Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00149
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: February 16, 1975
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00149

Full Text

SUNDAY FEBRUA, "16, 1975

.v;,:,,:_ ,

11 '1.
,arwokersfrom Valley!ine Barrackpore In the Frontline for Freedom

DREAD times are here
again. Not that they ever
went away. Carnival was
but a short interlude of
suspended tension and
now thatiit is over all
the issues which occupied
our attention prior to
the advent of the merry
monarch are back again.
In some ways it seems as
though time has stood still,
For the issues, the names,
the fears and the doubts
which we are now forced to
deal with are the very same
as those with which we had
to deal last year.
Who remembers the
frenzied cry in the PNM
paper The Nation in January
last year that the "Commun-
ists" were in absolute control
of three major unions in the
economy and were bent on
calling a strike, holding the
population to ransom and
bringing the Government to
its knees?
The Nation went on to
name George Weekes of the
OWTU, Basdeo Panday of
the All Trinidad Sugar Union
and Raffique Shah of the
Cane Farmers Union as the
chief protagonists of this evil
Nobody gave any credit
to the absolute nonsense in
the Nation on that occasion
and no one will do so today,
The point is that these three
unions are still, one year
later, trying to wrest their
freedom from the corrupt
and incompetent hands of
the PNM Regime,
And if theirs is the most
direct challenge to the Gov-
ernment to date, it is at the
same time only the latest,
For in truth and in fact there
is no separate crisis in oil,
nor is there any separate
crisis in sugar, Just as there
was no separate crisis in
Cedros or Matelot. When an

entire nation is in crisis then
the crisis is the whole
political regime.
The battle which Weekes
and Shah and Panday are
fighting today is therefore
but the latest stage in the
struggle which began at least
as far back as 1969 with the
busworkers strike and which
has continued on several
fronts since that time, with
the housewives, clergy, law-
yers and students,
And the same fundamental
question which was posed
in 1969 and then again in
1970 with the February
Explosion, and in the multi-
tude of skimishes since then,
will inevitably raise its head
again in 1975.


If there is anything dif-
ferent about 1975 it is that
we should be in a better
position to learn from the
experiences of the few years
past. If the crisis in the land
has not yet been resolved it
is because those of us in,
volved persist in seeing the
trees immediately before us
with no reference to the
forest as a whole,
This is a revolutionary
political situation and it
cannot be resolved until
such time as professional
political -organisation comes
to the fore, political organ-
isation possessing the capacity
and the strength to harness

all the disparate elements in
the struggle whether these be
industrial, cultural, intellectu-
al or military.
But so long as the struggle
is seen to be between Weekes
and the Government, or
Shah and the Government or
pensioners and the Govern-
ment or what have you, then
just so long will the Govern-
ment survive, unpopular and
discredited as it is.
On the other hand, it is
equally certain that profes-
sional political organisation
will not emerge until such
time as we make the issue of
the moment such as would
have significance for all sec-
tions of the population.
And .there is only one
way to do this. It is by

focussing all our attention
and all our energies on
demonstrating to every
section of the population
the possibilities for a system
of Government and politics
which is radically different,
more humane and more
equitable than the one under
which we labour. Once this
is done the Government be-
comes supremely irrelevant,
So now that Carnival is
over and the entire popula-
tion once more clamours for
an end to the nightmare, all
of us who wake up the forces
of change must be clinical in
the assessment of our

-mrso--~~-.B~e -~ U





9.30 a.m

------- -- i~rsa~~ .- U

The question is still in
,1975 what it was in 1969.
Is there on the national stage
a political organization ready

to lift the entire country to a
new level ofpolitics andparti-
cipation? And if the answer
is no, as it dearly is, what
must each of us now do to
bring that political organiza-
tion into being.
Any action which is
undertaken without reference
to this fundamental need for
a new politics of prior
organisation would be to re-
peat our error of 1969 and to
reject the valuable experience
with which our new move-
ment has been biased since

Oil Game





The Fla

25 Cenit,

Vol. 5 No. 7





Michael Harris

RECENT developments
on the international stage
have helped to clear some
of the murkiness that
has so far surrounded
what journalists with
singular irony have been
referring to as the Oil
Ever since the Oil pro-
ducing countries unilaterally
increased the price of their
oil at the wellheads at the
end of 1973 the resulting
financial and economic con.
sequences have plunged
many nations of the world
into confusion and near
Now after more than
fifteen months of moves and
countermoves the game is no
longer a game and we are
witnessing today the battle
lines being drawn for a con-
frontation so enormous in
scope that it may well deter-
mine the future course of
Western Civilization.


We cannot hope tounder-
-stand this unless we under-
stand first of all the most
critical implication of the
initial action taken by the
Oil producing countries.
Nothing so graphically illus-
trates this fundamental issue
as the picture of western
economists busily demon.
starting with the aid of
sacrosanct economic laws
why oil prices should not
rise when in the real world
oil prices were escalating at
an enormous rate.
What in fact the Oil pro-
ducing .countries had done
was to curcumvenf, the
totalitarianism of the Wes-
tern economic system which
was automatically weighted
against the primary producing
countries by oil prices out
of the .economic system and
putting them into the political
The oil producing coun-
tries were in fact doing with
their raw materials precisely
what the industrialized coun-
tries had done for so long
with ti r exports to un-
developed countries charge.
ing what the market would
bear without however
camouflaging this under any
econometric garb;


The key proposal that has
been made by the Oil Pro-
ducers to settle what is
clearly an untenable situation
is that in future the price of
Oil be linked to an index
based on the prices of
selected manufactured im-
ports. What any such linking
would do is diminish the
importance of money prices
relative to real prices and
assure the primary producers
of a degree of stability in
their real income which they
have never enjoyed before.
But obviously any such
attempt to redress the im-
balance between (he primary
producers and the industrial-
ised countries would have
consequences on both sides
of he ledger-...
The consequences of any,

such arrangement for the
industrialized world cannot
even now be predicted in any
great detail. It is inevitable
however that at the very
least these economieswvould
be forced to undertake pain-
ful and far reaching adjust-
ments designed first of all to
shift the structure of their
production into avenues that
not only supply the demands
of the producer countries but
also rationalise the Use of the
imported raw materials.
This in turn implies
serious shifts in their con-
sumption patterns with un-
predictable social and
political consequences. The
massive balance-of-payments
deficits and the spectre of
simultaneous inflation and
recession which now stare
many of these economies in
the face are in part the
effects of the new Oil reality.
In addition the other raw
material producers have not
been lax in trying to follow
where the oil producers have
led. Bauxite, copper, sugar,
bananas are only some of
the raw materials whose pro-
ducers are attempting to
band together to achieve
some measure of control
over the price of their


