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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00148
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: February 9, 1975
Frequency: completely irregular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00148

Full Text



SUNDAY FEBRUARY 9, 1975


OMITTING previous abortions (The Right and the Wrong
and Caribbean Fox) from consideration, we must consider
BIM to be the first feature film to be made in Trinidad,
where there is no professional theatre (though we do have
a highly professional amateur company) and very little
professional creative writing.
From the moment you see the moving scene of a
Hindu wedding with which the film opens, you realise that
even if there is some amateurism, by and large taste will
prevail.
The film tells the story of an Indian boy from Caroni
whose family is ruined, and whose father is killed, in a war
for control of a sugar-union (whether of growers or work-
ers or both is not made clear). The boy, Bim, comes to
aunt in Port-of-Spain, encounters unbearable persecution from his
aunt's African sweet-man and from African school-fellows and
teachers, and becomes a delinquent.
Fleeing from the police after a botched gas-station holdup,he
goesto work for'the Captain', a smuggler-fisherman who specialises
in transporting illegal immigrants from Grenada, and who has some
policemen in his pay.
On the run again after
a police raid (one of the cops Denis Solomon.
in the Captain's pay turns
informer) Bim returns to her bodyguard, being molest-
Caroni, where he applies the ed by town hoodlums who
gangster tactics he has have recognized her. He
learned to the task of elimi- draws a gun, fires, and kills
nating the man who has the main attacker, and the
killed his father, and to film ends with Bimn's cry of
taking control of the Union. agony and defeat.
Eventually he becomes, The complexities of
somewhat against his will, race relations in the political
the leader of the Indian-rural and economic context of
political party which is vying Trinidad, pre- or post-inde-
with its African-urban pendence, and their effect
counterpart for control of on the souls of individual
the island, each hoping to people, are not deeply probed
form the government when by a story-line of this kind.
Independence comes. To begin with, the


CARONI

While hiding out in a
brothel before his return to
Caroni, Bim has discovered
that the newest recruit to the
brothel's personnel is his
childhood sweetheart, Anna,
who has herself been forced
to leave home by the enemy
faction and is about to
become a prostitute. Bim gets
the brothel-keeper to promise
he will make her a waitress
instead.
The promise is not
kept; but when Bim
establishes himself as party
leader, he rescues the girl
and brings her to .lve at his
home, where he keeps her
shut up and guarded to
prevent unpleasant contacts
from her past.
Bim's political emi-
nence takes the heat off him
as far as his previous criminal
activities are concerned. But
one night, drunk and dis-
gusted, he is retuming from
a Government House cock-
tail party when he sees Anna,
who has gone for a walk wi th


American forces at Chaguara-
mas) and ,vi:n uses money
to get raci ily-based political
power; then, in the typical
upside-down doctor fashion
of Trinidad politics, one
becomes a union leader from
outside the industry rather
than inside.
This combination of
economic hopelessness with-
in the industry itself and
political distortion of the
society as a whole, in the
context of a plantation
economy and a transplanted
population, and not simple
political gangsterism, is the
reason for the kind of disloca-
tion that sends boys to
delinquency and girls to
prostitution.
For .the same reason


INBI


the tensions between rural
Indians and urban Africans,
themselves suffering from a
different version of the same
problem, are more complex
than the film manages to
suggest.

Admittedly, we can see
in the persecution of Bim
by his aunt's boyfriend.
Bolo, and in the beatings
the aunt receives from Bolo,
Bolo's frustration and hatred
of himself.
But it is wrong to
suggest that Bim was likely
to be the only Indian in his
private-lesson class at school
(even in Belmont), or that if
he was, he would necessarily
be bullied for that. If an
Indian were bullied by an
African, race might be part


of the reason, hut only part.
From these oversimpli-
fications most of the film's
shortcomings flow. Bim's
early life in town shows him
trapped in a situation not of
his own making, and the
desperation of his situation
is of Dickensian proportions;
after he rises to political
power, his life continues to
be a trap for him, partly
because he feels himself out
of his depth, and partly
because he has learnt no
skills of conciliation, only
those of defiance.
Bim's animal cry at the
end of the film, therefore, is
his cry of rage and anguish
at being unable to get free of
conflict, violence, and blood-

Continued on Page 6


basic premise is invalid. In
real life there has been
conflict among Indians in
rural Trinidad, doubtless even
murder, but to depict a
Mafia-style war of families
with mass carnage in the
midst of wedding festivities
is completely false. Even the
dialogue relating to this
episode- 'When I talk toPapa
Charlie tomorrow, I want to
be talking to a man who just
lost two sons' is too
obviously reminiscent of
The Godfather.

SUGAR UNION

Besides, in union or-
ganisation there is just not
that much to fight for, and
this is where the greatest
unrealism of the plot comes
in. Mafia families in the USA
may well fight for control of
powerful unions along with
other prizes, but in Trinidad
the pattern is the reverse.
Nobody gets rich from
leading a sugar union; on the
contrary, one gets rich first
(for example, through selling
building materials to the


COUNCIL OF REPS
Sunday March 16, 1975
TAPIA HOUSE 9.30 a.m.


Vol. 5 No. 6


25 Cents


$


Fl NE ACTING







SUNDAY FEBRUARY 9, 1975


THE


MIGHTY


OH Gawd that bad! To the proverbial Tan-tan it surely
was more than enough to make she close she eye and hide
she face. Though this time she may not have been made to
bawl down the place. And only because by now she has
grown accustomed to the persistent in-fighting among


panmen.
But in '75 it hard to take.
Really it feel bad to see our
pan brothers, holed in CDC.
Headquarters, Queen Street,
scramble among themselves
for the Government's Mighty
Caca. That is where $5000
bring we again. What a
tribute to Spree Simon!
That seems to be the
perspective which must be
brought to bear on the recent,
if not current, controversy
among our steel-bandsmen as
to which bands must, as of
right, make the grade into
the semi-finals. And so qualify
themselves for a try at the
lottery, as it were.
Surely, of considerably
less relevance is whether or
not the judges' decision was
valid. Their verdict in my
view should be final once
we are all agreed on the
yardstick, and on the method
for measuring excellence
among steel-orchestras.

