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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00110
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: May 19, 1974
Frequency: completely irregular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00110

Full Text



25 Cents


SUNDAY MAY 19 1974,


In February 1973 twelve
unemployed youths of Coro-
sal formed the Blackgold
Coop. Corosal is an area some
five miles east of Gasparillo


where work is restricted to
the cocoa estates with wages
of $3 $4 per day and an
occasional crash programme.
Young people leave Coro-


sal all the time to look'for
work elsewhere. But the
Blackgold brothers elected to
stay They cleared and planted
an area of some fifteen acres


of Pigeon Peas which Inter-
national Foods contracted to
buy. Their take at the end
of the crop barely realized
$1800.00


A ) E.


Leil'

"DISPERSE, I want dis
.road clear, when I was
spmal I had to run when_-
SL -':'"S'" ..... threatened
Cofib1e Richardson, of
the Gasparillo Police Sta-
tion, swinging his service
revolver in front of about
thirty villagers at the
Whiteland Junction, Coro-
sal on Tuesday evening
last.
Some minutes before,
around seven, Richardson and
another Constable drove up
in their police jeep in the four
roads junction in the com-
pany of two young women.
"It look like dey was on
a joy ride" said a villager not
so. The villagers reported that
the jeep drew up in front of
the usual lime of some thirty
people in front the shop.


U U


Ken Fabien, a member of
the Black Gold Coop, a group
closely associated to Tapia,
sitting on the ice box, was
singled out by Richardson
and rubbed down. Nothing
was found.
But the other constable
walking about fifteen t o
twenty feet away bent and
picked up something on the
ground "So dis aint it?"
Ken Fabien was arrested
and charged for being in
possession of marijuana.
His younger brother Ben-
nard made the mistake of
saying "what is dat. All you
ain't find nutten on him"
Richardson rammed the butt
of his service revolver into
Bennard's waist and arrested
him. He was later charged for
"obstructing the free passage-
way".
The women in the police


jeep seemed to enjoy the ac-
tion. They opened the doors
i e n:a,-trcherS-t-t-Oi
hur-led in.
It was then that Richard-
son began his Western style


performance, spinning his
revolver and threatening the


Evril Atwell, President of
the Coop dressed in a Tapia
jersey began to move off.


TAPIA TO MACKELL:

A constituent assembly


TAPIA is calling for the convening of a Constituent Assem-
bly as the best guarantee of a peaceful resolution of the
political and constitutional crisis facing the country. In a
submission forwarded this week to Mr. Wilfred McKell, the
public Officer appointed to collate views of the proposals
of the Wooding Commission for Reform of the Constitu-
tion, Tapia calls on the people of Trinidad and Tobago to
reject "the illegitimate 1971 Parliament" and to repudiate
"the corrupt and repressive 1962 Queen's Hall Constitu-
tion". "The responsibility for action now rests with the
people", the submission continues.

According to the Tapia proposals, the Constituent
Assembly is to pave the way to the election of a represen-
tative Parliament by reforming the electoral rules and super-
vising fresh elections. The Assembly is also "to decide
after full debate whether it is feasible and wise to
agree on a new Constitution at the Constituent Assembly
itself or whether it would be preferable to leave that task
to the new Parliament and the new Government to which
the entire electorate would have given a mandate under the
new election rules".


U .!


TAPIA'S "Open House" Community presentation conti-
nues next Thursday night, the 23, with a musical concert
by Stanley Roach and his Bohemian Show Company
entitled "Instant Music", a medley of tumbas, guitars and
violin. There shall also be African drumming by Allahoo
and his group of drummers.

The evening promises to be an enjoyable one. Ad-
mission is free, and starting time is 8.00 p.m.

On Saturday the 25th ISWE will present their
dramatization of West Indian poetry and prose entitled
TANTI GO SEE WE. Starting time is 8.00 p.m. and tickets
are on sale at $1.00 each.


Richardson collared him, "So
what is dat". Evril shrugged


was arrested and later charged
for obstructing the free
passageway.


Scherzando


There can be no doubt
that Blackgold is a serious
attempt by the. youngmen of
Corosal to win their indepen-
dence by dint of hardwuk and
cooperative effort.

Amid threats of "all yuh
better take it easy, you see me
here I trigger happy yes", the
three men taken to the Gas-
parillo Police Station where
they were locked up for the
night.
According to Evril they
were not allowed out to use
the urinal so their feelings
were relieved in the cell where
they had to spend the night.




On Wednesday morning
the charge against Bennard
Fabien and Evril Atwell was
dismissed in the magistrate's
court in S'Fdo.
Ken Fabien was charged
$240 or six months for being
in possession of marijuana.
$200 was the individual in-
come received by each mem-
ber fo the Blackgold Coop for
the year 1973.
The villagers say that the
police often came up to
Whiteland and search people
on the roadway. But it seems
that it is the-mtemb--rs-o-the-
Blackgold Coop who are the
main target of police action in
the district of Corosal.


stage fiesta


GREASY Pole, Slow Bicycle race, Fathers and Mothers
Race, relays, toddlers race, Married men race, Tug-O-War,
Business men race, walking race, Pan men race (all pan men
in T & T), imagine all these activities packed into one day.
Members of Curepe Scherzando feel that it is entirely
possible and have also scheduled as the Main event of the
day A Marathon, which starts at 7 a.m. from the Maracas
community centre (St. Joseph) to the band headquarters in
Curepe all other events begin at 12 noon.

This, their first annual Road sports, will be staged on
the 2nd of June 1974 (Whit Sunday). Entertainment will
be provided by Steelband, Brass and D.J's, so foraday full
of fun and other physical activities plan to be near panyard
on Evans St Curepe come Sunday the 2nd of June.


PAGE TAPIA


(THE NATION AT


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SUNDAY MAY 19, 1974


0 p


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THE N


THE


AT


CROSSROAD


DEEP lamentations and cries of
woe have been issuing from di-
verse corners of the political
arena these past few weeks. The
common plaint is that the public
is apathetic. The pundits appear
to be losing faith in a public
which, they say, has itself lost
faith.
Or worse, some of the experts
come near to making what they
judge to be the limited popular
response to the Wooding Draft
Constitution a case of casting
pearl before swine.

On Page 3 of this issue of Tapia,
there is a report on a meeting at the
UWI at which some of the members of
the disbanded Constitution Commis-
sion gave their views on the business of
Constitution making and on the possi-
bilities of implementation of their
Draft Constitution.
It was obvious that there was col-
lective pride in their handiwork, but
equally obvious was their dismay that
publication of their Report and Draft
had evoked, seemingly, so little re-
sponse from the public.

APATHY

The comments from the floor tried
to explain the alleged public mood,
described variously as apathy and
"active" alienation, either as a response
to the absence of "political animals"
on the Commission, or to the absence
of "working-class" interests, or to the
"formalism" of the whole issue when
compared with people's urgent need
for "bread".
Columnist Dennis Mahabir, writing
in the Guardian of Monday, May 13,
saw a general lack of interest in poli-
tical or public affairs among those who
were but children during the halcyon
days of 1955 onwards. At that time our
vision had been lifted and our horizons
widened by the political leadership.
Now, we had little time for any-
thing else but the basest material pur-
suits. And Mahabir wonders "whether
out political bossmen are trading on
people's apathy and obvious lethargy"
"The political life of the country is
now in shambles", he concludes.
In the midst of such depression,
and almost as a deliberate counter-
trend, our Prime Minister has been
issuing pronouncements and disclosing
new Government initiatives in a spate
of highly-publicised activity that has
led some to believe that he has opened


the campaigning for the next elections. by the Constitution Commission,
To crown it all, he left the country which combines first-past-the-post with
last Sunday for a weeklong visit to proportionalrepresentation.To achieve
New York to attend a meeting of the such an end, these interests demand
Council of the United Nations Univer- early implementation of the Draft
sity to which he has been elected. Constitution by the present Parliament.
Seeing that he had preferred to stay All these interests have seen the
home for the four long years since the -culmination of the work of the Wood-
eruption of the February Revolution ing Commission and the publication
in 1970, for the politically dispirited of its report and Draft Constitution,
this was like rubbing salt in the as setting the stage for a resolution of
wound, the crisis via elections. Whether they
To suggest a connection between favour elections with first-past-the-
the public buoyancy of the P.M., and post or with the so-called mixed sys-
the low spirits of so many cf-irf'-"'N"-i~-S-t ~, -nt-_
politicos, may not be entirely fanciful, vival as being dependent on e y polls.
when one recalls the jubilation and This for them is the true significance
glee in so many of.these camps follow- of Wooding. Even a few seats in the
ing Williams' September 28 "retire- House would suffice, since they would
ment" speech, ensure survival.
The ruling party cannot have
CONSTERNATION missed any of this, and if Williams is
campaigning now it is precisely be-
Now that nothing in the Prime cause he wishes to test the political
Minister's behaviour suggests that he waters. The question he is asking him-
intends to abide by the scenario of his self, is, whether or not an early election
December 2 "return" address i.e., to is a reasonable risk. The simple-minded
carry the country to the eve of early four point formula proposed by the
elections, at which time he would DAC has given him just the easy con-
bow out, the consternation of some cessions he needs to curry favour with
may be easier to understand, the public.