Oil, however, remains the
most important strategic raw
material, and the other
producing blocs cannot hope
to succeed, if in the long
run the Oil producers fail.
The crucial political ques-
tion that has hung over the
world these last fifteen
months therefore is whether
the industrialized nations will
accept the new reality and
seek to negotiate a more
just and equal relationship
with the primary producing
world, or whether they will
opt for an all-out confronta-
tion and seek to reassert
their economic hegemony.
From the beginning it was
clear that there were differ-
ences in the industrialized
world between the Europeans
on the one hand and the
Americans on the other over
which policy should be
adopted. Now it is.equally
as clear that the issue has
been settled in favour of the
Americans and in favour of
It is not surprising that
this should be so. The Euro-
peans simply found them-
selves placed between the
proverbial devil and the deep
blue sea.
One the one hand they
.._.are undoubtedly aware that
the consequ~ieries-of-an-all-

out confrontation could be
far more disastrous for them
than for the United States.
For while the United States
imports only 15% of the oil
it consumes Western Europe
and Japan are dependent on
imports for 65% and 98%
respectively of the oil they
Yet had the .Europeans
opted, as they would have
liked to do, for co-operating
with the oil producers
through unilateral trade deals,
they would have had to
content with aU.S. prompted
trade-war which the United
States is in a far better
position to carry on for a
longer time.


The first real indication of
the capitulation of the Euro-
peans came with their deci-
sion over the question of
"recycling" of petrodollars
The Europeans had originally
intended to accept a British
proposal for the creation of
a recycling fund within the
IMF to which the main con-
tributors would be the Oil
The Americans on the
other hand had proposed the
creation of a 25,000 million
dollar fund, financed by
those industrial nations hold-
ing surplus oil money and
used to bail out industrial
debtor nations,
The ,critical difference
between the two proposals is
one of control, In the Ameri-
can proposal the fund is kept
in western and particularly
American hands both as a
means of whipping recalci
trant industrialized nations
into line as well as keeping
the oil producers out of any
say in the deployment of
The European acceptance
of the American proposal has
led the oil producers to
recognize that their own
surplus funds are going to be
used, in the battle against
them. Prediotably they are
now reassessing their strategy
of investments in the indus-
trialised world.


The Algerian President has
already declared that the
Arab Oil producers should
refrain from investing money
in the United States or
Europe, He stated that such
investments would lead to
"dependence still more
dangerous than colonialism,"
The second recent indica-
tion that the industrialized
world had opted for the
strategy of confrontation

came when U.S. Secretary of
State Kissinger declared that
the United States would be
prepared to take "military
action" in the event that
there was "some actual
strangulation of the indus-
trialized world."
Although the Secretary
subsequently referred to his
statement as being applicable
to a hypothetical case his
statement was but the latest
and boldest of a series of
tough remarks emanating
from the President back
Were confrontation not
the strategy and were the
Secretary not now assured of
European capitulation, it is
doubtful he wouldhave made
statements which could so
easily be misconstrued. In
any case the phrase "econ-
omic strangulation" is so
vague it reminds one of
another Kissingerism; "Peace
with Honour", the definition
of which, we all know now,
had nothing to do with
language and everything to
do with politics,


The final and most impor-
tant indication to date, of
just how far the United
States was prepared to go in
its battle against the oil
producers was given by
President Ford in the pro.
posals he outlined to the U.S.
Congress in the annual State
of the Union message.
When Ford came to office
he was convinced that the
double-digit inflation that
had been battering the U.S.
economy was "Public enemy
No. 1", Since that time the
economy has been sliding
deeper and deeper into a
recession which some observ-
ers describe as the worse
since the "Great Depression."
And this without any con-
siderable reduction in the
levels of inflation.
It is against this back-
ground that Ford's proposals
must be seen, The two im-
mediate features of Ford's
proposals are first, the
imposition of taxes on
imported oil, beginning with
one dollar a barrel and in-
creasing to three dollars a
barrel by April 1. Thereafter
'he has recommended that
Congress impose a tariff on
all oil coming into the U.S.
In addition Ford proposes
to decontrol the price of
domestic oil and natural gas
permitting both to rise to
the world price oil level, The
second feature of Ford's pro-
posal is the reduction of
taxes on individual incomes
to the tune of some 16.5

billion this year as well as
the redeployment of some
30 billion estimated from the
new oil taxes.
The proposals are clearly
problematic. And there, are
already some U.S. economists
who are stating that the price
increases forced by energy
taxes will be of the order of
some 60 billion. But even if
they are less it is certain that
they are going to be of
sufficient magnitude to erode
much of the additional spend-
irg power that the tax re-
bates will put into the hands
of the consumers.
In any such eventuality
the economy will be back to,
square one. The proposals in
fact do not make any sense
unless they are viewed in
relation to the oil battle,
Higher energy price.sin the
United States, whatever they
may mean in terms of infla-
tion and/or recession, are
absolutely necessary as incen-
tives for the search for and
development '-2 not only new
sources of oil but of e-ergy.
Self-sufficiency of the
United States in C '.il
reduce the rate of growth
world demand andput down-
ward pressures on price,
unless of course the Arab oil
producers are prepared to cut
back production levels
(which both Venezuela and
Kuwait have already an-
nounced that they intend to
Clearly such a decision
on the part of the oil pro-
ducer is influenced by the
moves the U.S. is making and
by a judgement of just how
long it would take the U.S.
to develop its alternate
sources of oil, sufficient not
only to meet its own demand
but also for export.
All the cards of the "game"
are still not visible but come
March the industrialized
countries and the oil pro.
ducers meet to discuss the
whole question of prices.
When that meeting comes
off two questions will be
important to the outcome.
The first is just how far
have the moves by the United
States forced one producers
to have second thoughts
about their stand and the
second is just how strong is
the hold that the U.S. has on
its European partners. Accord-
ing to how these questions
are answered we shall see
whose bluff is called,
Meanwhile OPEC is gearing
up for the coming battle -
Iran, the Arabs, Venezuela,
Nigeria even Ecuador and
Indones'. Needless to say
Trinidad and Tobago is a-
slunmber on a slow boat from


h T& lep





SINCE 1946, when they
were declared to be fully
integrated with metro-
politan France, the myth
of the 100 per cent
'Frenchness' of France's
territories in the Ameri-
cans Guadeloupe,
Martinique and Guyane
- has been assiduously
But all the billions of
francs pumped into the three
departments, which have
given them a superficially
higher standard of living than
their English-speaking neigh-
bours, have been quite unable
to hide their relations with
the metropolis based on strict
mercantilism and depen-
Protests against this state
of affairs have been promptly
and often violently stamped
out in Guadeloupe and Mar-
tinique over the years. In the
past few weeks Guyane,
squeezed between Brazil and
Surinam just north of the
Amazon, has been having its
first real taste of such
Indeed there could hardly
have been a more classic
colonial sceriario than the
deportation 4,000 miles
across the Atlantic to Paris,
for trial on subversion
charges, of eight black leftist
leaders a few days before


