Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00156
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: April 6, 1975
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00156

Full Text





TODAY Friday 4 April the
Taxi-Drivers have decided
that they are going on
strike. If they do their
action will only bring to a
swift head the increasingly
difficult transport situa-
tion in the country. For
in fact there have been far
fewer taxis on the road
due to the shortages of
The transport problem is
but the latest curse in a whole
progression of curses with
wmcn uwe citizens of the
country have been afflicted
within recent weeks. But more
than anything else it threatens
to bring the country to a com-
plete standstill.
For the taxi-drivers are :emplate is going
right when they .point out that enormous hardsh
they can be considered an already greatly su
essential service. In the absence nation. Lack of t
of any effectively functioning will threaten the
public transport system the -nany thousands
private taxis perform a vitally whom it may wel
necessary service. straw.
But for this very reason That the Ta
any action such as they con- be right to vent a



.g to impose
lips on the
offering popu-
livelihood of
of people for
1 be the final
.xi-drivers can
and dramatise

their protests' over the enor-
mous problems which 'they
face and yet in doing so jeo-
pardise the very existence of
so many people only serves to
emphasise once again the total
irrationality of the social, econ--
omic and political system and
the irresistible need for com-
prehensive reforms


For the claims of the
oilworkers can be demonstrate
to be eminently reasonable.,
Tapia has on many occasions
argued that case. And yet
today in pursuit of thei'
reasonable claims they hav.
created a situation in which
the country is starved for eas
So too me ciauns ot the

SCanefarmers and Sugarworkers
are demonstrably -well within
the bounds of reason and, yet
in pursuance of those claims
they have deprived the country
of sugar. And both oil and
sugarworkers are depriving the
country of enormous revenues
What obviously is lack-
ing is the mechanism, accepted
by 'all sections of the popula-
tion, within which conflicting
claims can be thrashed out anc
settled to the benefit of the
countryy as a whole. In short
we lack a legitimate Parliament
and the most urgent task oC
the moment is to convene one.
ou we iLae.a i.d no bA,.
we have no sugar, we have nc
water. Food is scarce and we
have no bread, no peace, no
justice; 'no Parliament and
above all we have no Govern-
If the country breaks
down tomorrow it will be
because "*,s. Government has
lacked the will, the courage,
and the humanity to call the
citizens together to decide on
our future in peace.



Table Discussion

Mr. Boysie Prevatt agrees that the
industrial disputes are at bottom an historic
clash of interests involving the Unions, the
Corporations and the Juggernaut State Machine
in a fight over the distribution of ,power.
Can we realisticaly eApect a solution at
the level of the Industrial Court or in negotia-
tions between Companies and Unions? What
is a practical and urgent solution? A State of
Emergency? An Election? A Capitulation by
the United Labour Front? An escalation of
The United Labour Front has called on
the Governor General to organise a Round
Table -Discussion. By neglecting to convene it,
the Government nmay well be pushing the
country further along the road to confronta-
tion, matched by repression and followed in-,
evitably by erosion of civil liberties.
The alternative must compel free citizens
towards a re-opening of national dialogue at a
Conference of national interests. There seems
to be no good reason why such a National
Conference could not begin with the Round
Table proposed by the ULF.
Once that Round Table broaches the
questions of profit-sharing, the multinational
presence, the rights of combination, represent-
ation and assembly for workers, we will have
reached the fundamentals which could be
settled only by reference to the collective will.
The most practical and urgent solution

Mr. President I should like most respect-
fully to ask the hon. members of the Senate,
through you, to move the adjournment of
this House in order that we may discuss the
disruption of the national economy caused
by the stoppage of work in the two predomi-
nant sectors oil and sugar a matter which
is of urgent public importance.

therefore remains an assembly or the sover-
eign citizens to exercise their collective wis-
dom. It our current roa. amnent were su,, an
assembly, Parliament could then have been
expected to fashion 5 solution acceptable to
the entire country. As it is, the Government
are paralysed and anything they do on their
own is certain to be a political mistake.
i i ac is not a matter for rejoicing because
a legal solution is possible only if the Govern-
ment can find the humility to yield the sover-
eignty to a more valid assembly of national
interests. If they did, the Unions would be
forced to suspend all militant action and to
make an early return to work.
At the purely industrial level, a speedy
and reasonable settlement could be reached
with a 60% uiler to oil workers and some act
that effectively recognized the new Cane
Farmers' Union.
The proposal by the ULF for a Round
Table Discussion shows perhaps that the

leaders are perceivii ne perils oi a simple
one-dimensional militancy.
Mr. WeeKes nas also now proposed a
Special Fund for the Poor which gives him
,both a basis for coming down from the 147%
and a bridge towards the bigger policy matter
of the oil industry's contribution to the
country as a whole.
Mr. Panday too has opened the gate to
much more fruitful discussion. His Union is
now prepared to drop all other demands if
Caroni Ltd is reconstituted to allow farmers
and workers to name directors to the Board.
Behind the smokescreen of continuing
robber-talk, diplomatic channels of access to
a statesmanlike settlement are being opened
The great danger is that the Government
may now have become too insensitive to
respond to tne Union leaders with the cand-
our and the generosity that you must accord
to equals in a competitive democracy.
Whitehall has been incapable of acknow-
ledging the validity of opposition demands
expressed in the extra-parliamentary arena.
Ironically, it is the failure to make the
democratic process work in Parliament itself
whichhas out us now in this monkey pants,
All the Government is doing, according to Mr.
Prevatt, is watching the situation.
See p. 5.




Vol. 5 No. 14

30 Cents


Jacques Farmer

THE suspeiision of the
Newsmakers programme,
and of voiced inserts on
any News Current Affairs
Programme at NBS 610
Radio, has little to do
with the reporting of the
events in San Fernando
on March 18.
It has to do with the
fact that for the last 3
years a team of dedicated
journalists have been
trying to use the 45
minutes available from
Monday to Friday to
present the nation with
the facts behind the
issues of the day the
first professional duty of
every journalist but one
that is not always
The Newsmakers Pro-
gramme itself has had a long
population of presenting the
day's events in the most
direct way by allowing the
people involved to say their
The programme was origin-
ally carried earlier in the
evening but Alfred Aguiton.
then Current Affairs Producer.
at 610 had pushed for its
inclusion at 7 o'clock-prime
listening time.
The journalists involved in
the Current Affairs team at
610 have been moved by that
desire to let the facts speak
for themselves from the
horse's mouth.
Most of them, had been
trained or had worked at one
time or another with Jerome
Rampersad, 610's Chief News
Editor, a former Editor of
the PNM Nation, and one of
those older breed of journal-
ists who had been able to
survive the long crossing.
The purchase of 610 Radio
by the Govt.had led to several
improvements in working
conditions, station equipment,
and even the freedom to
"publish" as it were.


But that was a long time
ago when the revolutionary
crisis in the country had not
come to a head; when Black
Power was merely a slogan
and movement from the
United States; when a Con-
stituent Assembly and Local-
isation were unknown terms
and when only a few people,
largely in the trade union
movement, started the battle
against the PNM regime.
Well, much blood and
water have flowed below the
bridge since that time.
For some time now, the
Govt. has been uneasy about
the- role of the Newsmakers
programme. That in fact,
Tapia's call for radio time for
alfpolitical parties and other
groups, was being partially
answered by this Programme,
though not in adequate
The Programme always
tended to over-compensate
for any time given to opposi-
tion or dissenting voices by
allowing Government spokes-
men, particularly the Moham-
med brothers Sham and
Kamal time disproportion-
ate to the interest or news-
worthiness of their statements.


The Government, like
several other persons in the
country both for and against
the Government are afraid
of any medium which will
allow free, frank and demo-
cratic discussion by the
citizens on terms equal for
all. Thus the instinct to sup-
press the Newsmakers pro-
gramme is the same one
which rejects the notion of a
Constituent Assembly or Con-
ference of Citizens where
everyone present can have his
Thus the occasion for ban-
ning Shah's voice and the
allegations of biased reporting
on the incidents in San Fer-
nando have only been mere
excuses to disguise the real
reason for the suppression in
the programme: The Govern-
ment's fear of allowing expo-
sure of other persons or
groups who would tell their
side of the story.
And as birthpangs draw
nearer, as the moment of the
new child, new movement,
new regime draws nearer the
reaction is one of fear, anger,
paranoia, and wild repression.
That is the reason for the
-orders which the police had
in San Fernando, that is the
reason for the ban on Shah's
voice and that will be the
reason for the eventual fall
of the 'corrupt PNM regime.
In times of stress, when
cool is the most important
weapon, movements which
are insecure and lack confi-
dence panic and make the
fatal mistakes which result
in their own demise.
So that there was no need
to ban Shah's voice nor to
stop the Newsmakers pro-
gramme nor to introduce a
so-called "editorial policy".
which is merely a further list
of don't.


