Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00164
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: June 1, 1975
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00164

Full Text

Vol. 5 No. 22


,2 -.', "'' ~r N t,





THE Criminal Law
Amendment Act of 1975
has come under heavy
attack. The great danger
is that the Government
may still succeed in ful-
filling its designs.
We know that Basil
Pitt is a Queen's Counsel
of the same order as
Hudson-Phillips, self-
made. We know too that,
like his predecessor, Pitt

is only a cardboard
presence for that clique
of frightened oligarchs
who control the PNM
In 1970, they had the
experience of the Public
Order Bill, shot down by
public opinion. Williams
was later to claim that
the Bill had not been
brought before the Cabi-
net, his pretext for spit-

SiL\ C 1,1Cit O f

I See Centi

ting out Hudson-Phillips.
Nobody ent believe
that; but, in any case,
once bit, twice shy. This
tine it is going to be hard
to find a scapegoat. We
can assume that Williams
and his Cabinet know
all about the Bill and we
know that the party has
deliberated at length
about it.
Why then have they
brought this iniquitous
legislation forward? It is very
important to find a satisfac-
tory answer. -
When you are dealing with
a crooked Government, you
have to stop taking everything
at face value.

BROKEN SKins, torn
flesh and bloodshed
brought to a dramatic
end a feud between two
sets of female combatants
over who wore sounder
threads at a Carenage
wedding last Sunday.
For the Evening News
who presented the story the
incident was an occasion to
exploit out weakness for
scandal. 'Women Battle In
Wedding', screamed its head-
Girls, we were told,
scrambled in a rough free-for-
all, while the jagged edges of
a broken beer bottle found
their mark in the flesh of
three persons.
Many of us on reading
this story, were no doubt
moved by a mixture of horror
and amusement ... in fact
a commonplace response
which completed the syn-
drome sparked off by an
equally vulgar event.
Out of this bloody event
one thing at least is clear.
That is: toot moon bien
zabilles (everybody was well-
dressed). For rarely do we
Trinidadians miss an occasion
to dress to kill.
The question then remains
why was it necessary to
establish who had sounder
threads? Why could the ladies
not resist the compulsion to
And paramount among the
reasons which suggest them-
selves is the fact that people
fight for what they believe

After all these years of the
lowest kind of dodges, people
must cease to make political
interpretations of the kind
that led most to believe that
the Doctor was actually plan-
ning to retire because he
said so in 1973.
Or that the Messiah came
back only to steer the party
and the country up to the
next election at which
point we will be able to select
the leader and the party of
our own free choice.
The Government of the
country is crooked till it
bend. We have reached the
stage of Bendevolent Docta-
torship, which is doing any-
thing to stay in office.
It is in that light that we

in. The psychological deduc-
tion being that for the
females in question, 'heavy'
threads stand high up on
their scale of values.
In so far as that view is
tenable then the irresistible
conclusion is that our sisters
have been guilty of worship-
ping before the altar of a
vulgar materialism.
And in the particular
context have been faced with
a dilemma, the equivalent
of Karl Hudson-Phillips'
before his political leader's
throne. They have been
gallerying on threads alone.
Yet they are not unique
in that respect. For the clue
which points to an under-
;tanding of the battle over
sounder threads is the all-
pervading and many-sided
poverty which engulfs us all.
So it is that materially we
hunger for a more equitable
distribution of our national
bread, and yearn for a mean-
ingful stake in the land to
which we owe our allegiance.
Spiritually we lack, or
tend to, self-confidence in
our inherent capacities to
alter our straitened condi-
tions of existence. Politically
we enjoy no power to bring
our sentiments to bear
dlecisively in the governing of
the affairs of State. And as a
people we find ourselves still
largely rootless and frag-
Tne uireads question then
is just another qualitative
measure of our poverty.

must interpret the newest
legislation. To understand
where the Government is
coming from in fact, it is
useful to notice that the most
vocal opponents of the Sabo-
tage Bill so far have 'been
either lawyers with a certain
professional interest orpeople
who on the whole support the
Williams regime.
James Manswell and the
Labour Congress clique; the
employers Consultative
Association; the Trnidad
Manufacturers' Association.
The focus of their attack has
been on Part II, Clause 8,
the provision whereby a case
could be determined "on the
balance of probabilities"

Equally potent indicators are
to be found in our penchant
for social emulation and in
our so-called mad scramble
at the public trough.
This dilemma is felt per-
haps most acutely by peoples
of African descent. As an
explanations which tells us
why the State (viewed in
terms of Manswell's triennial
wage-bargaining) is so impor-
tant for us, it can hardly be
The stake therefore which
the overwhelming majority of
persons among us have in the
affairs of this State is either
too slim or too ephemeral to
sustain in us a noble vision
and the work necessary to
accomplish it.
To the extent we suffer
from a want of patriotism
it is also because of that
very fact.
What we would most
easily be persuaded to fight
for are those things which we
have or can afford to have.
To fight or to work for that
which we should have as of
right is to raise the standard
for drastic and all-round
And the latter, I am afraid,
has been moving apace in this
little island of ours, betwixt
and amidst the tragi-comedy
of merely gallerying over
threads. When that cycle shall
have been consummated the
hope is that we would have
won for ourselves social just-
tice and something real for
which to fight. (Lloyd Taylor)

30 Cents



From Page 1
rather than the ordinary crim
final law principle of "proof
beyond reasonable doubt."
In this perspective, we
expect further attack on the
special rule of evidence intro-
duced in Clauses 6 and 12
by which there would be no
appeal allowed on the ground
of conviction by evidence
that was otherwise inadmis-
At this level too, it might
be claimed that the penalties
are too harsh and there could
be many perfectly sane stric-
tures levelled at the Bill.
Yet it would be a funda-
mental error of strategy to
attack the Bill at this level
alone. The Government
knows that very well and it
is no surprise that its normal
allies have gone off on that
particular scene.


The purpose of this Bill
is not to give the police and
the Prosecution any more
initiative and power at the
level of trials in Court. Con-
trary to the claims that the
Bill's aim is "to provide for
the defence of the com-
munity .. ." the real design
is to escalate the intimidation
of the already frightened
citizens by underpinning the
reign of terror.
The most wicked aspects
of this Bill are three. First of
all, the Bill focuses on the
militant Unions.
However much Pitt has
attempted to cover the tracks
by including employers as
well as trades unions amongst
those who could be liable, we
know very well that the
police are not going to be
predisposed to believe that
any property-owning em-
.ployers have engaged in any
acts of sabotage.


