Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00105
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: April 14, 1974
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00105

Full Text
Liii. ?.


OWTU HALL see Page 6

see Pages 3 & 4




Trinidad Tobago

out front?

THERE is a crisis in the
civilization at large and
Trinidad & Tobago may
have to lead us out. This
was the challenge thrown
out to Tapia people last
Sunday at the Annual
SGeneral Assembly.
"We think we are too
small and too backward to
make an impact but we may
have a golden chance to strike
out on entirely different
Secretary Lloyd Best told
the Assembly that the ravag-
ing of the world economy by
galloping inflation and balance

of payments difficulties could
lead to the re-emergence of
totalitarian regimes similar to
those established in the inter-
war years by Stalin, Hitler,
Franco and Mussolini.
Best pointed to ominous
developments in Chile and
the United States. The tense
audience was asked to ponder
the fact that even the classic
social democracies in Scandi-
navia and Britain were show-
ing signs of strain.
"Our own stock-taking in
Trinidad & Tobago must begin
with the crisis in the civiliza-
tion at large. This may be our
chance to take the lead".

IT IS A hundred to one
against the Government
making the right decision
when the constitutional
crisis came to be settled
later this year. Those were
the odds quoted by Tapia
Secretary, Lloyd Best,
last Sunday at the Tapia
Annual Assembly.
Speaking on Prospects fbr
our Nation, Best told the
gathering of supporters, asso-
ciates and members that the
ruling party was certain to
bungle the politics of consti-
tutional reform and that this
could open the way to the
long-awaited change of goverri-
The Secretary said that
many people made the mis-
take of seeing only the
constitutional aspects of the

constitutional question and
insist correctly that no change
ofconstitution could by itself
right the political and econo-
mic wrongs in Trinidad &
Tobago. But they are not
seeing far enough .
Tapia thought that the
constitutional aspects would
in time become important -
when the people had made up
theirmindabout what political
changes are wanted by the
nation. But right now, it was
the politics that mattered.
"Williams has to do some-
thing about the Wooding Re-
port because he has no choice
about it. And whatever he
does, is likely to be an error".
The Tapia strategy for
getting the PNM Government
out therefore passes along
the constitutional road. Best
continued. He did not agree

with those including many
businessmen and well-to-do
people in private who said
Ir ( _,vernment could only
be removed by force.
i apia strategy, he con-
ti ed involvedd education and
agitation "to win our people
to a plan for a different kind
of State, a different pattern
of economy and entirely new
social and cultural relations".
"But if the PNM Govern-
nent sets up any roadblock,
we shall have to sweep it
Best described such a
social and economic revolu-
tion as "quite a different
thing from a military coup,
by a handful of dedicated
"A coup is neither feasible
nor desirable elections
before constitutional reform
will never be achieved when
the Prime Minister is also in
fact the Queen.
Elections may well be on
the horizon, he added, "but
not in the way that the con-
ventional pundits claim".








needs love but it cannot
exist on love alone. These
were the sentiments con-
verged by Tapia Treasurer,
Baldwin Mootoo it the
Groups' Fourth Annual
General Assembly held
last Sunday;
Mootoo revealed to the
friends aind supporters who
had gathered thal lie was
lormulatilng concrete p.insS for
a fund-raising drive which lie
would subinit to lhc members
:It the second parl of Ille
General Assembly.
Mootoo began by review-
ng lie progress which Ta pia

iad made during the years and
)utlining the work that still
weeded to be done and the
physical resources still to be
He revealed that the annual
recurrent budget of the Tapia
House Printing and Publishing
Enterprises now exceeded
$50,000. He pointed out to
members ta llii there were
several urgeill projects tIlli
needed to be undcritakenl
He referred in particular.
to the extension of tie physi-
cal plant, tile hiring and irain-
inig of additional stalT. and
lie need Ito 11niaiiLnc ; pio-
perly equipped ('a;np:ilngi

Taking all these factors
into consideration the Trea-
surer said that lie envisaged a
target of 580.000 over the
coming year.

The Treasulcr went on to
suggest soilme ways and means
by which individual members
could do thleii share in assist-
ing the Or:naisatioln toattailn
these coal..
The Tieasurer's full report
and hsi proposals oMr .a Fund-
Iaisting ('Cailp.ign will be one
of tile main l ubjecti' onl the
,i'e ld.i 11 ile S.'econdIl pin lof
tihc (G nciiiai .Ass'inll\ which
lI'Colt' le Ill \o) : Mi


urget S jets- n wS inhan






Vol 4. No. 15

25 Cents



Best to


Assembly :

We must prepare, as...

The next chapter


NOW we must prepare for the
opportunities and the challenges
that lie a little way up the road.
Although the Government has no
intention of relinquishing office
this year, it has many weighty
decisions to make concerning the
resolution of the constitutional
question. These decisions are
fraught with the possibility of
disastrous error. Anything they
do is likely to be a great mistake.
We could very, well have an elec-
tion soon though not in the
way that the conventional pun-
dits claim.
* IN our preparations for that even-
tuality, we must promote the registra-
tion of all citizens on the electoral roll.
In our proposals for Constitutional
Reform Tapia is proposing a Legisla-
ture that takes for granted the widest
possible participation in the political
life of the country and in the affairs of
the Government and the State. Elec-
tors must register to make themselves
eligible and identifiable for every poli-
tical purpose possible. That is the
very first thing.