Yet there are interests which have
espied in this desert landscape their
own special political oases. And the
way to the clear, cool waters passes
by none other than the very Wooding
Constitution, so little regarded in the
marketplace.
The D.A.C., and not without good
reason, say that the existing Parliament
does not possess a mandate to imple-
ment Constitutional Reform. They
further state that the majority in the
country has expressed no clear call for
changing the Constitution, nor is there
unaminity of views among those who
favour it.
Therefore, says the strategy of the
D.A.C., let us have elections now to
allow the people to decide which party
is to guide our destinies, and institute
constitution reform. There is a basis
for elections, they say, in that all
political interests share at least four
points for reform of the electoral
system. In this view the Wooding
Commission has at least served the one
good purpose of revealing this
unanimity.
Other interests, which have come
out positively in favour of Constitu-
tional Reform, however limited a view
they may have of it, also see their
salvation in the Wooding Constitution.
The DLP and the UDLP, for exam-
ple, are calling for early elections, but
under the electoral system proposed


LEGITIMATE

The gains to Williams, from winning
an early election, would be enormous.
The price of a few seats to the opposi-
tion is one he would gladly pay. In
exchange he would have gotten a
legitimate Parliament (as opposed to a
merely legal one) and the chance to en-
sure for himself a place in history by a
final fling at some of those promises
of 1956 which have never been realized.
Billion dollar revenues from oil have
provided his golden opportunity.
What the PNM position shares
with those who are calling for early
elections one way or the other, is that
they all seek to perpetuate Executive
domination of the political system.
This is most notoriously so in the case
of those who call on the illegitimate
1971 Parliament to adopt the Wooding
Constitution (without even the forma-
lities of a Queen's Hall National
Consultation).
Even in the case of the "Elections
Now" Party, victory in the elections
will be no indication that the popular
will has prevailed or will prevail.
Merely changing the holders of power
does not guarantee an alteration of
the present structure of power which
allows the Executive to strangulate
independent opinion and organisation
in the community.


The significance of recall for
Constitutional Reform before elections
is that it recognizes popular interven-
tion in and control of the political
system as the real change that is needed
now, quite apart from any change in
the faces at the top. Those who oppose
this, wish to sell us the mirage that a
change of faces represents a fundamen-
tal departure from the past. Such
people are the true forces of reaction
in this country.
More than most others, Williams
recognizes that it is this issue of power
and powerlessness, that is posed by the
he appreciates itsTrevolutionary po-
tential. That is why he has adopted
a strategy of encouraging what might
be called an administrative solution to
the constitutional crisis, while creating
all manner of-diversions.
The Guardian published recently
a three part series from a "Special
Correspondent" on the question of
the procedure to be adopted in im-
plementing Constitutional Reform.
Whether this individual is a genuinely
independent commentator or not, the
ruling party could hardly have wished
for a better spokesman for its position
When we plough through the
verbiage what the "Special Corres-
pondent" is saying is that the existing
Parliament must be the final arbiter of
Constitutional change, that the need
to win support of Independent or Op-
position elements in the Senate will
force the Government to make its
Constitutional proposals palatable to a
wide range of political opinion (pre-
sumably by watering them down) and
that a Queen's Hall type National
Consultation may be a useful device in
providing guidelines, for Parliament, and
especially for those Senators who wish
to have some notion of public senti-
ment in these matters.
Such is the extent of the absurdity
to which the mania for an adminis-
trative as opposed to a political solu-
tion may drive some of us. Who is so
naive to believe that a Senate, con-
stituted as at present, could possibly
compensate for the unrepresentative
character of the House of Representa-
tives?
It is a preposterous notion that four
of the so-called Independent Senators
could in any way guarantee the su-
premacy of the popular will. Or is it
that the "Special Correspondent" is
merely setting up straw men in order
to justify the ruling party's attempt


Continued on Page 4.


ATI O-N


.-0


i


- -- ----' --


PAGE 2 TAPIA


Nw







SUNDAY MAY 19, 1974

THE NIGHT THE COMMISSIONERS HAD THEIR SAY


Debate over


implementation





of Constitution


Tapia Reporter


PROF.Maingot was there,
so was Selwyn Ryan, Sir
Hugh, Michael De Labas-
tide, Justice Georges and
Chairman Neville Linton
at the J.F.K. Lecture
Theatre on Thursday
evening, May, 9.
It promised to be a
1.--" Agnr;CI. dCeling with
various aspects of the
Constitution drafted by
the Wooding Commission,
beginning with its under-
lying philosophy.
To Ryan, the basic philo-
sophy was pluralistic, designed
to facilitate the multiplicity
of groups existing in the
society.
Some of us feel that what
Trinidad and Tobago needs is
a one-party system, said Ryan.
I personally subscribe to this
philosophy butdon't feel that
the people will buy it. There-
fore we have to settle for the
second best thing.
Chancellor Wooding ar-
gued that the proposed con-
stitution was so framed that
the general will would find
adequate and full expression
through Parliament. The Par-
liament can prescribe any
economic system it prefers.
The Commission's
recommendations w e r e
d i r e c ted not only
to Government but to the
people the ball is now in
the court of the people at
large.
Speaking from the floor
Dr. Samaroo felt that a good
deal of the apathy in the
country towards the Com-
mission comes from the feel-
ing of many people that they
can't rap with people like
Sir Hugh, can't understand
what pluralistic means and
most of all because of the
composition of the commis-
sion.
The commission should
have comprised leaders of
political organizations peo-
ple like Jamadar, Millette,
Lequay, Best and others -
men who had burnt their
fingers in the politics. Wood-


GEORGES
ing could serve as a Chairman
to keep some order.
At this point, Richard
Jacobs jumped in with a
footnote to Dr. Samaroo. The
real problem was the constitu-
tion of the Constitution Com-
mission: "Whatever the mem-
bers may be accused of they
can't be accused of being
working class".
Ryan interrupting: "But
only last week you were tell-
ing me at a WIGUT meeting
that I was working class!"
Jacobs continuing: Mem-
bers of the commission be-
cause of their lifestyles have
not been able to feel the
pulse of the country, they
can't understand the suffer-
ing of our working people.
Maingot: While sitting on
the Commission I had to stand
many criticisms, not now.
Mr. Jacobs you talking about
feeling the pulse of the coun-
try, the Commission at some
of its meetings when it made
the rounds of the country
had more people than ever
gathered in a UNIP meeting.
Jacobs: "You ever come
to a UNIP meeting, you ever
come a UNIP meeting?"
The Chairman calls for
order.
Telford Georges points
out that he came from poor
origins and was involved in
politics for years pushing
Socialism. I was peddling the
Clarion between 1949 and
1958, long before papers like
Moko and Tapia. I gave up
politics in 1958.
I am afraid that if any
revolutionary group is ever to
take power in this country it is
not going to be by the ballot
box our people like to
talk a lot, shout a lot, but we
hardly ever shoot look,
even the soldiers turned back
when they met a little hill...
We couldn't make a constitu-
tion prescribing Socialism,
Communism or anything else.
I don't think the country is
ready for Socialism. Look at
the Workers and Farmers
Party, I don't think they
saved one deposit.
Wooding We have
written our report and there
is little feed-back, why don't
the people here protest, write


MAINGOT


to the media?
Voice from the Audience:
We have book to beat.
Another student stands
up and calls for an end to
personal attacks.
Chairman Linton agrees
and calls for questions on the
particular area of discussion:
the philosophy of the Wood-
ing Constitution.

Dennis Pautin says what
we hive to lrok atis the
philosophy of constitution-
making. The mistake being
made by many speakers on
the floor and, by the Com-
missioners themselves, is to
believe that a few men -
working class, or bourgeois
or what have you, can make a
constitution.
A constitution can only
come out of the clash of
political interests in which
representatives of different
political interests and ideolo-
gies, meet in public forum
and argue their case and try
to win popular support.
Dr. Samarot suggesting
this when he argued that
political leaders should form
the Constitution Commission.
However, they can't form the
Commission which must per-
form a technical function to
take minutes, direct the dis-
cussion, and keep some sem-
blance of order.
What is necessary here is
for political leadership to
bring out their following and
this is the mistake made two
and a half years ago when
the Commission was estab-
lished.
Many of the political
leaders, because of political
immaturity did not take part
in the deliberations yet today
they are arguing this, that
and the other about the report.
There is still a chance to
correct this political mistake
by calling for another public
sitting where the political
leaders and their following
can come out in force.
Thus any discussion about
the details of the proposed
Constitution doesn't make
sense. The question is not a
paper constitution but how
can it be implemented.