BLACKANAL

Nor does itmatter whether
we agree withClive Alexander
that 16 is too small a number,
to be selected from the
preliminary figure of 82. And
even less so, whether Despers
or East Side should be among
te four additional bands.
That is just what the score-
card should tell us.
Yes blackanal, not bacha-
nal, is what may truly be of
over-riding concernhere. That
is not what is normally dis-
missed as simply black people
business, and as the marked
lack of togetherness we find
at almost every level of
existence..
Actually the spectacle we
have all witnessed with great
displeasure is more complex
than that. And, in fact it
relates more to the seemingly
ingrained tendency to engage
one another in small time
squabbles over a little morsel
here and there.
It is really our constant
failure, made manifest, to
perceive that unless we are


r


able to possess ourselves -
to strive to control our
environment our manipula-
tors in politics and in business
would always find it easy to
press our self-contempt into
fury.
The all-pervading character
of this tendency is no where,
more persistently illustrated
than in project-wuk. It is the
Government's largest single
effort ostensibly geared to
bring relief to people in
depressed areas. But as the
major outlet for political
psiatonage theproject-wukhas
contributed a lot to the
continued denial of a sense
of personal dignity-to people
of African descent.
Granted though that the
factors responsible for this
denial are many which range
froi the insecurity of tenure
on the project to the insidious
cultivation of the culture of
getting something for nothing
and devil take the hindmost.
I, for one, was forcibly
minded to recall the numerous
instances of violence, of the
threats and counter-threats
over which water-carrier or
which mason should work
where, why and so on. To
casual observers itis tempting
to view this aggression as the
product of vileness or of
sheer bad-mind.
But from the people's
point of view the Project is
really their most important
opportunity to get a share
in the national bread 'It is
always too few for too many.
Yet compounded with that
is the unpalatable fact that
it reaches their hands in a
,completely irrational way.

GODFATHERS
What determines who gets
what has more to do with
the kind of contact one has
with the Godfathers of the
Project, the party head-men
in the neighbourhood, than
with any rational system of'
merit,
The opportunity to stab
a fork into the ground ona
project somewhere, or to
operate one of WASA's
pumps is sometimes won as
well by sheer brute force.
After a time men learn that
iight also. helps to win
opportunity and income.
Was this not the same
attitude that prevailed at the
current controversy over the
Panorama Preliminaries?
The anger which bred the
.slander and the threats upon
Rev. Sewell was far from
righteous indignation. Repre-
hensible as it most certainly
was it must be seen as a
symptom of a deeper social
and economic sickness. In
fact, the root cause is poverty
- cultural and economic.
What but a lack of a
positive sense of self would
allow men to be so blinded
by the prospect of gain that
they become prepared to
trample the interest, of the
community to .which they
belong?


Lloyd Taylor
As individuals it may be
that panmen have not been
able to forge a harmony of
interests between the need
for personal survival within
their units, and that for the
realisation of the fullest
potential of the entire steel-
band movement.
If that be the case, then
nothing better illustrates the
fact of stagnation in the
movement over the years. It
has been stagnation marked
mainly by the slowing down
of the creative processes by
which alone men can further
expand the boundaries of
creative effort to forge an
industry with the capacity to
provide a measure of gainful
employment t,

FRUSTRATION

So the result of the
seasonal effort, night in and
night out, over the years has
mainly been to refine estab-
lished excellence. Since one
could hardly get beyond that
point, frustration naturally
sets in,
One further consequence
of this halting of the creative
urge anong us is perhaps the
rise of an individualism that
emphasises at once, negative
and niggardly aspects of self.
The unwillingness or inability
to curb self-interest, the
growing lack of generosity, to
act with a sense ofresponsibil-
ity the erosion of self-confi-
dence and mutual trust are
all part of the same syndrome.
The economic background
to the power of the Cacadah,
is a sordid picture of growing
unemployment, widening in.
equality, and mounting
inflation, That means more
and more depression in the
communities where project-
wuk as the chief palliative is
just another wasting game.
In this context, Carnival is
to be seen as a season for
making a little bread. Within
the steelbands in particular,
the energies of fairly large
numbers ofyoung men,many
of whom live without jobs,
are more or less fully em-
ployed. The good prospect.
of rewards from the takings
of fetes are translated into
pure Cacadah by the time it
reaches the individual band.
member,
At this level the demise
of many a band has often
turned on the question of
how the income shares should
be allocated to tuners,
arrangers, captain, vice.
captain and ordinary panmen,
It takes a mixture of paternal.
ism and brutishness on the
part of leaders to hold their
bands intact,
In the tents and on the


.streets this curious kind of
full employment has been
sustained only by the enthusi-
asm borne of a happy co-
incidence of work and play.
But as life in general becomes
tougher, the sheer love of
pan is not enough to contain
the frustrations from boiling
over ever so often.
At tnat point the crunch
comes. For men are now no
longer beating pan only for'
the joy of Carnival, They
are also working for bread
which they need.
The grim reality is one in
which panmen find them.
selves among the 70 per cent
of have-nots. Invariably they
are also among those with no
economic levers with which
to redress their economic
misfortunes. Potentially, a
united steelband movement


Hamlet Josevh (Yaxsie)

THE 'Jumpy Guys' of
Upper Thomasine Street,
Laventille came together
on New Year's Day in an
effort to better their
position and to improve
their environment general-
ly.
"Because of the lack of
jobs, the lack of public
amenities and the over-all
frustrations that the fellas are
facing we were forced to come
together as a group," said
Rudolph Phillip. He pointed
out that the immediate objec-
tive of the Group is to get two
maintenance gangs.
These gangs, he said, would
clean up the area on a day to
day basis and would assist in
building of community bins.
Phillip stated that the
brothers on the block were
unfairly treated last year as far
employment on the project
was concerned, and this year
they are more than deter--
mined to see that they are not
left out,
Another member of the
Group, Lester, explained that
while in the past the brothers
disagreed and misunderstood
one another they were now
more united. He pointed out
that there were too many
promises made by the Govern.
ment and too.little implemen.
station,

WATER

But tnhs year they intend
to do something about it.
They related that on
January 7, 1975 a delegation
from among themselves went
to the office of the Repre.
sentative and an appointment
was made by him to see them
the next day at an appointed
time on the block.
But Wilton Hinds did not
appear, "Later", they' went
on, "when we came back on
the block to lime, we learnt'
that he came an hour after we
had left, without any word of
his returning."
Rudolph Phillit further ex.
plained that one of their


which is clear'about its future
and direction could provide
some such lever.