An Editorial Policy is a
positive statement which out-
lines in broad and philosophic-
al terms the principles which
will guide the presentation of
news reports and analyses. It
deals with things that need to
be reported, to be covered.
It then concludes by
noting some of the limita-
tions on any such policy -
the normal limitations on any
human's freedom that it
must not endanger another's
Included in any such limiting
factors would be respect for
religious beliefs and and the
rule of law.
But when an "Editorial
Policy" sets out merely to
state the don't then it is
merely another version of the
prohibited literature statutes.
It is a device of censorship,
not of editorial policy. The
entire manner in which the
policy itself was drafted gives
an idea of the intent.

Jimmy Bain is appointed
Chairman, a self-confessed
ignoramus about the opera-
tions, functioning of the
media, in fact, he dosen't
even have time to listen to
the radio or watch television.
He asks about the reasons
behind the Shah banning,
decides that the reason is
due to a lack of editorial
policy and then sits down and
writes one, gets his co-
directors to agree to it and it
comes to the newsrooms of
610 and T.T.T. as a press
Now Bain is fooling no
one with his claims of non-
governmental interference in
his role, but what is clear is
that at no time was it seen
fit to consult the actual
people who would have to
implement such an Editorial
policy; not the Journalists
Association which is sup-
posed to cover working
journalists, or UCIW which is
supposed to represent them.
That is an order from the
top and who vex, lorse. Bain,
is himself a character who
requires separate comment.


The unanswered question
is whether the Government
has won. The Newsmakers is
now off the air and current
efforts are being made to
split up the Current Affairs
The first target is Raoul
Pantin, for the simple reason
that he is the only member
with another lever his
column in the Sunday Ex-
press where he has been
revealing some of the in-.
nert dealings.
However, there is no doubt
that the example is intended
to break the spirit of other
"dissentors" on the station.
Jones Madeira, for instance,
Chief Producer, who returned
from a safe job with the
B.B.C. to run the Newsmakers
Or Marilyn Jones or the
other members who have now
been shifted to the announc-
ing crew.

There is no doubt that the
action is also aimed at Leo
de Leon, who has been in
hot water since the Manager-
ship passed to Frank
Thompson (who incidentally
is still Chief Engineer, his
former post).
Or at Jerome Rampersad,
Chief News Editor, and a
fighter of Board room direc-
tives from wayback in the
Guardian days.
The action must also be
aimed at the T.T.T. workers
who have been fighting a
running battle with their
Generally, the tactic is to

intimidate, rather than fire;
and old device .that Jimmy
Bain must be very familiar
with from his Fed Chem
To date, there has been
resistance to the efforts of
the administration. There is
no doubt that the Journalists
Association, must protest
at the censorship moves if
only because it has been
making such a hullabalo
about the Hosein report
about Press censorship in
neighboring Guyana.


The more fundamental
question, is what should any
Government, even a Tapia
Gov't, do to ensure that it
does not use its own instinct
for self-preservation to des-
troy or hamper free expres-
sion in the media.
It is clear that the running
of T.T.T. and 610 Radio
must pass into the hands of
some body which can manage
more dispassionately the
operations of these two com-
munications media.
One such body could
obviously come from the
Senate, proposed by Tapia,
where a wide cross-section
of the national interests


would be represented. Such a
body should be entrusted to
appoint Management Boards
to such sensitive concerns as
the media.
This Management Board
would naturally engage in the
formulation 'of an Editorial
Policy. But such a policy
should not merely be for
radio or television but for all
the media and should involve
discussion with all interested
parties in general and th(
journalists themselves in part-
Immediate tasks would in-
clude training for members of
the media since several of
the problems in the media
spring from the limited time
and training made available
to journalists.
There should also be a
review of working conditions,
including salaries of journal-
ists to bring these in line
with other wages in the
society and in proportion to
the responsibility which their
profession involves.
It is not the same thing as
running a Rice Board, or
administering controls over
Fed Chem personnel. It
reqiuires depth, vision and a
perspective of the trade.
Without being personal, or
insulting, Jimmy Bain, seems
to be singularly lacking in
these qualities.


Newsmakers No Longer

ending Any Breaker

Over The Airwaves

Our coverage of


is unsurpassed anywhere

for focus and point.

Keep a breast of the

real currents in the

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Effective from March 23, 1975.
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Trinidad & Tobago, W.I. Telephone 662-5126.



The Battle At 610

Memo To Memo!

UNMINDFUL of the in-
ternational shortage of
paper pulp, the recent
events at NBS .10 Radio,
have resL.ted in a rast of
fnemo an I counter-memo
as an inter al battle rag.-s.
The ini ial target, but
not the last to the dis-
cerning eye, is Raoul
Pantin, 610 Current
Affairs Producer.
Three days after the
March 18 incident in San
Fe-nando involving mem-
bers of the UJL- march
and the police, 610
Manager, Frank Thomp-
son, issued a memo to all
staff about company
employees engaging in
activities outside of work-
ing hours wl-'ch could
"impair his efficiency in
his job or in any activity
whi h will bring the Com-
pany or his professional
efficiency into disrepute".
Pantin himself received a
personal memo which alleged
that certain articles written
by him in a column in the
Sunday Express "contravened
the provisions of the Collec-
tive Agreement stated above,
in that it tends to bring the
Company into disrepute."
This memo also contained a
warning that any recurrence
would result in severe disciplin-
ary action.
Pantin sent off a counter-
memo to Thompson asking
for some elaboration on the
nature of the "disrepute"
which his articles were claim-
ed to bring 610 into.
Thompson c o u n t e r-
memoed again reacting with
surprise at the request for
elaboration. "Certainly you
must know what is meant by
disrepute," said Thompson in
his memo.
He went to draw attention

to another article by Pantin in
the Sunday Express as also
contravening the provisions of
the Collective Agreement and
issued a final warning "that
should there be a recurrence,
severe disciplinary action
would bc taken against you."
Friday March 21, was
really a memo-rable day for
610. It begin with the artice
in the Bomb accusing Raoul
Pantin of taking over the
Government radio station for
half an hour on the previous
Tuesday and producing a
biased report on the events in
San Fernando.


Not so incidentally, Thomp-
son issued'his memos to the
general staff and to Pantin
on this same day pointing out
the regulations between Com-
pany and the recognized
union UCIV,.
Pantin soon set off his
counter-memo with an
attached reply to the Chooko-
lingo article.
Addressed to the Secretary
of the Journalists Ass. (JATT),
Jerome Rampersad, who is
also Chief News Editor at
610, Pantin dismissed the
Bomb article as "pernicious
and highly libelous."

He said that he only
arrived in San Fernando
around noon on March 18
and.that the first "side" of
the story he sought was the
"official" version by request-
ing an interview on tape with
Deputy Commissioner of
Police Denis Ramdwar, Mr.
Ramdwar, he said, declined
an interview on tape in the
presence of several persons,
saying .that the matter was
"sub judice" since several
persons had been arrested and

The Pioneer Pharmacy

WM Cockburn

Sangre Grande


Your district's first


were to be charged.
On the way back to Port-
of-Spain, Pantin said he had
interviewed groups of people
at scattered intervals along
the road. As far as he was
concerned the "credibility of
those interviews rests on the
simple fact that the people I
spoke to were mostly ordi-
nary cane farmers, oil work-
ers and sugar workers."
In Chaguanas, he had taped
statements made at a private
Back at 610, Pantin met
with Leo de Leon, Programme
Director. Jerome Rampersad,
and Jones Madeira, Chief
Producer of the Newsmakers
Programme. A decision was
then made on the approach
to be taken on that night's
edition of the Newsmakers.
The programme, it was
decided, would rely heavily
on tape material which he had
acquired on the story during
the day, tied in with earlier

reports from San Fernando-
"The idea in fact was to
present a news account of the
day's events, beginning in San
Fernando that morning and
embracing the rest of the
Madeira instructed Produ-
cer Marilyn Jones to try for
an interview with Commis-
sioner of Police, Tony May.
in the presence of Madeira,
Operator Hugh Phillips, and
himself, said Pantin, Marilyn
Jones had contacted Mr. May,
who apparently declined
going on tape, but gave a
statement which Miss Jones
recorded and repd as a state-
ment from the Commissionei
of Police on that night's
On March 26, Jones
Madeira sent a memo to Leo
de Leon dealing with the
approach used in the produc-
tion of the March 18 News-
makers programme. The
Madeira memo made several
similar points to the state-
ment by Pantin and went on
to deny that there was any

malicious reporting of the
day's events.
In' fact, Madeira pointed
out, members of Newsmakers
team had become" slightly
paranoid following the in-
structions to ban the use of
the voice of Raffique Shah.
Thus, Madeira explains, "the
use of the voices of the
people to tell the story of
March 18, lest other inferences
unfavourable to our approach
of unbiased reporting be
drawn from material penned
by us following all the inter-
viewing, etc."