* Our preparations must spread our
local organization even further than te
.. r W e
envisage a multiplication of Tapia local
groups in every district, a proliferation
of Tapia activity in every nook and
* We must begin to think of group-
ing our local branches so that we can
assign them responsibilities on a muni
cipal basis along the lines set out in
Power to the People, our proposals for
Constitutional Reform. The munici-
pality will be a crucial unit in the
organisation of our political life.
* Tapia must now move to stream-
line our activities as a Government
in the making. We are obviously the
only meaningful opposition here. When
the mark buss, Tapia is the one party
to which the country could turn.
This means that we must now consider
shaping the forces of our Executive in
such a way as to match our political
organisation with a machinery of go-
vernment capable of carrying out all
the responsibilities 'of administering
the affairs of the State.
My own idea is that in a properly
run Government of Trinidad and To-
bago, the Cabinet can most sensibly be
constructed around 8 responsibilities.
We should begin from now to group
our Planning and Committee work in

relation to these responsibilities which
are as follows:
First of all, there are the respon-
sibilities for Parliament. In the kind of
State that we are going to administer,
the focus will be on the Senate, a
Permanent Conference of Citizens as
the centre ofarich political participation
by a vast multitude of community
interests from every part of Trinidad
& Tobago. This ministerial respon-
sibility will be one of the most for-
midable political tasks especially
since we envisage that any genuine
participatory Senate is bound to set
in motion genuinely national
and multi-racial political parties.


Second, and just as important are
the responsibilities for the Executive.
With our proposals for the Senate, we
are promoting a greater importance
for the political as distinct from the
governmental branch of the Legisla-
ture (the House of Representatives).
Well, one of the most important de-
velopments in recent years is that the
governmental branch (the Ministries
and the Civil Service,) as distinct from
the political branch of the Executive
S(i.e -the-Cabinet) has already assumed
a great importance.

The Public Service, organised
around the Ministries, has become a
major power block in the country and
in the State. It poses colossal problems
of administration and demands minis-
terial responsibility on the highest
possible level. Tapia must begin to
to think about these responsibilities so
that we can be ready to exercise them.

Third, there is Local Government
and Police. Our plan is to create 25
Municipalities as the basis for decen-
tralization and participation and we
intend to civilize the military by inte-
grating the police service into the appa-
ratus of community development and
local government. The plans must be
fashioned in advance.
Fourth, there is Justice and Legal
Affairs. Recent exposures haveeshown
the hopeless tangle into which these
have been allowed to fall. There is a
huge mountain of work to be under-
taken in regard to the reform of the
law and the Courts.
Fifth, there is the matter of long-
term planning for a different kind of
nation, for a different civilization. The
present government lacks the slightest
interest in any genuine long-term plan.

All their acts of change have been the serenity of our land.
manoeuvres in response to black power These are the 8 policy-making heads -
demonstrations or dodges before the under which we must group our Exe-
next election but always some kind of cutive responsibilities. The Committees
now-for-now scheme. We cannot see in which are now at work will need an
the Government any group of men who enormous amount of manpower and
are restlessly trying.to bring into being research time from Tapia people in
a new world, for the people of Trinidad every walk of life.
and To'bago. That responsibility Tapia must find the ways and the
isone which the country means to sustain the General Staff of
has long since expected this permanent political organisation.
Tapia to exercise. In a Government We already have a Staff at our Head-
context, it would embrace studies in quarters here in Tunapuna which is
technology, land-use, town-planning, working for next to nothing. They can
economic and social analysis, and sta- hardly go on much longer. A political
tistics. Life-line Agencies such as a organization has to rely on a great deal
SPetroleum._Techretariat .and a Bur.ea -..-. a en. tiaLaaU bU..,Acannot
for West Indian Integration would also live by sentiment alone.
fall logically under this head. We need also, to keep the printing
and publishing operation going in order
BUDGETING to sustain the programme of political
education and to provide a continuing
h, e is te m r source of income but for this we need
Sixth, there is the ministerial re- funds to complete the necessary plant
sponsibility for Economic and Finan- funds to complete the n necessary plant
cial Affairs. It would be impossible to and equipment.
We need moreover, to keep our
understand the existing division of We need moreover, to keep our
cadres continuously in the field of
Cabinet responsibilities except against political and community organization
the backg n of i e y political and community organization .
the background of a.colonial economy In San Fernando, La Brea, Point
in no way integrated to serve the needs F ortin, Diego La Brea, int
of the people of this country. A Tapia Fortn, De- Martin, Laven
Sangre Grande, Princes Town, Fyza-
Government would have to bring Pe- s
troleum, Agriculture, Commerce, In- bad, Couva,Chaguanas and every other
troleum Agriculture, Commerce, In- local area.

dustry, tourism, The Utilities anda ne
Public Works, all into a coherent frame
with money Finance and Budgeting
as the servant of the economic plan.
It is time for us to devote our atten-
tion to the.question of how we would
go about with the necessary integra-
Seven, is the responsibility for
national welfare which should embrace
education, culture, sport, health, youth
and national service. The Tapia pro-
gramme for greater social equality, full
employment and for a new Caribbean
man depends heavily on treating all of
these aspects of welfare as a single
thrust towards a new social and econo-
nomic regime. Every University student
will have to undertake national service
as a required part of his/her education;
the youth camps and the sports and
the arts will be central to a whole pro-
gramme of formal and informal school-
ing. These are the revolutionary de-
mands implied by the current social and
political upheaval, they are demands
we must be prepared to meet.
Eight, is the responsibility for Ex-
ternal Affairs which in Tapia's book
includes the responsibility for immi-
gration, defence and national security.
In a repressive state such as the one
now in existence, defence and national
security are addressed to internal orob-
Icms. Tapia will have to turn that inside
out and leave Welfare and Local Go-
vernment to deal with Trinidad and
Tobago and Defence and Security to
deal with those who dare to invade


We need further to open more
offices in the local areas. We have just
acquired some office space in Port of
Spain. We already have an office in
San Fernando 'and one in Fyzabad.
Many more will have to be
opened in all the municipal centres
Tapia has already identified.
In short, we need all the where-
withal of political agitation and cam-
paigning. And all of this means bread.
In conclusion, I would like to re-
mind all Tapia people that we started
here less than six years ago with only a
handful of people and a bagful of
dreams. In the time we have prospered
and grown into the solid organization
that we clearly are today. I urge all of
you to rally behind the Tapia Move-
ment because the time to be in front is
at the end.