Union militancy is under
attack at a time just follow-
ing the upsurge of the United
Labour Front and the
regeneration of hope that a
genuine and multi-racial
labour party might arise to
,smash the old racist PNM-
DLP regime.
Williams knows that the
mere. announcement of the
Bill is enough to terrorise
many people just as so much
of the earlier legislation has
left people believing that it is
illegal to put up any posters,
to hold any political meetings
or to oppose the Government
at all.
When we see it this way,
it is so much easier to
appreciate the disaster in-
volved in the recent ULF
attempt to rush the brush
without any serious prepara-
We can also appreciate the
real meaning of the game
played by Manswell and
Critchlow in their newspaper
statements calculated to
embarrass the ULF and to
kill any hope of a new
understanding between the
Council of Progressive Unions
and the Trinidad Labour
Weekes, Panday and Shah
failed to undertake the
political education among
their respective rank and file
members; Manswell and
Critchlow widened the gulf
that divided labour and now
Williams is making hay while
the sun is shining brightly.
It is part of his policy of
a new alliance with the multi-
national corporations in the
struggle now going on
amongst the oligarchy of
trans-national Corporations,
Umon elites, the national
business and professional
elites and the political
brokers who control the

Government and the State.
The key to this whole
strategy is to be found in a
very telling phrase which
explains that the Act would
become particularly relevant
"during a period of industrial
strife." What on earth is a
period of "industrial strife"?
Which God or King will have
the prerogative to define it?
Have we not had one ever
since the mid-sixties when
the rift appeared between
Weekes and Williams?
The people who are not
represented or who do not
wish to be represented by
any of the branches of the
privileged oligarchy must be
.clear as to what is taking
The people who are badly
or minimally or nominally
represented by the Union
elites, the Union elites which
do not wish to be privileged
at the expense of the multi-
tude of the disadvantaged
citizens, those businessmen
and professionals who wish to
create a decent world for all
the little people, all must be
clear on what is here in-


The second wicked aspect
of the Bill to which they
must lend their attention is
the fact that it is the last in a
dong line dealing with public
'order. We must therefore
estimate the cumulative
impact of the entire package
The third aspect of the
Bill is that it is yet another
of a whole series which has
raised the issue of funda-
mental rights and the passage

of which has been striking
the validity of constitu-
tional cover. This is especially
so in a context where our
political cover has disappeared
with the collapse of the PNM
and DLP as a functioning
party system and where our
governmental cover amounts
to little or nothing with the
complete emasculation of
Parliament in the 1971 elec-
In other words, the Sabo-
tage Bill is the last of a line
which invokes Section 5 (2)
of the Constitution and
waives our rights set out in
Sections 1 and 2 simply by
requiring a 3/5 majority in
the two houses of a Parlia-
ment that does not and
cannot work.
It is the last in a line of
measures raising the spectre
of public order.
The line began with the
Mbanefo Commission of
Enquiry in 1963/64, went
through some curious mea-
sures banning literature and
controlling migration, took
in the ISA and led to that
avalanche of repression
represented by the Public
Order Bill, the Firearms Act,
the Sedition Amendment
Ordinance, the Summary
Offences Amendment Ordi-
nance and the Industrial
Relations Act.
What we have to imagine
is the impact of all this
"defence of the public
interest" on the mind of the
average citizen.
When people hear that this
Bill is amending the Offences
against the Person Ordinance,
the Malicious Damage Ordi-
nance, the Summary Courts
Ordinance and the The Crimi-
nal Procedure Ordinance, the
impression left in the part-
icular climate of repression
is of a wholesale revision to

stamp out any vestige of
The lawyers are of course
right to oppose the upsetting
of the principle pf "proof
beyond doubt". Corrupt as
the judicial system un-
doubtedly is, the people
Lkow enough of its ways and
means to extract a certain
amount of rough justice from
Anything which suddenly
changes the basic rules risks
losing the population and
opening the way to highway
robbers. On that ground, the
lawyers must fight at their
own particular level.
Politically, however, we
have to take the confronta-
tion to a very different plane.
It is not enough simply to
have the offending clauses
altered or deleted or even to
have the Bill withdrawn. A
withdrawal could still have
an intimidatory-at- impact.


The Bill must be the
occasion of a crushing political
defeat for the Government.
The country must take the
firmest possible stand to show
that-we are blocking the
path of this monstrous
police state, conveniently
presided over by a Bendevo-
lent Doctator.
There is no way ofblockingi
this Government by an attack
on the purely legal plane.
The issue is a political,
constitutional and certainly
a moral one.
Ii the Government has to
be passing so much legisla-
tion which has to be shown
to be "reasonably justifiable
Continued on Page 3

West -Indian Social Sciences Index

. New World Moko Tapia

U Savacou

1963- 1972


* Subject and author entries in one alphabetical sequence
* Comprehensive coverage of all articles
* Supporting cross references

Professionally prepared by a librarian at the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine,
the Index includes an Introduction by Dr. Gordon Rohlehr, Head of the English Depart-
ment, which places the publications in a social and historical context.

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From Page 2
in a society that has a proper
respect for the rights and
freedoms of the individual",
then there is either a State of
Emergency or a constitutional
The tinkering with the
legal framework becomes
nothing but treating symp-
toms. The real problem lies in
the fact that the Government
has governed the country
into a crisis where there is
no longer any trust.
All the institutions includ-
ing the Church and the
Unions have sat by and
allowed corruption, un-
employment and inequality

to assume revolutionary.
Now we cannot even
maintain the ordinary utilities
and amenities at a level
tolerable to a long-suffering
and patient people.
We are sitting on a powder-
keg, a volcano will soon
erupt. The answer lies in
constitution reform, in econ-
omic reorganisation and in a
new political dispensation, all
underpinned by a morality
equal to a resurgence among
our people.
We can make a beginning
at this very moment by
sabotaging the Government's
intentions with a resounding
political defeat for the
Criminal Law Amendment
Act of 1975.



1. (1) This Act may be cited as the Criminal Law
(Amendment) Act, 1975.
(2) This Act shall have effect notwithstanding
sections 1 and 2 of the Constitution.


4. The Ordinance is amended by inserting the follow-
ing new section immediately after section 63 thereof :-
'"mIegal 63A. (1) A person who has or has had
of mate.rias in his possession or under his control in
for making any place any materials which the Court
explosives a an
is satisfied could be used in the manu-
facture of an explosive substance in such
circumstances as reasonably caused any'
constable to suspect that the materials
were intended to be so used by such person
in order to commit or in order to enable
other persons to commit any offence
against this Ordinance, may be held to be
guilty of an offence against this Ordinance,
unless he satisfies the Court that he had
no such intent.
(2) A person who is guilty of an
offence under subsection (1) is liable to a
fine of five thousand dollars or to imprisoni-
ment for five years or to both such fine
and imprisonment.".
7. Section 2 of the Malicious Damage Ordinance
(hereinafter in this Part referred to as "the Ordinance")
is amended by adding the following new definitions
thereto: -
"explosive substance" includes a molotov
,. cocktail;


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Participatory D)emocracy C.V. Gocking
We are in a State Ivan Laughlin

1 Black Power and National Reconstruction
Lloyd Best
2 Black Power in Human Song Syl Lowhar
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Government and Politics in the West Indies
Lloyd Best
6 The Machinery of Government and Reform
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Constitution of the Tapia House Group and
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1 No. 26 Vol. 2 No. 13
4 (Nos. 1 26)

"molotov cocktail" means any device, however
constructed, whereby inflammable mate-
rial or other combustible matter contained
therein may be thrown or otherwise de-
CLAUSE 8 posited and ignited.".
8. The Ordinance is amended by inserting the follow-
ing new section immediately after section 17:-
"Damage to 17A. (1) A person who unlawfully and
plant and
machinery maliciously damages-
in essential
services (a) any plant, machinery or other
property or any part thereof be-
longing to or in the possession of
an essential service; or

No. 46 of

(b) any storage tank, pipelines or tank
waggon for the storage and supply
of petroleum and petroleum pro-
ducts (within the meaning of the
Petroleum Act, 1969) belonging to
or in the possession of any person,
is guilty of an offence and liable to
imprisonment for life or any term of years.

(2) Where a person charged with an
offence under subsection (1) is employed
in connection with the plant, machinery or
dther property alleged to have been unlaw-
fully and maliciously damaged and from all
the evidence adduced by the prosecution it
appears on a balance of probabilities that
such person is guilty of the offence with
which he is charged the Court shall find
him so guilty notwithstanding any other
rule of law to the contrary.