Against the background of
prevailing inequalities in the
national distribution of bread
it is inevitable that prizes
would become less and less
an appeal to excellence,
prestige and recognition. With
empty belly, it is the bread
that counts. The larger itis
the greater the power of the
Mighty Cacadah.
The conditions lying at
the heart of the Cacadah's
power are worsening at a
quickening rate. Unless we
take up our beds and walk 5
times $5000 may well be an
inducement to more fight.
One way to dream the mark
is to bus' it yourself.


immediate goals woula be to
get back the telephone which
was stolen from the booth at
the corner. They Hope also
that their Representative
will be helpful in this
respect.
A little later Junior Lobby
gave : shocking description of
the water problem in the area.
He said in the households,
water came to the -taps around
11 o'clock at nights and
would return to whser he
does not know at about 5.30
a.m. So that during the day-
time there is no water in the'
taps at all,
Lobby pointed out that
water flowed from only three
of the six taps in the area.
But the really amazing thing is
the hours at which the water
comes to them.
From one water comes
between the hours of 10 p.n,
and 3.50 am.n At another it is
possible to get water from
830 p.m. to 530 a.m. And
from the third water flows
between 1230 p.m and 330
a.m.

COMMUNITY

In addition to this irregular-
ity of flow from the taps one
is sure never to get water from
at least one of the taps during
Christmas Day and the two
Carnival Days.
Since the formation of the
Group the brothers have made
a modest start to show that
they mean business when they,
talk of a better deal for
themselves and for the com-
munity at large.
For example they have, as
part of a beautification effort,
adorned some walls in the
community with a wide array
of colours in paints. This has
given that part of the area a
well-needed face lift.
They have also takenma list
of names to the Ministry of
Works in a search for jobs on
the projects. "You see., we
have done these two things as
a start. But besides project
work the Group intends 'to
continue fighting for the
amenities that are sorely
needed in the area," explained
Carlton,


Laventille Brothers

More United


MEUMM


PAGE 2 TAPIA


I CACADAH







SUNDAY FEBRUARY 9, 1975


CALYPSO


WOM3IAN


ESTHER LE GENDRE



LAST week Calypso
Woman completed a
highly successful three-
night run at the Nap-
arima Bowl, San
Fernando. Billed simply
as a musical melodrama,
the drama had at its core
the love of the pan-man
Jules for Rose and the
fever of an approaching
Carnival.
The drama is presented
in the classical three acts.
Act One sets the scene: a
fishing village in Mayaro, two
young lovers and a dis-
approving mother, lively,
colourful, gossiping villagers.
The crisis which comes here
though, the fatal stick-fight
between a jealous Jules and
John Briggs and Rose's sub-
sequent departure, should
traditionally unfold in the
second act.
Act Two is absorbed in
John Briggs' wake while Act
Three shifts the scene al-
together to the Avocado Club
in P.O.S. and climaxes in
another death amidst the
revelry of F Ouvert morning.
Carnival is the dominating
theme of this piece. Jules'
pan hangs from its stand by
the hut on the beach even at
the first scene where fisher-
men haul in the loaded nets
and wives and vendors join
the mad scramble for fresh
fish. The drama closes with
bands jostling each other up
narrow streets, the sound of
pan in the air.


FOLK SONGS

Act one sets the peculiar
tone of this drama, Dance is
accompanied by folk-songs
sung by the -dancers them-
selves (with help from TELCO
Choir discreetly back stage).
A single voice gives way to
full choral expression in song
-and dance. Country girls
want their boys to treat
them like city folks do;
'We like ice-cream. choc-
lates and a stiff one too.'
Like the coquettes they,
are, they pretend shock when
two girthy pieces of bamboo
are held alight and offered
by the boys,
It is remarkable that this
scene, and another where the
boys invite Jules to throw
dice, are reminiscent of
similar scenes in that grand
musical drama 'West Side
Story'.
All this is fascinating
when you look at it in the
context of what Errol Hill
poses in his chapter entitled
'Toward a National Theatre'
in his book 'The Trinidad
Carnival Mandate for a
National Theatre', published
in 1972 by the University of
Texas Press.
Hill asks: Is it possible to
enunciate principles, based
on the experience of Carnival
for the establishment of a
national theatre that will


COME


truly represent the cultural
attitudes, expressions, and
aspirations of the people of
Trinidad and Tobago?
In 1975 Eugene Joseph
has significantly re-named his
company 'The Trinidad
Dance Theatre'. Their pro-
duction, 'Calypso Woman'
attempts to follow Hill's
rough guide sketched for
those experimenting in the
starting of a national theatre.
Hill sees it as imperative
to recognize, first of all, the
sense of rhythm that pervades
the speech, music, calypsoes,
and dances of carnival. All
these,the carnival illustrates,


should be inseparable com-
ponents of the Trinidad and
Tobago theatre.
For a close parallel to the
types of Theatre Hill advo-
cates, where there is easy
movement from speech to
song to dance, along with
dramatic gestures,he suggests
the stage version of 'West
Side Story'.
A superb example of
Hill's suggestions proved
workable is the market scene
in the second scene of Act 1.
The entire scene, vendors and
butchers with their wares,
remains petrified until prince
charming Jules touches:
And what is the damage
on this fig?
The vendor replies:
Fifty-five cents
Jules: What! Yuh mad or
what?
Vendor: Yuh better gimme
back me fig
At this point the chorus
of vendors take up theory:
Yuh better give she back
she ffffig!
The drama of rivalling
vendors unfolds as customers
walk among them picking
and choosing and incurring
their wrath, The cries slip
from the single voice to
chorus and back again then
finally into the beautiful
choral song 'Friday night in
the Central Market',
But not always is there
this perfect application of
language to the situation.
Back in Scene one it is
difficult to accept Rose's
comforting words: Love
cannot live without money
just after Jules pathetically


declares:
Ah fraid to sleep and Then
wake up and find both
Things ah love gone,
Equally hard to take is
Rose reciting at the scene of
John Briggs' wake (jOust after
a choir recites 'Me Johnny
Dead').
'Love is not made to
order, dithe power is
from my soul.'
and later;
What is good about good.
byes
What is fair about farewell
For some strange though
maybe not so incomprehens-
ible reason the script-writer
resorts to a stilted standard


English form when expressing
the emotions of these folk-
people. The result is a:blood-
curding scrape across the
otherwise smooth harmony
of the piece. The speech
pattern of the vernacular is
an essential part of that
carnival rhythm.