Their arrest on what
appears to be the feeblest of
evidence was the culmination
of three months of unrest,
sparked offby violent clashes
during a visit to Cayenne in
September. by the French
overseas territories minister,
Olivier Stirn,
The authorities over-
reacted, and after 500 riot
police were rushed into
Guyane to join a Foreign
regiment and a counter.
guerrilla unit, there is now
one armed agent of the gov-
ernment there for every three
of its angry 52,000 citizens,
The situation was perhaps
the inevitable result of the
political awakening which
has occurred in Guyane over
the past year or so.
Influenced partly by the
growth of radical nationalist
movements in the Caribbean,
young Guyanese half the
population is under 20 -
have begun to organise them-
selves against a regime which
continues to allow Guyane
to be the dumping ground
for the political, military and
human debris of the French
overseas empire.
The. Foreign Legion regi-
ment, for example, arrived
in September 1973 after
being kicked out of Madagas-
car. But it is the spectacular
economic inactivity and
undevelopment which has
perhaps angeredpeople most.
There is massive unemploy-
ment in spite of the tiny
population, and' prices are
two thirds higher than in
France, yet the country's
huge forest and mineral

resources are hardly touched.
This is likely to persist as
long as the small group of
merchants in Cayenne con-
tinue to discourage any local
industry in order to maintain
the hefty profits they make
out of importing, mainly
from France, items such as
rice, onions, soap and

EIGHT pro-independence
leaders arrested in
Cayenne before Christ-
mas have now been freed
from jail in Paris. But
they sJill face trial by a
quasi-military court for
subversion, and all except
one have been forbidden
to return to Guyane.
They remain under
police surveillance in

After his release, Guy
Lamaze, a 34-year-old teacher
and the leader of the most
prominent group in the
present unrest in the French
territory, the Mouvement
Guyanais pour le Decolonisa-
tion (Moguyde), talked to
the left-wing Paris daily
newspaper Liberation about
the situation:

Liberation: What has been
the overall result of the
unrest, the repression and
the arrest of you and other
anti-government leaders?

Lamaze: A remarkable
increase in political aware-
ness among the people of
Guyane. Even fairly well-off
people, previously silent,
have publicly spoken in
favour of independence, in
the face of the extensive
mobilisation of the people.
We received tremendous
support during the month
we spent in prison, particularly
from the extremely active
Mouvement of Guyane,

People got round the ban
on public meetings in a
number of ingenious ways.
For example, 2,000 people
turned up for a religious mass
at Montsinery, 15 miles from
Cayenne, and converted it
into a demonstration of sup-
port for us.
Students at the Felix
Eboue secondary school, in
Cayenne, where I teach, had
previously been mute. But
our arrest moved them to
action and they showered us
with letters and cards of
support and boycotted classes
by the teacher named to
replace me.
They have also taken up
a suggestion of Moguyde in
organising a centre to en-
courage young people to go

cooking oil, which could be
produced locally.
Their refusal to open up
the economy means that food
items comprise more than
one fifth of all imports,
which themselves exceed
total exports (mainly
shrimps) ten-fold; the country
lives off the some 60 million

Guy Lamaze

out into the countryside to
help the rural population.
Liberation: What about
the charges against you?
Lamaze: So far it's been
a farce. None of the people
who've questioned us has
said anything about the sup-
posed plot for which we
were arrested, for the simple
reason that the authorities
have absolutely no evidence.
They've made a big mistake
by arresting us on invented
At the moment, we're
being questioned by various
officials flown from Cayenne.
We're glad these encounters
are taking place in Paris
rather than Cayenne, where
we would risk being ill-


Liberation: When and how
did Moguyde start?

Lamaze: It was founded
on 10 October 1974, and set'
itself the task of politically
educating the supporters of
independence and organising
them on a mass basis. It
didn't come out of the blue
hoWeve-. We were able to
draw on a great deal of
sympathy which was already
Some .publications had
already argued in favour of
independence, and there
were movements like Crique
Populaire (named after the
slum area of Cayenne which
fought hardest against the
repression by the French of
the 1971 strikes), Faunou
Free Guyane), and Jeuncsse
Active de Guyane (Guyane
Youth Action).


dollars handed out annually
to the department by Paris.
The new groups, spear-
headed by the Mouvement

Also, since its 1973 con-
gress, the country's main
trade union, the Guyane
Workers' Union, has been in
favour of independence. But
Moguyde was the first to
state both publicly and mili-
tantly a pro-independence
Liberation: How is inde-
pendence viable, in view of
the small total population
of the country (52,000) and
the proximity of an expan-
sionist Brazil and the omni-
potence of the United'States?
Lamaze: Such a small
population is indeed a handi-
cap in the independence
struggle, but it will become
an advantage once indepen-
dence is won.
It's easier to feed 52,000
people than several million.
In a very short time, we
could become almost com-
pletely self-sufficient in food.
There's plenty of land. We
just need to cear it for
cultivation. 95 percent of the
country is covered with
forests rich in timber.
There are plenty of fish
off our coasts too. At the
moment, the American fish-
ing boats operating there
are only after shrimps, not
fish. And there have never
been many sharks in these
waters. A .national fishing
industry could be established.
There's also copper (a
big deposit has been found)
and bauxite and a French
companyis about to prospect
for oil offshore.
rich. Another is due to open
at Fourgassier, on the Compte
As for Brazil, we aren't
worried. It'll take them 100
years to develop the Amazon,
which is a hundred times
richer than Guyane. What
would they want with us?

Liberation: What about
the immediate future?

Lamaze: The entire
episode of our arrest and
deportation to France has
been to our advantage. The
authorities have lost out all
the way down the line. The
people organised themselves
to protest, and this is a good
foundation from which to
continue our political
struggle for Guyane's inde-



I- ----

Guyanais de Decolonisation
(MOGUYDE), have upstaged
the traditional opposition,
the Parti Sodaliste Guyanais
(PSG), with their call for
outright independence.
The PSG leader andmayor
of Cayenne (and as such the
department's defacto political
leader), Leopold Heder, who
sits in the French senate,
advocates only autonomy,
though he can hardly argue
against independence on
grounds of non-viability
which are conceivably valid
for Guadeloupe and Marti-


Heder, MOGUYDE and
the main trade union, the
Union des Travailleurs Guy-
anais, are for the moment
united against the arrests,
interrogations, intimidation
and ransacking of homes and
offices which make up the
current repression in Guyane.
They also oppose the ruling
Gaullist pro-departmental
Conseil-General, which is
presided over by a wealthy
former protege of Heder, Ho
A. Chuck, and which ousted
Heder, splitting the PSG, in

Heder alleged at a press
conference in Paris last week
that one reason for the
repression was to enable the
government to give 'guaran-
tees' of law and order to
several multinational corn.
panies reportedly interested
in timber and rice in Guyane.
But it is just as likely that
Paris is simply content to
continue its traditional policy
of laisser-faire towards the
department, appeasing local
magnates with the occasional
political trial in exchange for
both continued markets, and
political support when re.
quired, and to enjoy the
prestige of colonial possession
whatever the cost.