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,L1~. '..


SUNDjAY JUNE 1, 1975




MANLEY's three year leadership
so far demonstrates essentially
the nature and dilemmas of a
nreo-colonial regime. Jamaican
independence in 1962 and the
campaign promises of politicians
like Manley led to heightened
aspirations and expectations by
the masses. They expected that
this time "Joshua" would really
deliver them from their frustra-
tions and deprivations.
Manley got into office in 1972
partly because people were tired of
J.L.P.'s, reign of corruption and
ineptitude which led to an increased
poverty, and increased economic sub-
servience to the U.S.A. They were
suffering from the real post-indepen-
dence blues. Manley's victory also
resulted from his personal style of
campaigning which establishes him as
a super-opportunistic and symbolic
Through paid political advertise-
ments to the Daily Gleaner Manley
appealed to all sections of the popula-
tion and promised each sector improve-
ment, however conflicting the interests
of these groups were. Projecting
himself as a moral and spiritual leader
he militantly and actively campaigned
for and obtained the support of the
churches, the Rasta Farians, Claudius
Henry's supporters, youth groups,
women, industrialists and the old.
From this early stage, it was
evident that there was no consistent
principle underlying his appeal, except
the Machiavellian thirst and determina-
ti6i to gain office, however inflated
were the promises. With the aid of his
symbolic "rod of correction", Michael
Manley was able to win an overwhelm-
ing victory.


From Guatemala City, a "self-
exiled" Jamaican, Lloyd Wright, wrote
to Michael Manley in March 1972
congratulating him on his resounding
victory,/but at the same offering some
wise counselling:
Your margin of victory must be
interpreted as a mandate for
fundamental structural socio-
economic changes If you
allow this opportunity to slip by
by substituting pions pronounce-
ments, deceptive manoeuvres,
myopic pragmatism and diligent
inactivity for energetic, honest,
farsighted, ingenious and
courageous leadership it would
be an ignominious act indeed
which could make a socio-
political explosion .
Most commentators agreed with this
Since getting into office Manley
has not carried out these "fundamental
-structural socio-economic changes"
and in order to deal with the "Great
Expectations" of the masses, Manley
like other neo-colonial regimes, has
found it necessary to vacillate between
two methods of coping with this dis-
crepancy, the second of which was
used overwhelmingly by the previous
government and the first by Michael's
Government, though he is forced to
move towards the second as time goes
(i) The first consists of symbolic
manipulation. This consists of
all those peripheral changes,
formal governmental gestures
and political rhetoric occurring
in the areas of culture, politics
and economics; Which gets
around the core problem of the
distribution of power and wealth
in the society, and which there-
fore functions to- placate and
cool down the heightened
consciousness of the oppressed
and frustrated in Jamaica.
(ii) The second consists of
repression, a response used
against those groups who see



& -

Jamaican Prime Minister Michael Manley and wife Beverly.
Since Independence and finds
Dennis Forsythe, a Jamaican little cause for rejoicing.
now lecturing in the Dept. of In this, the first of two
7In this, the first of two
Sociology at Howard Univ.
S articles on the subject he ex-
in Washington D.C., takes a am es po e
critical look at the extent of ines te ica
Prime Minister Michael
-the changes in Jamaican society Mn y

The Piecrust Principle

through the manipulative sym-
bolisms of the Government.
Symbolic manipulation may be
ascertained by comparing the actions
and-rhetoric of the government against
the background of the entrenched
cultural, political and economic
Some examples from the cultural
sphere may be cited. While the reality
is an entrenched "white bias", in order
to keep up with spirit and trends of
the time so as to appeal to our sense
of cultural deprivation, Michael Manley
courted and married a black woman,
popularised the bush-jacket, sponsored
a large number of cultural and artistic
endeavors, used the Mystic Revelations
(a Rasta group) to represent Jamaica
on a number of occasions, participated
in the Sixth Pan-African Congress in
Tanzania, and courted and hosted
Black Muslims from the U.S.A.
In the political sphere the fact
is that blacks are the administrative
officers and titular leaders, but they
are servants not of the people but of
the. property-owners. Michael Manley
canonised Marcus Garvey by making
him a National Hero and voted to give
Amy Jacques Garvey a pension but
not providing Amy Garvey with the
outlets to spread the doctrines of
Garveyism, and at the same time
arresting Marcus Garvey's son, and
confiscating his passport, for assemb-
ling in a small demonstration without
While claiming and pledging to
stamp out. political victimization and
favouritismm" in politics, on coming.

into office he developed a work distri-
bution formula whereby supporters of
his party, P.N.P., would get 60% of
jobs on government projects, and
J.L.P. supporters and others the
remaining 40%.
The government granted money
to the black liberation movements in
Africa and opened up dialogue with
the Communistworld by sending trade
missions to Cuba. In his book The
Politics of Change and in his rhetoric
he co-opts such popular leftist concepts
like "Revolution", "Socialism", "Pan-
Africanism", "Equality of Opport-
unity", etc., but of course, gives them
a different meaning. He is quick to
point out that Jamaica cannot import
any foreign ideology and that what
worked in Cuba will not work in
Jamaica but at the same time co-opting
such Cuban programmes like the
literacy drive and government farms,
but since these things are taken out of
their revolutionary context they can-
not work.
While Manley avowedly talks of
Socialism he has not removed any of
the repressive laws against trade unions,
although he himself, like two other
post-Independence Prime Ministers,
has emerged outof the Trade Union
movement. The history of Manley's
N.W.U. tells us something about the
limitations of the present government
inherited from the past. In industries
like bauxite, the N.W.U. was able to
secure a strong foothold with the help
of the United Steelworkers of America
.(U.S.W.A.) and the American Federa-
tion of Labour (AFL-CIO). By 1954

the N.W.U. represented all workers in
the bauxite industry and was assisted
by U.S.W.A. representative, Nicholas
Zonarich, who came to Jamaica and
met with the late Norman Manley and
started a long relationship between
Independent efforts by workers
in the bauxite industry were usually
defeated by the N.W.U. which had
access to American union funds. The
U.S.W.A. gave generously both of its
money and its time. In the 1950's
several N.W.U. officials in Jamaica
acquired cars out of union funds, and
Ken Sterling, a N.W.U. organiser who
was on the payroll of the U.S.W.A.,
had to exile himself because of the
misappropriation of funds.
Ken Sterling along with George
Skinner, Wesley Wainwright, Wesley
Haye, Clive Dobson and Bert Ruben
were part of a breed of aspiring N.W.U.
careerists who had no experience in
the industries they represented and no
gut-level interests in the workers, and
eventually they ended up working for
the industries that they formerly
bargained against. Manley is the third
union leader since independence to
have become Jamaican Prime Minister,
yet there is much anti-union legislation
on the statute bouk!
In the economic sphere the fact
is that our resources are owned by
foreign and domestic capitalists and
only a number of pin-prick measures
have been made against this fact. The
Government increased the revenue
Continued on Page 9


The Bomb Festival:

A Time For Gallery


Lennox Grant

1 WAITED to see the
story, but it didn't make
the BOMB and I wasn't
much surprised. In a
week that saw the hang-
ing of Malik and the
exhumation of the
shallow-buried memories
of the Christina Gardens
mayhem, a report of the
BOMB editor's meeting
with some QRC school-
boys was hardly a candi-
date for publication in
the paper which says that
"your week begins on
Still, now, two Fridays
after the meeting, I feel there
was an even chance of the
story appearing. In its con-
founding way, the BOMB has
been, among other things, the
most consistently serious
commentator on the media.
And the meeting in QRC to
which I had also been in-
vited was a sixth-form panel
discussion on "the role of the
SAnd then the fact that the
big man himself had turned
up when Leslie Fitzpatrick
(ever heard of him?) the
third invitee, never showed -
reflected the latter day
enthusiasm of the BOMB
editor for public relations.
The previous day, I heard
later, he'd been at St.
Augustine Girls'.