BERNIN
,J I El~Z




ri49


I- -

it


On the other hand. The
Trinidad Dance Theatre has
carried out its pledge 'to
experiment with indigenous
materials, dance forms and
techniques of all kinds.' The
Wake Scene and RoseBlake's
Dancers prove how success-
ful this can be.
The Wake begins in ballet
and the beauty of this dance
was obstructed only by un-
suitable costuming heavy,
full-length cotton dresses.
But then comes the bongo,
frenzied, powerful, method
on the madness of over-
whelming grief. The subse-
quent scene of Rose's
departure contrasts with its
quietness and serves to soothe
after the earlier orgies of
John Briggs departure from
this world.
At the Avocado Club the
scene is typical. Its Carnival
Sunday night and blood
pulses in the veins:
Girl, leh me see whey you
have what I have is not
for you because itis brand
new. Well if it's new, come
leh me see if its true .. .,
Look out when ah drink
meh Bull Dog stout An'
ah smoke up all meh
tampee an a feeling' nice
an' sexy well wuh we go
do, if yuh say it brand
new.
Boy, leh me see whey you
have what I have is not
for you because it is hard
and newWellifithard and
new, come leh we do we
do
and from the back a girl runs
forward screaming
'Buh wha happen to he?
Isjoke I making Trinidad.
At the Club its show time
and the RoseBlake dancers


do a mixture of modem jazz,
keeping up a complex rhythm
on the tamboo bamboo.
It is an interesting feature
in Trinidad Dance for all the
various dance techniques,
from bele to bongo, from
ballet to modem techniques,
are all handled with equal
skill.
Its JOuvert morning and
a vendor scolds her child who
abandons an ice-cream pail
to look for a band. Drunks
stray in and lunch around.
Ou-t of nowhere Jules appears
and approaches Rose and her
new friend. But read the pro-
gramme: Jules raises his grass
knife Bow Dow .
Police shoot him. She seek
(sic) his kiss of death .
They Kiss their bloody kiss
. the body is .taken away.
Despite the Shakespearean
transports of the programme
it is one of the more moving
scenes of the drama. Rose
takes up Jules pan-sticks and
crazed with grief she beats
out the tune he used to play
on an imaginary tenor pan.
Rose, Eugene Joseph's ideal.
Calypso Woman is strong
enough to take up where her
man leaves off. He is dead
but through her, panlives on.
What Joseph has donr in
'Calypso Woman' is to prove
Errol Hill's theory on the
possibility of a national
theatre based on carnival, a
national institution. Joseph's
commendable handling of all
the various expressions of
carnival, the music, the dance,
the large numbers shows that
it is possible to harness the-
energy and creativity 'of
Carnival into something
which shows the way to a
truly national theatre.


il III tI


;;;;~l~1::;U~;~ afs~ciiei~I


4t. i- iu l u t-'



You always

wanted her to

sew...


BERNINA
makes it easy -


j and an ideal

Gift too.


HAVE A DEMONSTRATION TODAY


KIRPALANI'S
NATIONWIDE AGENTS AND STOCKISTS


GOOD


IN 13IA U


- ------- ---~--~ ----


TAPIA PAGE 3


. F u N 1--"


I


3













CUBA:People's power


being tried


Cuba has made great strides in Education


A new experinwnt in popular participation


CUBA continues to
develop its economic
base as it attempts to
institutionalize the dem-
ocratic participation of
the people in the political
life of the first American
socialist state.
Progress along these lines
is reflected in a recuperation
of basic economic activities,
the strengthening of internal
political unity and a greater
participation of workers,
peasants and other sectors of
the population in state deci-
sions.
An economic growth of
26% during the 1970-73
period, in addition to' the
technical and economic
collaboration of the socialist
countries, are factors favor.
able for the maintenance of
this trend,
The advances obtained
have been translate into a
higher living standard for all
Cubans who now have more


consumer goods.
In spite of the attempts
of Cuba's enemies to isolate
it from the other countries
of the continent, the Cuban
Revolution will celebrate its
16th anniversary with its
prestige abroad at a high
peak.

LAW REFORM A

The process of institution-
alization in Cuba comprises
several fields of state and
social activity. In the legal
field, the Revolution had to
replace old laws with new
essentially socialist laws in
harmony with the present-
day level of development in
the country,
In the political field, it
had to create people's power
organizations, the supreme
authority which in the future
will direct all state activity,
The objective is to guarantee
real exercise of power directly


by the population and to
put an end to the provisional
nature of things after the
Revolutionary Government
took power on January 1,
1959.
Ine people's power or-
gans, now being tried out for
one year in Matanzas
Province, will lead to the
establishment of true people's
democracy, directed by a
National Assembly or Con-
gress.
Cuban leaders regard these
institutions as a great step
forward in the revolutionary
process and believe that they
are vitally necessary to the
practice of socialist dem-
ocracy in Cuba.
The people's power organs
"have become a fundamental
element of our state; they
will give institutional, regular,
real and systematic form to
people's participation," Raul
Castro said recently.
The second secretary of
the Cuban Communist Party


also stated that during the
past 15 years the Revolu
tionary Government has
carried out all its basic objec-
tives, but he stressed that
now is the time to start
thinking of the permanent
form which the Cuban state
will assume.
The appearance of new
representative state institu-
tions, made up of non-pro-
fessional delegates who are
elected and subject to recall
by the population, was
difficult in the first years of
the Revolution when its
prime task was, survival
against the hostility of the
United States.
Besieged by' constant
aggressions, which culmi-
nated with the mercenary
Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961,
the Revolutionary Govern-
ment put in practice a
number of measures to
establish a new economic and
social order in the country.
When it came to power,
the Cuban government found
a capitalist economy depen-
dent on the United States
and subject to the world
sugar market. The new gov-
ernment wiped out the large
estates and capitalist owner-
ship of land, most of which
had been in the hands of
the U.S. companies.


NATIONALIZATION

The peasants received
parcels of land and a state agri-
cultural sector was created,
which today encompasses 70
per cent of farmland in
Cuba.
An Urban Reform was
passed and all the banks, big
and small companies, foreign
property and local economic
groups were nationalized.The
state established a monopoly
over foreign trade and educa-
tion.


illiteracy was eliminated,
as was unemployment, racial
and sexist discrimination.
Social services were extended
all over the county and
education and medical atten-
tion was declared free of
charge.
In this political and social
context, the country's main
drive came mostly from its
confidence in its political or-
ganizations and its leaders
and in the population's
enthusiastic support of all
the tasks aimed at eliminat-
ing underdevelopment.
However, today theCuban
Revolution has entered a new
stage of life in which itmust
meet the needs of creating a
socialist economy and using
with maximum efficiency all
the resources of the new
social system,
"We can't build socialism
without norms, without
method, without co-ordina-
tion between everybody
everywhere, without the
co-operation of everybody,"
said Prime Minister Fidel
Castro on July 26th last year.
After a speech given by
Castro in 1970, for the
celebration of the 17th
anniversary of the attack on
Moncada Fortress, Cuba
began a process designed to
strengthen its political and
mass organizations.
This process ofinstitution-
alization took on a faster
pace in 1972 with the
reorganization of the Council
of Ministers and the creation
of its Executive Committees.
The Cuban labor move-
ment held its 13th Congress
in November 1973 with the
objec tive of strengthening and
democratizing the trade-
union apparatus which at
the time was no ought to
be playing its rightfully
important rlc n the political
and social life of the nation.
Continued on Page 9