The arrest and deportation
of the leaders for a supposed
plot to stage attacks in
Cayenne on Christmas Eve,
and their impending trial by
the special state security
court, has for the moment
decapitated the opposition,
which had managed to gain
unofficial support from the
Burnham government in
But as senator Heder said,
the situation remains 'explo-
sive.' It seems likely to
remain so while the authori-
ties, including Stim, are
content to dismiss the
opposition as 'racist', and to
continue repressing a popula-
tion whose literacy, and
thereby potential political
consciousness, is exception-
ally high.




President of Tapia Corosal.

FROM its formation in
1952, Trinidad Cement
Limited became owners
of approximately 2,000
acres of land, all of
which can be put under
cultivation. The Quarries
where the excavation of
limestone is carried on
occupies about 150 acres.
There is also a small
cocoa and coffee estate
of about 50 acres.
The remainder of the
land is in bushes and a small
part is cultivated by tenants.
T.C.L. is by far the largest
single owner of land for
miles around.
When the Company
bought the estates in 1952,
there was almost the same
number of houses as there is
now. This stifling ingrowth
has been due to the Com-
pany's refusal to grant anyone

rI rw

--ne-ir-- --

II 'I-

permission to build any more
houses on its lands.
The village of Corosal has
suffered the greatest. Many
of the young men of the
village who have wanted to
start families of their own
have had to go to far out
places, away from relatives
and childhood memories.
At present, the Tapia
Group in Corosal is eagerly
awaiting replies from the
Company to two applications
made for permission to
purchase or rental lands for
the construction of dwelling
houses. It is our intention
to challenge the land policies
of the Company,
1T 1952 the Company
leased lands to the renters of
the former owners at the
rate of $3.72 per acre. The
Company has not since
raised its rental-rate but it
has also ceased to rent land
for agricultural purposes.
It is understood that this

decisive move is in retaliation
to the inability of the
villagers to find the money
for rents.
Quite recently the Com-
pany has leased a 100-acre
block of land to International
Foods who in turn, have
rented the land to farmers
at no less than $25 per acre.
Moreovervthey have issued a
contract stipulating the
types and amount of crops
to be planted.
Naturally these arrange-
ments do not please the
farmers. And now the Comn-
pany has begun testing the
soil on this 100-acre block
and its rumoured that they
intend to begin mining
operations shortly.
If they proceed as planned,
they will certainly kill the
small stream that waters the
agricultural lands of a good
many farmers notable among
whom are the Black Gold
Co-op Group of young men
who have been farming on a
15-acre plot for over two

In- In 111 II 1i II


i Q


You always

wanted her to


makes it easy -

and an ideal

Gift too.




The farmers are organising
themselves at present to
repudiate any attempts by
the Company to begin exca-
vations on their agricultural
The grouses of the villagers
are numerous especially in
Corosal. To begin with, out
of about 40 unemployed
young men, not one has got
ajob with the Company.


Then there is the grievance
over Ache Road. This road is
looked after by the Victoria
County Council. During the
early excavation, the road
was used by the Company
as a private road. As a result,
there were three landslides of
quarry overburden blocking
the free way.
The hundred and more
children on their way to the
Mayo RC, School have had
to brave this mud daily and
when it becomes too danger-
ous, they have to detour
along another road a mile
and a half longer. Up to
date, the road is in a mess.
The Company has used
the Mayo River to get rid of
excess mud and slurry. This
has killed the flow of the
river and the wild life within
Formerly this the river
watered the large valley

through which it passed; the
farmers who till the soil here
here have had to do without
the water formerly supplied
by this now muddy mess.
Finally, there is the sour
note of recreational facilities
in the four adjacent villages
where T.CL. is the landlord.
The only recreational facility
that TC.L. have provided is
a ground very near to the
Company's premises, form-
erly used for Company
This ground is prepared
for cricket only and there
is not even a pavillion. None
of the other villages has any
intention of providing any,
The people of this area
have felt the impact of a
multinational corporation for
over 22 years and have now
reached the limit of their
It is the end of the road.
Many of the young men,
being unable to fitd jobs,
are beginning to take stock
of the situation and of the
part played by this Company.
it is our firm belief that
conditions could be improved
immensely if this Company
were nationalised and if
agriculture were promoted
and sporting facilities estab-
As it is at present, the
Company and its officials
take a liliputian attitude to
the bona-fide citizens of these

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~ rY~Y) I~II app-ICIC



A finial-top shoring three human
heads in the centre, two beaked-birds'
beads and two animals on two sides

THE east or west a term
generally used to signify two
distinct categories of man's
creations has always engaged
the art historian's attention since
the beginning of time. The east,
or Asia, as it is called today lis
the birth-place of almost all
major religions of the world.
No wonder it is also the birth-
place of many artistic traditions.
The Asian continent, composed
of many countries, ethnic groups
and cultures and speaking diver-
gent languages, has produced art
which emphasised the inner
qualities of the man. Unlike the
west, where the human body
was usually depicted as a beauti-
fully wrought and well-propor-
tioned mechanism, the Asian
artistic creations reflect the
beauty of the moral or inner
The Asian creations need not
correspond precisely to any human
prototype but they are composed in
accordance with their own canons of
proportion, and are calculated to
endow them with a more than moral
impressiveness and beauty. Irrespective
of the medium and the country of
origin, Asian art objects invariably
represent an ideal. Whether it is the
Buddhist art of China and Japan or
the Islamic art of Iran, the ambition
of the artists is to put themselves in
communion with nature and convey
its quality to the spectator.
.Inhabited continuously since
prehistoric times, Iran always seems
to have been a gateway to migratory
tribes. The new arrivals would settle
down for a while until they in turn
were forced to move on. Naturally
they carried their artistic traditions
from one place to another.
Early pottery jars found in Iran
have their, parallels in Indian art in
shapes as well as in motifs. Combs,
circular, floral or animal representa-
tions and geometrical designs occur
on Iranian and Indian pottery jars,
showing marked similarity. There
seems to be a common west Asian
repertoire for these motifs from which
both these artistic traditions drew
From the earliest times Iranian
artists had a wild fantasy for animal
,forms, Luristan bronzes from Iran
(12th to 6th century B.C.) not only
show the advanced technique of
bronze casting achieved by those that

Seated Buddhist Guardian, Bronze, China, C. 12th Century A.D.


fashioned them but also depict the
influence exercised by Iranian art on
Indian art scene. Strange animals,
sometimes a combination of bull lion,
bird and human elements, find place
on Luristan's bronze horse bits. The
finial top shows animals perhaps
lions with necks elongated to dragon-
like slenderness.
Later Iranian art, which
flourished under Darius I at Persepolis,
shows still better and forceful treat-
ment of animals on stone pillar
capitals. Scholars believe that these
pillars and their capitals, endowed
with shining polish, inspired Asokan
pillar capitals. The echo of distant
Luristan bronzes, with beaks like those
of parrots, body of lions, wings of
birds etc, can still be seen on a stone
find, perhaps, the leg of a throne,
from Patna. A parallel of the same is
found in Iran.