The hardest working
/journalist in Trinidad .is
becoming a social lion, a star-
attraction at cocktail parties
etc. He has allowed himself
to be interviewed by Alfred
Aguiton and Astra Da Costa
for their Saturday afternoon
programme, "Conversing With
History" which has so far
featured people "like Sir
Solomon Hochoy, Sir Arthur
McShine, Mr. Cyril Duprey,
Brigadier Joffre Serrette, Mr._
A.N.R. Robinson and Mr.
Lionel Seukeran.
Taking their cue, the
members of the BOMB staff
have not been slow in rush-
ing whatever part of the
spotlight they could get. So
Trever Smith buys a new
motorbike that's news. And
"Trudeau Meets the Bomb,"
is back-page lead the story
being that Trudeau had been
introduced by the Governor
General to BOMB photo-
grapher Mike Mohammed, and
the two had actually talked
'or a few minutes! Some
other photographer took the
picture of Mike Mohammed
squeezing Pierre Trudcau's
hand with both his hands. All
olf which went to show, the

rarmck nooookcolinzo

story concluded, that
"BOMBmen are the greatest".
In the old days when tme
BOMB was more literally one
man's paper, and the editor,
with occasional help from Sat
Maharaj, wrote or rewrote
the whole thing from cover
to cover, there was little time
for the PR junkets of today.
In less than five years the
paper has achieved unparal-
leled success 50,000
copies sold each week; 28
ad-packed pages; undeniable
popularity, if not respect-
ability, at home and abroad.
With all this has come the
right to unabashed self-
!projection that the BOMB
staffers from the editor
down have arrogated to
themselves in the pages of
the BOMB. With that kind of
circulation, you could get
away with anything.
Now that the hard pioneer
days are far behind us (the
first issue of 31 July 1970
sold only 15,000, and the
first 10 issues carried only
32% advertising), why can't
we indulge ourselves a bit?
It relieves the unyielding
tedium of the weekly
formula, and people do like
to read about people. So you
can't go wrong, can you,
So self-indulgence is the
name of the game. It is what
follows early, unexpected, but
limited success in this coun-
try. When you cease to have
peers, people who could pace
and challenge you, that is
when you feel you could
afford to dingolay. On the
football and netball fields,
the game not blown off ye-t-
but you know you win; so
it's cha cha cha time. Maybe
you could, but you don't
care to score again, only to
Nothing Trinidadians like
better of course whether
they're on the field or in the
stands. And it's the tragic
truth about achievement in
this narrow world of ours:
that it's so easy to become
the "best" or the "greatest"
in any field in this country.
If you don't have the motiva-
tion or the perspective to go

on getting better, then the
initial success seen against
the background of lesser
achievements all round -
becomes a source of its own
corruption and decline.


What all this means, as it
relates to the BOMB, is that
it avails little to be merely
better than (if only that
means to outsell) the Express,
Moko and TAPIA. And
having passed that stage,-

Trever Smith

what now? If journalism is
not any the richer for the
success of the BOMB, what
was the point?
All right, it employs some
people and enriches some
others. And that is some-
thing. That is the ultimate
contribution of a garment
factory. The owner dosen't
have to like the garments he
manufactures, and certainly
would not wear them himself.
His concern is only that sales
keep mounting.
By now it should be clear
that I do not join in the
facile dismissal of the BOMB
as a scandal sheet unworthy
of serious attention. As a

journalist myself, my view nas
had to be more complex. I
have" watched the BOMB -
staff as much as the editor

The only time I get
really worried is when the
fellers appear to be believing
their own rhetoric, when
they seem to have imbibed
the jingoism about the paper
and its editor, when they
want to go along with the
extravagant praise that it's the
best thing -to happen to
Trinidad and Tobago etc.,

Because it meahs that, in
their position of closeness to
the most successful oumalist
in theCariobean, they're not
learning anything but how to
;ing his praises.

I felt sure that in the
tiered rows of the QRC
lecture theatre there sat some
future journalists. The 53-
yearola BOMB editor an-
nounced himself as a profes-
sional journalist whose job it
is to sell newspapers and
who does not pretend to any
deep philosophical ideas about
the role of the media. That
he left to those like myself.

Later in the schoolyard,
the BOMB editor roared
away amidst a cloud of dust
in a splendid green Bonneville
limousine and thus
drove home the message.


Literature Econmic

Lloyd King Economics
Gordon Rohlehr
Victor Questel George Beckford
Denis Solomon Norman Girvan
Cheryl Williams Owen Jefferson
Derek Walcott Clive Thomas
Wayne Brown Maurice Odle
William Demas
Roy Thomas
Havelock Brewster
Alister McIntyre

lames Millette Lloyd Best Vernon Gocking Dennis
Forsythe Fitz Baptiste Vaughan Lewis

Phone 662-5126 or visit our office at
82-84 St Vincent Street Tunapuna.

sir II- II __


Breaking Myths a

Pat 1

C includes

of Derek


Joker oQ
I t~-~- I- i IIL~

el a relaxed and unstrenous style.

THE first part of this apprecia-
:~on examined the moral signific-
ance 'of the Don Juan legend, and
considered its\authentic bearings
on the society, ,present in the
plot with varying degrees of
obliqueness. Itis,however, where
action is deployed in song and
dance elements that the original
spiritual values of the theme are
being most fully crystallised and,
communicated. These basic
values relate quite closely to our
own circumstances, forming the
,basis of the critical parallels
Walcott draws between the old
societies and the new.
Creole rhythms of song and
physical expressiveness are
orchestrated to enact the corres-
pondences. They become identi-
fied and immediate in West
Indian strains. The general
principle behind this technique -
the use of song and dance to
present action -- is characteristic
of the musical. Walcott exploits
it resourcefully for the "seamless
ironsitions" from Spanish clas-
sical setting to local Tolk setting.
The Joker thus advances through
:i number of major sequences consist-
ing.of die total orchestration of sung,

mimed and danced performance. These
sequences all represent climaxes of
action and meaning in the play. They
dramatise its central themes. In the
Middle Passage sequence, the experi.
ence of shipwreck and chaos is
performed to "The Ballad of the
MiddlePassage" In the celebration of
Tisbea's initiation into sexual experi-
ence, the complex burden of freedom
is performed to the strains of "Tisbea
went and Bathe". While the joker's
will to find a life-asserting power in
struggle is recaptured in the local stick.
fight "Let the resurrection come
from the stickfight".
Foreign passes into local at these
climaxes; and, most importantly, they
are all unmistakably West Indian in
tempo and sensibility. The burden of
the Middle Passage, for example, com-
bines the predicament of master and
slave. The journey is mimed in pat-
terned movements which blend ele-
ments o: the limbo dance with gestures
indicating lack of direction and
disaster. The movements thus capture
the effects of oppression and ship-
wreck typical of that historical experi-
ence, while Catalinion's "Ballad of the
Middle Passage" recites this very
burden in choric accompaniment:
E'l Captain was a quaking wreck
el first late mnuy borracho los
Crew who staggered round the.