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PAGE 4 TAPIA






SUNDAY FEBRUARY 9, 1975


From Page 4

In the western province
of Matanzas, people's power
organizations were formed
in the second half of last
year, after the holding of
the most enthusiastic elec-
tions in the history of the


CUBA: PEOPLE'S POWER


country, elections ir' which
more than 90 per cent of
the voters went to the polls,
People's power organiza-


tions will be extended to the
entire country starting in
1976, thus giving permanent
form to the revolutionary


state, endowing it with
representative institutions
which will not only make
the people feel that they are


represented in the state but
also that they form a real
part of it and have a direct
and systematic participation
in all state decisions. (P.L.)


movement


for


Dom ni ca


THE Movement for a
New Dominica (MND) is
a totally different organ-
isation from the other
so-called organizations
and parties. It is
not like the organizations
that come together just
before elections to cap-
ture votes.
Our life and blood is
helping people to organise
themselves, as it is only an
organised and politically
conscious people that can
build the country.
In others words, the
political form we will have in
time is one in which an
organised people rather than
false representatives will con-
trol their destiny. And this
will come out of the work we
have been doing and will
continue to do among our
fellow Dominicans.
It is not a question of
having a big Jesus Christ, a
few Messiahs, a few repre-
sentatives doing things for
the people. That is an old-
fashion way of building a
o country.
Any serious people or
organisation in 1974 will not
want a country to be
developed and built by one
or two representatives but
by the people themselves.
And this i precisely what
we have -been doing over the
past two years,
Mixing, grounding, work-
ing, studying, living with the
people. We remain a move-
ment helping people to
develop a better understand-
ing of the present conditions
we find ourselves.
The rulers of this society
have been talking about
members of M.N,D, It is as if
we have a list of regulations
and a monthly amount to
pay. And someone would say
that he or she wants to be a
member. And we will answer
it is alright to be a member.
That is the old way of
organising people.

What is M.N.D.? M.N.D.
is a movement of ideas, in
its i."itial stages. We say
initial stages because we
cannot be sure what M,N,D.
will be in say, three, four,
five years time,
What it is in six years
from now depends on what
takes place in Dominica, The
Movement in five, six years
is a putting together of the
ideas that. we. a small group
of people have, with the new
ideas that emerge from dis-
cussion and work with the
rest of the population.
Obviously, a group of
people are putting forward
these ideas. But this must
not be confused with what


the Movement is.
The difference between
M.N.D.'and other political
orearisations or associations
is that we do not start off
like God, knowing every-
thing. Like those existing
political Parties whose
Leaders come on a platform
and tell us that the answers
to the problems of the
country are ABCD and if we
vote for them they will do
ABCD.
Many years after they do
not do either a, b, or c, d,
they begin to blame the
problems of the country on
other persons.
All we are saying today
is, on the basis of what we
know of Dominica, of the
Caribbean, of how societies
have developed this is the
way we feel things ought to
be done. In other words this
is the way we feel the
country can begin to develop.
But we are also saying
that we are throwing out
ideas for people to take,
examine crush or remove
parts and come out with
their own method of chang-
ing Dominica. But all talk
and no work cannot build a
Better Dominica.
That is why we say that
we have to live and work
with people and help them


Statement

do things for themselves.
When all these ideas and
methods of work are put
together that will be M.N.D.
We begin by serious
political education in the
communities. And what do
we mean teaching people to
read and write. We also
mean educating people so
that every man, woman and
child would be able to under-
stand fully the way in which
things are done (or not done)
in Dominica. In other words
they must understand how
the system works.
Some words about the
System. What does that
mean? Simply, the way in
which everything in the
society is done. There are
four major kinds of activity
people must do in any
country. These are classed
into economic, political,
social and cultural systems.
The economic system is
simply the way in which we
obtain our daily bread. In
other words, the way we
take our resources: land,
tarish, people, sea, and put
them together for every
person to be able to get tea,
breakfast and dinner.


by M.N.D.

The way we sit (or stand)
and discuss and find solu-
tions to our problems is
called the political System.
The social system is the
way people come together
as individuals or groups to
relate to other.

BELIEFS

Finally, the cultural sys-
tem. Simply, it is what we
believe in our system of
belief. For example, one of
the basic belief of this
country is that some people
must have and other do not
have. Check it out for your-
self. And so we accept it!
Cez Bondie qui faire ca! Ca
pour faire?
A second belief of our
people is that we must have
managers and workers. There
must be a distinction between
those who manage and those
who work. In other words,
some people must do all the
work and other people must
get fat off the labour of these
workers.
These beliefs, incidently,
guide our economic systems.
What we are saying is that


our beliefs should be based
on our Dominican situation.
It should not be imported
from elsewhere.
Now, M N.D.'s philosophy
of change. In other words,
how do we see a Better
Dominica coming about. We
see change coming about
when the masses of Domini-
can people politically edu-
cated and fully conscious of
their conditions decide what
kind of life they want.
Finally, a few words on
the kind of New Dominica
we have in mind. As time
goes on we will present
more details. The Movement
feels that in the New
Dominica all exploitation of
man by man must end. In
other words, people who
work should benefit fully
from the labour they give.
Secondly human beings
in the society must be more
important than property. And
lastly, in the new Dominica-
we are thinking of Domini-
cans as being in control of
our land, capital and our
labour.
This is the kind of Society
we are working towards.
M.N.D. is pledged to work,
study with, and learn from
our fellow Dominicans so
that ail of us together can
build a better Dominica.


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TAPIA PAGE 9







PAGE 6 TAPIA


From Page 1
shed; the cry of the human
being who has been brutalised
by life but retains humanity
enough to know it and
despair.
But this ending is as
unsatisfying as it is un-
expected. Throughout the
film African-Indian hostility
is proclaimed rather than
explained. Its roots in
structural dispossession, as
opposed to fortuitous dis-
possession such as is depicted
by the device of the feud,
are never suggested.
The only African cha-
racter endowed with a history
is the captain, and his is
merely shown to be parallel
to Bim's: he has left home
at an early age, but it is not
clear what pressures have
forced him to do so.
So whether Bim's final
cry of despair is meant to
indicate the defeat of any
hope of harmony between
the races, orwhetherwe take
it purely as his personal
despair at being unable to
shake himself free of his past,
we find no very strong reason
in the film to believe it.
On the evidence, he
might just as plausibly have
persevered as leader of his
party, and (perhaps under the
softening influence of Anna,
the only person who never
put him under any pressure)
begun to work towards a
reconciliation with his oppo-
nents.