The memo also noted that
the interview with May had
yielded the two unfounded
reports about warrants for
Lloyd Best, and A.N.R.
It was the ban on the use
of Shah's voice which had
started the memo battle.
Ironically, it was exactly
a month before, on February
18, that Madeira had written
to de Leon requestingwritten
confirmation, of the instruc-
tion to ban Shah's voice. De
Leon had replied with a written
instruction stated that he had

received instructions which he
was now issuing to the Cur-
'rent Affairs team against the
use of Shah's voice. The
Newsmakers team wrote its
own memo in protest and
-asking for an explanation.
Then, Chairman. G.L.
Bowen collapsed and died
throwing the issue into con-
fusion. For some days the
Newsmakers programme didn't
appear and when it eventually
did, the local content was
almost nil with lengthy
voiced inserts from the B.B.C.
and Voice of America.
However, the momentum
of events in the oil and sugar
areas soon saw a return to
voiced inserts of local personal-
ities involved, with the excep-
tion of Shah. The March 18
incident brought on the
memos, the suspension of the
Newsmakers programme and
all voiced inserts in News and
Current Affairs Programming.
In other words, the disband-
ing of the Current Affairs
team made up of Madeira,
Pantin, Marilyn Jones and
Jimmy Maynard.
The new Chairman, Jimmy
Bain, quickly introduced an
"Editorial Policy" which
added to the censorship of
news emanating from the
radio station.


Participatory Democracy C.V. Gocking
We are in a State Ivan Laughlin

1 Black Power and National Reconstruction
Lloyd Best
2 Black Power in Human Song Syl Lowhar
4+5 Constitution Reform Tapia's Proposals
Government and Politics in the West Indies
Lloyd Best
6 The Machinery of Government and Reform
of the Pubic Service Denis Solomon
Constitution of tne Tapia House Group and
Related Documents
1 Democracy or Oligarchy? C.V. Gocking
2 Power to the People
3 Tapia's New World
4 Prospects for our Nation Lloyd-Best
5 Whose Republic?
6 Honourable Senators
Bound Volumes
Vol. 1 (Nos. 15 23)
Vol. 1 No. 26- Vol. 2 No. 13
Vol. 3 (1973)
Vol. 4 (Nos. 1 26)


Greg Chamberlain
HAITI'S Trade and Indus-
try Minister, M. Serge
Fourcand, a leading
figure in current efforts
to give the discredited
regime of Papa Doc's
heirs a more nationalist
and respectable image,
has been sacked and put
under house arrest after
the disclosure of a multi-
million-dollar postage
stamp scandal.
A number of people, re-
portedly including other
senior officials in the regime,
have been arrested in con-
nection with the fraud, which
involves the forgery of a
deputy Minister's signature
authorising a New York firm
to issue Haitian stamps
depicting the Caribbean re-
public's birds.


Whether or not he is
guilty, M. Fourcand, a 38-
year-old economist, appears
to have fallen foul of a new
struggle for power between
the conservative old guard
Duvalierists led by the secret
police chief, M. Luc Desyr,
and the "progressive" na-

tionalist faction centred
around the interior and
Defence Minister, M. Paul
Blanchet, which has been
tightening up on the activities
of foreign firms in Haiti.
At the centre of it all,
plotting hard alongside her
23-year-old brother the
President, and her mother,
the country's First Lady
is Papa Doc's ambitious
eldest daughter, Marie-
Denise Duvalier, who has
managed to outmanoeuvre
her enemies in this latest saga
of the "Duvalierist Revolu-
tion" to return from her
gilded exile for a stay that
has now lasted nearly three
One recent sign of the
nervousness inside the regime
caused by these Byzantine
struggles has been the sur-
prise announcement that the
late dictator's body will not
after all be transferred to the
luxurious 1.5 million dollar
Mausoleum which has just
been built for it in a Park in
Port-au-Prince the capital.
The Mausoleum will now
be "given-to the nation,"
according to his son, presi-


~fiE1I 11~i

'Alex Gray

dent Jean-Claude Duvalier,
and Papa Doc will stay put
in a public cemetery in a
smaller tomb which has been
guarded day and night since
the day he was buried there
nearly four years ago.
The Duvalier family is not
short of scandals these days.
Seven million dollars in extra
Tax Revenue which the regime
recently extracted from the
American Bauxite Mining
Firm of Reynolds in a fan-
fare of nationalist rhetoric is
already reported to. have
found its way, like most
other State Revenue, into
the numbered Swiss Bank
accounts of the regime's
leading potentates.

JAMAICA does not differ
so much from the rest of
the world but in dimen-
sions and in the manner
in which the people are
deceived about their pro-
Like the United States and
other industrialized nations,
we are in the throes of an
unprecedented inflation. Price
rises in the last two years are
rarely below 100%, yet the
Bank of Jamaica index and
the politicians talk is geared
to down-playing this alarm-
ing trend.
Trade Unions even are
modest in claiming increases
of 25% when the cost of
living index (government veri-
fied) has shown increases in
1974 that are never below
The employers, as is their
usual habit, either walk out
of arbitration meetings or
deplore government actions
as totally 'worker oriented'.
Only the workers know that
their interests have neither
been protected by their
unions nor by their elected
In details the scene has
not changed much in the last
three months. Crime both
with and without the use of a

gun has remained stable.
Robberies are the rule not the
exception at gas stations.
The much touted Market-
ing Corporation that was to
make home grown food cheap
has been as far as I could
find out a fiasco. The ]ins
are empty; the trading hours
so restricted (no opening after
5 p.m. and closed some
mornings and on Saturdays)
that no discernible benefits
to consumers can be had. The
Farmers get lower not higher
On the education scene
the Ministry of Education has
sent a circular to headmasters
asking them to help the
ministry to print, government
sponsored, books. Publishing
monopoly as an alternative
to choice of even expatriate
books does not seem a very
democratic road to literacy.
(Which in the adult sector
despite a huge last year bud-
get has not diminished.)
Compared to Grenada,
Dominica and that bastion of
Socialist deception, Guyana,
we are neither totalitarian
nor desperate but hand in
hand with Trinidad we are
marching in the right direc-
tion (that is if we wish to
have the ill effects of socialism
without any benefits.)

(Courtesy Latin
America Magazine)

AFTER eight months of
overtures from Guatemala
City, Britain last month
agreed to start talking
again about Guatemala's
claim to Belize.
The secret contacts
had been angrily broken
off in March 1972 by
President Carlos Arana's
government after British
troop reinforcements
were rushed to the colony
because of fears of an
imminent Guatemalan
military adventure.
President Kjell Laugerud's
government has now softened
the traditional hard line by
stressing that Guatemala is
willing to accommodate Beli-
zean 'traditions, administra-
tive structures and social and
political institutions', in the
words of foreign minister
Adolfo Molina four weeks


This new tack, however, is
unlikely to move the Belizeans
as long as the Guatemalans
continue to insist at the same
time that they must recognize
Guatemalan sovereignty and
abandon all aspirations to the
complete independence which
Britain is willing to give the
Belizeans whenever they wish.
The internal political situa-
tion in Belize is, 'lnreover,
now less favourable than ever
to a settlement with Guate-

The People's United Party
(PUP) of Premier George
Price, who is regarded as
being inclined to some kind of
compromise with Guatemala,
inasmuch as anyone in Belize
is, lost ground badly to the
new opposition front, the
United Democratic Party
(UDP) in last October's
general election.
The UDP is built around
the politicians traditionally
- most opposed to Guatemala's


The PUP's long monopoly
of power was dealt a further
heavy blow six weeks later
when the UDP won over
whelming control of the
Belize city council, which had
previously been completely in
the pocket of the PUP.
These challenges have also
led to the emergence ofmore
nationalistic elements inside
the PUP. On the one hand,
Price's authority is being dis-
creetly contested by his
deputy, home affairs minister
Lindbergh Rogers, a shrewd
and ambitious, if corrupt,
man who has been quietly
cultivating an 'African' image.
Rogers has in fact won
the open support of the
once-threatening black radical
UBAD party which, having
dropped its fierce opposition
to the government, saw its
leader, Evan Hyde, soundly
defeated in the general elec-

The other development
unlikely to please Guatemala
is Price's promotion of his
strongly left-wing aide, Assad
Shoman, a 32-year-old lawyer,
to the key posts of attorney-
general and minister in charge
of the newly-created depart-
ment of economic planning
largely in an effort to offset
the influence of Rogers.
Price has also renewed his
promise of complete inde-
pendence 'soon' in an effort
to recoup his lost popularity.
The UDP leaders are not very
interested in cutting ties with

Belize is not about to
become a hotbed of subver-
sion, threatening the rightist
generals in Guatemala and
their patrons in Washington,
but its leaders are certainly
further than ever from enter-.
taining any deal between
Britain and Guatemala which
does not formally recognize
Belizean sovereignty.
Belizeans, still firmly
backed by the independent
Commonwealth Caribbean,
retain their revulsion for
their neighbour's long history
of political violence, and are
also aware that any settle-
ment might be torn up after
the next coup in Guatemala
It is thus hard to see
exactly what Guatemala is
expecting from the renewal
of talks.