Wooding's Men


defend


their


Constitution
Selwyn Ryan:
We were at one time regarded as the
freest forum in town. People
came to accept that we were not
just another arm of the establish-
ment but entertained all types of
views.
Anthony Maingot:
The case for a written constitution
is that it formalizes the rules of the
game.
Should a constitution-reflect the
given reality or should it be a
blueprint for the future.
The proposed constitution is shaped
to allow for the free play
of political interests; the winners in
the political system would then be
allowed to fashion society after
their image.
Telford Georges:
Because of the unlikelihood of a
revolution succeeding we structured
the system to allow as many groups
to participate.
Mlichael De la Bastide:
We did not bow to the pressure to
de-democratize the system, but
rather changed the rules to allow
more people to play the game.
For example, instead of a Senate
with non-political people, our pro-
posals seek to introduce a kind of
nominated element into the politi-
cal system.
Selwyn Ryan:
We attempted to create a frame-
work for pluralistic politics. The
existing constitution was seen to
create too much centralization of
power; the electoral system was
seen to give the advantage to par-
ties based on race; the Senate did
not provide checks and balances as
expected. Our proposals aim to give
parties based on other than race a
toehold in the system.
Under the mixed system we en-
visage the perpetuation of the pre-
sent arrangement of parties based
on race; our recommendations faci-
litate the emergence of parties
based on other than race.
Hugh Wooding:
As far as our Recommendations
are concerned, the ball is in the
court of the people.
Anthony Maingot:
I opposed a Constituent Assembly
as the way out because I felt that
the PNM as the best organised party
around would swamp such a gather-
ing with its own people.
Selwyn Ryan:
To get 55% of the popular vote in
this country today is a superhuman
task.
NONp1---'4~ -


TAPIA PA(G 3


.J
4







SUNDAY MAY 19, 1974


lul' 'T




-.TE


Continued from Page 2.


to effect only minimal amendments to
the existing constitution?
'The "Special Correspondent" feigns
scepticism about the usefulness of an
election now as a means of electing a
new and presumably more represen-
tative Parliament which could institute
Constitutional- Changes "as their gene-
ral acceptability became manifest".
He purports to see great difficulty in
the way of a new Parliament effecting
any changes to the specially entrench-
ed clauses of the Constitution, which
cover most of the matters of great
Constitutional import, because no
party is likely to achieve the three-
fourths majority necessary for this
purpose. Again, one must wonder
whether the "Special Correspondent"
really views an election now as such
an unmitigated horror.
But it is in the matter of the Con-
stituent Assembly that our "Special
Correspondent" discovers "seemingly
insuperableconstitutionalroadblocks".
"How does one establish a Constituent
Assembly?" he asks. "What could
possibly be the legal basis for such a-
body?" he almost screams. "Would
there be the slightest hope of Parliament
yielding up its supremacy in the
matter," he queries, asserting by impli-
cation those spurious notions of legal-
ity which underly. the approach of
those who favour an administrative
solution.
What that view refuses to take
into account is that the demand for a
Constituent Assembly raises the ques-
tion of legitimacy. A parliament, hope-
lessly unrepresentative of the political
interests in the country and elected
on the basis, of 35% participation is
seen to be illegitimate in the eyessof
the population, regardless of the validi-
ty orotherwise of its claim to be legal.
The Constituent Assembly recognizes
the source of legitimacy in the people,
and creates the opening for the asser-
tion of popular supremacy.
The Constitutional crisis we are
attempting to resolve stems precisely
from the inordinate amount of control
the Executive wields in the political
system controls over Parliament, over
the patronage, over publicity, and
over the police. We cannot solve the
problem of Executive domination by
the methods of Executive Domination.
The ruling party mustnowhumble.
itself before the court of the People;,
where it stands accused of perpetuating
a method of politics and a manner of
Government "which reinforce our im-
potence, manipulate our ignorance
and exploit our lack of political ex-


perience, and which are so incapable
of dedicating citizens to zealous and
disinterested-effort that they dictate a
regime of bribery and corruption,
intimidation and terror". That court
of the people is the Constituent As-
sembly.
And it is the threat of that Judge-
ment Day which now drives Williams
to his diversionary measures to refur-
bish his Scholar image, to stir up racial
sentiments, and to put on the armour
of the economic nationalist. In the past
couple of months the Doctor has
treated us to pronouncements' on
every conceivable issue except Consti-
tutional Reform. Nothing on this,
except a thinly veiled indication of hiis
intention, in his query to the party
whether this is the time to be con-
templating serious Constitutional
changes. The process of diverting at-
tention from the Constitutional Issue
is at one and the same time the pro-
cess of gearing for a snap election. As
usual, the Doctor is setting up all his
options.
And as usual, Williams is preying on
the inexperience of our people. It is
not a question of "trading on the peo-
ple's apathy and obvious lethargy" as
Mahabir suggests. How can we enter-
tain any notion of people's apathy or
lethargy? Can our memories be so
short? Did we not have a stirring in
Sugar only a few short weeks ago, that
moved thousands in that sector to
attempt to cast off the chains that
have weighed them down for decades.
And was this not the culmination
of sectional stirring thathaveseen the
mobilization of the villagers of Mate-
lot, the fishermen of Cedros, the
Wood Cuttersof Rio Claro, the House-
wives, the environmentalists and even
the clergy in a succession of protest
action these past few years? The
problem now is to translate all these
sectional interests into a unified strik-
ing force serviced by National Political
Organization. This is a task which is
beyond our experience, and because
we are groping for a solution, the
pundits conclude that wehave suddenly
become apathetic.
Similarly, our silence on the Con-
stitutional issue is seen as further
evidence of our lethargy. But in what
political system are ordinary men and
women expected to choose between
complicated Constitutional formula-
tions? A referendum on a specific
issue is one thing, a Draft Constitution
entirely another. Constitutional choices
assUme making only in the context of
ref eca icihtm c ami socialprogrammes
and of the men ani' organizations that
will put them into place.
People back political movements
not Constitutional models. In this re-
gard our political experience is limited


to elections, and it is- this that the
forces of reaction are tempting us
with. But elections by themselves will
not provide us with effective choices.
Clearly we need some mechanism for
liberating sectional interests, exposing
the varied positions that exist and
facilitating the alignments and realign-
ments of all these interests on the basis
of shared perspectives for the reorgani-
zation of the State, the economy and
the social order.
Only a Constituent Assembly or
Conference of Citizens which brings
together the representatives of the
many interests and ideologies in the
nation today can possibly provide a
peaceful, solution to our political
crisis. If such an Assembly fails to win
widespread support or participation,
or if we fall for the chimera of an
election which cannot by itself create
real choices,then all the underlying
issues will remain unresolved, and.the
political frustrations will drive us near-
er tobloodyconfrontation.

The great need now is to create
the conditions in which political inter-
ests will flourish and express them-
selves. Commitment to a Constituent
Assembly is a first step. We must also


secure the right of access to Radio and
TV for all political groups, the right to
Government Advertising for all party
political organs and the removal of
restrictions on public political activity.
These are suitable and urgent goals for
widespread public agitation, involving
the different political interests. Those
who would place obstacles in the
way are those who seek to perpetuate
the old order.
Let the words of the Guardian's
"Special Correspondent" sound a warn-
ing to us of the sinister interpretations
that may be attached to our presumed
silence. "Today .. .it would seem as
though there are many who by their
very silence give--implicit-support to
the view that no substantial constiru
tional change is needed, or at least, is
needed urgently".
Those of us who have been working
over the course of our February Revo-
lution, to cast off the burdens of this
neo-colonial regime, cannot afford to
jeopardize our historical gains now.
We are not silent. Our cries for "Power
to the People" are still echoing. If we
are not on the streets it is because we
are on our way to that People's Par-
liament where we shall legislate into
being our New World.


JOIN






TAPIA




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EVERY WEEK-END

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a MA1AU.


--


PAGE 4 TAPIA







SUNDAY MAY 19, 1974


THE REGION
ITHE ROIOwji s 11141iT


Greg Chamberlain
AN anti-American news-
paper editor who once
organised a "Month of
National Gratitude" in
praise of the late Papa
Doc at the height of the
old dictator's reign of
terror a decade ago has
emerged as Haiti's new
unofficial strongman.
The naming of the jour-
nalist-politician,Paul Blanchet,
a rough-tongued mulatto in
his early sixties, to the key
post of interior and defence
minister last week and the
appointment to other govern-
ment and military jobs of
many of his friends and allies
is a blow to the young presi-
dent-for-life, Jean-Claude Du-
valier, in his now three-year
.battle to wrest control of the
country from his mother
Simone, who is Papa Doc's
widow.
Three weeks ago, Mrs.
Duvalier defied an order by
her son to leave the country.
As First Lady, she gives her-
self equal official status with
Jean-Claude. She hit back by
mounting for the first time
official birthday celebrations
for herself when she turned
61 last week.

COUP
And as school-children
paraded in greeting to her
-and hundreds of obsequious
telegrams were delivered to
her palace. "Maman Simone"
as she is known, .stagedT a
coup which brought Blanchet
and other ageing members of
the duvaliarist old guard back
into the front ranks of the
regime.
The changes also marked
the extinction of chances of
a return to power by Luckner
Cambronne, who ruled Haiti
in all but name for 18 months
after Papa Doc's death and
who has been plotting a come-
back from his gilded ex in
Miami.
His chief remaining allies
in the regime, foreign minister
Adrien Raymond .and Oen
'Breton Claude, commander
of the army's principal unit,
the Dessalines Battalion, were
both sacked.
Although Blanchet is an
aloof figure feared by many,
and although he alone in the
lifeless Haitian press, through
his newspaper "Panorama",
has dared to criticise the
government since Papa Doc's
,death, he is likely to remain,
las his predecessors, ultimately
the creature of the tough
Mrs Duvalier.
SHis appointment however
may harm the liberal image
which the regime likes to
project. Earlier this month,
as information minister, at the
end of an interview with a
Miami Herald reporter about
the regime's treatment of
Haitians returning from exile,
he confiscated the reporter's
notes.
He also favours tighter
control over what few stories
the resident foreign press corps
in Haiti has long confined
itself to writing.
As the political games in
the palace continue, economic
conditions in Haiti remain
desperate and show little sign


BABY DOC


of improving. The' benefits
from the creation of some
10,000 jobs with the opening
in recent years around the
capital of more than a hundred
mostly-American light re-ex-
port industries have 'now been
virtually cancelled out by
massive inflation.
The prices of such staples
as rice, maize, cooking oil and
flour have all doubled over
the past year. The government
helps the trend by having the
Regiedu Tabac, the state body
which buys the staples and
.which has long been a noto-
rious major source of private


Prensa Latina


CUBANS may soon read
newspapers and even wear
clothing made of sugar-
cane bagasse. At least this
is the primeobjective of
a Cuban government pro-
ject in cooperation with
the United Nations De-
velopment Program.
Plans include-construction
of a bagasse industry research
and development centre
which will try to come up
with an economically feasible
technology for producing
newsprint and pulp for dis-
solving from the waste matter
in sugar making.