Fl/M

The killing itself ought
not to have been too much
of an obstacle, because not
only had his political power
already protected him against
the effects of his past crimes,
but he would probably not
have been charged at all,
given the omerta among
Indians which had protected
him in the past.
Although it is true that
if he had been charged, his
defence wouldn't have been
very good, since he had not
only shot his victim but
pumped him full of lead.
To justify its pessimism,
therefore, Bim would have
had to probe the Trinidadian
condition more deeply and
more delicately than it did,
but a more delicate examina-
tion might in fact have shown
grounds for greater optimism.
The story linehas other
faults too. If we are to
sympathise fully with Bim as
an individual, the love
interest is extremely impor-
tant. But instead of being
developed from the start, it is
inserted quite late, and as an
almost complete surprise.
Bim's meeting with
Anna in the brothel is dra-
matically weakened because
we have had only the merest
glimpse of their childhood
relationship, and that at the
very beginning of the film
when a lot of other things
were going on in a short
space of time. The omission
is not repaired by an awk-
ward series of flashbacks
which attempt to establish
it retroactively.
Raoul Pantin, as the
writer of the screenplay, has


not yet learned the trick of'
indirection which is the
secret of the art of dialogue
writing. Instead of turning
the audience into eavesdrop-
pers and having them deduce
situations from conversations,
in scene after scene he makes
use of contrived dialogue to
give us background informa-
tion directly.
People tell each other
things they must both know
very well, in order to let the
audience in on the facts. The
Chief of Police and his sub-
ordinates exchange com-
ments about the seriousness
of illegal immigration; Bim
has to have the-'leader of
the strongest Negro party'
pointed out to him, in those
terms, by his lieutenant.
Rarely does the dia-
logue aid a scene to build to a
climax; instead, the flatness
of the lines is a drag on the
development of emotion.
There are exceptions for
example, some of the scenes
of grand-charge during Bim's
gangster days but overall
the script does not sparkle.
But much of the acting
is really fine. Anand Maharaj
as the young Bim gives a
remarkably sensitive perfor-
mance Ralph Maharaj, as the
older Bim, though handi-
capped by the conceptual
limitations of the role, was
not only technically good
but was able to convey, in
flashes, the remnants of the
boyhood radiance still hidden
behind the fear and anger of
the young hoodlum. Ronald
Amoroso's Bolo was authen-
tic and well sustained.


excellent comic actor.
As for the question of
the obscenity and racial
violence the censors objected
to, the vocal obscenities
were no more shocking nor
even numerous than those
to be heard on the sound-
track of many foreign pro-
ductions from Shaft to The
French Connection. The
scene of attempted rape was
considerably less brutal than
scenes of accomplished rape
to be seen in Man of La
Mancha or Hitchcock's to
name only two.
The violence was intra-
racial as well as inter-racial;
and if, as I have claimed, it
was to some degree a mis-
representation of the mores
of the Indians of Caroni, the
effect of such scenes can be
judged only by the honesty
of their intent, which in turn
is a function of the whole
presentation.
If, as I have pointed
out, that violence had been
shown more clearly to be the
product of historical and
social forces, and not tradi-
tional to the Indian com-
munity, the honesty of the
film-makers' intentions, al-
ready clear to any thinking
person, might have been
obvious to the censors too.

Anyway, the Cabinet,
in order to save the censors',
face, decreed that the obscene
words must be bleeped out
of the sound-track, with the
result that they are all the
more obvious to anyone
expert in obscene language -
i.e. the entire public.


authorities have, as usual,
covered themselves with
ridicule.
For this superb effort,
the director Hugh Robertson
is largely responsible. It is
particularly fitting that in the
medium of film, which is not
only new to us but involves
a considerable technology,
our artists should enjoy the
collaboration of black North
Americans who have learned
their trade, and excelled in
it, at home.


TASTE


PREVAILS



knows his job. What he does
not know is Trinidad. And the
writers, Suzanne C. Robert-
son who was responsible for
the idea on which the story
was based, and scriptwriter
Raoul Pantin did not come
fully to grips with the com-
plexities of their theme.
The major failing of
the film is that it never un-
earths the deep truths from
the subtleties of Indian-
African relations in Trinidad
and Tobago.
Bim is not a completely
competent film throughout
the industry has only now
made its take-off. But if we


PRACTISED MUSIC


Such an American is
Hugh Robertson. After win-
ning an Academy Award as a
film editor, he came to
Trinidad to direct the excel-
lent television film of Derek
Walcott's Dream on Monkey
Mountain. Now further col-
laboration between Robertsor
and West Indian artists has
resulted in this original full-
length cinema production.
Such co-operation within the
black community in the
New World carries an explo-
sive potential -and is now
long overdue.
There is no doubt that


ask ourselves to what extent
our considerable though not
entirely adequate resources
were maximised, and our
shortcomings minimised, the
answer, I think, must be
highly favourable.
Nowhere is this more true
than in regard to the score.
Andre Tanker's music
reaped all the fruit of sus-
tained professional practice
and seemed as if it had only
been waiting for this new
medium to develop. It was
so unobtrusively competent
that frankly, it almost
escaped any cri tical attend ion


IOENSORS RIDICULED


The film was stolen,
however, by Wilbert Holder,
playing Wabham, the small-
time gangster and brothel-
keeper. The part was to some
extent a cliche, but Holder
handled it with the lightness
of touch and the economy of
gesture and facial expression,
the precise timing, of an


In any case, if its only
achievement were to cause
the society to rethink the
basis of censorship, Bim
would be worth while. As it
is, the makers of the film have
earned themselves consider-
able respect for an honest,
interesting and worthwhile
first attempt; while ihe


wedding music composed & performed by
yankarran's indian orchestra
"bim's theme" sung by
andrew beddoe
"love mantra" sung by
sharm yankarran/polly sookruj &
rajdaye sookraj
musical arranger
clive bradley
steelband sequence
"jumbie call"
performed by
phase II steel orchestra
nightclub musicians
schofield pilgrim/angus nunss/wayne 'birdie'
kirton/errol wise/hendren boucaud/roy cape
original sound track recorded at kh studios, sea
lots, trinidad. sound engineer "jeff"nieckau
promotional material studio art







SUNDAY FEBRUARY 9, 1975


A SOCIETY is iri interdependent enfify. If any of its
constituent parts are: malfunctioning, the whole will be
affecgd. No government no political institution that
is in disrepute, corrupt, incompetent and repressive can
will the needed moral authority to effectively co-ordinate
institutional work so necessary for the proper functioning


of the society.
It cannot enforce the laws
it passes nor can it get in-
stitutions that ought to be
within its control to act in
the best interest of the citizens,
Continuously, it must exist
and rule apart from the popu-
lation until a superior alterna-
tive thrusts it aside into the
historical garbage can, where
it rightfully belongs.
In the meantime, the cry
for efficient and tolerable
health services, justice before
the courts of the land, sensitive
government, and an end to
police brutality, continue to
be heard.