Think You.

THE above has been cxcerpted front
the presentation made last Sundav
to the Tapia Annual Assembli by
Secretary, I.oyd Best.. The proposals
for the re-grouping of Cabinet respon-
sibilities are more fidly spel t ou here
than they were in the Address. A fdll
text is to be published under the title
Prospects of Our Nation.


Report on Annual General Assembly ...April 7

THE MEMORY of the Fifth Test Match defeat of the
West Indies fresh and bitter haunted.last Saturday's
Annual General Assembly of Tapia.
With Tapia, sport is always brought into politics,
and politics brought, without apology, into sport.
In the tradition of beyond a boundary commentary
on sport, Tapia writers have asked rhetorically with
CLR James; "What do they know of cricket who only
cricket know?
Likewise, Tapia spokesmen striving for a theory of
conflict nad resolution in the Caribbean, have shown a
fondness for images taken from sport.
So we have heard that "the game is in blood"; that
we've been "playing for change"; that it's now the
"end game" and we must "win onpoints" now that "our
turn to play" has come in ',the next round" of this
"fight to the finish".
Cricket has been held to represent the best and the worst of
what West Indians, working as a team, have been capable.
Therefore, to the adherents of a political ideology which
says that we can and must "pull up ourselves" by our own efforts
and disprove those who say we can't, last Friday's defeat of the
West Indies by an inferior English team was a troubling emotional
The resulting confusion and pain couldn't have been relieved
by the sight, last Sunday, of only a handful of people at the Tapia
House by 10 a.m. the sche-
dule starting time.
By the time Ivan Laughlin
beganhis address, ten minutes
after the start, at 11.10 it was
clear that there would not be
the kind of crowd which led
Lloyd Best to say last No-
vember. "our cup runneth
Laughhn noted that at-
tendance was down bv almost
one-third from the two pre-
vious Assenblies.
So there had been no
"champagne by tea" as the "
sportswriters had promised

last Frida\. and on Sunda%
we. sipped from the chalice
The shortfall in attend-
ance was apparent not onl\
onthe floor but at the official
trestle tables on the low-rse
rostrum as %ell

Only Campaign Manager
Michael Harris, Secretary
Lloyd Best, Community Rela-
tions Secretary Ivan Laughlin,
Treasurer Baldwin Mootoo
and Chairman Syl Lowhar
(for a period) sat up front.
The Secretariat table re-
mained unoccupied. Keith
Smith and I sat/right under
the podium in the front r6w,
steadily accumulating at our
feet a heap of mashed ciga-
rettes zoots.
It might be because this
was Annual General Assembly
and the officials who might
have taken the positions up
front were "outgoing" any-
But I wondered what
other people who noticed that
made of it: did they think it
was inconsequential, or just a
case ofinappropriate decorum?
What they couldn't help
notice as well, I was sure, was
the fact that our P.A. system
had- remained defective over
the four months since the 5th
Anniversary Assembly in No-


vember, through nearly all the
public meetings held in the
Sunday, the amplifier was
picking up "Sunday Sere-
nade", and it was mercifully
switched off after the first
few minutes of the meeting.
And punctuality? Did peo-i
ple. accepts that Tapia resigns
itself to the conventional
subservience to "Trinidad


Did they remember that
punctuality.was mentioned in
the last September Assembly
as a virtue to be enshrined
in thL, conduct of the new,
uncuoventional politics?
Thus did the stock-taking
candour -and self-criticism of
Michael Harris and Ivan Laugh-
lin match my own.
Both acknowledged fail-
ures and called for "rededica-
tion". For Harris there was
need for a "renaissance of the

' _. y *g

, *


As Campaign manager,
Harris opened the meeting. A
poised figure who spoke at a
slow, deliberate pace, in a
level tone that was not un-
dramatic, he claimed "small


success" for Tapia in "the
narrow political sphere".
The danger, as he saw -it,
was that Tapia might become
just "a super-efficient political
machine", eschewing its origi-

nal aim of lifting and ennobl-
ing the spirits of the people.
Without specifying what,
Harris who normally intro-
duces the Group as "the Tapia
PoliticalOrganisation ", argued
that there was need for some-
thing more.
Our failure lay in not hav-
ing engendered in our friends,
members, supporters far
less the country the spirit of
the kind of existence for
which we said we have been
Where have all the flowers
gone? he asked.
To make good the spiritual
deficiency Harris recommend-
ed a specific campaign over
the next political year.
There was, therefore, no
stirring introduction to the
next speakers, Ivan Laughlin.
Quickly conceding the
appropriateness of Harris'
observation, Laughlin pointed
out that self-criticism is im-
portant not only at the group
but at the individual level.
Continued on Page 4