SCARCITY

The plans cover four
years, which means that by
the end of 1978 an answer
might exist for a problem
confronting many countries
-today: how to cover their
newsprint needs in the face
of growing scarcity and soar-
ing prices.
The "Cuba 9" project,
as it's called by those work-
ing on it is the biggest one
ever signed by UNDP with a
member country. Total cost
is close to eleven and a half
million dollars, with three
and a half million to come
from UNDP and-the rest from
the Cuban government.
The main investment is
earmarked for construction
of a plant on a semi-industrial
scale, the first of its kind any-
where,for continuing the tests
so far conducted in the labo-
ratories.


income for regime figures,
purchase sugar from the U.S.
-owned sugar company and
sell it to the population at
more than double the price.
SUPERFICIAL
The much-vaunted build-
ing boom in the private sec-
tor of the economy includes a
high proportion ofnew luxury
villas in the hills above the
capital and is anyway limited
to the Port-au-Prince aiea,
where only some 15 percent
of. the country's population
live.
Cheerful-looking statistics


The Cubans have been
working with bagasse on a
small scele for several years.
The new plant will enable
them to test what's been
done so far in actual factory
conditions.
Attempts to obtain news-
print from bagasse go back
some years. In fact there
already exist several techno-
logies and processes for ob-
taining excellent quality pa-
per from cane residues (ba-
gasse is the squeezed-dry cane
after all the liquid has been
removed by grinding).
Where, then, is the diffi-
culty?.
The experts say it's a
strictly economic matter.
Because of the vast quantities
required, newsprint must be


on the economy relate only
to this superficial develop-
ment in what Haitians call
wrily "the Republic of Port-
au-Prince".
Conditions in the country-
side continue to deteriorate,
and there is no more incen-
tive now than there ever was
for the government in Port-au-
Prince or for the private sec-
tor to do anything whatso-
ever to help what is in effect
a foreign country to them.
Haiti is one of the cruelliest-
illustrations of the gulf in
the third world between coun-
try and town.


Little wonder that two
weeks aeo, one of a group of
10 Haitians awaiting deporta-
tion to Haiti in a Miami jail
as illegal immigrants hanged
himself in his cell only a few
hours before he was due to be
sent back.
A hunger strike and sui-
cide threat by another of the.
10 who are part of some
400 Haitians who have fled
their country, mostly in
economic desperation but
some for political reasons,!
over the past 18 months -
persuaded the US authorities
to postpohte its deportations.


Newsprint and


clothing from


Sugarcane


produced at low cost.
Thus far costs have simply
been too high. From the in-
dustrial standpoint they are
prohibitive, and besides the
paper doesn't possess the
characteristics needed for
rapid newspaper printing.
No capitalist firm has
been prepared to invest in
semi-industrial scale testing.
It is this which makes "Cuba
9" so important.
In the obtaining of pulp
for dissolving from bagasse,
far less work has been done.
Such pulp is the raw .material
used in production of rayon:
yarns, fibers and cordage.

Although pulp is not in
short supply on the world
markets, as is the case of


newsprint, obtaining it from
bagasse would nonetheless
signify an important econo-
mic advance for the sugar-
producing underdeveloped
countries.
The Cuban and UNDP
experts involved in the pro-
ject are highly enthusiastic
about its possibilities.
One Cuban engineer
stated that it will be one of
the few cases in which an-
underdeveloped country of-
fers the world a new techno-
logy for solving a universal
problem.
"This time we'll be able
to speak of reverse transfer
of know-how, with findings
by an underdeveloped coun-
try to be used by the de-
veloped", he remarked.


THE BEST PLACE TO BUY BOOKS


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/S ; Stephens
PORT OF SPAIN SAN FERNANDO


apa Doc?,


TAPIA PAGE 5








PAGE 6 TAPIA


"In Latin America, as in all
underdeveloped countries,
economic and social develop-
ment is virtually a race be-
tween education and catas-
trophe".





"The Contradiction that the
underdeveloped countries
must resovle is evident to
everybody. If development
today must be the result of
education, how can this de-
velopment be obtained within
the framework of an econo-
mic and social structure in
which education is the result
of development.


In Cuba education is in harmony with the social and economic needs of the country.





EDUCATION


TWO weeks ago the Frontpage
headline of this paper boldly
read "SAVE OUR CHILDREN".
In that issue we highlighted the
plight of some 4,200 of our child-
ren who are now attending the
Junior Secondary Schools.
According to the Government's
Education plan these children will
shortly be leaving the Junior Second-
ary Schools without any type of certi-
ficate, and with no prospects for going
onwards either to Senior Secondary
School or to Technical Colleges.
In short, if it were left up to the
Government, these 14 year olds would
be dumped onto a labour market that
cannot now accommodate their older
brothers-and sisters.
But, as we mentioned at that ume,
this problem, r- serious as it is, is but
the tip of the iceberg. The problem, in
its broadest aspects, merely consti-
tutes the most immediate manifesta-
tion of the totally chaotic nature of
our entire educational system, and
points to the complete inability of
the Government to plan for the needs
of our nation.

PRODUCTIVE
It is obvious by now, that this
Government's conception of the role
of Education in Society has not yet
gone beyond the view that the purpose
of Education is to pass exams.
They have failed to see that Edu-
cation in its most fundamental aspects
has to do with equipping the citizen
with the social and technical tools
necessary for productive participation
in a given social framework;
Education, in short, is about living
and does not stop at eleven-plus, or
fourteen-plus or at any such stage.
Manifestly therefore, it cannot take
place divorced from a larger social,
economic and ideological perspective.
And it is precisely this larger
perspective that the present Govern-
ment has eschewed and, in any case, is
quite incapable of producing. The
result is the "catastrophe' that now
afflicts us in all departments of Na-
tional life.
The following article argues the
case for Education to be seen as part
of a total social and economic revolu-
tion in the context of Latin America
as a whole.
It paints in vivid terms the dimen-
sions of the crisis that faces the entire
region. Neither from the affliction nor
from the prescription is Trinidad and
Tobago exempt.


PRENSA LATINA


NEXT to the exploration of
space, energy protests and micro-
biology, education in the under-
world is today the field of human
activity which produces the most
questions.
Should the underdeveloped
countries imitate the industrial-
ized nations that created the
universities of the Middle Ages?
Must aristocratic educational sys-
tems be continued? Is under-
development a manifestation of
cultural alienation? What are the
true sources of culture?
Is a common market in edu-
cation feasible? What is behind
the low literacy rates? Is econo-
mic development and social pro-
gress possible without a transfor-
mation oftheeducational system?
Can the educational system be
transformed without a transfor-
mation of society?
There is one basic premise: under-
development is a social fact imposed
by an economic system through long
years of colonial and semicolonial
exploitation. Therefore, in order to
overcome the backwardness of the
underdeveloped world it is necessary
to break the ties implicit in that pre-
mise. Revolution, therefore, is today
the requisite of development.

DEVELOPMENT

One of these ties is in education.
It is Gordian knot. Breaking it implies
not only questions of a political and
economic nature, but also a new con-
cept of education as the foundation
stone of development, both quantita-
tively and qualitatively.
Imitation of capitalist models in
this field as in all fields will
result in a useless anachronism and an
anti-ascensional situation. The historic
and social circumstances and techno-
logical development are different, and
the paths of development therefore
must also be different.
One hundred and fifty years ago,
factories operated with elementary
technology. British universities were
graduating no more than 1000 en-
gineers. The enrollment in science


courses was scarcely 80 in France.
Belgium had no more than 60 civil
and mine engineers.
In the United States, no more than
800 people graduated on an average
from universities in the 1870's. Indus-
trialization and development were
then ahead of education. The shops
and factories were far ahead of the
schools.

CAPITALIST

The industrialized capitalist coun-
tries started from a primary cultural
and technical level. The underdevelop-
ed countries must now start from in-
finitely higher levels. In the genesis of
capitalist development the centres of
learning were an end result. Today
development must be the end result
of education.
Inconceivable today is the develop-
ment of a steel industry using wood as
fuel. The person prepared to effect the
scientific and technical revolution in
our day must start by making revolu-
tion in the field of education. Without
it development is impossible.
The contradiction that the under-
developed countries must resolve is
evident to everybody. If development
today must be the result of education,
how can this development be obtained
within the framework of an economic
and social structure in which education
is the result of development?

