for bitter complaint and
eager inquiry.
Tell me if Tapia have
any plan for the employment
What about Opposition,
When you all get your
80,000, how we know we
en go get fool again?
And so the political educa-
tion forced the floodgates.

majority control of one of
the feed mills in the country
Caribbean Milling. Both firms
together employ about ofie
hundred permanent workers
and about thirty part-time

tor Party. The paper has
since died.
When Mr. Bhagwan and.
his colleagues including the
well-known Guyanese mi-
well-known Guyanese mili-
tant Eusi Kwayana of
ASCRIA and others from the
University of Guyana and
Mr. Brindley Benn of the
Working People's Vanguard
Party then got together and
put out the first issue of
Dayclean. But the Guyana
Police seized all the copies
which had been printed by
Tapia here in Trinidad, and
slipped into Guyana.

Since then Dayclean con-
tinues to appear on the
streets of Georgetown as a
stencilled news bulletin,
exposing what the com-
pletely-controlled and serville
Guyana press will dare not
publish in a country where
both' morning newspapers
are owned by the government
which also owns a radio
station (GBS) and has muzzled
the other (Radio Demerara).
In addition to the dracon-
ian Publications and News-
papers Act, the government

has to first give permission
before newsprint and printing
materials could be imported
into that country. It is the
only governmentin the Com-
monwealth that has such a
law on its statute book.
Under this law the Mirror,
the newspaper put out by
Dr. Cheddi Jagan's People's
Progressive Party, is perhaps
the worst victim.
The Working People's
Alliance has decided, in co-
operation with others in
Guyana, to resist the govern-
ment's concerted attempt to
completely smother dissent.
The WPA, therefore, is treat-
ing the placing of Mr.
Bhagwan before the court as
"a vital political issue of
national importance."


The National Insurance Board is recalling ALL

Stamping spaces on these Cards expired on
Monday 2nd June, 1975 and therefore, NEW BUFF Cards
are required to continue stamping from Monday 9th June,

You should ensure that any change of address of
your employee is reflected on the Card before exchange.

All National Insurance Cards that are BUFF in
colour MUST be exchanged with the Board in order for it
to keep a proper Contribution Record of your employee
and for you to continue your obligation under the law.


- I -I ---- ----


Aborigines Fight to Control Affairs

LIKE the Indians of
North America the i "
original inhabitants of
Australia are now de- .""
manding restitution for
the long years of brutal
deprivation suffered at
the hands of the European
Perhaps even more
than the North American
Indians have the Abori-
gines been relegated to
the bakcwaters of
Australian affairs and left
to eke out precarious
lives on these reserva-
Now through the re- r
cently founded Black ri
Resource Centre the .
aborigines are waging a i t
militant struggle for the
control of their affairs
and for improvements in
their living standards.
The Black Resource
Centre recently issued a
list of nine major
demands which it has
presented to the Austral-
ian Government.
Among other demands
the Aborigines are de-
manding that all existing
lands designated as
Aboriginal Reserves be under their law and cus- resources on such lands held with them.
handed over to respective toms. and that any present The Black Resource make available new
aboriginal groups, and In addition they are mining and prospecting Centre has recently estab- about the struggle t
that the lands be effec- demanding exclusive be immediately suspend- wished a News Service other liberation group
tively controlled and rights to all natural ed until neotiaions !ire which they claim will around the world.
owned by the Aboriginals

time for a

NEW Change




Of people who know
how to cope
with rising


for the new





- -- --


A-dr Tlbutt'
Stitut for
'Reseq ch
Study of "an' Street'
,62, Est 16th
Pb' Le h5 8448-



662-5 '





LAST week Friday.
Tapia was in St. John
Village, Avocat in Fyza-
bad. Like every other
area in Trinidad and
Tobago, St. John has
problems. The one road
that passes through the
village is awful, with pot-
holes and bumps every
few yards. It is also
very narrow, although
the village is densely
populated and taxis ply
the route, day in, day
The people of St. John
related some of this problems
to Vice Chairman Mickey
Matthews and Commun-
ity Relations Secretary Beau
Tewarie last week.


St. John is a small, poor,
hard-working rural village.
Many of the villagers plant
rice in the lagoons of the
Oropouche Swamp, others
plant vegetables such as bodi,
tomatoes, bhagee .and so on
while some rear cows or
goats or fish in the Godino
river or hire out their labour
doing odd jobs here and
As the village is sustained
primarily by -the river and
the land, the people were
most concerned about what
has been happening in these
two areas over the last few
years and the effect this was
having on the pattern of life
in St. John.

One resident pointed out
that oil from Tesoro takes a
heavy toll on a natural life
in the area.
When the floods come,
and this happens every rainy
season without fail, so does
the oil from Tesoro, wreak-
ing havoc with the crops
planted by farmers.
In addition the villagers
pointed out that the oyster
trade which flourished in the
area up to a few years ago is
no more, because the oyster
beds have been killed off by
oil pollution.
"Sometimes", one villager
explained, "you can see
dozens of dead fish, slick
with oil floating down the
river". If this situation con-
tinues, soon there might be
no fishing trade either.
The biggest problem in the
area however, is the problem
of salt water. Salt water
affects rice and every other
crop that the farmers attempt
to grow.
Salt water escapes under
the sluice gates and dries up
everything, even the grass.
The water comes through the
Oropouche Swamp, from the
sea and into the- Godino
One Farmer, Mr. Ramsa--
mooj, who planted 2 acres
of watermelon, did not make
a cent out of his produce
because the salt water had
dried up most of the water-
melon vines and stunted the
growth of the fruits. Rice
farmers pointed out that salt
water was also destroying
their crops.
The result of all of this,
the farmers lamented, is that
in an area that has tradition-

ally based its life on agricul-
ture, people are now leaving
the land because as one
villager joked "agriculture
more risky than going to the
race track."
What is perhaps worse, is
that "project work" has now
come to St. John. As usual.
The government prefers to
hand out a little 10 days
here and another 10 days
there, rather than to do
something positive to boost
agricultural production in the
Obviously this pattern
cannot be allowed to con-
tinue. The situation only

goes to show that the present
regime, despite all the "Food
Plan" announcements, is ,till
not serious about agriculture
at all.
The problems that the
people of St. John are facing
now have to be dealt with
The Godino river needs
to be dredged and proper
sluice gates have to be
installed. When this is done,
proper irrigation facilities and
a plan to replenish the
Godino river with fish and
to prevent further pollution
of the river might be in

Rice farming cannot con-
tinue to be the haphazard
business that it is either.
Obviously the farmers need
technical advice and en-
couragement and incentives
of all kinds from the relevant
Especially at this time,
the country desperately needs
people to work the land and
make it productive. The
people of St. John are doing
this. They need to be en-
couraged, not forced off the

Beau Tewarie


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