didn 't know arse from el-bow-el

cargo was a raving lot
of Negroes, coon and bimno-who
screamed the blues when they
were not
up practising el limbo so
The "Ballad of the Middle
Passage" allows scope for different
theatrical interpretations, and the non-
West Indian producer can draw upon
dance-styles peculiar to his own
culture to mime the action. But in
moral substance it remains closest to
the experience of the region. In
Walcott's theatre, the physical style
and its peculiar vigour are vitally
West fndian, and the black experience
It is in the sequence celebrating
Tisbea's sexual awakening that the
deepest moral strains are being sound-
ed, ana this form of orchestration is at
its most powerful. Tisbea, seduced by
Juan, has been awakened to the
conflicts and violating forces of libido.
This brings her, like Juan's other
women, to the threshold of final moral
The Sisters who dance Tisbea's
fall to'the strains of "Tisbea went and
Bathe" are giving theatrical expression
to this process of discovery. She now
faces the dual choice: either to find
creative control in desire, or to submit

to its mocking tyrannies and be
confounded. She is therefore being
urged by the Sisters to hold fast to the
struggle/ and maintain control with a
hardihood equal to its rigours to
"hold on to the rod".
Deliverance lies in this very
effort -: that "rod is the rod of
correction" but like "the miraculous
serpent/it point to the promised land"
(The sexual image, together with the
implicit allusion to the myth of Eden
make these points quite eloquently).
The real crux of the struggle is to
resist becoming a slave to appetite and
being overwhelmed by its excessive
forces Tisbea must mind lest the
rod "jump out (her)hand". In short it
is an aspiration to maintain the true
tension of freedom and avoid the
negative aspect of its twofold burden:
the danger of losing oneself.
The chorus of "Tisbea went and
Bathe" sums up these realisitions:
Hold on to the rod, Sister Tisbea
Hold on to the rod.
though it turn like the staff f
to a miraculous serpent
mind it jump out of your hand!
The Sisters capture the vibrations
of these moral sentiments in physical
rhythms, so that strains of dance ;id
song fuse for a live inmitatioin of !.1;
process of awareness. Through these

N Ai


d Maidenheads!


cer Reviewt

Walc ott's
i.al-^aB.^....^^.- -. 'mBjg~-

living rhythms, the Sisters are appre-
hending the meanings organically.
Here Walcott is superbly assisted by
the imaginative choreography of Astor
Johnson. The tension of "holding on
to the rod" is caught in a "steady
rocking" beat, drawn from basic
Jamaican dance-rhythms, which them-
selves originated in possession cults
such as pocomania. The emotive
rhetoric of the Baptist preacher rises
in counterpoint to the singing, whip-
ping up religious fervour as the whole
performance builds up to a pitch.
Song rises into choral chant, dance
into ritual observance, and the Tisbea
sequence builds up into a veritable
communal celebration.
In Walcott's production (es-
pecially the December run) the se-
quence reached an elation which
caught in all audiences. As in the true
folk festival, ritual purposes found
elation in sheer sensuous and aesthetic
expression a feature which was also
powerful in the stickfight sequence.
This elation, excelled only by
the verbal richness of the play, was
one of the most immediate sources of
the enjoyment The Joker brought to
its audiences. Teic spirit of communal
participation caught in' most of its
audiences during tlese musical
sequences. Walcott's rena stage
helped to encourage a response itself

integral to that style of theatre. It
seems to me that the communal power
of the Tisbea sequence was stronger in
the first production.
In ihe second run the perfor-
mance was pared down. The number
of dancers and singers was reduced,
by contrast with the first production,
where Chorus and dance-movement
expanded to include the whole cast.
In the second production Walcott
seemed to be making the stylisation
more spare and clean-cut, with the net
result of losing the original communal
But Walcott is not merely satisfy-
ing our natural love of dance and song
in this musical treatment of the play.
He exploits much more than the
aesthetic appeal in reaching towards
these communal effects. He is recover-
ing the deeper psychic principle that
lies behind this natural love of dance,
song and mime. It reaches back to an
instinct rooted in the psyche of the
folk, and true to our own sensibility
as a people still close to the folk.
It is the instinct to enter into
religious experience organically,
through the pulsations of the body.
Meaning is realized through the langu-
age of the body, rather than through
the mental, reflective disciplines and
abstract processes typical of more
intellectual, "civilized" cultures.
This is the source of the ritualis-
tic modes of observance which prevail
in folk culture. What survives as the
love of dance and song in the West
Indian temperament goes back to this
root instinct. Walcott thus seeks to
revive the power of dance and song in
his theatre, in his effort to create a
style based on our own dramatic
resources. This has been developing as
a central aspect of his style, very
successfully in plays like Ti-Jean and
Dream on Monkey Mountain.
The most vital purposes of the
musical conception of the play culmi-
nate in these creolised sequences. At
base, they function on a mimetic
principle that is, dramatic states and
attitudes are not being directly pre-
sented, but rhythms and gestures are
stylised to mime the experience. The
wider, total style of The Joker is an
extension of this mimetic pattern.
Vocal expression both speech and
song, symbolic gesture and movement,
are generally working together to
present action.
An outstanding example of this
is the incident where Juan, like the
shipwrecked Ulysses, is discovered on
the beach by Tisbea, the local Nausicaa.
Juan proceeds to seduce Tisbea. The
highly allusive and rhetorical dialogue
between the two; the bawdy sexual
mime presented in the basket-and-
eel image; Tisbea's exaggerated, man-
nered declamations which break into
song at one point all these interact
to dramatise the seduction in a non-
realistic mode. Walcott has in fact
developed an inbuilt property of the
musical form to fashion a total style
where symbolic gesture, elements of
niime, verbal expression song and
speech alike support and interpret
each other. Dialogue therefore, is just
as important as song and dance in this
wider style.
What this means is that The Joker
as a musical does not follow the
classic operatic form, but draws close
to total theatre. Musical expression is
not the main vehicle of communica-
tion in the play. Song, speech and
gesture are being co-ordinated to serve
this purpose. At the same time, within
the expansive pattern of total theatre,
Walcott can isolate any of these
modes to function independently at

certain points. The composite nature
of total theatre allows scope for this.
This bears, though indirectly,
upon the incidence and distribution of
songs based on Western traditional
airs in the play, for example the
"Divina Pastora" and "The Sower".
Many felt that the mixture of foreign
and local airs made for discordance
and uneveness in The Joker (though
both types have proved equally
popular since the release of the
record). But thd points at which these
Western songs enter are so controlled
that they take nothing away from the
central role played by creolised music
in the play.
A song like "La Divina Pastora"
serves as a further, heightened expres-
sion of the character's sentiments,
occurring at a point where these
sentiments have already been registered
in the character's reaction on the direct
realistic plane. The song serves to
intensify the strains of these senti-
ments, but it is external to the
action. It functions on a choric dimen-
sion to extend feeling rather than to
enact it, by contrast with the local
music in the creolised sequences.
Songs like "La Divina Pastora"
and '"The Sower" mainly provide a
choric background to the action,
following the more classic principle.
The significant point is that in serving
this role they are confined to their
immediate contexts, localisedd" They
do not permeate through the whole
moral content of the play as do those
in the creolised sequences.
"Placed" in this way, a song like
"La Divina Pastora" exists indepen-
dently in its pure form, requiring the
pure singing talent which was so
outstanding in Syd Skipper's rendition
of the hymn in question. (By contrast
with the pure song we have in a piece
like "The Ballad of the Middle Passage"
the sung recitative which, combining
with mime, remains close to speech).
Most of the Western songs functioned
in this way, and though a few of the
singers were competent, none