APRIL 1974

Vaughan Lewis

The Idea

of a Caribbean Community

0.35 J
0.75 WI
0.50 US
0.20 UK

New World Jamaica
Tapia Trinidad

by Lennox Grant

- --




More on Assembly

The view that man is
somehow unavoidably
subject to the "glorious
uncertainties" of fortune
is not one that Tapia
Secretary Lloyd Best
And by the time he came
to speak the meeting was
already receptive to the view
that there is nq inscrutable
fate which had determined
the Friday before that the
West Indies must lose.
The revolutionary thing
about Tapia, Lloyd Best said,
is that we understand that the
important thing is not to
lose and to be there in the end.
Reviewing the years and
the annual assemblies since
1971, the Secretary put it to
the gathering that:
"Simply for the fact of
being here once again, we
write our names in the politic-
al annals of this country".
So though there has been
no spectacular p:'.grc .irJd
some certain failur.:-. Tjpia
was still at the wic.ct[ nu.ikii,
the runs in single Ulilke
the now-for-nowpai c.. .... Ie
come and go with ilec ir.:l'
But to labour jt ..jnilr:g
is to render a point i bsurdli i
And the differo'rirn .i rh
revolutionary politic.i is thti
nobodyknowshowP nniiin run<
are needed to win.
Will the people lia\c the
patience to see hlus d:ij'r
battle to the end? Sui- thn\
want victory imore tilha
they want anything else, But
do they know what the\ ht\e
to do to get it, and are lhe-,
itI outstandiit,,, ,.' ii -
diction of our time. the Sec re.
tary said, is that rie.er lhaje
people wanted change a i mi uch
as they want it n..v.. "uid
never have they bee.rn .-i. n-
sure of their ability\ t.: bhrn
about this change.
Lloyd Best's word-per-
minute speaking rate puts him
in the class of Sparrow. Last
Sunday the Tapia Secretary
spoke for 119 minutes, the
highlight of the Assembly.
Over the years I must
.have heard him. give more
than 100 speeches. I have
heard him take a complex
issue and in a dozen or so
sentences take it apart.
The result is that I am
more or less familiar with
what he calls his "statement".
For me, Sunday's address
was successful primarily for
its connection between the
contradictions, cynicism, and

defeatism affecting political
evolution at home and the
instability of world civiliza-
tion following the end of the
Imperial era.
The world economy, ha-
rassed by a blitzkrieg of af-
flictions, was threatening to
bring back the conditions
which made possible the tota-
litarianism of the 1930's.
Z' Hence. we have seen the
,fascist overthrow of' Allende
'apd the Watergate scandal in
the USA:
And then the grand idea:
the breakdown of one civiliza-
tion heralds the dawning of a
new. Maybe our historical
role is to lead the building of
the new civilization.
But when all is said and
done, the most exalted cru-
sades defer to the mundane
deliberations of ways and
means committees.
An army marches on its
stomach so Tapia Treasurer
Baldwin Mootoo speaking last
Inl!in J te Aciiihkl *n

rn ilIad ii c.-
A ,i,,J .,: i tl,, p ,: ,-,l' l,-'

aim thai TaJI. I ,eI l en;

u ithe ph.'.le ap .c i ll:

t"thee q urrn e
,Mlo ,,.. ,: n ,.,,,. lk Jd .1.
mu l., ,1.- t-hud.b.e .h d, iIC
ai.t d e, t. C.t. ri, l k lpr .. ai dr-
in leli ar, d li .:-> .J
more staff than the present
nine b full-. Timers; and geners
greplater incom b',e from theup nd

ins and publishing. pai
He suggested thefollow-
ge,,cral ,_iru, i. 1, jpi.i w,.as

reng mans or aising monenti
M o>-,.,-. L ll,-d "'the quantum

Such ing deed, he rp.'le
tout. voud bouc he vumesp
joraising vertisement pr-
put up buildings; employ
more staff than the present
nine full-timers; and generate
greater income from the print-
ing and publishing.
He suggested the follow-
ing means for raising money:
selling the paper

tions and bound volumes
raising advertisements
and getting printing jobs

office furniture, materials etc.
The Treasurer said that
$80,000 are needed now, and
he was making an appeal for
the raising of this amount
on the basis of asking people
to put their money where
their mouth is.

It had to be remembered
that Tapia's aim was not
merely to take power which
he had no doubt we would
do but to create as well
the conditions which would
allow us to make change
when we take power.
This meant the building
of personality the cultiva-
tion of initiative, discipline,
patience and responsibility.
"If we have'226 runs to
win, we must take it in
singles!" he declaimed amidst
feeling applause. "We can't
simply flash outside the off
stump. We have to play a
controlled innings".
In all Laughlin spoke for
20 minutes. In the form usual

for himself, it was a fact-
filled statement prefaced and
and ended with a general
comment of exhortation.
He made sure to mention
the representatives from local
groups present. He described
,the operations over the last
year of the National Execu-
tive, the Council of Represen-
tatives and the Assemblies.
He announced the forma-
tion of "Interest Groups" in
Education,Sport and National
Laughlin acknowledged a
significant failure to de-
velop the TAPIA newspaper
in such a way that it would
not' jeopardize advances in
other areas.








NAM ------ ----------------

ADDRESS--------- --------------


I enclose $ ......... as per rates listed below

T&T............ $12.00 TT
CARIFTA........ 18.00WI
CARIBBEAN...... 12.50 US
US/CANADA...... 15.00 US
UK..............t 8.00 UK
W.EUROPE...... 10.00UK
WEST AFRICA..... 12.00 UK
INDIA.......... 12.00 UK
AUSTRALIA...... 12.00 UK
EAST AFRICA,.... 15.00 UK
FAR EAST........ 15.0 UK
All overseas deliveries airmail.
Surface mail rates on request.

RETURN TO: Tapia House Publishing Co. Ltd.,
91 Tunapuna Rd. Tunapuna, Phone: 662-5126.
.Trinidad and Tobago.

A consequence of this, he
suggested, was that it has not
been possible to create the
environment which would
facilitate the spiritual reju-
venation for which Harris had
For this part, however,
the Community Relations
Secretary wished to stress the
value of individual contribu-
tion to the work which.
alone, he said, would deter-
mine the extent to which we
could bring about cht:;ge,
having taken power.


"AT r

(.-. .