Of people who know

'how to cope

with rising





Intrigue Still Reigns

Desperate Deception

Mission Impossible



Mr. President,
Honourable Senators,

TODAY our nation is
engulfed in a crisis that is
industrial, economic and
political, all at once. Thai
makes it constitutional in
character, deriving from
the very make-up of the
society, the economy and
the State,
We stand on the brink
of a precipice.
I sincerely hope that
Parliament both Houses -
will perceive here a matter of
urgent public importance.
It is a responsibility to
which we would do well to
become habituated; the crisis
is likely to be a recurring
decimal, it has been spreading
like a bush-fire and breaking
out in running sores on the
face of our ailing country.


The definite facts of the
moment are plain to the naked
eye. The prolonged stoppage
of work involves some 36,000
people 15,000 workers and
nearly 10,000 farmers in the
sugar industry; the rest in a
significant section of'the oil
industry 7,000 weekly paid
workers and 800 staff em-
ployees at Texaco alone.
This constitutes disruption
of the national economy on
such a scale that we must now
expect increased shortages, in-
conveniences and hardships,
sharper tempers, enhanced
social unrest, and more pointed
political antagonisms leading
inescapably to an escalation
of civil strife.
Hear the grim story of the
crisis in the sugar industry
recounted for us by the Agri-
cultural Society of Trinidad &
Tobago in a statement signed
by none other than our Fellow
Senator, Sir Harold Robinson.
"Should there be no return
to work in the cane fields
and factories . the
results to the country, the
industry and all who work
therein will be nothing short
of catastrophe." TG, March
S30, p4.
The Agricultural Society
estimates that even if work
were resumed now, we could
only hope at best to produce
144,000 tons of sugar as
against an original target of
228,000 tons; we could hope
to earn only $140m out of a
prospective $263m from a
smooth flow of work in a full
If we do not resume work,
production will amount to
only 44,000 tons and earnings
to only $47m. In any event,
the unique opportunity to take
advantage of the sugar boom
appears already to have been
thrown away.
The farmers have lost the
chance to sell all of their cane
at $50 or more per ton; the
workers have lost of the
advantage of their 100% in
wages and the promise of a
10% bonus out ot bonanza pro-


Our Prime




The industry has lost a big
surplus needed for possible
changes in the pattern of
ownership, for diversification
of production and for a general
The Government has lost
revenue and the economy has
lost foreign exchange while the
merchants and the industrial-
ists and artisans at home have
missed the tonic of heavy
spending in the sugar belt.
Above all, the 10,000
farmers with an estimated
$52m worth of cane in the
fields, are in desperate straits
for liquid cash. One TICFA
report, for what it is worth,
claims that some farmers have
had both household and
domestic equipment repossessed
for their inability to meet hire-
purchase instalments.
According to the same
source, difficulties from this
year's hold-up could be com-
pounded next year if ratooning
and re-planting are specially
Whatever the actual impact
of the stoppage, there does
exist real suffering as well as
presumptions of suffering which
are a source of rising political
tension. On Thursday March
27, the Archbishop of Port-of-
Spain felt compelled in the
face of a widening split in
Church opinion, to announce
"I wish to insist once more,
that the only way to ease
the tension is for those con-
cerned to get back to work
and for the leaders on both
sides to resume negotiations
"I make an appeal....
if only on humanitarian
grounds .... ." TG Mar:
28, pl.)


The sugar situation, said
His Grace, is the more critical
but I wish to appeal to oil
workers too. "It is the poor
people who are suffering the
The Archbishop is com-
municating a definite sense of
national crisis and in the cir-
cumstances, few opinions could
have a more persuasive effect
on the conscience of the
It is not as if the facts of
oil need any help from the big
opinion-makers. Texaco refines
330,000 barrels of oil per day
out of a national total of under
450,000 barrels.
The throughput yields re-
venue of 32 cents per barrel
and together with crude output
of a projected 14m barrels in
1975 could possibly nave
yielded some $175m to the
The interruptions will cer-
tainly reduce export earnings,
government revenue and foreign
exchanges takings directly in
Texaco and indirectly in other
sectors of the industry if work-
ers come out in support of
their Texaco colleagues for any
extended period.
Even if output is made up
to some extent later, there
could still be loss if market
prices follow the current ten-
dency to fall.
As in the case of sugar, re-
duced earnings from oil mean
lower spending both by the
Government and by others and
therefore less circulation of
Then if the promised general
strike is employed by the ULF
as a weapon of attack in col-

laboration with the Labour
Congress, the indirect costs to
the economy will mount to
a point where calculation will
become a matter of back-of-
the-envelope speculation.


There is room galore for a
litany of woe in regard to the
economic effects of the current
dislocation on employment,
on output, on exports, on
foreign exchange earnings, on
revenue and on conditions of
trade and the climate of
activity in the economy as a
Such are the plain facts. Our
duty in Parliament is to gauge
their inner meaning.
1. At one remove, this
litany of woe mirrors a series
of quite ordinary industrial
disputes, soluble in the normal
course of bargaining.
The sugar workers are
demanding a profit-sharing
scheme with a view to acquiring
ownership of the industry
The cane farmers have a
dispute as to who should be the
their accredited bargaining
The OWTU and Texaco
have had two disagreements.
The first concerns wage
negotiations in which the Union
is now claiming 147% up
from 80% earlier while the
company has countered with
30% up from 19% earlier.
The second concerns a
demand for recognition as thlp
bargaining body on hehall ol
monthly salaried workers. a
demand recently conceded hv
the company following ; a dcrie

sion by the Government to
clear th, way with an amend-
ment of the appropriate legis-
2. At a second remove,
these are not industrial dis-
putes at all but symptoms of
deep-seated political struggle,
the outward visible signs of a
revolutionary drama in which
the main actors are the Trades
Unions, the Multi-national Cor-
porations, and the Giant Jugger-
naut of the State Machine
which in this country controls
investments of over $300m
dollars and employs nearly
100,000 people, one half of
the employed labour force.
This is an historic clash of
interests which is threatening
to remake contemporary
society altogether across the
face of the technological
civilization. Those who see
only two Terrible W's in Mr.
Weekes and Dr. Williams can
begin to think again.
Arnold Toynbee has pointed
out that the nation-state is no
longer master in its own house.
The Multinational corporation
and organised workers in stra-
tegic occupations can either
rule from behind the scenes or
bring the State to its knees.
We are told to expect more
of the corporations while the
Unions have been making their
presence felt increasingly in
recent years. I have been para-
phrasing Dr. C.V. Gocking's
new pamphlet, Participatory
Democracy, p2.


We are only now setruig
the relations between the State
and the Unions and the Cor-
porations. The Unions sense
this; it has been impressed
upon them by the iniquitous
economic policies we have been
following for the last 25 years
or so, policies which have left
a terrible legacy of dependence
and disposession and disadvant-
As part of an inexorable
Cont'don Page 6

- -.. ..

"The struggle for power cannot be settled

within the precints of current social, econ-

omic and political arrangements. The settle-

ment demands sweeping, drastic, compre-

hensive reorganisation and reform.