approached the professional excellence
of Syd Skipper, and Andrew Beddoe
doing The Sower. Treated in this way,
the foreign songs fitted in as local
details in the composite tapestry of
The Joker, serving to enrich rather
than impair its total texture.
Some critics were also uneasy
about the use of pop elements in the
style of the play. It was felt that the
inclusion of these elements was indul-
gent and arbitrary and contributed
nothing to the effort to make the
c-.itent of El Bulador de Sevilla
meaningful in our time and place.
The first point to be noticed
here is that the theme of The Joker
is on an important dimension timeless
and placeless. By virtue of this the
play remains "open" and can accom-
modate styles and elements from a
variety of sources, both formal and
popular in character. So that the few
music-hall and slapstick features which
enter, skilfully engaged, do fit into its
design. They are, in fact, minimal.
A few such elements are blend-
ed in, for example, in things like the
horse-riding mime to which Juan and
Catalinion make their entrances and
exits. The mime is in the vein of slap-
stick comedy. Juan and de Mota flash
back to a vaudeville scene as they
recall their days with "the hags (they)
found so pretty/in every port of
Spain". Such elements contribute
important dramatic effects. Walcott
exploits them to vary the pitch from
high to low comedy effects which
are very active in a play made rich by
a range of vibrations from high
seriousness to sheer vulgarity.
An incident like de Mota's last
fling with the prostitutes which is a
popular version of Juan's promiscuity
- comes down to this lower pitch to
provide comic relief. These pop
elements are one of the many sources
Walcott mines for the vitality and
energy of the process of vulgarisationn'
at work in the play.
Continued on Page 8

I,--- I --


Long-playing record


original cast album

on sale

at leading record shops

For home deliveries


637-4028 or 662-4207


-~i I


From Page 7
In the second run, these effects
were enhanced with tie introduction
of the prostitutes in the short brothel
sequence. Noble Douglas gave an out-
standing performance as one of the
prostitutes. She is a very fine dancer
whose every movement- has a special
West Indian freedom and eloquence.
Controlled so skilfully for these varia-
tions in dramatic pitch, the diversity
of The Joker was, far from being dis-
cordant,.an enrichment.
There is one common source of
energy arnd vitality running through
these diverse theatrical effects, to
sustain a unity of tone in The Joker.
It is the language of the play, its
I sheer verbal richness. It is character-
ised by a peculiar brand of wit and an
accent which remains consistent
throughout these changing pitches
and settings. These qualities are,
moreover, distinctly West Indian in
character. Walcott states in a pro-
gramme that one of his main objec-
tives was to make the adaptation
"vulgar enough for audiences here to
enjoy it". The real strengths of this
vulgarisation, and its West Indianess,
are present especially in the language.
Basically the "high", dignified style
of the original classic is being brought
closer to and modulated by the
earthy style of popular West Indian
expression. The popular interacts with
the grand style to remint the latter in
its own coinage.
This works in various ways. The
dignified and proper are being reduced
and undercut by bawdy puns. In the
courtly milieu Juan's misdeeds are
defined in the elevated terms of
chastity and.defilement. This is con-
stantly being decoded in bawdy sexual
puns which captures the true spirit
of Juan's irreverence.


This reductive technique works
through a highly imaginative process. It
manages to retain and add to the
poetic, metaphorical content of the
language. The grand style takes its
elaborate metaphors seriously. What is
serious on the grand level becomes
sheer verbal extravagance on the vulgar
plane: the elaborate metaphors are
retained to serve reductive purposes.
The result is a kind of mock-rhetoric
which blends both he serious implica-
tions and ribald humour. There is
imaginative vigour and ebullience in
this kind of rhetoric, and they are
vitally West Indian in spirit. The West
Indian has this genius for extravagant
pun and parody. It is present in the
spirit of robber talk, mamaguy, and
enters into the calypso.
Juan's first meeting with Tisbea
is rich in these effects. The seduction
of Tisbea is an incident of high serious-
ness. As Juan persuades her to go into
the garden with him, the metaphors
allude to the Serpent's seduction of
Eve. But the images are being wittily
redirected, to the raw physical facts
of the situation. The mythic allusions
are still present, but the metaphors
now function as an elaborate rhetorical
pun. Juan persuades Tisbea:
Well, but never release him and
we'll go over to .to that
Eden there, my salty Eve, and
cast him out, angel with the
flaming-sword, keep the eel in
the basket where it belongs, and
lead us on ...
There are also more immediately
recognisable strands of this West Indian
style in things like "Tisbea went and
Bathe". Its idiom recalls that of the
old calypso "Miss Elsie River" "1
went"to bathe in a river". The witty
West Indian idiom which enters in
these various ways, carries the inflec-
ions and accent of the region
Except for the formal exchanges
within the Spanish court, it was
remarkable how West Indian the langu-


age remained in inflection and accent.
It was especially remarkable in the
performance of Hamilton Parris, who
played the role of Rafael. As leader of
the troupe of actors he served as
general Chorus, and had to carry a
good deal of the play's philosophical
overtures. He managed to preserve an
open style and his delivery retained
the native inflection throughout.
Hamilton Parris is always the most
relaxed and unstrenuous of the actors in
the Company. His style shows best of
all how.intrinsic the basic rhythms of
West Indian dialect remain in Walcott's
diction. Walcott can move :.;i 1 !l
from a more literary medium to plain
West Indian vernacular, as when
Parris expresses the fate of-the artist
in this speech:
"In this business, every man so
catching his arse we soon come
to resemble one another."
And in that most felicitous touch
where Norline Metivier as Aminta
deflates Juan's grandiose ardours with
this Trinidadian rejoinder: "You
joking yes."
In moral and stylistic concep-
tion The Joker of Seville is a well
integrated play, and Walcott's adapta-
tion is altogether successful. It
succeeds in finding meaningful bear-
ings on the society, and captures in

the process the rhythms of our own
forms of expression. (I think a good
deal of the peculiar richness of the
play will be lost in the Royal Shakes-
peare Company production and this
is as it should be). There were flaws in
the production,but these were flaws in
execution, arising from local weak-
nesses on the part of the actors.
This relates to the character and
needs of the Theatre Workshop.
Walcott's style is the style of total
theatre, as The Joker shows most
clearly. This means that his actors
must combine the arts of acting,
singing, daice, aicd ,me witI some
degree of competence, whatever their
individual professional skills as every
properly trained performing artist
does. Walcott has tried to develop the
Theatre Workshop along these lines.
But quite a few of the company lack
this versatility, and this was respons-
ible for the flaws in the performance.
Norline Metivier, for example, is
a competent singer and dancer, but
quite weak in acting. She gave a
hesitant performance in the bedroom
scene with Juan, which was well below
the standard of acting in The Joker.
Carol La Chapelle as Ana showed
similar limitations.She is a dancer,
and her movements are supple and
eloquent; but in the scene where the

three women discuss Juan's bequest
to them, her performance as the
outraged, vengeful daughter was quite
strained. By contrast we had Anthony
Hall, in the role of Don Pedro, who
combines considerable acting ability
with great miming skills. Physical and
verbal flourishes interacted richly in
his portrayal of the comic personality
of Don Pedro. His is representative of
the kind of training Walcott's actors


Most of the veterans in the
troupe have acquired this versatility.
Stanley Marshall, for example, can
switch from the sustained immobility
of the statue, which requires a serious
piece of classic acting, to a remarkable
display of body language as stick-
fighter. On the whole, the uneven
patches were counterbalanced by the
performances of such experienced
actors in the Company. Among these
were veterans like Errol Jones, and
Nigel Scott himself, a relative new-
comer whom the role of Juan has
turned into a serious actor overnight.