A significant contribution of
India to the world civilisation is the
introduction of Buddhism. The Gupta
sculptures, (5th-6th centuries A.D.),
the classic creation of Buddhism in
India, established the standard type
of the Buddha image. The Gupta
style became an international style.
Its export took two main directions
to Indonesia and, through central
Asia to the far east. Whenever one
thinks of the Buddha image, one
thinks of the Gupta type or its deri-
The most famous and most
copied of all the Buddha images of
the Gupta period is the fifth century
chunat sand-stone image, now with
Sarnath'museum, representing Buddha
turning: tihe wheel of law. The serene
countenance, beautifully decorated
halo and diaphanous robe, only the
fringes of which is indicated, are
masterly creations of the Gupta art.
The Buddha head from Samath form-
ed the prototype for the Indonesian
head from Borobadur, as also for the
head from Thailand. The Buddhist
sculptures of Tang period from
China show marked similarities with


Buddha Head, Chunar Sandstone, Sarnath, India, 5th Century, A.D.


the Gupta Buddha figures. A seated
Chinese Buddhist deity (circa 12th
century A.D.) still retains some
affinity with the Sarnath figures.
The principal means by which
Buddhism was transmitted to Indo-
nesia was the Gupta and post-Gupta
art of Bengal. It is believed that
monks and traders from India and
Indonesia travelled to and from their
homelands. Since they were devout
Buddhists, besides being astute
businessmen, we find from the in-
scriptions that they commissioned
works in the great centres of art
particularly in Bengal. In some cases
the Indonesians even built temples in
Bengal as an act of homage or as a
memorial to the Buddha. There was
thus much interchange in terms of
trade and economic activity and the
movement of people and images.
Each country obviously en-
dowed the Buddha with its own
characteristic which varied slightly.
In many cases we notice that physical
types of each country found a
representation in the Buddha figures.
Lotus-petalled eyes of Indian figures
are replaced by narrow slit eyes in the
Chinese, Japanese and Korean figures.
Again, the Thai figures show thick
lips and quite often a flame on the
head, above the bun. Walking Buddha
is another characteristic of Thailand.
However, if one observes carefully,
the same contemplative mood will be
noticed for example, a gaze fixed at
the tip of the nose, half-closed eyes,
arched eyebrows, ovaloid serene face,
quite often beaming with smile and
snail-like hair. A similar treatment of
the Buddha figures is also seen in Sri
Lanka, Nepal, Burma, Japan, Cam-
bodia and other Asian countries.
Multiheaded deities, a peculiar-
ity of Indian art depicting the power
of the gods, are found in Cambodian
art as well,
Hinduism, too, spread abroad
and found its way into the Indonesian
islands, Cambodia and other neighbour-
ing areas, Vishnu, Siva and Mahis-
asuramardini were the mostvenerated
deities. Ganesh, too, was a favourite
The iconographic details of the


deities varied but they retained their
basic character. For instance, Cambo-
dian images of Vishnu show him
clad in a dhoti which hardly reaches
his knees, and the crown takes the
shape of a cylindrical cap. Though in
appearance somewhat different from
his Indian counterpart, he is god of
protection and benevolence, as in
India. Again, the head of Sivaiimages
from the same country has a peculiar
cap type headgear and moustache
which we do not find in India. In
certain cases even minor deities of
Indian mythology, such as Garuda,
become important. The Indonesian
artists have shown it in many forms
and shapes, either independently or
with the, god, Vishnu. The Mahisasu-
ramardini images were, however,
fashioned in almost the same manner
as in India. The multi-armed Devi is
depicted as killing the buffalo demon
rising from the buffalo carcass. The
Indian images, which obviously
inspired these figures, show a similar
Among the motifs deriving
from early Mesopotamian art and
continuing in the traditions of India
to the present day is the pattern of
the entwined serpent pair. This
ancient device commonly appears on
votive slabs erected to serpent genic.
Such stone slabs, called nagalkals,
variously decorated with serpent
forms, are votive gifts from women
desiring offspring. In Mesopotamia
this device of entwined serpents
appears in a very early design traced
on the sacrificial goblet of king
Gudea of Lagash, circa 2600 B.C.
Many more exchanges in the
field of art can be noticed if one
examines Asian art traditions, Quite
often these images travelled far, with
pilgrims, traders and victorious armies.
Each country added its own flavour
to these statues, thereby developing
national and regional characteristics.
However, a trained eye will notice a
common undercurrent in all these
national traditions that of the
emphasis on the nearness (tadatmya)
to nature and warmth of feelings.

Indian and Foreign Review

:I L L I~BBB d ~laq~SII, L -pa r




THE University of Puerto
Rico (UPR), a traditional
center of opposition to
the government, is now
confronting a repressive
programme whose first
manifestations have been
the violation, of univer-
sity autonomy and the
elimination of student
The attitude of the
colonial government towards
university problems is part
of a broader hard-line policy
applied in all fields on the
The repressive programme
reflects a process aimed at
putting an end to legal
restraints which prevent the
government from openly
applying'its big stick policy.
A good example of this is
the so-called law reform
project which will reduce the
size and functions of juries,
eliminate habeus corpus and
allow the police to make

searches without warrants.
There is also the
.strengthening of the classic
apparatus of repression -
police, national guard and
criminal investigations depart-
ment used to persecute
the students, workers and
the independence movement
in general.
Specific measures have
been proposed for the UTR
which have still not been
enforced because of the
militancy of the students.
The establishment of a
General Ruling for Students
and the reorganization of the
public university system are
a few of the main aspects.
of these measures.


So-called reorganization
was approved by the Council
of Higher Education (CES)in
March 1973, but it has not



Phone 662-5126 or visit our office at
82-84 St Vincent Street Thnapuna.

/been enforced. The project
'palls for the regionalization
f higher education sup-
sedly to eliminate the
ncentrati6n of students in
the Rio Piedras Campus.
However, the students
said that the main purpose
of the project is to break up
the student movement and
to neutralize the struggle of
the UPR.


The Ruling for Students,
proposed by the UPR admin,
istration, is alsonunacceptable.
It is an attempt to keep the
student community from all
institutional processes and
thus weaker it. The creation
of a Ruling was one of the
demands of the October
1973 strike which culminated
in a resounding victory for

the students,
During the strike, the
Federation of Pro-Indepen,
dence University Students
(FUPI) revealed an extra-
ordinary capacity for leader-
ship and organization. The
October movement started
Because of the mediocrity
of education, the rigid univer-
sity structures, repression
against students and the lack
of participation of the
students in decisions directly
affecting them.
Thousands of students
took part in the strike, along
with professors and workers.
They forced the CES to
recognize the existence of a
university community and
the administration.