SCHOLARSHIPS

In the world where knowledge has
multiplied by a hundred inthe space
of a few decades and where educational
mimetism an intrinsic product of
economic dependenec -- has grown
geometrically, education requires a
financing which the underdeveloped
countries cannot assume because of
the narrowness of a social system
wherein they are mere appendages
supplying raw materials.
The abyss cannot be bridged with
scholarships from the Torcauto de
Tella Institute in Argentina nor with
fellowships from the Rockefeller
Foundation, nor with impotent ideal-
ism, nor with metaphysical bridges,
nor with the good intentions which
usually "pave the way to hell".
The problem of education in the
long run is both economic and ideolo-
gical.
In Latin America, as in all under-
developed countries, economic and
social development is virtually "a race


IN L

between education and catastrophe"
The school population in the con-
tinent is growing at a faster fate than
the global population 3.4% and
3.1% respectively and primary edu.
ci.ion i'ollouw tLile patieins established
by Europe in the 19th century.
Only a small number of the child-
ren in primary school finish the educa-
tional cycle because of the lack of
schools and teachers in the ruralareas
and because of the same deficiencies,
in the urban zones.
In the secondary and university
cycle, the student population is small
and comes chiefly from the privileged
sectors of society. Programs for adult
education are either woefully deficient
or nonexistent.

IRRATIONAL

Educational programs, on all levels,
do not harmonize with economic and
social needs. Education expenditures
are exiguous and the general result of
sterile political maneuvres, irrational
financial decisions and anti-scientifit
educational concepts.
The educational deficits in Latin
America are like hammer blows in the
solar plexus. In 1970. Latin America
had a school-age population of some
73 million children between 5 and 14
years of age, of whom only 40 million
were actually in school. In other
words, 33 million children were not
attending school at the beginning of
this decade.
The biggest number corresponds
to the "Brazilian miracle" which has
an illiteracy rate of 32 per cent of the
over-15 population 17 million peo-
ple. Of 25 million children between
5 and 4 years of age, 13 million had
no teachers or schools.
Only 12 per cent of those enrolled
in first grade would finish primary
school. The English magazine The
Economist (April 19, 1968) wrote
that Brazil and lHonduras were the
countries in Latin America with the
highest drop-out rate, 88% and 90%
respectively.
An analysis of the data contained
in the UNESCO statistical yearbook
for 1971 reveals that Latin America
had a deficit of nearly 300,000 pri-


AN


A/


SUNDAY M







TAPIA PAGE 7


D


REVOLUTION


STIN

mary schools for 120 pupils each, and
a deficit of around one million teachers.
The figures come from the govern-
ments of the Latin American countries,
therefore, they are ideal figures. The


AMERICA


tion within the framework of present-
day societies, because it is precisely
the existing educational systems in
Cuba and in countries like Peru which
are affecting structural changes -


tic apparatus, social security, etc. Five
per cent of the product from invest-
ments also goes to education.
In 1980, according to the GNP
estimated by ECLA for thai year.


mic growth.
Private consumption, which is one
function of income, remains therefore
as the only sector which would be able
to assume the financing of education
along the lines mentioned above. An
analysis of the structure of per capital
income establishes this policy.
At the top of the social pyramid in
Latin America there is 5 per cent of
the population absorbing 33.3 per cent
of consumption, with an income of
45,954 million dollars, products in
general, which unfavorably affects the
balance of payments.
At the base of the pyramid is 95
per cent of the population absorbing
66.6 per cent of consumption, with an
income 91,908 million dollars.

REDISTRIBUTION

A percentage composition of the
GNP for 1980 estimated by ECLA,
gives the following result:
Investments: 22% (44,000 million
dollars) Private consumption: 69%
(138,000 million dollars) Govern-
ment: 9% (18,000 million dollars .

If total private consumption could
yield the 24,000 million dollars needed
for the financing of education in
1980, there would be left 112,000
million which equally distributed
would represent a per capital income
levels of 95 per cent of the population
would be raised.
The problem, naturally, is mucl.
more complex than this. This redistri-
bution. of the income can take place
only through revolutionary changes
effected by the taking of power of the
people to create a new social system,
which would include an agrarian re-
form, recovery of natural resources
abolition of private ownership over
the means of production, abolition of
human exploitation, participation of
the mnnss in the building of a new


if we bear in mind that statistical
deficiencies are a typical feature of
underdevelopment, and in some cases,
a smokescreen to conceal continental
tragedies.
A study done by ECLA "Educa-
tion, Human Resources and Develop-
ment in Latin America" reveals
that at the end of the last decade the
continent had 64 million persons, or
79 per cent of the working-age popu-
lation, whose school level .was below
third grade.
This figure plus the 50 million
Latin Americans who could not read
or write in 1970 and the 33 million
children who were not in school, add
up to a continent of illiterates.
ECLA estimated that in 1975,
Latin America will have a deficit of
18,000 agronomists and some 9,000
veterinarians. To train them would
imply an investment of 340 million
dollars.
Still more serious however is that
the deficitary trend is growing in all
fields of technical and professional
education.

BRAIN DRAIN
The shortage of professionals and
skilled technicians is considerably ag-
gravated by the current of Latin
American graduates who move to the
industrialized capitalist countries,
particularly the United States. The
"brain drain" is well known pheno-
menon.
The statistics of the U.S. Depart-
ment of Justice show that in the last
decade some 40,000 engineers, doctors,
sociologists and scientists moved to
the United States from Latin America.
In the next decade (1975-85) the
problem will be multiplied by ten if
drastic measures are not adopted to
revolutionize the educational system
of the continent and the continent
itself.
But the deficits and the needs for
opening up educational opportunities
in the next decade do not have a solu-


values, symbols and thec status lquo of
the ruling classes.
The cost of raising education to
optimum levels, quantitatively and
qualitatively, amounts to fabulous
sums and investments and logically
would weaken and endanger the power
of those ruling classes.
The Latin American countries in
the imperialist-oligarchic orbit would
have to shell out in 1975-85 nearly
200,000 million dollars for the regular
costs of education, of which 45 per
cent would correspond to the primary
schools.

COSTS

Investments in school buildings,
furniture, equipment, laboratories and
other facilities would rise to some
44,000 milliondollars, in primary and
secondary schools alone. Educational
costs in that decade would amount to
a total of 242,992 million dollars.
In these estimates, of course, not
included is tile cost of indispensable
complementary services, such as school
breakfasts and lunches, health and
other services.
Also excluded are the results of
the inflationary process, the imba-
lances in the balances of payments, the
tendencies in the formation of global
capital and the foreign debt of the
Latin American countries with their
disturbing influence on economic de-
velopment.
The British newspaper Financial
Times said in December of last year
that according to "carefully prepared
official estimates" Brazil alone would
have a foreign debt of no less than
75,000 million dollars in 1980.
Most of the resources directly
allotted to education in the Latin
American countries come from go-
vernment consumption and represent
around 20 per cent of the public debt.
The rest is allotted to other expendi-
tures, such as public health, armed
forces, maintenance of the bureaucra-


million dollars of the public debt and
2100 million of investments. It is
evident that the public sector cannot
make the outlay for an optimum
educational system.
Nor will the demands made by
economic investments in productive
sectors- agriculture, mining, industry,
transport and communications allow
the amassing of funds from those
sources since they would affect econo-


and the appearance of new human
values.
Economic development has no
other path. The contradiction of a
development which must be the end
result of education can be resolved
through a revolutionary recess.
Only then can the continent solve its
problems of unemployment, housing,
illiteracy, education, industrialization
and progress.


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RETURN TO: Tapia House Publishing Co. Ltd.,
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:'uinidad and Tobago.


----- _._.~


- ~c"""' "-----'-------'--'--


19. 1974







SUNDAY MAY 19, 1974


USHERS


N RINCES


PROSTITUTES


AND PIMPS


Jerry Pierre


WE WERE treated to
Shaft, then came Shaft,
in of all places, Africa.
The Black American un-
derstudy to. Ian Flem-
ming's James Bond,
Flame Guns and Double
Breasted Suits, in the
latest fashions and all.
The underground caves
of Goldfinger's gadget-
equipped fortress were
exchanged for the pover-
ty ridden streets of down-
town Harlem.
Black flicks have become
the latest in fads these days,
like the latest platforms, or
the wildest threads, a cbmbi-
nation of which may have
come out of the films and led
as like ganja to a delirious
new stage in our Social
activity.

INDULGENCE

But the tentacles of west-
ern civilization are still wrap-
ping and attempting to break
the eggs which could very
well hatch into a new pattern
of life, a pattern leading to
organic growth.
I indulged last week Fri-
day and was only partially
rewarded for my indulgence.
Strand advertised it as being
rejuvenation of Black Ameri-
cans as ',the giants of the
music explosion come to-
gether in a jubilation-of life!"
Maybe there were mo-
ments in the film which ex-


SHAFT


cited the spirit but they were
mainly the reslt:i of the rov-
ing camera eye, coupled with
the soulful jazz of Cannon-
ball Adderly, a music which
in itself always tells a story
or the pulsating rhythms of
Curtis Mayfield who asks the
vital question in this corrupt
civilization "Whats going on?"
as the camera roves the battle-
field of Vietnam and the
riots on the North American
continent.
As usual the film failed to
point any new direction for
Black folk. What it did show
is that there are now a few
"Successful" black businesses
functioning in the US which
with the assistance of a few


entertainers were able to
spend a few days exibiting
their particular brand of pro-
duct which ranged from Afro-
Sheen to African wear. One
"rent a tadillac" salesman
even had his General Motors.
product on display.

ACCESS
The UH! UH's of Bruce
ILee,the familiar twitch of the
nose of this Chinese gladiator
has been resurrected from the
,grave in Black Belt Jones. He
works for some security
agency in the US; drives
around in a souped up fast-
back, has a license to kill
and has access to a wide


~~1 .