Lloyd Best's address to the Senate on

a motion of adjournment to discuss

a definite matter of urgent public im-

II __





reorganisation, the Unions have
been making a bid glory,
driven,on by a multitude of
little people, even though the
effect of Union bargaining
over the years has in some ways
only widened the gap of in-
equality and anchored the
claims of an oligarchy of
privileged elites in business, in
the unions themselves, in gov-
ernment and politics and in
the professions, the university
3. At a third remove, at the
very bottom of the crisis then,
is a clamour for a new dispen-
sation. One commentator in
the Trinidad Guardian has
diagnosed and prescribed:
A clean break with a whole
way of life and adopting new
ways, is what is being demand-
ed." Dennis Mahabir in
reference to the sugar crisis,
(TG p8, March 31).
At this level, the industrial
dispute becomes a phase in the
enduring constitutional crisis, a
convergence of revolutionary
forces, a confluence of swirling
eddies threatening to sweep us
out into uncharted seas with
all the risks of ignominious


The struggle for power can-
not be settled within the pre-
cincts of current social,
economic and political arrange-
ments. The settlement demands
sweeping, drastic, comprehen-
sive reorganisation and reform.
And where better to confront
this harsh reality than in the
Parliament, however limp?
The Parliamentary question,
the irresistible question for a
responsible Parliament is whe-
ther or not these changes will
be imposed upon us willy-nilly
by the blind forces of the
power struggle, by the ugly
imperatives of agitation and
unreason; whether or not we
the people, in all our reputable
organizations, in all our collec-
tive, considered wisdom will
distill the consensus of a
sovereign people, equal to the
demands of self-government,of
independence and freedom as
to the demands of bread and
peace and justice.
That is the question, Mr.
President, Honourable Senators.
The constitutional crisis in
this country is careening to a
climax with an inevitable clos-
ing off of options.

While Parliament fails to
activate the opinions of com-
peting interests the better to
contain them in compromise,
the powder-keg is threatening
to ignite.
Now in oil and in sugar as
before in fishing and in trans-
port; now in the Unions and
the Corporations as before in
the University and the Army
and the Courts and the

Equally now among farmers
as among workers; now in
Caroni and Naparima in the
centre as before in Cedros and
Matelot at the extremeties;now
in the country and the South,
as before in the town and the
North; now among Indians too,
as previously among Africans


Mr. President, Hon. Sena-
tors, what I am saying to you
is that we face today a fun-
damental crisis, an upheaval that
has been in the making for
years and is coming now to a
consummation. Parliament must
join it and turn it to construc-
tive channels.
To put the issue in that
way is, of course, to make ex-
tremely large claims. I there-
fore consider it my meet, my
right, my bounden duty to
justify these claims before this
hon. House, lest we surrender
to any false hysteria; lest we
lose our moorings in a safe
harbour of hard fact. We need
sane, we need sober assess-
ment, following on clinical
objective description of the
In the end I will put it to
you, Sir, we need an-imagina-
tive search for sensitive, for
opposite solutions equal to
those knotty problems.
'By a twist of Fate, we in
the Senate here, and not for
the first time, enjoy the privi-
lege and the responsibility of
initiating the discussion on a
matter of historic and lasting
In a curious kind of way,
and the country must know
this, we are the ones at the
helm of the State when official-
dom is paralysed and silent.
We therefore must devise
ways and means to steady the
ship of State with disciplined
interpretation of all the
momentous movements of our
troubled times, avoiding the
sensationalism and the extrava-
gance which doubtless contri-
bute much to partisan advant-
age but nothing to national
salvation which today must be
ourprime and our only purpose.
I invite you, Sir, to look at
this crisis then from three
angles of vision. In terms, first,
of what is transpiring in the oil
sector by itself.
Secondly, in terms of what
is taking place in the sugar
economy by itself and thirdly
in terms of the joint action by
the groups in unison;
Let us take first the dispute
in the sugar industry. In sugar
obviously there exists no indus-
trial dispute which warrants
any extended stoppage of work,
if one wishes to confine the
analysis and the interpretation
merely to that level.
The workers have gotten
100 per cent increases in wages.
The company has said that
profit sharing is negotiable and
could easily be negotiated

whilst the workers came in,
shall we say, rejoicing, bringing
in the sheaves.
The farmers also have found
new leadership and could con-
ceivably have gone to cut their
canes while the struggle for
valid representation went on
regardless. The question there-
fore is, why then the political
alliance of the United Labour
If we are to take the view
of the Agricultural Society we
would believe that the sugar
worker and the cane farmer
have been "superficially im-
posed upon by political in-
I suggest that there exists an

alternative explanation which
is that the workers in the
sugar industry and the farmers
after many long years of dis-
posession and shorter years of
upheaval have reached a point
where the hope, for a new
world is better by far in their
eyes than more bread; where
the growth of a brighter future
exchanges for bread today at a
Who would doubt it when
you see the colossal multitudes
assembling in meetings inthe
public place? When you see the
response of sugar workers in
all their vast multitudes coming
out to the religious procession
as their leaders called it? Does
that not argue the case and
argue the case strongly?


Let us take secondly, the
dispute in oil. When we look
at the industrial proposals made
by the Oilfield Workers Trade
Union they seem to me in my
professional opinion to be
extremely reasonable in the
light of ...

Mr. President: Senator Best I
draw your attention to Stand-
ing Order 35 (2). "Reference
shall not be made to any
matter on which a judicial deci-
sion is pending, in such a way
as might, in the opinion of the
Chair, prejudice the interests of
parties thereto." I draw your
attention to the fact that the
industrial dispute between the
Oilfield Workers Trade Union
and Texaco is before thelndus-
trial Court of this Country.

Thank you Sir, I simply
wanted, if I may, to deal with
some of the factors bearing on
the claim made by the Oilfield
Workers Trade Union and not
the dispute which is now before
the Court.
First of all the inflation
records show that over the
period 1972 1974 prices
have risen to the extent of 63


before, that we
means of convene
ference of citizen
the work of the j
Committee as a r

ing public opinit
variety and of in
moral authority <
work of a Parlia
but obviously, bk
its failure to intel
of crisis, short o
discharge its prop

per cent. sedondly, I want to
enter into the records, if I may,
that the movement in worker
productivity in this same period
rose by over 200 per cent.
Thirdly, that the movement
in company profits showed a
rise of over 4Q0 per cent in
the same period which was
matched, in fact, was out-
distanced by the movement in
Executive salaries.
Finally, perhaps most im-
portant of all, let us look at
'the relations between the
Treasury and Texaco. The oil
industry as a whole shows
losses to Trinidad and Tobago
on account of the Govern-
ment's failure properly to
monitor production, to moni-
tor imports, to monitor the
sampling for quality on which
the tax reference prices are
based and to monitor the pro-
cedure by which the royalty is
collected and on account of
the failure of the Government
to adjust the tax rate to a lecv
where the companies here in
Trinidad could earn no more
cash than they do per barrel on
comparable oil in'other coun-

This investigation shows, on
my estimates, that this country
could be losing something of
the order of $800 million over
the period 1971 1975
Going perhaps to another
level I also calculate that
Texaco products in this coun-
try are yielding to that com-
pany a premium of the order
of $4 per barrel, than com-
parable products in, say
In other words, I am arguing
from a professional standpoint
without wanting for a moment
to influence the decision of the
court that the union's claim
is on solid ground.
And even if the company
urges as it has been doing, that
the workers have received in
this period wage increases, cost
of living bonuses and ex gratia
payments totalling an uncom-
pounded increase of 39 per
cent, I still think that the
claim of 80 per cent is a very
solid one.
It has been reliably reported
in the newspapers by a disin-
terested party if we may call



have proposed

find ways and
g a national con-

Sas a prelude to
irthcoming Select

,thod of apprais-

z in all its rich

)rming, with the

I the people, the
tent that is legal

-the evidence of

ene at a moment

the capacity to

A ,

the Labour Congress a disin-
terested party that the oil
workers union from quite
early in the negotiations said in
private that it was quite will-
ing to settle for a figure well
below 80 per cent; I believe
the figure is in the region of
60 per cent and at the level
of a quite ordinary industrial
When the demand was later
escalated to 147 per cent we
therefore have to ask what
happened. And the answer
surely is not that we were
transported into the realm of
poker; not by any means; we
were instead I believe cata-
pulted into the orbit of econ-
omic reorganisation and con-

stitution reform.
The significance of upping
the ante, as it were, was that
it dramatized the absurdity of
a demand which in gaining one
dollar for the union worker
loses for the Government 55
cents and gains for the country
45 cents, if we were to accept
for the purpose of the argu-
ment the Government's tax

That is the essential absurd-
ity of the situation, where the
lifeline, the navel string, the
life-blood sector of this econ-
omy is so dominated by
external interests, and where the
Government have so failed to
find a formula for insulating
the economy from the ill
effects of this arrangement that
any demand by the workers is
bound to appear as an absurd
demand; also because the Gov-
ernment's formula for taxation
and Government's formula for
a national system of wage bar-
gaining and income distribution
fails entirely to come to grips
with the demands of the time.
These are the issues un-
covered by the oil workers
demand and by their decision
to raise the ante from 80 per
cent to 147 per cent. They
are obviously not mere indus-
trial issues but political issues,
constitutional issues, issues on
which I am sure there will be
many perspectives on the new
society, many guides to change,
many proposals for a new
The point is that whatever
mix of new perspectives and

new proposals and new guides
we are going to have, we can-
not by any manner of means
settle it at the level of an
industrial dispute between
Texaco Tiinidad and the oil
workers trade union. That is the
second thing we must put in
our pipe and smoke.