It .was also agreed to
create a special commission
which would examine the
problems of the students, the
students' participation in the
process of selecting and
appointing staff and the
return of the University
Guard to its original func-
However, these agreements
could not really be enforced
and were violated by the
CES. The first violation was
the appointment without
prior consultation of a
new rector for Rio Piedras
University by the president
of the UPR, Arturo Morales
The rector, Ismael Rodri-
guez Bou, had to take up
office clandestinely on the
campus because of student
opposition, The students
asked for a meeting with
Morales Carrion, but instead
were received in his office
by a police cordon.
The studertts who were
merely asking for the fulfill.
ment of the October agree-
ments were violently dis-
persed by the police, The
event ended not in the trial
of the principal student
The rector accused the
following students of partici-
pating in activities tending
to impede the functioning
of the university; Jose Rafael
Coss, president of the FUPII
Julieta Munoz, president of
the General Student Council
(CGE) of the School of

of Humanities; Carlos
Fonseca. member of the GCE.
and Jaime Lopez, president
of the CGE.
All four were found guilty
and Coss was suspended
from the UPR for three years.


The decision against Coss
did not come as a surprise.
The last five presidents of
the FUP1 have been expelled
from the university. The
student struggle, said Coss,
has been increasing in spite
of systematic repression.
He said that dhe tactics of
the colonial government and
university administration
would not stop the act,tia
of the student movement
and the FUPI and the cam-
paigns for a university reform
and the "puertoricozation"
of education.
Coss added that the FUPI
aims at obtaining student
unity all over the island since
a national organization is in
a better position to win its
legitimate demands.
The Secretary of Student
and Youth Affairs of the
Puerto Rican Socialist Party
(PSP), Gervasio Morales, ex-
plained that this work is
connected closely with the
task of obtaining unity the
labour movement.


A close alliance between
students and workers is the
step previous to the unity
of all the Puerto Rican
people, he said. It is the
premise for the creation of a
united front that will have
independence and anti,
imperialism as its basic mini-
mum objectives.
The university struggle is
part of the larger struggle for
independence and socialism,
stated Morales. An authentic
university reform can be
obtained only when the
colonialist and capitalist struc-
tures now on the island are
destroyed, he declared,
The repression unleashed
against the UPR by the
colonial administration shows
'that the struggle against
colonialism is becoming
more and more conscious
and active in Puerto Rico,

Prensa Latina






Lloyd King
Gordon Rohlehr
Victor Questel
Denis Solomon
Cheryl Williams
Derek Walcott
Wayne Brown


George Beckford
Norman Girvan
Owen Jefferson
Clive Thomas
Maurice Odle
William Demas
Roy Thomas
Havelock Brewster
Alister McIntyre

James Millette Lloyd Best Vernon Gocking Dennis
Forsythe Fitz Baptiste Vaughan Lewis

I i 1

- ~---



Econotim cs & Management

THE managerial approach to
economic development, especially
in the case of small counties,
was hinted by Lloyd Best in his'
review of William Demas' book,
The Economics of Development in
Small Countries with SpecialReference
to the Caribbean.
He suggested that "economic"
development is a problem of
management of timing, sequen-
cing and manipulation in an un-
ending effort to perceive or to
create, and in any case, So
exploit a multiplicity of little
openings and opportunities".
However, Best did not develop
this insight. The managerial ap-
proach may be identified by
three main aspects. Frst it is
decision-oriented; second, it is
programme-oriented, and third
it is systems-oriented.
In the theory of Management an
important development in recent years
has been the emphasis of decision-
making. As Miller and Starr put it,
"The executive is our prototype of
decision-maker". The decision maker,
whether he is an executive of Minister
of Government, finds himself a in
position where some kinds of resources
are always being used as inputs to
produce some kind of outputs. These
resources can be employed usually in
alternative ways at different costs, and
the output or benefit from these
resources should have value. The objec-
tive of the decision mkaer is to mini-
mize" the costs associated with a given
_benefit or to maximize the benefit
associated with a given use of resources.
Management therefore is a continuing
exercise in cost benefit analysis.


The economic adviser then, to be
persuasive, must always be prepared to
spell out the value of any course of
action which he is urging on the
Minister. The executive cannot be
expected to take action because it is
the theoretically right thing to do. A
minister of finance, for instance, will
not devalue because some economist
tells him that his currency is "over
valued". Some realistic estimate of the
value of this course of action, as
opposed to the costs of his present
policy, must be spelt out for him,
Another important feature of this
modern day management is that it is
programmatic, The most classic tech-
nique in management science is that
of linear programming, In the appro-
priate circumstances, most.especially
in static situations of relatiev certainty,
the executive is able to choose the
optimal from an infinite number of
feasible solutions, It is therefore in.
structive to examine the essential
structure of programming.
The first step in programming is
fie selection of an objective function,
in' determining this, the economist
must fli'uently enter a dialogue with
the Minister or executive to discover
what it is he is after. It is amazing
how many executives do not know
whta it is they are trying to do. Some-
times, too, the advisor may want to ask
himselfifhe really wants to participate
in achieving the objective function
when he discovers what it really is.
The second step in programming
is the identification of the strategic
variables. There, are of course, power-
ful search techniques, regression ana-
lysis for example, which may suggest
what these variables mrght be, but
there is nothing in the formal training

Extract from a Conference Paper

delivered by Dr. Courtenay

Blackman; Governor of Central

Bank of Barbados.

of an economist which will ensure
that will he identify correctly the
the strategic variables of a given situa-
The economist then is forced to
fall back on his intuition. One's in-
tuition is informed by a multiplicity
of experiences, disciplines and data.
The economist then must have a broad
and generous education. He must have
read widely in economic thought and
history, in literature, sociology, psy.
chology, anthropology, philsoophy,
and in all areas concerned with the
human condition.


Above all, the economist must
be as intimately familiar with the
economic activities and institutional
arrangements of the country concerned
as is humanly possible. A Barbadian
economist who has not actually
visited a sugar plantation, a vegetable
farm, observed the harbour and airport
operations, seen the oil rigs at Wood-
bourne, visited a natural gas well,
attended a parliamentary debate,
witnessed a court trial, inspected an
industrial estate and generally done
things of that sort, is unqualified for
advisory tasks, Without this kind of
familiarity with the economy, the
economist will no'i understand fully
the meaning of the statistics which the
various departments of Government
and Business spew out.
For this reason the easy convic-
tion of economists from international
institutions after a two or three week
visit, is a source of endless astonish-
ment to me. I have listened dumb-
founded while a visiting economist
has recommended with a confidence
which only the absence of responsibil-
ity can breed, the most outrageous
courses of action. Indeed, there is a
famous Cambridge Oxford economist
of Hungarian extract, whose advise has
unfailingly led to social unrest.
As important as the choise of
the strategic variables is the identifica-
tion of the controllable variables.
Again, this is a question of judgment,
In the longest run,admittedly when all
of us are dead, all variables are con-
trollable, Even so, several variables,
which are apparently beyond our
control. are in fact, controllable or at
least partially manipulable, The Dutch,
for example have traditionally treated
the size of their country as, in some
degree, a controllable variable,