' ~~i- 5

p ~;r*;,:~; ~


J. CLIFF


C. TYSON


range of the latest in US
gadgets, with which to do so.
The film lacked every-
thing. Even the Role of the
Downtown pusher was a
waste. Maybe the next time
they are screening for this
type of film they should get
"the real thing" then maybe
the originality of this per-
sonality would not be lost by
the use of this "Actor".
Next meet his champion
attraction, she's six feet tall,
wears some fantastic threads,
drives around in a souped up
Corvette stingray with a hy-
draulically raised hood, a
right side door panel which is
easily removed and exposes a
compartment with the latest,
again, of modern arms. Her
number plates read "Cleo".
In her pocket book she
carries around her ID. She's a
special agent for you know
who? Yes! the President of
the United States. A man who
even now urgently can use her
help.
She's a Karate expert and
can be seen slamming her
platforms down on the neck
of some southern Cracker
and her complements are
made by the cats who pop
remarks about getting a piece.
Oops! I forgot to remind
you, both of these flicks
are black ones or didn't you
realize that by now. After
all they are both "Joneses".
In 'comparison, few of
these films come near to the
reality of Sounderwhich gave
a truer account of the Black
American'shistory.The brutal
prison camps and the inhu-
manity of man towards man
is easily discernable.
The crushing of the cultural-
ties with Africa by force has
still not been able to kill the
human spirit which flows out
from the brilliant perform-
ance of Cicily Tyson. The
environment in general served
to create a beautiful. educa-


.


- -(a Las d I


l


Where





have





all the





Black





People






gone?


tional forum.
The superficiality of the
former films crumbles around
this self critical version of
Black life in the US which at
least shows the Human side to
Twenty five million black folk.
The Cultural and moral dege-
neration of pushers, whores,
pimps, in fact hustlers of all
types can be seen in the
former and does nothing to
rejuvenate the spirit.

AWAKENING
Following very closely on
the footsteps of "Sounder"
came "Five on the Black hand
side". It is a story of an
Afro-Saxon father who re-
sists the Cultural awakening
of his youngest son who has
removed from the confines of
his family's apartment and has
taken up residence on the
tenement rooftop,a depressed
and frustrated mother who
has decided to take a radical
departure from the rules and
regulations laid down by her
.husband.
The result is funny at
times, though the picket
scene with his wife and other:
women from the community
did seem to be stretching it al
bit far. In general the acting
of the performers was realistic
enough.
Here however I feel I have,
supplied enough background
information to make some
suggestions.
The view widely held that
a West Indian film cannot be
entertaininghas been dispelled
with the Cinema Internation'
al release "The harder they
come".


Just prior to its release
Gordon Rohlehr in Tapia Vol.
3 No 24 reviewed the movie
and had this to say "The
entire film was in Jamaica
Creole, the language of Kings-
ton's streets. This gave the
actors tremendous self-con-
fidence and power, by re-
leasing energies which might
otherwise have been consum-
ed in self consciousness about
speech and accent, for the
business of pure acting "...
Its people are more genuinely
alive than most of the people
I have seen on the screen
over the past year ... "
I have spoken to many
people about the film, and
there were none who voiced
dissatisfactionwith it, to the
contrary most people made
the connection between the
Jamaican and themselves. The
fantasy of Jimmy Cliffs per-
formance touched us all.
It was the connection be-
tween our hardships and
their's which cemented the
contact between this Trini-
dadian and that Jamaican. As
Michael Harris's article last
week pointed out "Only our
Chains do bind".
I do not mean to suggest
that we go into lavish produc-
tions which cost thousands of
dollars. But on a much smaller
scale, the list of story possi-
bilities is endless. To mention
only a few, there are old
villages and the life .style
Charlottesville for example,
Steelbands for another, Dagga
and his story. Our archelogists
and artists, writers and the
University could all come
into play.
Continued on Page 12


T T. W, _q


PAGE 8 TAPIA











.At '' p o l l
ugIo





Buc~ ca 'd



4 r d


En~v~r~n n a,..,.


c al 0'
I U


AFTER livingamongst the
"primitive" Agta people
of the Phillipines, Charles
A. Lindbergh noted avia-
tor and conservationist,
wrote:
"Suppose our civilisation
had vanished and that I
could guide the Agta in
starting all over again.
How would I advise them?
What have I learned from
my civilization during 70
years of life?
The answer is trite in
its simplicity. I have learn-
ed that the goal of man is
man himself, and that he,
his spirit and his environ-
ment are one. I would tell
Agta to teach this to their
children, and their child-
ren's children, to make it
the foundation of their
ideals, custbmns, laws and
actions.
I would advise them to
measure every step in their
advancement by its effect
on the character of man
and the quality of his
surroundings.

UNITY
Last Saturday, Ronald
Williams, Chairman of the
Anti-Pollution Council at a
meeting on the Environmental
Education Information and
Training, expressed this very
thought,thisprofound realiza-
tion of the unity of man and
his environment. As Mr Wil-
liams put it, The en-
vironment is more than the
complex, interrelating reality
surrounding man. It includes
man himself".
Man, physical man, spiri-
tual man and his environment
are indeed one indivisible
unity and in the degree that
he destroys this environment,
he destroys his very soul as
well. This is the great truth
that Charles Lindbergh wants
us to teach our children, a
task the Anti-Pollution Coun-
cil has taken upon itself to
accomplish, to teach every
schoolchild to appreciate
and preserve the environment
Mr. Williams was quite clear
on this.
He said, it is the
schools that are the vital link
to the future of the environ-
ment. So when we look to
the future we say .let us
start in the schools
without a doubt steps must
be taken-to upgrade and de-
. velop environmental -'and
ecological studies and pro-
jects at all levels in primary
and secondary schools curri-
culal ".


The education programme
of the Counci also includes
those who no longer attend
school, the adults, They too
must be involved and educat-
ed to appreciate and preserve
the environment. Hence the
council strongly recommends
that "... the use of environ-
mental information and
themes in adult education
and information programmes
must be stepped-up, and that
-the use of the mass media of
communications to these ends
must be encouraged ...

TRAINED

In addition to the educa-
tion programme in schools
and adult education classes,
the council also recognizes
the urgent need for trained
personnel (environmental en-
gineers, ecologists. l': :I1!-
visers on legislation) to manage
and upgrade and safeguard
our environment .To this end
the Council recommends that
". steps be instituted to
develop the necessary skills to
upgrade environmental con-
trol works and services in
both the public and private
sectors, and that this would
involve the training profes-
sionals (e.g environmental en-
gineers, ecologists, etc) at the
university of the West Indies".
Noting that June 5 is
World Environment Day, Mr.
Williams suggests that we join,
the example of Panama and:
(a) have the UN.declara-
tion of Human Environment
read in all secondary schools,
(b) hold seminars and
meetings, essay and poster
competitions.
(c) ask school children to
support the scape plan for a
national tree planting day on
June 5".

VITAL

Lamenting that nothing
was done in Trinidad last year
he said in other countries .. ."
it was a day of official state-
ments, school ceremonies and
environmental films, photo-
graphy and art exhibitions.
There were buttons and stick-
ers banners and many trees
were planted ..."
Mr. Williams added "Let
us correct this in 1974. Let
us use this 2nd World en-
vironment Day to start a
comprehensive programme of
youth and adult education in
this -vital area of human ex-
Sperience the environmentt.
Man indeed is part and
parcel of the "complex inter-
relating reality surrounding


him. "There is an indivisible
bond between him and the
trees,the animals, the hills and
the plains. He, his spirit and
his environment are indeed
one, as Lindbergh beseeches
us to impart to our children,
"To make this truth the foun-
dation of their ideals, cus-
toms, laws and actions".
Each time a hill is bull-
dozed, each time a tree is
wantonly destroyed, man is
also destroying his soul for
these exist to uplift and ele-
vate his spirit.
The task of the Anti-Pollu-
tion council is not merely the
preservation of our Natural
Environment. Rather it is the
safeguarding of our mental
and spiritual wellbeing.


SUNDAY MAY 19, 1974


TAPIA PAGE 9


Tapia representative


at Anti-Pollution


ENVIRONMENTAL cha-
rity begins at home. In
your home community.
That idea was put to a
public meeting on environ-
mental education, informa-
tion and training, held by the
Anti-Pollution Council at the
Teachers' Training College,
Port of Spain on Saturday,
May 11.
Arguing for the accept-
ance of the idea as the theme
of the drive for improved
environmental conditions was
Ishmael Samadwho represent-
ed Tapia House Group at the
meeting.
In a brief address to a
gathering of some 60 persons
including educators, Govern-
ment Health officials and
ordinary concerned citizens
and groups, Samad defined
the problem as getting people
to care for the environment.
And he offered the solu-
tion:
"We've got to engender
the community spirit, the
sense of belonging to a comn-


Meeting

munity. Of course, we all
belong to Trinidad and To-
bago, but still we're alienated
from a specific local com-
munity which we know, care
for and love.
"And it's only if we have
that sense that we'll see the
need to clean up, and for each
of us to maintain and love
the human environment imme-
diately around us".
Samad who has been pro-
moting a one-man campaign
against the wanton destruc-
tion of the majestic and vener-
able samaan trees, spelled out
a programme of building com-
munity parks and national
parks as "outdoor museums
aimed at preserving the vanish-
ing wilderness".
But he stressed the need
for community consciousness
to be fostered by the creation
of some 300 small communi-
ties in which the members
would relate to their own
community institutions -
parks, libraries, churches,
schools etc.
Such identifiable local
communities, he added,
should have representation in
a wider Parliament.
Tapia was the only poli-
tical group represented in the
public meeting on environ-
mental education.