Stanley Marshall, Albert Le Veau and Carol La Chapelle in a scene from Joker ofjSeville


X.;l;s *. ;l: ;i *s *s : :- *1=1= *-** ***** ** *
-X* -
* *"
* I like to think that the philosophy and strategy of
. self-reliance which I set out in my book is a distilla- *
tion of my upbringing, my education and my experi- .
ence my parents were an enormous influence in *
shaping my basic approach to ideas such as equality *
, and justice, and so on; my education where I studied *
under Harold Laski, a towering intellect and purveyor .
of ideas; my experience as a Trade Unionist in Jamaica *
* for 20 years where I was fortunate to be exposed
intimately to the problems as well as to the psychol- *
* ogy of both workers and employers in Jamaica;
. where in the work place I was able to see enacted, so
to speak, the relationship between the social classes
*x iin the society, AFRICA MAGAZINE, MAY 1975(Interview with Ralph Uwecdue)
** *'
* *
**-***** ** *** ** ** *** **** **** *** **** ****** *** *

From Page 4
from bauxite but many serious griev-
ances remain against the companies
and nothing short of a complete take-
over of the industry will do. In fact, it
seems that the heavy levy was imposed
on the bauxite industry not from
any principled ideological position but
rather from a pragmatic one.
Prices of imports were rising,
says the Government, so "suddenly the
country had to pay three times as
much for its oil supplies. New and
large sums of money had to be found
in order to keep the country going."
Besides this, it is already rumoured in
Government publications that the
"Government's intention to acquire
control of bauxite ore is expected to
clear the way for Japanese and Gennan
interests to establish processing and
mining operations here."
In October 1972 a Conference
of non-aligned foreign ministers was
held in Guyana and Manley's govern-
ment abstained on the crucial para-
graph 8 of the Act of Program which
called on developing countries to
exercise national sovereignty over
their natural resources.
While granting free education
and initiating Government farms,
Manley has granted significant acreage
(11,000) of prime agriculturallands to
a Nixon adviser, John Connolly, and
former Maryland Lieutenant Governor
Rollins for exploitation of Jamaica's
meat resources.
Even where the Government has
taken over a Utilities operation this
policy, as in the case of the Jamaica
Omnibus Service, is not approached in
a revolutionary way. On taking over
the JOS, the Government Minister of
Transport, Eric Bell, had this to say:
"The acquisition of the shares of the
Jamaica Omnibus Services, Ltd., by

the Govermnent will only result in a
change of ownership of the company's
shares, and the company under a new
Board of Directors will continue in
existence as before with no change in
its contractual relationships, including
its relationship with employees. This
means that the position of all
employees of the company remains
unchanged, and their interests are
fully protected."
While committed to the principle
of political independence he has made
Eli Matalon, the richest Jamaican,
Minister of Justice. In a speech to the
Montego Bay Chamber of Commerce,
Matalon had this to say: "Wealth will
not insulate from the cold hands off
Justice. Poverty will not legitimise
crime. Those persons in the higher
income group of our society who
believe that because of their positions
they fall outside the law should take
a second look at themselves and asses
whether or, not their action are not to
a large extent, contributory to altering
the values of our nation and leading
to some of the questionable standards
which some of our young people now
At times this government's
policy of reconciling the interests of
both masters and servants backfires
in the press as in the well-publicised
"Vincent de Roulet affair". This
American .Ambassador to Jamaica
indiscreetly disclosed to the U.S.
Foreign Relations Committee informa-
tion to the effect that he had made a
pre-election deal with Michael Manley
that if Manley agreed not to nationalise
bauxite, the U.S. wohld not obstruct
the election of Michael Manley in the
1972 elections. It is generally agreed
that the former Prime Minister, Hugh
Shearer, had also made such a deal.

For this public disclosure, and to save
face, Manley was forced to give de
Roulet the boots by pronouncing him
persona non grata.
One can be sure tliat monopoly
capitalists will not be intimated by
such symbolic gestures. But some of
the more marginal and insecure ethnic
capitalists have become frightened off
by this symbolic manipulation, by the
rhetoric of "Democratic Socialism".
and have migrated to Canada and
elsewhere to start up business there
on a more secure foundation.
The other Governmental res-
ponse to groups and individuals who
see through these camouflages is

growing state repression. Many sectors
arid individuals in Jamaica either see
through these camouflages with their
eyes and brains, or feel it in their
hungry stomachs. Carl Stone's Class,
Raee and Political Behaviour in Urban
Jamaica documents this phenomenon
in Kingston. This fact is also reflected
in the continued efforts of Jamaicans
to migrate abroad, by the continued
development of escapist and religious
cults, and by the increased usage of
ganga. The Government has declared
"war on crime" (rather than on
poverty or wealth) and has instituted
a Gun Court when "crime" was
becoming more and more directed
against the wealthy.




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World Cup



NEXT weekend the first
ever "World Cup" cricket
tournament begins. The
major cricketing coun-
tries will be involved in
60 over games to deter-
mine the winners of the
Prudential Trophy. As an
international event it may
not have the mass appeal
of its football counter-
part but for cricket lovers
it will hold all the
excitement and afford
the same prestige as
World Cup soccer.
Many of the players parti-
cipating in the series have
already been on show this
season since they are playing
county cricket in England.
This is especially so for the
home team as well as The
West Indies and Pakistan and
to some extent Australia and
'The champion team will
come from any one of four -
The West Indies, Pakistan,

Australia and England. In a
real way, the luck of the
draw went England's way in
that they found themselves
grouped with New Zealand,
India and East Africa. It is
the draw and not technical
strength which gives England
a fairly easy path to the
In addition, they are play-
ing at home, though with the



We've got what you
need at minimum cost.


invasion of foreign players
into English cricket, this is
less an advantage than a
decade ago. They are there-
fore not likely to reach
beyond the last four.
The real fight is in the
other group iir which one of
Pakistan, Australia and the
West Indies is not going to
make it to the semi-final
stage. Such is the luck of the
draw. But the winners of the
tournament are almost certain
to come from this group.
Of the three teams the
West Indies seem the most
likely to make it to the final
stage and win. We have had
some early setbacks, the
most crucial being Rowe's
failure to adjust to his con-
tact lenses. Then, little has
been heard of Gordon
Greenidge except that a back
injury kept him out of
Hampshire's early games. For
a short while our express
bowler, Andy Roberts, gave
us a scare as he went down
with a finger injury, but now
he is up and around again and
as lethal as ever.
Even with Rowe out, our
team is not an easy one to
pick. Our batting will prob-
ably at the start be led by
Fredericks, Greenidge, Kalli-
charan, Lloyd, Richards and
Sobers. All six are ideally
equipped for the demands of
limited over cricket, hard
hitting, aggressive batsmen.
If they perform only reason-
ably well we should reach
totals beyond the reach. of
our opponents.
But our batting does not
cease with number 6. At least
one, if not both, of Boyce
and Julien will find a place.
This is a frightening thought
for the other teams. Boyce,
for example, is the most
feared cricketer in this limit-
ed over game in England.
His two successive whirlwind

centuries, in addition to
some equally effective bowl-
ing, some three weeks ago
has probably inspired any-
thing but' confidence in our
With Roberts and prob-
ably Sobers leading the
attack we have an excellent
opening combination. In
reserve there are three other
pacemen from whom we can
choose. This should leave
Lance Gibbs and Maurice
Foster to fight for the final
place. Foster's biggest pro-
blem is that our batting is
already strong and an extra