After the economist has separ-
ated his true variables from his para-
meters, he must select the technology.
By technology I refer to the broad
strategy or set of strategies which he
will use to accomplish his end. This
is the creative element in the exercise.
Here, familiarity with a wide range of
technologies is useful, but even more
important is the imagination. Even so,
serendipity and even plain luck plays
its part. If an Aztec Indian in the
tenth century A.D, had stumbled upon
the idea of the wheel, the Spanish
conquistadores must surely haye met

their match in the sixteenth century.
Finally, the programmer must
determine a measure of effectiveness
for the system. In the pure capitalist
system, profits or costs are the usual
measure of effectiveness for business
operations. However, there are several
situations, even in the most capitalist
of systems, where a quantitative
measure of effectiveness is most diffi-
cult to achieve. Personally, I would
give a wide berth to either a profit-
maximising or a cost-minimizing
hospital, and I am at my wit's end to
determine what quantitative measure
of effectiveness should be used in the
operations of a Central Bank. The
Gross National Product had much
currency twenty years ago as a measure
of national effectiveness. In recent
years, it has lost much of its lustre as
development economists began to
recognize the importance of factors
such as income distribution and other
structural aspects of economic develop-
Perhaps, the economists' search
for a single discrete measure of
effectiveness is misplaced. Maybe, we
ought to accept Herbert Simon's
concept of "satisficing" and reject
the entire idea of optimization in
national economic life. The truth is
that we do not know what is "optimal"
in aggregate terms and would not
recognize "optimality" if it were
before our very eyes. Perhaps it is
enough that countries set themselves
dis-aggregated targets such as infant
mortality rates, protein intake per
head of population, number of
persons skilled in various areas, etc.,
and judge effectiveness on the basis of
whether these indices have shown
relative improvement.


The other important innovation
in Management Studies in recent years
is Systems Analysis It is an impor-
tant departure from the traditional
economic approach. The "ceteribus
paribus" reservation is well known to
every student who has done a first
course in economics, It epitomizes the
classical economic technique of causing
one variable to change while holding
the others constant. In Mathematics
the relevant operation is that of partial
The systems approach recognizes
that in real life some variables do not
stand still for others to change. Ordi-
narily, change in one leads to change
in all the others. While it is true that
economists like Leontieff, with input-
output models, and Tinbergen, Frisch
and company with their econometric
models, have recognized the need for a
systems approach, input-outputmodels
and existing econometric models are
still far from even fair approximations
to dynamic models, It is also true that
majority of practising economists
still cling to the analytical tools of
macro and micro-analysis, and the
belief that the market is the crucial
system in a society still prevails in the
most respectable schools.
The systems oriented practi.
tioner recognizes that it is not enough
to advise that additional capital should
be invested in agriculture and then

assume some rough capital input-
output ratio. The systems analyst
instinctively understands that, unless
there is a marketing system which
permits the vegetable farmer to dispose
of his produce at a fair return, capital
investment in farm programmes will be
futile. He also recognizes that a pro.
gramme to reduce expenditure on
imported vehicles will back-fire unless
public transportation facilities are
simultaneously upgraded and I could
go on.
The systems approach to econ.
omic development focuses not so
much on material resources as on the
effectiveness of the systems which
support the economic endeavours ol
men. It focuses less on the com-
petitive aspects of society as exempli,
fled by the market and more on the
interrelatedness of human- activities
For the "systems" economist a
development plan is not so much a
statement of what percentage of GNP
should be wivested to generate a
desired growth rate, but the determine.
tion of which subsystems in the
society must be activated and made
to function so as to improve the
performance of the total economic
system. For what else is economic
development but a series of useful
changes in the social, economic and
political subsystems so that the
effectiveness of the total economic
system is improved.


Above all the "systems"
approach is heuristic rather than
dogmatic. It recognizes the imper-
manence of social phenomena and
the imperfection of human perception
of reality. C. West Churchman des-
cribes this problem when he observes
that in our examination of social
phenomena, we continue to be decided
even as our perceptions improves:

"It's not as though we can
expect that next year or a decade
from now someone will find the
correct systems approach and all
deception will disappear .. ..
What is in the nature of systems
is a continuing perception and
deception, a continuing review-
ing of the world, of the whole
system and of its components.
The essence of the systems
approach, therefore, is confusion
as well as enlightenment. The
two are inseparable aspects of
human living".


To sum up we may describe .the
"managerial" economist as one who is
not content with theoretical general-
ization but insists upon an intimate
familiarity with the system upon
which he proposes to operate. He is
not satisfied to merely classify his
case and then prescribe on the basis of
historical experience with that type of
problem. For he recognizes that the
solution to a problem will frequently
lie in the uniqueness of the case and
not in its generality. Like the student
of management he will be eclectic,
drawing on all the disciplines cognate
to his special activity. Finally, like the
systems analyst, he will be modest,
recognizing that he is not likely ever
to come upon the "correct" solution,
but being content with doing better
tomorrow than he did to-day.


Baldwin Mootoo

AFTER the second T6st,
Match against India when
a 5-0 victory in the series
seemed a real possibility,
the West Indies were
being hailed by many as
an unbeatable team.
Personally, I had select-
ed them to win the World
Cup next year. Since
then, India recovered to
even the series and we
entered the final Test
with their spinners haviry
the psychological ascend-
I certainly had my -fears.
If everything clicked as it
could, we would demolish
India but if it did not, we
could end up losing the
series. As it turned out,
everything clicked but with a
fair amount of luck on our
side and in the end we came
through grandly.
First of all, we won the
toss on a wicket which sur-
prised everybody including
the panic-stricken West
Indian Manager Alexander
and played quite well
throughout the match.
Secondly, India's attack
was weakened at a crucial
moment for her. Her open-
ing bowlers had kept us
remarkably subdued in the
first hour and the conditions
were ideal to bring on the
After the events of the
previous two Test matches
Fredericks and Greenidge
would have been put through
a most gruelling trial -
Bishen Bedi taking over one
end with Prasanna and
Ctandra sharing the other.
But India had her bad
luck Bedi was indisposed due
to stomach trouble and did
not bowl until about midway
through the first day. So
Pataudi could not operate his
three-pronged spin attack,
the moment was lost and
the West Indies proceeded
to consolidate towards a
large score.
They were helped along
by some expensive fielding
lapses including a missed
caught-and-bowled by B~edi
before Lloyd had reached,'
double figures. :'
We must see all this in
the light of India's very res.
pectable score of over 400
in their first innings. While
the overall result was by a
wide margin and on paper
seems overwhelming, there
were crucial things in the
match that went our way and
tilted the balance just when
it mattered.
This is by no means to
underestimate the -West
Indian victory. Instead, it is
'to remind us that we are still
missing Rowe in the upper

half of the batting order.
Reports from the recent
game in Jamaica to honour
Gary Sobers indicate that he
is coming along well and
one hopes that the Shell
Shield this year will put him
back on the ,team ready
for the World Cup in June.
With Richards now estab-
lished, the West Indian line-
up of Fredericks, Greenidge
Rowe, Kallicharan, Richards
and Lloyd must be the
strongest in the world today.
From India's point of
view, it is good to see that
Vishwanath has now really
established himself. He has
always been considered to
be the technically superior
player to Gavaskar and his
century in his first Test
against Australia showed in
fact that India has produced
a really top class player.