FRIEND

At the same time, other
twists to the scenario have
developed, for instance, th'e
police now selljustice. Indeed
a frightening juncture. The
trouble is, we have reached
there.
It is normal for a policeman,
whether he is in plain clothes
or otherwise, to drive to the
front of a moving taxi and
stop it. There could be many
reasons for this. The need to
serve a long evaded summons
or to prevent dangerous driving
are legitimate reasons,
It is not unusual either for
a policeman and a taxi driver
to be friends. After all, the
policeman ought to be, it is
said, the friend of every mran,
woman, and child,
Though everyone does not
share that view nowadays. At
least, not the brothers on the
blocks who know what it is to
be framed by the "fuzz",
The taxi drivers can tell
interesting stories of the forced
'good friendship' with the


ALSTON GRANT


police. The norm today is
to give the constable ten,
twelve or fifteen dollars once
he finds you speeding or park-
ing carelessly.
Parking meters, now being
mooted by the Port of Spain
City Council, are probably a
bit late. Ask the friendly
constable on the motorbike
or at the corner, The depart-
ment of the judiciary is
probably obsolete insofar as
traffic offences are concerned,
The magistrates are now
pounding or riding the beat.
Chicanery is commonplace.
To many of us, Tuesday
14th January was probably
a normal day. We jumped
private cars or taxis, as the


might be, and wound our
way into the traffic jams
before reaching our jobs. In
the afternoon, the exercise is
no different same old traffic
jam,

SUSPENDED

Characteristically both
going to and coming from
our jobs provide the type of
opportunity to try and evade
the long traffic constable for
dangerous driving.
Once you break out of the
line and the policeman charges
you, pay him or your licence
will be suspended. I know a
gentleman who did not pay
and was prohibited by the


MANY countries and peoples from the Renaissance to modern
times looked to their ancient past for inspiration arid awakening
from the dead spirit of medievalism.
Britain looked to Greece and Rome, the result of their search
for their origin and knowledge transformed all existing institutions
and ushered a new philosophy to life and literature,
Indians of India have been doing the same thing since the latter
part of the 19th century. Here in Trinidad, Indians too are search-
ing into their old and ancient writings. Many organized trips to
India are being made yearly not merely for pleasure but to see and,
search the heart of our Mother Country. Pandits are tirelessly
explaining and teaching Sanskiit literature everywhere in the island.


Trinidadians of African
descent are doing the same
but much more needs be
done to stir and convince
the youths of their Father-
land, Scholars from our parts
must go to Africa to dig up
the wealth of their hidden
past. From their folk religion,
mythology, language and art,
all of whichif supplemented


by the acceptance of modern
science and technology could
lead to power.
The American Indians
and Canadian Eskimos have
started to teach their Chris-
tian missionaries who instead
went to civilize them: The
Noble Savage spirit of the
two above mentioned out-
casts of Canada & America
put to flight the affluent



SONS


courts where he finally
ended up from using his
taxi for five months.
Undoubtedly, the taxi dri-
ver who has made his last
trip, and is driving home, is
relieved. He will not have to
worry aoout having to be at
the end of a traffic jam that
moves at a snails pace.
On a normal day there
are not many of them
he will make about twelve
trips if he is on the Fyzabad
to San Fernando run, which
is what this story is all about.
The twelve trips are a neces-
sity, Instalments on his car
must be paid, food, clothing
and shelter for his family
must be found.


and soft life of America, a
life which has given millions
of Americans various
cardiovascular and nervous
diseases too numerous to
mention.
Who knows that Africa
in a similar way can teach
the white missionaries as the
American Indians and Cana-
dian Eskimos have done?
The following poems
were written bymyself about
fifteen years ago with a mind
fresh at university having no
axe to grind save truth and
brotherhood.
..Descendants of Africa
and Indians have nothing to
lose but their chains in their
united fight against Western
Materialist Capitalist cul.
ture to regain a true meaning
of their origin, identity and
culture and particularly in
their struggle for moral and
spiritual liberty.
Mahabir Maharajh


OF


BHARATA

O, Sons of Bharata
Come out of your meditations!
The hour is come.
Give thy ancient power,
The blessedness of inner tranquillity,
To a world which in circle moves,

Let the stately Himalaya
And the mighty Ganga
Inspire you, as it has
To numberless of old!
Forge from thy differences
Your essential goodness;
Then, in robes of white, yellow and gold
Go to the world and resound!
Awake all mankind with thy sankh
Giving and taking!

Purify, nay! burn away
Thy rubble and dirt with Fire!
Cleanse thy self in the Water of the Ganga
And with humble hearts and constant souls
Cut paths of brotherhood with love
Across land, water and air,
As ye march forward!

And with courage suffer and sacrifice
In haste, do -
That your message uncorrupt may go
To stabilise humankind,
Before the impending blast,


Additionally nowadays he
must malce provision for pay-
ing either the courts or the
constable preferably the
latter. It is better, as far as he
is concerned the taxi driver
that is, to break out of the
long traffic line we spoke of
earlier, and take his chances
to make sure he gets his
twelve trips.
It is even better than wait-
ing in that line, in this case,
from Bamboo Village, La
Remain, to Cross Crossing
San Fernando, a wait of one
one hour or more at some
times.
Should he follow this line,
he would probably make aboui
ten trips. He cannot afford
this, especially since on reach-
ing central San Fernando, he
must spend another three
quarters of an hour in another
traffic jam nere.
Obviously, he takes his
chances, gets caught at times
and pays the policeman at
times also. Once this pattern
is established, the taxi driver
becomes a pawn in the illegal
cash-collecting game of the
zpp.
Traffic jam or no traffic
jam, in the garage, at home,
the taxi driver must at all
times respond to the illegiti.
mate requests of the constrble
for something small.
Indeed, even when the cop
is off-duty, the ransom must
be collected even to the extent
of abuse when he is turned
down.
This is the incredible drama
to which I bore witness on
Tuesday 14th January, It was
nothing short of blackmail,
The problem is a serious one
and until such time as the
taxi drivers take action to put
an end to it, justice will con-
tinuously be subverted.
It is very obvious that the
present dispensation has fal.
tered and the time has arrived
for a more noble administra-
time to take its place,


AFRICA

Africa! mighty land under the tropical sun!
Pure and uncorrupt, your sons and daughters
Dark, amber and ivory mingle from
North to South in naturalness,

Let not the white man
From foreign lands
Forge menacles for thee
Calling them paths of liberty!