SEATED: (Lto R) B. Mootoo, 1. LOpUgBH"n L.Bt~set>. i.uwnrio

From Page 3

Self- criticism a nd rededication



- n-

SUNDAY APRiL-14, 1974

HOLIDAY here's fun
galore! on the beach. In
the sea and In our ultra-
modern Casino. And the
living's easy and oh, so
comfortable, too!

the historical relics of Brim-
stone Hill; the safe, scenic
beaches; the abundant foli-
age and stately mountains
of this "Fertile Isle."

unequalled luxury and cul-
sine all the traditional
touches. of Barbadian
charm endless day-time
sports and swinging night-

- a romantic, picturesque
paradise, with bargain-
shopping in nearby St.
hGorge; heart warming
hospitality, superb con-
tinental gourmet; night-
tinrrt fun!


URY in a glorious Tropi-
cal setting. Courteous and
friendly' service; gay holi-
day activities and exciting
nightly entertainment.

Still begging for the tourist dollar

THE secondary attributes
of Tourism have received
some attention, particu-
*-- I-I JfJUII lllL .F... L_ ll J
movement. This move-
ment has served notice on
the use of reductive
images of women in the
system's propaganda:
"The trouble with a lot
of the girls I met at the
Caribe Hilton is that they
have no respect-for a
guy's mind." Or again:
"I'm Karen. Tell your
travel agent you want to
fly me to Orlando for a
Fun Tyme Fling".
Yet Tourism, its accom-
panying advertisements and
boilerplate blurbs, take up
large wads of newspaper space
and supply a great deal of
revenue to the publishers. All
the more remarkable, surely,
that it remains unexamined.
The objections of the
feminists, cogent as they may
be, address themselves only
to certain techniques of pre-
sentation. But the essence of
Tourism as a system, as an
organization of material and
immaterial things, is that it
depends for its working on
the total objectification of
people and places.
In so doing it robs them
of their specificity, substitut-
ing for their geographic anc
social reality a set of symbols
wrenched loose with meaning,
and, finally, cannibalizing the
accumulated felt experience
that peoples have traditionally
held on to as a way of de-
fining themselves in the world
of others.
In this view Tourism
may be regarded as a sub-
system of consumerism. That
iq to say, it eats countries.
This observation is particu-
larly relevant since Tourism

comes to fruition in an age
of neo-colonialism.
It is this conjunction that

tions" reported on so reluc-
tantly by the metropolitan
media, actions, that stamp
the official imprint of hard
reality on the counterfeit
notes peddled by the touts
of Tourism.


"We're the Bermuda of
storybooks and dreams. We're
the Bermuda of pink and
white cottages nestled under
Royal Palms. Gardens ablaze
with poinciana, bougainvillea
and passion flowers. We're
Harmony Hall. .. Contact
Robert Reid Associates, Inter-
national Representatives... "
(Advertisement appearing
in numerous Canadian news-
The Governor of Bermuda,
Sir Richard Sharpleshis aide-
de-camp and his Great Dane,
Horsa, had been shot dead the
week before the above ad-
vertisement appeared. Six
months earlier the Bermuda
Police Commissioner had been
killed and his daughter
In the Bahamas this year,
eight tourists were slaughtered
on a golf course. In Barbados,
kidnapping involving a Cana-
dian banker and his family
are reported.
The point of listing these
unfortunate events is not to
say they- are the inevitable'
concomitants of Tourism. But
to the degree that is pub-
licity system edges out such
"dysfunctional" phenomena
as strikes and assassinations,
the actor-tourist is left only
with non-specific Harmony
Halls, surrounded by bewil-
deringly ominous bougain-

There are practical reasons
for the system's inability to
co-exist with the real events in
ltI LUllilUl!ii M wMhZi iT i a
commandeered. ("Ireland -
Not So Much Trouble Spot As
Travel Bargain" Montreal

These reasons have to do
with the economies of both
the metropolitan and the satel-
lite countries, what the Bri-
tish economist George Lee
Moloch and Aztec.
The process is clearer if
we look at how Tourism
operates in those areas where
it has become the major
source of income, is about to
-become so, or is the determin-
ing factor in controlling eco-
nomic development.
In this model. Angigua in
the British West Indies pro-
vides an excellent Aztec;
Canada and the United States
a Molochian partnership. Is-
land other than Antigua, of
course, will also do as Az-
tecians, while the United King-
dom may wish to form a
triology with its friends.
That Moloch in this in-:
stance is almost entirely
white while Aztec is pre-
dominantly black is a fact of
history. As Trinidad Prime
Minister Eric Williams says,
we cannot rewrite the history
of the Caribbean; But black-
white is not the main point.
MM The psychic shame that
burns the hearts of men whose
lives have been a history of genu-
flection West Indians in their
own home have to take not a
middle, but a back seat, while
other men give the ultimate
direction about petroleum and
sugar. Here is a humiliation that
goes deep; a humiliation which
no abstract independence can heal.
No change of flag or anthem can
stem this spiritual bleeding of
men who hvae nothing to cele-
brate but a raise in salary".
- George Lamming, quoted in
Selwyn Ryan: Race and Nation-
alism in Trinidad and Tobagp.

Antiguans have been unfor-
tunate. They have throughout
history felt the bite of the
master'5scane. One of the. hcieL,
territories in which castration
was dignified by specific legal
sanction (Acts, Leeward Is-
lands, (1702).
The island went on to
suffer natural disasters such
as fire and flood, man-made
disasters such as Methodists
and sugar imperialism, emerg-
ing in the twentieth century
to receive its reward -- free
secondary educa-
tion since about 1968,
ar amiably corrupt govern-
ment totally in hock to the
Canadian banks, and, as its
major industry, Tourism.