TAPIA


BOOKSHOP


Power to the People
Tapia's New World
Tapia Back Numbers
Tapia Constitution
Democracy or Oligarchy?
Reform of the Public Service
Foreign Investment In T and T
Central Banking
Non-Bank Financial Institutions
Foreign Capital in Jamaica
Post War Economic Development
of Jamaica
Underdevelopment and
Dependence
Persistent Poverty
Readings in The Political Economy
of the Caribbean
Political Economy of the English
Speaking Caribbean
The Dynamics of W.I. Economic
Integration
The Adjustment of Displaced
Workers In A Labour Surplus
Economy
The Integrated Theory of
Development Assistance
Cuba Since 1959
From CARIFTA to
Caribbean Community
.The Caribbean Community
- A Guide


- C.V. Gocking
- Denis Solomon
- Mc Intyre & Watson
- C. Y. Thomas
- M. Odle
- Norman Girvan

- O. Jefferson

- ed Norman Girvan
- George Beckford

- N. Girvan & O. Jefferson

- W. Demas

- Brewster & Thomas


- Roy Thomas

- Davidson L. Budhoo
- James Millette

- (CARIFTA)

-(CARICOM)


.25
.25
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$ 3.60
4.80
6.00
8.40

8.40

7.20
6.00

7.20

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$14.40


6.00

4.80
2.00

3.50

3.00


~- 1--~-c I -- -







SUNDAY MAY 19, 1974


Bajan Rates Battle:


behind the scenes


Carol Taylor

BY NOW everyone in
Barbados KNOWS that
something is rotten in
Denmark with the Bar-
bados Light and Power
request for increasedrates,
and the question of the
Bajan Consumer League's
purported withdrawal of
the objection of increased
rates from the Public
Utility Board.
The one thing that Bar-
badians do not know is the
story of the objection in the
first place. Here goes the
scoop:
A consumer of electricity
in Barbados called me on the
telephone one night and said:
"Carol, the fuel clause ad-
justment which the Barbados
Light and Power Company
Limited has requested in the
domestic service rate is rapidly
increasing and is giving the
light and Power Company
an unjustified built-in increase
without having to go to the
Public Utilities Board, and
has been the means whereby
the company has avoided ap-
pealing to the Board for such
a long time.

AMMUNITION
An increase of over 100%
in rates to the average domes-
tic service consumer is just
not fair, and if we consumers
do not object to the rates,
they will get away with the
request without objections
from the small man".
As a founding member of
the Bajan Consumer League,
Irouted the complaint through
the League, which made the
complaint and then decided
that the Light and Power had
such heavy ammunition on
their side in the worhty per-
sons of Mr. Jack Dear and Mr.
H.B. St. John, that it would
be prudent not to tangle
withoutequallyheavy support
for the side of the people.
Knowing that "the people"
were in the right, and that the
attempt at withdrawal would
let the side down, the legal
proprietor of the League, Mrs.
Maude Wilkins, then decided
that the following questions
would have to be put to the
Barbados Light and Power
Company Limited, even if it
meant lodging an appeal to
the highest court in our land
so that the consumers of this
island could be heard: (These
are questions which must be
answered by the Light and
Power Company according
to the Public Utilities Act of
1951, which states that a
utility must prove that its
proposed increases are fair
and reasonable).

1. How many generating
machines are owned by the
Barbados Light and Power
Company Limited (hereafter
in this column specified as
the "company").


2. What is the present ca-
pacity of all of the company &
machines?
quantities? (Bunker C fuel is
the cheapest fuel and the price
has not increased appreciably).
3. Was the company noti-
fied by Mobil that bunker C
fuel is available in unlimited
4. What has happened to
the company's steam genera-
tor and why?
5. What is the highest
amount of electricity used in
any one day? Last year? Year
before?
6. In Schedule 21, of Me-
morandum 15.1 of the com-
pany, what is the difference
between "installed capacity"
and "firm capacity'" (The
average consumer would not
be able to translate that).
7. In the porposed pur-


chase of the two new generat-
ing plants, was Canadian Im-
perial Power Limited paid fori
the report made to the com-
pany if so was that amount
inserted in the company's
estimates as part of the cost
of new installations?
8. Can the company con-
firm that CI Power Limited
owns Barbados Light and
Power Company Limited?
9. Who are the sharehold-
ers of the company and were
dividends paid last eyar or
the year before;have dividends
been promised this year and
how much?
10. Are GEC and/or AEI
owners of shares or have they
interests in CI Power Limited?
11. How much money is
sent overseas and what is the
distribution?
12. Has the company asked


government to obtain loans
for it so that the lower inter-
est rates on those loans could
bepassed on to the Bajan
consumers as savings in the
form of lower rates?
13. In Schedule 7 of the
company, is it correct that
the company is asking the
Public Utilities Board for a
132% increase this year in
operating income and a much
bigger percentage in 1975
and in 1976?
14. In Schedule 6, is it
correct that the company is
asking the Public Utilities
Board for a 128% increase
this year in gross income?
It appears that someone
does not want these questions
asked, since the Public Utili-
ties Board reversed its own
ruling of February 11, 1974,
that Mr. Tom Adams could


Who really cares


Ishmael Samad

THERE are many things
in this our 'civilized'
society that inflict severe
pain on the human soul.
There is the sad plight ot
our poor and destitute,
sleeping and dying on the
pavements. There is the
continuous slaughter on
our roads and highways.
There is the cold reality
-of our young women
being butchered on kit-
chen tables.
The list of woes is long
and dismal and depressing,
from people eking out a mea-
gre existence, selling lottery
tickets, on our street corners,
to workers being exploited
and debased by their em-
ployers. Yet none of these
causes such pain to the human
heart as when one is con-
fronted with the brutal rape
and murder of little girls.

CRIME

Over the past two years,
three such venal crimes were
committed in our midst. The
first victim was eleven years
old. Savitri Ramgolam, whose
broken battered body was
found in the canefields of
Cunupia one day in November,
1972, twenty three days after
she had disappeared, while on
her way to school at Chagua-
nas.
An inquest into her death
is in.progress at the Chaguanas
District Court, the end of
which is no where in sight.
The administration of justice
in this country is painfully
slow indeed.
The second little girl to
fall prey to the rapist-murderer
was ten year old Gail St Clair.
Her strangled, blood stained


bddy was found one day in
March last year in a riverat
Moruga. Only this week her
accused was set free, causing
her mother to breakdown
and cry.

GRAVE
The third little child to
suffer the same fate as Savitri
and Gail'was nine year old
Elaine Mahadeo. Her body
was found in a shallow grave
behind a beach house at Ba-
landra. Like Savitri, Elaine
was picked up by a passing
vehicle while on her way to
school. The vehicle sped-past
and she was seen crying and
frantically waving to her


represent the Bajan Consumer
League and thereby the con-
sumers in Barbados, in the
support of the objection to
the proposed rates.
It is past time for us in
this community to look into
the spending of our money; I
would expect that the Public
Utility Board will again re-
verse its decision not to hear
Miss Maude Wilkins, the
Honorary Life President of
the Bajan Consumer League.
What have they got to lose?
If there is an objection to
the domestic user of electri-
city having to pay much more
of an increase than big busi-
nesses, I for one feel that its'
time for questions to be asked
and answered so that the
public of Barbados can under-
stand the answers!
After all, just whose money
is being spent?




2


friends as she passed by. She He is a peddlar by trade
was assaulted in the most and every Saturday morning
criminal manner and then he can be found at the Cha-
battered to death with a guanas market place peddling
shovel, his textiles'under the burning
This is the cold chilling sun. Life has always been
reality of life in this 'civilized' a hard lot for him, struggling
society of ours. This is the to support his family of five.
cruel fate suffered by thlee Now it is infinitely harder
innocent little girls. The ques- without his little Savitri- Life-
tion is who is next? Whose means nothing for ,
little girl is next in line to be f Ma 11 i I"~
raped and bashed to-- ath? after daygrieving to her grave.
Who will be the next This is the burden that some
mother to moan the tragic folks have to carry in this
death of her little girl? Who society poor, hardworking
will be the next father to be people robbed of their joy of
broken in mind and body by living.
the brutal slaying of his little
girl child as Savitri's father is And who cares? Who
broken to pieces today. really cares?


TAPIA Burnett St.

Books, Pamphlets G EM S Scarborough

on Sale TOBAGO
6BOOKSTOK

639 2580


L mf~I r



I ztzT71r~




IL1~T


Tapia


Jerseys


on sale


at


the Hou se


1973 TAPIA IN BOUND VOLUMES-$20


I


PAGE 10 TAPIA






SUNDAY MAY 19, 1974


FIREMEN


WHIP


CHURCH 'BOYS'


IN


WINDFALL MATCH


Sport


THE St Charles R.C.
school churchyard pro-
vided the setting for yet
another outstanding wind-
ball match. This was a
match between Church
Boys and Fire Brigade
Boys in the second re-
cond of league matches
organised by the Macoya
Windball League.
Hamel Baptiste won the
toss for Church Boys and
after consulting with his
senior colleagues decided to
send in the opposition to bat.
The first innings of any
cricket match starts of to a
quiet pace, and steadily and
imperceptibly the tensions


grow so that the onlooker
and the players become elec-
trifyingly tense.
This match followed that
pattern. Fire Brigade com-
petently compiled 46 runs-
not a mammoth score but
nevertheless a worthy score
which proved ultimately to be
a matchwinning one.'
Their innings passed with-
out much event and were it
not for fine individual per-
formances from "Moon" the
Fire Brigade opening batsman
who was the eight wicket to
fall and some intelligent bowl-
ing from Franklyn "Baba"
James it may even be-des-
cribed as pedestrian.
REPUTATION
"Moon" is quite easily
the best opening batsman in
the competition. He has come
into the competition with a
reputation for opening his


team's innings and coming
out not out.
He enhanced his reputa-
tion in this match, his was
the eight wicket to fall and he
personally contributed half
of his team's score.
"Baba" James bowled
very intelligently and bagged
six wickets. He moves the
ball both ways and occasional-
ly throws in a fast straight
ball outside the oil pan. That's
with the dry ball.