Beat thy drums in rhythmic sounds
Awaken thy trapped souls from slumber
Rebuild along the mighty Nile
And through your countless groves -
Kingdoms, noble kingdoms of yore,
Such that Solomon in ancient times
Ruled in wise blessedness!

Africa! build amongst your virgin lands
Monuments which shall be beacons
To blind humanity!
Teach us the ways of the Patriarchs,
Your bearded fathers of old.
Last in the rush for might,O Africa
Who knows that thee may set things right!


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TAPIA.`% TAGE 7


TR.)






Mrs. Andrea Talbutt,
Research Institut for
Study of Man,
162, East 78th Street,
New York, N.Y. 10021,
Ph. Lehigh 5 8448.
U.S.A.


VICTORY BUT


OR


OH


FOR


THE WI won the final
Test and the series against
India soon after the half-
way stage on the sixth
day. The margin of victory
was a commanding one -
201 runs.
The WI, having lost the
previous two Tests, went into
the decisive final one with
great resolution. Fortune,
which had deserted us for
some time, returned,
For the first time in the
series Clive Lloyd called cor-
rectly. It was a crucial toss to
win since the Bombay wicket
was new and the rumour was
that it would spin a lot, and
from early.
Batting last would be an
uncomfortable experience, the
forecast went, The experience
of the third and fourth tests
,had exposed our weakness on
spinning wickets.
Having won the toss, the
task was to amass a huge total
md to place India in the
enviable position of fighting
to save the game from early.
3ur batsmen rose to the
occasion,
RIOT

With the exception of
livian Richards, who has
otherwisee performed very well
'or the entire tour, all our
rontline batsmen came off.
Fredericks, Kallicharan
ad Lloyd led us to 309 for 3
it the end of the first day.
With good support from
durray, who made his first
good score in the series, Lloyd
:louted the Indian bowlers to
all parts of the field.
His innings was inter-
mrpted at 201 by a riot caused
by the police manhandling a
couplee of spectators.
But before lunch on the
third .day we had crossed 600
and it was India's turn to bat.
Only once in the series
had India reached 300 and
their batting was generally
recognized as being fragile. The
inclusion of Gavaskar was
expected to bolster the batting
And so it did, in the
first innings at least. Batting
quite slowly. India reached
406, averting the follow-on by
the narrowest of margins. An


hour before the end of the
fourth day, it seemed that
they would easily save the
follow on and a draw seemed
the likely result.
Bat some excellent
bowling by Gibbs put us back
in a winning position.
For the next two and a
half hours our batsmen brutal
ised the Indian bowling,
allowing us to declare at tea,
more than 400 runs ahead.
There was never any question
of an Indian victory.
The question was: would
India save the game or could
we dismiss them in the seven
hours available?

STAMINA

With Gavaskar, Engineer
and Vishwanath back in the
pavilion at the end of the fifth
day, our chances of victory
were excellent,
Except for a short period
of resistance from Gaekwad
and Patel, the Indian response
was painfully inadequate. Van-
burn Holder, a fast-medium
bowler of great stamina and
strength, ripped through ..the
Indian batting to finish with
a career best of 6 for 39. For
once in the series his bowling
figures reflected the quality of
his effort.
We have won the series
by the narrow margin of three
to two, after having taken a
supposedly unassailable lead
after the first two tests.
The series ought not to
have been so close. Our team,.
in spite of its deficiencies, was
clearly superior to the Indians.
Three-two is no indica,
tion of the relative strength of
the teams. Over-confidence in
the third Test and downright.
bad batting in the third and
fourth helped to produce a
distorted result.
Fortunately, things did
not fall apart in the last and
decisive game.
On the credit side,
though, is the fact that we
were able to rise above the two
disasters and re-establish our
supremacy. Our team is not
entirely without fighting spirit.
The batting line-up of
Greenidge, Fredericks, Kalli-
charan, Richards and Lloyd is


a formidable one on all wickets
save slow turners. In fact, our
triumph must not blind us to
this deficiency. Our batsmen
need to adapt their style and
technique to suit such un.
favouable conditions.
New comers Greenidge
and Richards performed very
well, the latter showing that
he possesses real class. Fred.
ericks and Kallicharan did well
too. But the critical role in
the batting was played by
Lloyd.
It was Lloyd's belligerent
approach to the Indian spinners
which helped the other bats-
ment to approach their task
with greater confidence.
For a long time Lloyd
has not batted so well. Many
of us in the WI had begun to
dismiss him as a vooper who
rarely succeeded. I was one of
those who criticised his selec-


tion as captain on the ground
that his batting over the last
three years did not guarantee
him a place on the team.
S It is much too early to
assess his captaincy, especially
from this distance. I still do
not think highly of his defen-
sive technique but there is a
vital place for his almost un-
rivalled power.
The outstanding new
find of the tour was Andy
Roberts. In his first full series
for the WI he bagged 32
wickets, breaking Wes Hall's
record of 30 wicXets,
His was truly a grand
performance, not only because
of the wickets he got, but
particularly because of the
totally unsettling effect which
he had on the Indian batting,
Julien and Boyce did not,
enjoy a particularly good tour
and Vanburn Holder tried hard


with inadequate reward at
most times.
Besides one or two good
spells from Lance Gibbs, our
spin bowling has not been dis.
tinguished for its quality.
The two weak links in
our armour seem, therefore,
to be uncertain batting on
turning wickets and the lack
of first clast innersc
The first of -ese two
weaknesses was much more
obvious against India. The
success of Roberts and Holder
against the brittle Indian
batting served to a large extent
to mask. the second weakness.
Th' same may be the case in
Sri La..
Dut t.' 'eal test is going
to be in Pakistan. The powerful
Pakistan batting line-up is not
going to flinch against our
pacemen and then Oh,
for Ali or Jumadeen or both!


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