The third level at which I
promised to look in this issue
relates to the joint action by
the United Labour Front which
also, I may add, leads us in the
direction of the constitutional
Joint action, you will
remember, took the form of a
religious procession described
by others including the Com-
missioner of Police as apolitical
Personally I.think that if the
procession was in fact
a political march I should like
to insist nevertheless that the
Front was entitled to hold
such a political march as free
citizens bent on testing the
constitutionality of a question-
ible piece of legislation by
,vay of an act of civil disobedi-
ence in the form of the proces-
sion or march.
What I deeply regret is that
the leaders of the United
Labour Front seemed unable or
unwilling to present the issue in
that way.
There seems to me to have
been an element of risk taking,
almost gambling, in their pro-
gramming which I hope must
now be for them a cause of
sober reflection.
They certainly seemed not
to have calculated in any
-fulness some of the wider con-
sequences of the march or
procession or to have fully
judged whether and how the
police were likely to intervene.
To my mind if the march
had been presented as an open
political test of the law there
would have been no need to
assemble a huge crowd, a
crowd so large that it was
almost certain to excite high-
handed behaviour on the part
of the Police Service.
Large crowds we all know
always create a psychological
climate conducive to hysterical
behaviour and it is no surprise
to me if the police conducted
themselves with t certain ex-
travagance out of, shall we say,
sheer hysteria on the part of
individual police officers, and
I think it was the duty of the
United Labour Front to have
taken this into account before.
Equally, the Minister of
National Security and the
Commissioner of Police ought
also to have anticipated exces-
sive anxiety on the part .of the
individual policeman in the
context of the current political
climate and the obvious con-
stitutional crisis.

How much actual brutality
there was, how much if any
of it was due to orders from
senior officers, and how much
was due simply to errors of
discretion by individual police-
men, are important questions
subject to partisan answers
serving only to fan the flames
of political antagonism.
I therefore want to warn
us; I want to add that none
of us, not one of us can
afford a failure now to hold a
proper enquiry as to what
transpired; not those of us
who feel strongly about the
evidence of gratuitous police
beating of people, not the
police themselves who are sure
to suffer from the exaggera-
tions, not their senior officers
who were in charge, not the
Government, not the nation.
We cannot afford, none of
us, to bring the Police Service
into permanent disrepute unless
that disrepute is related to
clinical and empirical facts.
I remind you and remind
this House of hon. Senators
that the Journalists Association
has called for an enquiry into
the performance of the police
during the procession and a
large number of reputable or-
ganisations have endorsed that
rising demand, including my
own organisation.
Parliament, I urge, must
throw its weight on the side of
early action and action now.


At the same time I do not
believe we could make the
fundamental error; I do not
believe we could make the
fundamental mistake of allow-
ing the whole question of police
brutality on the particular
occasion to obscure the bigger
question, the larger question
of fundamental rights and fun-
damental freedoms.
The biggest question of all
is why was the United Labour
Front driven to the expedient
of calling the march a religious
procession at all.
Why should the police have
had the right to stop a march
which was deliberately proceed-
ing in peace?
Is there any constitutional
case, in a society which has
due respect for democratic
rights and freedoms, for the
Summary Offences Amend-
ment Ordinance, 1971? when
the political mhrch in this
country is a crucial weapon at
a time when Parliament does
not function; a crucial weapon
of little people which we re-
discovered and brought out of'
the cupboard in 1970. When in
fact, the reputation of march-
ers for peace on the historical
evidence I put it to you, Sir,
in this country is an impec-
cably favourable one?

Senator Best, the subject you
sought permission to have the
House adjourned to discuss is
the disruption of the national
pcfnnoml ('Iused hv the sloln-

[L6, 1975

page of work in the two
predominant sectors oil and
sugar. Your present line of
contribution is not relevant to
this subject.

Thank you Sir, I will come
off that line. The point I wish
to make -is that these are in
fact the basic issues which lie
behind the otherwise inexplic-
able disruption of a national
economy at a time when the
issues in both sectors could
conceivably have been resolved
in the normal course of indus-
trial bargaining.
I am arguing that because
these larger political and con-
stitutional issues lie at the
bottom of the industrial dis-
pute they can only be solved
by a national dialogue on the
Constitution and the Recon-
stitution of the State.
Can it be an accident that
every minor industrial or politi-
cal dispute in this country
seems today, invariably, to
lead to the constitutional
It is strange, it is passing
strange, that neither our Gov-
ernment nor our people have
shown any great enthusiasm for
the connection between the
two sets of issues and for the
constitutional question as a
whole. I put it to this hon.
House that that is a deficiency
in our political experience
which we must hasten now to
make good.
I remind this hon. House
that it is only under colonial
rule that politics becomes ex-
clusively a matter of agitation
and confrontation on the one
hand, repression or concession
on the other. Among free
men, as I hope we are, the
most important option is al-
ways to deliberate and to
change the rules of play.


Mr. President, hon. Sena-
I am arguing that the lesson
of the disruption of the
national economy is that the
most pressing need in Trinidad
and Tobago today is for -
what I would like to call -
means of distilling the national
consensus on the related
issues of economic reorganisa-
tion and constitution reform
so that we could move swiftly
and expeditiously, as a
sovereign people, to reconstitute
the machinery of the State and
the economic pillars on which
the State necessarily rests,
solving by the way, the indus-
trial disputes that arise in,
I d9 not think it is any
secret that the organisation to
which I belong has been can-
vassing a wide array of con-
crete measures to deal with the
reconstruction of the national
economy, as indeed, to deal
with the problems of a moral
resurgence, to deal with the
problem of a cultural revival,
Cont'd on Page 11


More Calls

For Public Enquiry

National Joint Action



e A sk-



H M.1A

The N.J.A.C. totally con-
demns the unwarranted and
savage attack on the united
African and Indian masses of
this country who were walk-
ing peacefully on their way
from San Fernando to Port-
of-Spain on Tuesday as part of
the struggle of Oil, Sugar
Workers and Cane Farmers
mainly and Black People in
general for Justice in this
The ruthless violence of
the Police against men,
women, and children is un-
pardonable and was clearly
the result of political orders.
For this reason, N.J.A.C. says
that the Government has
proven now beyond any
possible doubt that they are
prepared to brutalise and
'massacre citizens in the in-
terests of foreign corporations
which are bleeding the coun-
try mercilessly.
Furthermore, the barbarity
of Tuesday's police action is


THE present situation of
social and industrial unrest in
our country must be the
active concern of all citizens.
HATT urges everyone part-
icularly women, to become
familiar with the various
positions of the contending
elements and to take a stand
consistent with justice for all.
This kind of national involve-
ment will help resolve the
HATT cannot support the
stalling tactics of the Gov-
ernment concerning the
question of representation of
cane-farmers. In the light of
Justice Brathwaite's judge-
ment on the unconstitutional-
ity of certain Sections of Act
I of 1965, HATT calls on
the Government to take an
immediate ballot to determine
who are the true representa-
tives of the cane-farmers.

a clear indication to all that
the issue is more than a Trade
Union struggle as people have
seen the Establishment's flag-
rant disregard for our peoples'
most basic human rights by
their use of naked force, even
though they were completely
aware that the participants of
the procession were instructed
not to resist arrest and were
moving with discipline and
N.J.A.C.. says positively
that it is clear that the issue
strikes at the heart of our
people's struggle for liberation
from the Economic, Cultural
and Political strangulation of
the Caribbean by the parasites
of Europe and America.
N.J.A.C. makes it quite
clear at this stage that there
can be no peace and warns
the Establishment that it has
forfeited any guarantees of
what action will be taken to
ensure that the just demands
of the people are secured.