The historic Antigua, the
story of an enslaved people
bent and scarred by centuries
spent as the objects of others,
may be read about in the
admirable study by Elsa
Goveia, Slave Society in the
British Leeward Islands.
Professor Goveia writes
in her summation: "Sooner or
later we shall have to face the
fact that we are courting de-
feat when we attempt to build
a new heritage of freedom
upon a structure of society
which binds us all too closely
to the old heritage of slavery".
Part of that binding pro-
cess is the system of Tourism.
For Antigua now "Owes" its
existence to that-system. The
demonstration of this is imme-
diate and brutal: the modern
Antigua, its sugar crop ruined,
was "invented" by Pan Am
when it hired a Long Island
contractor to build the Mill
Reef Club, thereby adding the
island to the system.
Some years later, Air Ca-
nada told the government that
unless more money were spent

on promotion, it would take
away its planes. The govern-
ment complied.
Now every twentv rSmir.tr.
Pan Am, Air Canada, Air
France and BOAC thunder in
to disgorge the dishevelled
hordes, soon to be shovelled
into singles-with-balcony and
singles without built,owned
and financed by the banks
who own the airlines and the
The upshot is total control
of the economy. From an
imperialism of pillage through
an imperialism of commerce
to an imperialism of assimila-
tion, the writ of Moloch con-
tinues to run.
It is clear from this model
that the actor-tourist is largely
a mere agent in a process de-
signed to integrate two econo-
mies. His natural desires, es
pecially if he lives in colder
climates such as Canada's, is
to have a vacation in the sun.
That the Tourist system, given
a different social matrix, might
be positively beneficial, is
equally evident.
However, in its present
form, it is pernicious.
The figures for tourist in-
come in Antigua from 1966-
70 show that the money does
not filter down. In 1966, about
five-eights went to the hotels,
in 1970 about one-half.
To see the dwelling of the
average Antiguan is to under-
stand the cheapness of human
life;it is also to wonder at
the refined lobotomy that
keeps this gentle people from
rising up in aindless jacquerie
of blood-letting and plunder.
There is no glass in the
windows; for there are no
windows. The wood and clap-
board shacks with no elec-
tricity may house a family
of ten or twelve; subtle divi-
sions between nuclear and

Continued on Page 9


Augustus Ramrekersingh

THE ROLE of the East Indians in
the contemporary politics of
Trinidad and Tobago is a subject
which in recent times has been
the focus of much literature. It
is, in fact, a valid issue for dis-
cussion. If the society were more
rationally and more humanely
organised it would be a phony
issue. The view that racial politics
is inevitable in a plural society
is a-cynical one.
The fact that we are all Trinidadians
-something which is mouthed by many
but deeply believed by few should
make it a non-question. But too many
still do not believe that we are entitled
to an equal place. The basic assump-
tion, therefore, underlying the hostility
to Indian participation is that we are
here on mere sufference and -must
somehow or the other be tolerated;
not seen as equal partners. "We don't
want to but we have to". It is be-
trayed both by sub-conscious and
deliberate acts. But even well inten-
tioned Afro-Trinidadians who espouse
racial harmony often adopt an attitude
of condescension.

The original, latent antagonism be-
tween African and -Indians developed
from the middle of th 19th century,
once the systematic importation of
Indian immigrants started. The con-
flict surfaced without assuming violent
proportions once the two groups began
to compete with each other at any
level. In purely political terms, th e
first expression of this kind of conflict
may be seen in the 1880's in San
Fernando. The -details: have-been-do----
cuid ntcLd by Gcrard Tikhasinghl in a
paper-The emergmg Consciousness of
the East Indians in the late 19th
century (1973).
In summary, what Tikhasingh does,
is to show the hostility of the rest of
the society to Indian political partici-
pation in the San Fernando Borough
Council Elections. By the 1880's some
East Indians had attained the necessary
property and income qualifications
required to become burgesses. In some
areas of San Fernando their vote wa
In 1896-97 the Indians fought
against the Immigration Ordinance a
particularly vicious colonial decree'
aimed at them. In this case the society
applauded their efforts. The point is
that thesocietywelcomed Indian parti-
cipatein the wider issues of the country.


ine events of the 1880's and
1890's were crucial in the shaping of
Indian consciousness and the develop-
ment of a defensive attitude to the
politics of Trinidad and Tobago. The
immediate aftermath of the struggle
against the Ininigration Ordinance was
thfe formation of many purely Indian
organizations, defteding the ludian
position against the rest of the society.
In the period 1l19-1950 the Indian
population as a whole remained out-
side the mainstream of the struggle
for constitutional change. Few support-
ed the movement, either in the days
of C, .:.i s barefoot man or Butler's
blue shirted proletariat. They perceived
that it was either none of their business
or not in their best interest. Hosein.
'1.ilhiT... Teelucksingh and Roodal
weir exceptions. Many who opposed
the mo\vementt demanded either com-
munlal representation or conditional
representative to\'verlmenlt, or. the re-
tention of the Crown C(oloin ssile ni.
Their basic fei was thlie possibility for
African doniniation. lhe articulate
Indians. with a few exceptions, pre-
ferred the coloniall Office to rule un-
'e.. sont'e tor n of "prl':\hv'.rhion'l ec-

. The Africans have to disabuse their mind at the fallacy that Indians simply have to The Black Power movmnlt .. a gnuine deire for
string along behind them and dance limbo and Calypso to prove their Trinidadiness. [Above defciency Is that it did not sufficiently understand the E
Hema Malinil.


presentation was conceded.
The vast majority of the Indians,
working either onthe plantations or
-iS'tte'ir Srw-, pl,.'-1nf-nrl rmPminfd -i
diviuced from tihe ',l, inm spite of
sporadic efforts to involve the sugar
workers, for example.
When universal adult suffrage and
general elections came in 1946, the -
Indians,again with very few exceptions,
who participated in the elections, did
so on the basis of safeguarding the
Indian interest. By this time, too,
further fuel had been added to the fire
the attempt by the African Elite in
1944 to exclude the Indians from the
electoral lists through the device of a
literacy test in English. Again the fear
of African domination arose. The
platform of most Indian candidates
was specifically Indian; so were their
appeals. Ranjit Kumar was the classic
case. Those political groupings, for
example Solomon's Socialist Party,
which called for radical solidarity
were swept into oblivion. What the
average Indian voter thought may be
expressed this way: How could you try
to prevent us from having the vote and
then come around and ask us to vote
for you? "In times of stress", Lloyd
Best once said, "men fall back on pri-
mordial loyalties." Blood is thicker
than water.