STRATEGY
With a wet ball he is even
more dangerous and genuinely
fast but, and not without
good reason; wet balls are not
permitted in the competition.
Church Boys like their
opponents started quietly
with the intention to frustrate
the bowlers. The strategy


worked because the Fire
Brigade bowlers, virtually un-
playable on their homeground
of dirt, failed to achieve a
similar response on the pitched
Churchyard surface and their
frustration reflected itself in
the gradual deterioration of
their bowling.
Arnold Sabino opening
for Church Boys batted in-
telligently getting bat and
body well behind (in wind-
ball bat and pad is not
enough) and his resolute de-
fence paved the way for
Alexander Naimool coming
at No. 4 to sampat the bowl-
ing.

VOUPERS
In most of the windball
matches I have seen, batsmen
are either plodders or voupers
but Naimool can both defend
and attack.


He used to be a very
promising cricketer in his
school days but somehow
he never got very far in the
game. Had he been born in
Barbados it would have been
just the opposite.

DISGUSTED

When he came in to bat
the score was a modest seven
runs for two wickets and
when he left it was 34 for
five his personal contribu-
tion 21. Then the unexpected
occurred. Twelve runs for vic-
tory and the remaining five
batsmen only added one run
to the score.
The Jubilation that reigned
during Naimool's innings sud-.
denly turned to despair. "We
batting like the West Indies?"
declared one player disgusted
by the outcome of the match.


Exodus from


Uruguay
"THE last to iave will
please put out the light", p.
This mocking sign ap- U
peared written on a lamp
post in Montevedeo's st
principal avenue by one h
ol
of the many citizens who o
have just left the country.
But the last Uruguayan
his not left yet. The sign can d,
still be seen on the lamp post in
even though the light has been bi
put out, since a government th
in crisis cannot waste elec- in
tricity.
The sign is not just amus- li
ing: it portrays the drama of fi
the people of Uruguay a
(187,000 square kilometers i
with a population of 2.6
million)., p
According to estimates, in
nearly half a million Urugua- v
yans left the country during re
the past few years of the re-
gime which has described ]
them as "unpatriotic", "ex- t
tremists" and "seditious",
but the truth is they are most- sl
ly jobless workers or workers
living on starvation wages. is
The nations they go to are
Argentina, Australia, Canada
and others.
The press of both sides of
the River Plate has printed
the statement of the Urugua- la
yan minister of economy,
Moises Cohen, who believes
that men have the right to
b
settle where they wish and
wherever they can find work. o
Therefore, the government s(
does not recognize its obliga- e,
tion to create job opportuni-
ties, or promote social rpo- p
gress, or increase the wealth d
of the country or its people. o
The press states that the ,
government does not have a o
positive plan but has opened v


Prensa Latina


.T eric 10o issue up Lu 400
Issports a day for the exit ot
ruguayans.
The present regime will
lortly be responsible for
having encouraged the exodus
f a million Uruguayans who
ft to settle and work in
their lands.
But Uruguay's drama
oes not end there. Accord-
g to statistics, Uruguay's
birth rate is 1.6 per cent,
he lowest in America (and
SUruguay's history).
According to figures pub-
shed in Buenos Aires this
gure is due to thousands of
abortions and an almost zero
migration rate.
What does the government
[an to do about this decrease
I population, about the de-
aluation of Uruguayan cur-
ency and the lack of job
opportunities which forces its
people to abandon their coun-
y?
It seems that their new
ogan is not "to govern is to
o populate" but "to govern
to depopulate", to restrict
civil rights, to bring back old
ligarchical and colonial laws
o provoke an exodus.
One of the basic reasons
or this phenomenon is the
atifundium which breeds
attle and pushes out men
nd was responsible at the
beginning of the century for
opening the economic and
social gap during the stage of
economic expansion.
Uruguay, empty of peo-
le and industries, is a para-
ise for the 200 families who
wn large tracts of land and
'ho are once again the agents
f neocolonialism and "pri-
ate enterprise".


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lirs. Andres Talbutt,
Research Institute for
Study of Man,
162, East 78th Street,
NE.' YORK, r'.Y. 10021,
Ph. Lehigh 5 I448,
U.S. A.
-- -mTrn----AW77T


Lloyd Taylor

GASTRO-STRIKEN ba-
bies at the General Hospi-
tal, Port of Spain, as a
rule, undergo some of the
most trying battles for
survival.
Because, according to
several reports, the conditions
provided for their specialized
care and treatment have de-
teriorated to such a low level
most babies now have the
slimmest of chances of sur-
viving the deadly gastroenteri-
tis.
And the what and who
responsible for this grave
development are as manifold
as they are complex in origin.
The problem in the first
place stems from the nature of
the disease itself: Because it
gives rise to excessive vomit-
ing, loose and frequent stools,
gastro-striken babies suffer
much from dehydration.
So to make good this loss
of water from their tender
systems babies must be fed
much more than their normal
supplies of liquids.
After feeding they must
be helped to expel air bubbles
if their nourishment is not to
be forced out of their tiny
.stomachs. A gentle tap on th
during that all liquids are
available for digestion.
But babies bed-ridden at
the Gastro block or Ward No.
54 seldom see such homely
treatment. Instead of being
fed in mother's arm fashion
these unfortunate infants have
tucked in their mouths feed
bottles that are propped upon
pillows.
With the slightest shift
of the head the bottle slips


out the child's mouth. The
nurse on her second trip
merely picks it up. Its her
signal that the child has con-
sumed all the contents of the
bottle.



Thus it is the already sick
babies get a more than unfair
deal. And far from being
ever fed at all, they live
unknowingly in the constant
anger of dying F-om asphyxia-
tion as air forces up feed that
seeps back into their weak
lungs.
The conditions which
I'hfCP IC~'ji' 'n"""'*""*1e"-d
-.^.r.Ta graver yet. Owing
to their age, their removal
from the comforts of their
home environment, and the
fact of their ungoing suffering
from dehydration itself these
babies tend to feel unduly
cold.
But instead of being
wrapped in a sufficiency of
swaddling-clothes their bodies
he most times naked on rub-
ber mackintoshes. For one
reason or the other linens


are forever in short supplies.
And as if to mark the final
condemnation of these babies
to untimely death roaches
swarm their bodies at night,
crawling into their mouths,
and nibbling from around
their lips dried up remains of
feed and vomit. Not to men-
tion the divers diseases (among -


All the


From Page 8
These suggestions are made
'k 7,;'' ... ,_.ipiIciai pre-
tensions we have toward "go-
ing Theatre" and the forum
could be established where
we can see ourselves making
the kind of criticisms we,
need to make in deciding
what steps we are going to
take now and in the future.
A close friend of mind
was commenting on a recently
conducted broadcast where
an elderly woman was talking
about life a number of years
ago. He commented on the
fact that she sounded sorry


which gastroenteritis is only
one) spread by these carriers.
Unsuspecting mothers who
trust in the public service at
Ward 54 hardly know about
these conditions that could
spell the final undoing of the
health of their gastro-striken
babies.
Not infrequently the


nurses' standard complaint
remains: "Is only two of we
on the Ward". And when they
contemplate the impassable
barrier between themselves
and the hospital's adminis-
trators, "Wha we go do?" they
query impatiently.
Nurses know that there
are no means of communicat-
ing these problems to higher-
-ups who know only subordi-
nation to authority. They
know that matrons don't
make nightly rounds and
therefore cannot see the
roaches which seek out dark
corners in day-light. So every
report is bound to be an exag-
geration.

-4' 'even nurses are them-
'sels' certain that Ward 54 is
the very last place that they
would consider leaving their
yonug ones patients. Don't
doubt them. They work in
the very jaws of death.


SBlack People


about life today and how she [" tions.
telt. It haddegenerated fro tion drove the point home,
their own sugar, oil, butter and made him realize that
and so on, and he found that we need to plant our own
he enjoyed the broadcast not food and do a lot of which is
so much because fo the fact presently crated to our dining
that she was talking about room tables.
things currently in the news This suggestion has shown
but because she commented the little that's needed for our
so freely with the voices of step into this valuable me-
the young giggling in the dium of communication where
background on occasions we cannot only enjoy our-
when she mentioned a strange selves but learn at the smae
word in reference to food. To time and bring an end to
him it was what he knew these third rate metropolitan
and he enjoyed it, he knew absurdities which attempt to
that he himself once reacted glamorise the diseases they
the same way in similar situa- have created.


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O On May 26th, 1974 SIDNEY & PAULA WILLIAMS' O
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