THE San F'do. calypso
and steelband finals 1975
proved to be yet another
of those now common
occasions demonstrating
the great divergence
between people's choice
and judges' decision.
In 1972 Sparrow, Kitch
and the audience saw Chalky
as the threat. The judges saw
differently. Some years ago
Composer had to beseech in
song "Pick the best calypson-
ians for the savannah."
On Tuesday night we saw
Stalin, Maestro and Fonclaire,
The judges of course saw
differently. According to
Blakie "Something wrong,
something wrong".
The competition ended,
and we waited for what we
believed to be obvious deci-
sions. Fifteen minutes went,
then twenty and thirty. Al-
most an hour we waited for
educated people to add up a
few scores or was it to
argue and erase?
We knew that something
was wrong, but according to
one member of the audience,
"Ah want tohear for meself."
And then the announcer in
perhaps the mo graphic
manner, expressed rat rany
were unable t'do 'using
obscenities" ,.'. the decision
of the 'quote judges unquote
(exact words) ...
"4th. Maestro"
"O God"
"3rd. The Mighty Stalin"
"0 God! O God!" -
"2nd. Stag Fonclaire"
We had run out of O Gods
by then. Some muttering.
but mostly dumb acceptance
as most of us walked away
without waiting to cheer

However, for a long time
after that, Vishwanath failed
Sto make big Test scores. India
persisted withhim (remember
Gary Sobers scored his first
Test century 365 not out
after about six years on the
Test scene), and all the
potential that he showed is
flowing now from a prolific
We can re-assess the West
Indian chances in the World
Cup, now not from the
position of a possible 5-0
victory but from the reality
of a 3-2 win and what seems
to have been a close call
against Sri Lanka. On our
record, I still feel that we
must finish in the final three
and my money in fact,
remains on the West Indies
to win.
Our batting, as I have
indicated is very strong and I

"the winners".
. "How these does judge
pan and kaiso boy?" Good
question. A friend of mine
asserts that even looking at
the criteria laid down (which
he does not accept anyway)
he cannot understand the
results. Apparently he says,
the C.DC. and judges have
another unknown set of
criteria for judging the


Who are these "Judges",
and what is their experience
and record? C.L.R. James
told us about the W.I. Cricket
selector who did not know
what was an inswinger and
what was outswinger. It seems
to me that pan and kaiso
selectors fall within the same
"They" said that Spar-
row's Rose was not calypso.
"They" said "The art of
making love" was obscene
but "Miss Mary's big fat hairy
pam pam" was not. "They"
say that panmen must be
"disciplined" pan must be
"standardised" etc. etc.
"They" are doctors, law.
years, teachers etc. "eminent
citizens". No calypsonian,
panman, or ex-calypsonian or
panman. Once you are a
prominent citizen, you are
qualified to judge pan, kaiso,
cricket ...
After years of C.DO.'s
direction people are today
earnestly asking, "What is
kliso, what is sweetpan?"
It was so easy to tell some
years ago. Even calypsonians
and panmen are in doubt.

am predicting Rowe's return
Roberts, Boyce, Julien and
Holder (who always bowls
well in England and deserved
the results he had in ihe
final Test against India) can
more than take care of the
pace and seam attack.
Gibbs as I see it must
take part in the World Cup
Series. Limited over cricket
is no place to introduce a
new spin bowler at that level
of the game and in any case,
if we were bold enough to
try it, we certainly could not
do it with a back of the hand
That leaves us with
Jumadeen, Padmore, Willette
and Gordon from Jamaica
and maybe Ajoda Persad of
Guyana. Regardless of the
success they may have in
this year's Shell Shield, are
we going to put any of them

Because of the nature of
calypso it suffers greater
damage. "Four King" Duke's
style has deteriorated to such
an extent under C.DLC.'s
direction that today he is
better known for his superbly
dictioned recitations on stage.
The Mighty Sparrow's
(poor fellow) Sunday punch
is now an uninteresting dirge.
The audience does not like
it; the judges do. The
audience can kiss my black.,..
The Mighty Spoiler of
course wouldn't even stand a
chance of reaching the Bowl
today. The swing is from
philosopher kings to jesty
prancers, with only the
"judges" knowing the correct
and proper mix.
Calypsonians and panmen
have brought their art to a
very high standard against
the opposition of the same
thought patterns that today
seek to control and direct it
- "This cannot be -sung in
front of the tourists"' "This
one will make a better
ambassador". The people
who, according to Chalky
" never beat a du dup


Calypsonians need to un-
hinge themselves from the
C.D.C. competition complex
and allow their art to flourish,
like the reggae, all year round
in all its myriad moods and
In the case of the panmen,
they created the instrument,
experimented unceasingly
without help, sympathy or
recognition, to create a music
form that now sets the
world on fire. Year after

into a limited over match in
place of Gibbs?
I certainly can't see it.
These bowlers must bowl
with the 1976 home series
in mind their chance 'Will
certainly come: then.
All of which makes the
Pakistan leg of the tour very
difficult team to .beat at
home at any time. Today
when her team is in fact
quite powerful, the task that
lies ahead of us is even more
On the plus side for us is
that Lloyd is now a more
experienced captain and must
know his men a lot better
than at the start of the tour.
After gaining the finalvictory
in India, our confidence
must have been restored for
Pakistan whose bowling does
not have the spinning power
of its neighbour.

they weave simple tunes into
the most intricate arrange-
They are the most creative
instrumentalists in the land,
And yet they lack the self
confidence to tell themselves
that they are best qualified
to direct and judge their
music. In my view they have
all the talent needed to
create their own "classics".
Recently I heard a fellow
speaking about the heights
that pan has reached. He was
so enthused about the
orchestration, and the subt-
lety of the arrangements, but
he ended by saying, "If only
them fellas knew music eh!"
Very funny. It is no mean
task to arrange for some 150
to 300 pieces. Especially
when year after year new
arrangements, tones and com-
binations need to be hatched,
I am not against panmen
and calypsonians seeking
advice from anyone. And it
should be a good thing for
panmen to be able to record
their music on paper. But I
don't think they should allow
one but themselves direct
their art.
Panmen and calypsonians
have done a brilliant job so
far without sympathetichelp.
It may well be that they have
so well because there was no
outside help. It is time for
them to the pontificating
about what is good kaiso
and sweetpan.
And it is time for them
to unyoke the art from the
direction of those ,. who
never beat ah du dup yet", or
are unsympathetic and un-
mindful of the contribution
and qualification of those
who do. Volney Pierre

Co ptto iig 0 Si -,pa