Tapia House 82-84 St Vincent Street Tunapuna







i A-;l'-Tarit,

batsman might not be neces-
All in all we have the
vital ingredients to win the
Prudential Trophy and all
that goes with it. But simply
to rely on our superiority is
not enough. Too often over-
confidence has been our
nemesis. We may be better
equipped than the other
teams but they won't just be
standing up in awe, bedazzled
by our brilliance; they are
going to be fighting all the
Our major hurdles are
Pakistan and Australia. What
do they have to offer? Let
us take Pakistan first. Like
us, they have had early set-
.backs. Their first was in the
selection of the team. The
dropping of Intikab is likely
to cost them dear. Besides
being -a leg spinner of the
highest quality even in the
context of limited over
cricket, he is one of the
hardest hitting batsmen in
the game.


The second setback was
the announcement last week
that the young allrounder
and Oxford captain, Imran
Khan, will not be available.
Pakistan's batting, there-
fore, rests upon their three
hitters Majid Khan, Asif
Iqbal and Wasim Raja and
the more sedate Sadiq, Mush-
taq and Zaheer. But the
lower order Pakistan batsmen
are by no means a walkover
as was demonstrated when
we played against them this
year and when they played
in England last year.
In AsifMasood and Sarfraz
they possess two excellent
swing bowlers. It is in the
spin department that they
are particularly vulnerable.
The omission of Intikab will
prove a major tragedy.
Australia, led by their
speed merchants, Lillee and
Thompson, are not likely to
prove as effective as in full
length games. Lillee and
Thompson will probably
meet their Waterloo when
they come up against us. Our
batsmen relish pace and here
the critical player is
Fredericks, one of the best
players of fast bowling. In
fact, his approach to pace is
absolutely savage. And he
seems, like good wine, to
be getting better with age.
Max Walker will have to do a
lot of bowling to keep us in
check. And we know well
that he must not be under-
Battingwise Australia are
going to depend heavily on

the Chappell brother, Marsh
and possibly Gary Gilmour
who is a terrific hitter of the
ball as we know from the
1970 Australian schoolboys.
tour. What I am not sure of

is how quickly the Chappells
can score. Doug Walters, who
has always enjoyed our bowl-
ing, has never done well in
England mainly because he
plays across the line too
much. To be among the runs
he may have to adjust his
technique considerably and
in so doing he may sacrifice
his aggression.
On balance, Australia may
have to settle for retaining
the Ashes later in the season.
Their fighting spirit,however,
must not to be ignored. Who
can forget the remarkable
spirit they showed in win-
ning at the Oval in 1973
when all seemed to be lost.
Our clash with them will be
a fiery one as the three
fastest bowlers in the world
will be in action against some

of the most skilfull batting.
The West Indies have
deservedly been made
favourites for the series. We
have the most competent
team. But favourites and

.competent teams have been
beaten in the past. Merely to
rely on competence and
favouritism would be the
surest path to disaster. While
we must be mindful of our
assets, we must be equally
mindful that hard, spirited
playing is going to be decisive.
The other teams know
that we are well equipped.
They are certainly planning
how to deal with us, how to
use strategy, tactics and
determination to counter our
technical superiority. We in
return mustbe determined to
use our qualities to the best
advantage. Like Milton's
devils, we do not lack the
skill or a't "from whence to
raise magnificence".

A. Ramrekersingh.


Mrs. Andrea. Talbutt,
Research Institut for
Study of Mark,
162, East -8th Street,
New York, 0 021,
. .e.eh :. 6448.






THE political pundits are
confidently predicting
water riots this year.
Even the March/April
Issue of the WASA Bi-
monthly Magazine is pre-
occupied with the
A study by Mr. H.
Braveboy of the Techni-
cal Division of the
Authority considers
Water Development from
1874 and cuts the story
short at the watershed of
the 1903 water riots.
The next Issue promises
"A View from the Top:
A Look Into the Water
Riots of 1903-1905 in
Meanwhile the coun-
try's mouths continue
to water. Signals of
distress are widespread in
the North as in the South
where the Government
has announced a six-
month austerity period
in regard to running
Minister of Public
Utilities Sham Moham-
med has been busy
making appearances to
give the appearance that
matters are in hand.
The WASA Magazine
features him twice send-
ing his message in
pictures. On the front
page he is seen shooting
water from a new Well -
the headline in red
announcing an improved
supply for Diego by Mid-
On the back page, The


Sham Mohammed turning sod for laying water pipe in Caiman Village; little drops of mercy.

Minister of Imposture
"strikes the first pick" to
bring pipe-borne water
way up to Caiman Village,
behind St. Elizabeth
Gardens and Godback.
Parish-pump politics
for so. The big question
is if all this flurry of
activity is going to pacify
the people when the basic
supply position for water
is nothing but an outrage.
A scandal, in fact, after
18 years .of PNM
long-term planning on a

strictly now-for-now
Sham's latest adven-
ture was to open a
million dollar-supply
meant to service the
eastern Corridor right
down to Tunapuna.
SThe plan, he says, is
to find little plasters for
the big sores while the
long-term plan is matur-
ing. And while the short-
term plan was maturing
last-week, Tunapuna had
no water for four long

Caiman Village gets
one standpipe. Com-
plaints; so it gets two.
And now the villagers
want house-connections
and they want the leak
in the line between
Eugenio Moore's house
and McDavidson's house
to be patched for the
second time this month.
"They say they fix
it the other day but it en
no fix."
What Sham is fixing is
the hole in the party. But
every time he fix, there

springs another leak. Poor
boy;he must be hoping
desperately to get away
from it all.
Don't dig no blues,
Shamshuddin, this year
you cool. This year
plenty water go flow
under the bridge. You go
get Water Riots or Water-
gate or Waterloo. Or all
of them together. And
politically, that is what
they call a watershed.


Tunapuna Vendors Make Gains

Vendors are to get better
facilities. Soon, spare land
next to the market is to
be marked out for use. A
reliable source in the
Ministry of Local Govern-
ment told Tapia so in an
informal interview last
Vendors have been
waiting for nearly a
month on a reply to a
letter forwarded to the
County Council by Tapia
Secretary Lloyd Best.
The letter pointed to

congestion in the market
as the main cause of strife
between vendors and the
market administration
and amongst vendors
Last Saturday May 24,
vendors assembled during
the afternoon for a meet-
ing under the big tree.
They were addressed by
Imran Khan, Beau
Tewarie, and Lloyd Best.
A lively discussion fol-
lowed in which Mr.
Patterson called for
vendors to bind together.

Mr. Balgobin outlined a
plan to use the area
around the old railway
station as a temporary
extension of the market
A constructive meeting
ended with general agree-
ment that the market
matter be raised in the
Senate; and that a letter
be written to the County
Council proposing the
adoption of Mr. Balgo-
bin's plan.
Tunapuna Market ven-
dors are to meet again

soon to finalise plans for
a Vendors Association.
Lloyd Best warned the
meeting that the only
way to win rights for

vendors was by perma-
nent organisation. One
hand can't clap, he


Sunday June 1st

10.00 am

At The House