It was no surprise that soon after
the Sanatan Dharma Maha Sabha was
formed (1952), and that it gave birth
to the People's Democratic Party(1954).
The party became the political instru-
ment of what was essentially a religious
organisation. The PDP was a predo-
minently Indian party, more specific-
ally Hindu, with neither national vision
nor national organisation, contesting
only selected constituencies in the
elections of 1956.

The real coalescing of Indian forces
came during the 1956-61 period. Its
form was the Democratic Labour Party.
Three major reasons may be adduced
for this development. First, and least
important, the Federal Elections of
195S brought together most of the
anti-PNM support (including non-
Indian) under the aegis of Bustamante's"
loose West Indian collection. Secondly.
the PNM. in spite of its claims to tko

party, concerned only with the well
being of the African population, and
in the process actively promoting dis-
crimination against the Indians. Thirdly,
national independence was imminent.
In 1961 the Indians as a group
made their first and only serious bid
so far to win political power in Trini-
dad and Tobago. After five years of a
PNM government they were afraid to
go into independence under such a
regime. There would no longer be any
Colonial Office to hold the ring be-
tween the two conflicting racial groups.
The attempt ended with the catastro-
.phic elections of 1961 when the DLP
was roundly beatcln.
In retrospect, it was probably a
good thing that the bid was abortive.
A predominantly Indian government
would hardly have been able to govern
in the face of hostile civil and police
services. Within a year the point was
well made in Guyana with the racially
based strikes against the legitimate
government of Jagan. More important,
though, no single ethnic group should
seek to wrest, far less monopolise,
political power in this country in
spite of what avid racists on both
sides say in their cheap search for
popularity and easy office. When race
becomes the decisive factor in any
society, when men lose their reason
and turn to brutish beats, then that
society is in need of radical change.

.:An Indian victory in 1961, fol-
lowed by an African victory in 1966
and so on until one groypeiitrenched
itself in power would have created the
ideal conditions for national destruc-
tion, for the politics of race can have
no other result. An Indian party as a
reaction to an African party may be an
understandable phenomenon but it
is certainly neither a rational nor a
laudable one.
The traditional Indian leaders have
failed miserably by their inability and/
or unwillingness to offer the society a
nobler vision, widening the horizons
of their mass, ethnic support. They
have lacked the moral courage to take
this bold step largely because it would
have been subversive of their political
preoccupations. Their Hinduism has
been too narrow and selfish; its more
important qualities being hidden under
the proverbial bushel. In a society
cringing under the yoke of western
materialism and yearning for some kind
of spiritual upiiftment to rekindle
the flame of humanity they had an
excellent opportunity to tZanscend
racial barriers by offering soUt of the
philosoplsical strength of the religion.
They did nR. They to. har-c acutub-


ed to the lures of western capitalistic
materialism. In fact, most of the
wealthy, urban Indians are well inte-
grated into the society's value system
but, adopt religious (really ritualistic)
postures to keep down the less for-
tunate Indians by manipulating
them for economic and political gain.
The economic prototype is repre-
sented in A House For Mr Biswas by
the wealthy family (Ajodha and Tara)
which hires an old Indian man to do a
day's work in the yard for a shilling. At
about three o'clock, weakened by the
sweltering heat, he begs for a cup of
tea. He receives it but at a price.Six
cents are deducted from 'is measly
wage of a shilling..... .


Politically, Naipaul represents them
by the picaresque hero, Ganesh Ram-
sumair in The Mystic Masseur and by
the comic Harbans in The Suffrage Of
Elvira. No wonder Naipaul is anathema
to this class. .
The Black Power Movement, pre-
occupied with blackness, in 1970 failed
to win over the Indians. But some of
their formulations and slogans were
important in the search for Afro-Indian
solidarity. That it was a genuine desire
for unity on the part of the leadership
and much of the following, none can
have any doubt. Its basic deficiency is
that it did not sufficiently understand
.. the East Iniians.: A measure of their
misunderstanding, Was. the belief by
manyrthat one romantic gesturewould
bring immediate success..
SThe failure to achieve quick re-
silts has caused many Africans to lapse
.into the traditional-attitude on the
issue once more.
Note, for example, the frequent
African reaction to an Indian playing
an Indian song in a jikebox. The
Africans have to disabuse their minds
of the fatal fallacy that the Indians
simply have to string along behind
them and dance limbo and calypso
to prove their Trinidadianess We
must meet on equal terms, facing
valid differences squarely.
The recent crisis in the sugar in-
dustry is instructive. The workers in
sugar, mainly Indians, are still living
under terrific exploitation, i have been
virtually moved to tears by the silit of
workers labouring under an oppressive,
tropical sun. I have looked at their
faces.The old, who should be enjoying
a happy retirement, contilnu.- to, work
&o hard that they even resemble the
canie, which seems, fatter than them ini
some cases. Not timeb but the brutalty
of 4t sugar plantations has aged them.
Th young and ti numddle aged wither
prematurely as they sweat for their
liailv bread often no mofe than half



;tI .AN S' ,>.... ...
o A

te o.... f .
..... 4 0: : .... ,_. ,: .:- ; -

i -' '*.- .--.. -- 1 '-'- : :'., .. ...",.. .