To delay-any longer would
be to prolong the unneces-
sary suffering of the sugar
workers, the cane-farmers and
their wives and children.
Justice Brathwaite ruled
that his judgement must take
effect immediately irrespect-
ive of an appeal. We view
Government's failure to
comply with his ruling as
flagrant disregard for the law.
Whether or not what occur-
red in San Fernando on the
morning of March 18 was an
illegal march is now being
determined in the magistrate's
However, whatever the
judgement, HATT condemns
the methods used by the
police in dispersing the crowd
and supports the call for a
public inquiry into the activi-
ties of the police on that

BlackPowerl 97Y Demonstrations

' v p / I p < d

Incc~: ,/U-

OilField Workers

Trade Union

THE General Council of the
Oilfields Workers Trade
Union strongly condemns the
anti God, tyrannical and pro-.
vocative action of the govern-
ment in deciding to use the
police to break up the peace-
ful and religious procession
and later army personnel as
strike-breakers and scabs
against the workers and
people of Trinago.
Calls upon the gov-
ernment to appoint a high
power Commission of Inquiry
into the action of the police
and to rescind their provoca-
tive decision to misuse per-
sonnel of the local and
peoples' army.
Calls upon the new
Board of Directors of Radio

610 and TTT to cancel their
new editorial policy.
Calls upon members of
the Union in collaboration
with members of other unions
within the United Labour
Front to take such positive
action as they see fit to back
this Resolution.
Appeals to all Trade
Unions and other people's
organizations and to the
workers and people of
Trinago generally to support
this condemnation of and
call to the government and
the Board of Directors of
Radio 610 and TTT and to
take such sympathetic posi-
tive action as they see fit to
back this Resolution.

U.L.F 1975 Procession



771T'E grim fact that faces the
entire world in this tlh last
quarter of the 20 .C'entur is
that the demand fir tihe raw
materials of the world
threatens to outstrip produc-
The effects of this im-
balance arc already' being
observed in the spiralling
prices of such key materials
as petroleum. aluminium.. iron.
copper. In inan'r parts of the
world even as basic and neces-
sary a conmmoditl as water
is in desperately short supply.
Above all the world lacks
Food. Shortages of neat and
grain are already bringing
havoc and catastrophe in
many parts of the third
The facts are already quite
clear. In the developing
countries, according to the
UNDP, out of every 100,
newborn children, forty will
die before the age of six,
while another forty risk brain
and body damage from mal-
The economic and social
implications of these facts
have received notice, but
little attention has been paid
to the political implications.
The following article, ex-
tracted from the New York
Times, written by' Henry
Weinstein points quite clearly
to the fact that some people
at least are already deliberat-
ing on the consequences of
world food shortages.

A RESEARCH report of
the Central Intelligen.t
Agency has concluded
that world grain short-
ages, which are likely to
increase in the near
future, "could give the
United States a measure
of power it had never had
before possibly an
economic and political
dominance greater than
that of the immediate
post-World War II years."
Written in August, 1974,
shortly before the World
Food Conference in Rome,
the report predicts that "in
bad years, when the United
States could not meet the
demand for food of most
would-be importers, Washing-
ton would acquire virtual life-
and-death power over the fate
of the multitudes of the
The report, made available
unofficially to The New York
Times, continues: "Withoul
indulging in blackmail in any-
sense, the United States would
gain extraordinary political
and economic influence, For
not only the poor LDC's
(lesser-developed countries)
but also the major powers
would be at least partially
dependent on food imports
from the United States."
lii recent weeks. Sccretary
of State Kissinger has referred
to American grain stocks in
news conferences in connec-
tion with how to deal with
Organization of Pciroleum
I'xporling (ounilries. Sccic-
lary of Agi iill urc I .rl L.
Bul,. hIus Iklso" clird It lie
way I[od coiild hl used :i s a'
bhiarainin lovri wilh oiil-

rldu llll i. ,2 ot' III' II oi t n-.

II is nIow i i '-1, '! e In ii iLi al
0ools in oiu i ',,,)ii:]'n g ,ski ."

CIA: Food Shortages give

U.S. Life & Death Power



Food Production in many Third World Countries is now a desperate race against starvation.

The C.I.A. report, prepared
by the agency's office of
political research, says that
the trends in grain production
will give the United Slates an
"enhanced Irue as a supplier
of food" in coming decades
that will provide "additional
levers of influence, but at the
same time will pose difficult
choices and possibly new
problems for the United States.
lWhatever choice the
United Slates makes in decid-
ing where its grain should go,
it will become a whipping boy
among those who consider
themselves left out or given
only short shrift," says the
report, titled "Potential Im-
plications of Trends in World
Population, Food Production
and Climate."

Tlie report contained a dis-
claimer at the bottom of its
first page that says:
"This study was prepared
by the office of political
research of the Central Intel-
ligence Agency It does not,
however, represent an official
C.I.A. position. The views
presented represent the best
judgment of the issuing office,
which is aware ita! Ihe coin-
plex issues discussed lend
themselves to other interpre-
In a section on "political
and other implications" of
food shortages, the report
says: Where climate change
causes great shortages of food
despite United States exports,
the potential risks to the
Iniied Slates would rise.

There would be increasingly
desperate attempts on the
part of the militarily power-
ful but nonetheless hungry
nations to get more grain any
way they could. Massive
migration backed by force
would become a very live
"Nuclear '-1l.I.I nu11 l is not
inconceivable," the report
says. "More likely, perhaps,
would be ill-conceived efforts
to undertake drastic cures
which might be worse than
the disease e.g., efforts to
change the climate by trying
to melt the Arctic ice-cap."
Near the end of the 52-
page report, it states: "In the
poor and powerless areas,
population would have to drop
to levels that could be sup-

ported. Food subsidies and
external aid, however generous
the donors might be, would be
inadequate. Unless or until
the climate improved and
agricultural techniques change
sufficiently, population levels
now projected for the LDC's
could not be reached. The
population 'problem' would
have solved itself in the most
unpleasant fashion."
The report gives no indica-
tion as to whom it was dis-
tributed. It is not known
whether United States repre-
sentatives to the World Food
Conference had an opport-
unity to read it.
It also does not indicate
why the C.I.A. did a political
analysis of food-production
Continued on Pa2e 10

Co naThe closer you look,

il the better we look.

Look close at

M Charles
Mc ]Enearney
iii-e IL -Ii



and climate trends or whether
the agency has taken or plans
any action based on the infor-
mation in the study.
The report says that the
consensus of leading climatolo-
gists is that if a cooling trend
in world climate "continues,
as feared,iit could restrict pro-
dyction in both the U.S.S.R.
and China, among other
states, and could have an
enormous impact, not only
on the food-population
balance, but also on the world
balance of power."
Food supplies have de-
clined in recent years, especi-
ally in 1972, the report says,
"resulting in rapid rise in food
prices everywhere and a
drastic drawdown of existing
world stocks of grain."
It notes United States and



d A


T '

lonnfrol Ltd.
61 Edward St. Port of Spain Tel:- 62-5'4923; 54933; 54396; 53448
193 Southern Main Rd. Marabella Tel:-65-81910; 81912

United Nations forecasts of
an annual growth in world
food demand of 2.3 to 2.5
per cent, and says: "It is far
more difficult to forecast the
growth of food production
than the rise in demand for
"Unless even optimistic
projections about production
in the LDC's are too low,
many of the food-deficit
LDC's are likely to be in for
serious trouble within the next
five-ten years."
The report asserts that the
greatest potential for increased
food production over the
longer run lies in the LDC's,"
but that "the political com-
mitment .to agriculture has
thus far been lacking.

"In most LUD's, the
governing policy has been
either to ignore orto soak the
peasants in order to promote
industry and keep the city-
dweller reasonably content.
Reversal 6f this policy would
require enormous inputs of
capital and skilled personnel,
both in notoriously short
supply in most LDC's."
Citing the research of Dr.
Hubert Lanm, a British clima-
tologist, the report states that
the Northern Hemisphere "at
least, is growing cooler."
This would mean that of
the main grain-growing re-
gions, only the United States
and Argentina would escape
adverse effects, according to
the report. American grain

output might be "unaffected
or even slightly enhanced," it
says. Canada and the Soviet
Union would have shorter
growing seasons, monsoon
failures in South and South-
east Asia would significantly
reduce grain output there, and
China would also have mon-
soon failures.
The report notes that dam.
and irrigation systems built
during,the periods of normal
weather" from the 1930's
through the 1960's were
based on rainfall patterns tha
would change. Moreover, the
report says that "most of the
hybrids and all of the 'Green
Revolution' [grain] strains
were developed to use the
warmth and moisture prevail-

ing" in that period, and the
expected changes in tempera-
ture of rainfall that "could,
negate most of these advances
in yield."
If there is a "marked and
persistent cooling trend," the
report says, there would not
be enough food produced to
feed the world's population
"unless the affluent nations
made a quick and drastic cut
in their consumption of grain-
fed animals'
"Even then there might not
be enough."
The report ends by saying
that "the potential implica-
tions of a changed climate for
the food-population balance
of power" would become "far
clearer and possibly more
manageable, if the extent of
possible cooling were tho-
roughly investigated."


N at Sional Salvaw0on

Our Prime

And Only


"The point is that whatever mix of
new perspectives and new proposals
and new guides we are going to
have we cannot by any manner of
means settle it at the level of an
Industrial dispute."


without either of which the
economic changes and the
political changes that we seek
will only come to nought.
It is not, however, my
purpose here this afternoon to
urge any of these measures on
Parliament either House -
or indeed on the nation.
There is only one thing
which I consider it my duty
to urge and to continue to
urge, as I have urged before,
and it is that we must find
with all our wit, with all our
skill, an agency and set it up
deliberately and expeditiously
to tackle the fundamentals of
reconstruction in peace and
not in war.
I propose, as I have pro-
posed before, that we find ways
and means of convening a
national conference of citizens
as a prelude to the work of the
forthcoming Select Committee
on Constitutional Reform as
a method of appraising public
opinion in all its rich variety
and of informing, with the
moral authority of the people,
of the citizens, the work of a
Parliament that is legal but
obviously, by the evidence of
its failure to intervene at a
moment of crisis, short of the
capacity to discharge its proper
There is no need for me
here to try and spell out the
relative merits of this proposal
as against others. Certainly,
there has been a proposal that
we should hold a general elec-
I would only say that a
general election should be held
at the earliest possible moment,
but that could be useful and
would be useful only if we
first settled the shape of the
Parliament to which we are
going to elect new representa-
tives and the rules of the elec-
tions in regard especially to
proportional representation and
other electoral reforms; other-
wise, any such device as a mere
general l election will inevitably
,come a cause only for resum-
ing the political conflict with
more apparent industrial dis-
putes and more civil si
beyond thenewelection.

This Hcuse, this Upper
House, this Senate is the
nearest thing that we have at
the moment, in this country,
to an Assembly of Citizens
where opinion might be traded
amongst reputable organisa-
We have here represented
organized labour, we have here
represented the Church; the
'World of Business'; the Youth;
Religion; Sporting Interests

and the Law as well as at least
two political interests. I would
not vouch for the two.
That we have today, at this
crucial moment in the life of
this country, been able to turn
our attention and the country's
attention to the crisis in the
national economy and to the
inner meaning behind that
crisis is not so much for me,
not so much I hope cause for
self congratulation though

I wish, and I am sure I am
speaking for my colleagues, to
congratulate the House for
allowing the discussion to pro-
ceed at all but what it is
cause for, what it is evidence
of, is of the power of the
assembled citizens of this coun-
try acting on their own behalf.

Mr. President, hon. Senators,
I cerlainiy look forward to a

National Conference of Citizens.
I have spoken today with-
out any great partisan interest.
I have attempted to put the
issues square to this Hous dd
to this nation. I sincerely hop,
that we will have occasion
where these issues can be
taken up and much more fully
I thank you very much.

THE National Insurance Board advises all Employers and Employees that official authentic information on all
matters pertaining to National Insurance in Trinidad ar:d Tobago is obtainable only from the Board through its
Head Offices at 15-19 Tragarete Road and 4a Borde Street, P:rt-of-Spain and its Local Office Network listed below.

The Board further advises that the National Insurance Act No. 35 of 1971 as amended by Act No. 27 of
1974 provides no basis for supporting National Insurance expertise outside of its Management and Executive frame-
work. As and when expertise is required, recognized International Agencies supply technical assistance through the
Government at the request of the Board.
Such other Agencies and/or Organisations which represent themselves as being competent to advise on or act
in National Insurance matters do so independently and are in no way directly or indirectly integral parts of the
National Insurance System of Trinidad and Tobago.


San Fernando

St. James


Sangre Grande
Point Fortin
Princes Town
Rio Claro

Hadeed & Janoura's Bldg., 60a Queen
Guyana & T'dad Mutual Fire Ins. Co.
Ltd. Bldg., 68 Coffee Street.
Armstrong Bldg., Bacolet Street.
Mrs. Ferguson Bldg., Cor. Bombay &
Church Streets.
Wallace Bldg., Cor. 6th Avenue & 4th Street

Old D.M.O. Quarters, El Dorado Road.
Ramdass Bldg., Eastern Main Road.
Works Bldg., St. Yves Street.
Ramdath Bldg., Southern Main Road.
Pascall Bldg., Cor. Albert & George Streets.
M 6 Bldg., Furlonge St.
Mohammed Bldg., High St.
Lalla Bldg., Naparima-Mayaro Road.

3171; 3522




Mr. Aldric Webster

Mrs. Patricia George-Godds
Mr. Michael Keens-Dumas

Mr. James Harris

Mr. Hydar Ali

Mr. Horace John
Mr. Samuel Blizzard
Mr. Roodal Gooding
Mr. John Indar
Mrs. Dorothy Harvey
Mr. Augustus Carrera
Mrs. Lilia Samjitsingh
Mr. Richard Mohammed


- -----`P;i-- --

"- --


Dennis Pantin

THE real tragedy of the
appointment of James
Bain as Chairman of NBS
610 Radio and T.T.T. is
not that Bain is a fascist,
without realising it.
The real tragedy lies in the
fact that the People's National
Movement could revert to a
POPPG organisation. A group
of concerned citizens, thrown
together willy-nilly by their
desire to maintain their
personal positions and tc
block certain "misapprehen-
sions" from being propagated.
Mr. Bain in fact represents
an entire generation of Wesl
Indians who, brought up on
royal fare of Flag days and
King's Birthdays, cannot
escape the colonial mode oi
thinking, Ordinary citizens:
many not as privileged as
Bain, have been calling for
"purges" and strong measures
to deal with unrest.

This attitude springs from
their authoritarian upbringing
and the lack of information
available to them on things
such as multi-national cor-
porations, Christianity, Com-
munism, slavery and the
other irrelevancies which
Bain mentioned as "mis-
apprehensions" in his inter-
view in last Sunday's Express
and Guardian.
What it really indicates is
the depths of mediocrity into
which the PNM has descend-
Bain is one of a series of
retired and retiring civil ser-
vants like Bowen or Hugh
Harris, who instead of being
allowed to enjoy the last
season of their lives in peace
are being asked to take up
that "offer which they can't
The Government could
have appointed a variety of
persons with experience in
the media and who would
have been able to articulate
in positive tones PNM policy
on the media.

George John, Government
P.R.O. immediately comes
to mind. Or even a Chairman
from the other media,
Gordon, or Chongsing or
Someone who like Kit
Nascimiento in Guyana could
argue the case for censorship
and restrictions on the press
in terms of some reality of
"developing" countries.
Instead, there is a deliber-
ate policy of putting up men
like Bain, who don't "like to
refuse to serve when asked",
as really the decoys, like
Bowen, who paid for his
loyalty inspite of the con-
tempt he was shown.
So that Bain proclaims his
independence and shows it
by drawing up a so-called
Editorial Policy like a direc-
tive to ship Rice- or fix up
work permits.
In the end, the Govern-
ment canalways.remove Bain
as the culprit if things become
too sticky and remain outside
as an impartial owner.
No one can believe Bain's

protestations about indepen-
dence of directives.
A directive dosen't have
to come down in writing or
by .telephone, all that is need-
ed is a hint, a mere suggestion
in a mind already fertile to
authoritarian measures.
if Bain feels that Com-
munism is bad, Black Power
unnecessary, and the-multi-
national corporations a gift
from God; that Trinidad and
Tobago is too small, black
and backward to produce
anything without external
assistance, you don't have tc
tell him to restrict coverage
of people who think other.
The very existence of such
persons must drive people
like Bain into a fury and
with desires for purges, strong
measures, and dictatorship.
Bain dosen't understand
the protests against the multi-
national corporations (under-
standably he works for one),
yet can be appointed to be
the Chairman of these twu
communicaiiuins media. Only

a year ago, before his Ameri-
can safari, Williams told
his party's convention about
the dangers of multi-national
Mr. Bain dosen't know
anything about the running of
the communications media.
In fact, he works so hard, he
dosen't listen to Radio or
watch television. Which means
he has had little or no previ-
ous interest in these two
media. Where is he going to
get time to denote to the
Chairmanship role.


The crucial link between
Bain and the PNM is "the
chief constraint is that the
worker is not working be-
cause of trade union action.
He concludes "on two
occasions th Government
found it necessary to send
certain people,:. down to
Nelson Island arin when they
did this conditions were
Now do you need to carry
a party card on your shoulder
to show where your loyalties
The appointment of Mr.
Bain really marks the rever-
sion of the PNM -The Saga.
of PNM to POCFG.


S.W.W.T.U. Hall

Wrightson Road



of .Spain

Chairmans Report

TreasurersR report

Secretary's Report

Other Business

The National Crisis-


'yl Lowhar

Angela Cropper

Lloyd Best


To National Executive

KReturning Ot icer.
.1 r i, :

The Chairman Has Spoken.



April 13 1975




I I II ~ _rs~Ps~u-~ _,

IA. g' e n d al