"In times of stress men fall back on primodial loyalties".


loaf. Indian immigration, not inden-
tureship, ended in 1917. It is revealed
in all its starknakedness on"theplains
of Caroni".
These sugar workers work hard no
arse and what do they get? All over the
country wages are going up, but what
about them? Aren't they people too?
Some of my colleagues in the Public
Service whose unions now asking
for 50% plus numerous fringe benefits
- were quite hostile to the reasonable
demands of the sugar workers and
cane farmers. We who are a relatively
privileged class salary wise are going to
get a big increase around mid-year
(retroactive to January) while the

woike T t ill5 11l tanc ijldis hav i-to 5be
satisfied with a mere pittance. Our
perverted elitest tastes may be
more expensive then theirs but they,
too, have to face the shop where
prices have gone mad and have to
send their children to school and buy
books for them at the same price as
the kings and princes of our society. It
is'indeed a brutal society which allows
such gross inequalities and injustice.

a I

On the whole the urban elites were
extremely hostile to the sugar workers
and cane farmers. Their cup of sweet
tea, cakes and fulfilling foreign sugar
quotas are more important to them
than justice. The PNM government
maintained a cruel silence and, like
Pilate, washed their hands of the whole
affair. By contrast, BWIA gets pre-
ferential treatment, including the
prompt ministerial intervention in the
case of one girl who was suspended;
Canadian wheat farmers are subsidized
(that is essentially what the subsidy
on flour means); foreign industrial con-
cerns are subsidized; we are subjected
to a tirade of low-quality analysis on
the energy crisis on 'radio-television
broadcasts. And not a word about
sugar. If ten project workers in a PNM
area down their tools, there is an
immediate flurry of activity by the
"The only mother we recognize is
Mother Trinidad and Tobago, and
Mother cannot discriminate between-
her children. All must be equal in her
eyes'.'AU must be equal in her eyes but
some are less equal then others.
Whatever genuine urban support
there was for the sugar workers and
cane farmers came from the groups
such as OWTU, TIWU, NJAC and
Tapia. It is important, however, 'o
recognize that some support did come
from the urban areas. Even more import-
and is from where it came the
radical forces. The brothers and sisters
in sugar should know what since
their bread is buttered. It is only

through revolutionary change that
better will come for them.
We need to break down the racial
barriers in this country, knowing full
well that we are not going to achieve it
a day. Two questions on this issue
need to be squarely faced;
*How do we create a multi-racial
organisation capable of taking
*What policies are likely to bring
people together regardless of race?
Trust, arising from mutual respect, is
critical in this process. It can be de- -
veloped in the long term only by offer-
ing a vision of a great, humane and
dignified society in which men can

enthnicity. This involves a spiritual
revolution, a moral regeneration of the
nation as a whole. We in this part of
of the world are fortunate to be able -
to draw from the triple stream of
Ujaama, Hinduism,and Islam as well as
Christianity. We need to forge some-
thing nobler, something lasting, on the
anvil ot our experiences and our aspira-
tions ... something which belongs to
us because it comes from us.
As a concrete step, programmes,
policies and plans have to be worked
out openly and frankly. We have to
create organizations which bring to-
gether the races on a long-term, sustain-
ed basis. No magic wand is going to
create these things. In spite of the
boasts of certain political parties, no
such group yet exists. The more that
.parties boast that they possess these
qualities the surer one is that they
don't. You don't have to boast about
what you have; if you do have some-
thing worthwhile people will see it at

S a*

Six Indians and Six Africans on an
Executive is no real indication of
unity; it is more likely to be contrived
unity, showpiece unity. What is more
important is the relationship which
exists among the mass membership. In
1961 the DLP fielded more non-Indian
than Indian candidates. But that meant
The DAC has a large number of
Indians on its Executive and Commit-
tees.But it is mere window dressing.
The party consists largely of PMN
dropouts; those who but yesterday
were avid exponents of old-time poli-
tics are today even more avid exponents
of multi-racial politics. Of course, there
may be some who have genuinely
shifted position. But on the whole it
savours too much af apocalyptic con-
version. St Paul is a special case..
In terms of more specific policies,
we need to create institutions to


facilitate greater public participation.
The Indians, because of the particular
government in office and the highly
centralist, Port of Spain orientation of
governmentt institutions have been
excluded from meaningful participation
m government and politics. the mass of
Africans despite the fact that an
African-based party has held office for
more than 17-years have also been
excluded from meaningful participa-
tion by a restrictive, Crown Colony
political system and the traditional
house slave contempt for field slaves.
This was a fundamental cause of the
February Revolution. Participation in

Power to the People
Tapia's New World
Tapia Back Numbers
Tapia Constitution
Democracy or Oligarchy?
Reform of the Public Service
Foreign Investment In T and T
Central Banking
Non-Bank Financial Institutions
Foreign Capital in Jamaica
Post War Economic Development
of Jamaica
Underdevelopment and
Persistent Poverty
Readings in The Political Economy
of the Caribbean
Political Economy of the English
Speaking Caribbean
The Dynamics of W.I. Economic
The Adjustment of Displaced
Workers In A Labour Surplus
The Integrated Theory of
Development Assistance
Cuba Since 1959
Caribbean Community
The Caribbean Community
- A Guide


- C.V. Gocking
- Denis Solomon
- Mc Intyre & Watson
- C. Y. Thomas
- M. Odle
- Norman Girvan

- 0. Jefferson

- ed Norman Girvan)
- George Beckford

$ 3.60



- N. Girvan & 0. Jefferson 7.20

- W. Demas

- Brewster & Thomas

- Roy Thomas

- Davidson L. Budhoo
- James Millette









ro-Indian Sofldmrtty... ItS DWc
t Indians.



--- --- --- __ __ I



Rl 14, 1974

the affairs of the state and coutnry,
therefore, affects both major groups.
Economically, the Africans and
Indians are at the bottom of the
heap. In terms of median income by
race (the latest available figures are for
1970) the Africans are ahead of onyl
the Indians. Together the two groups
constitute some 85% of the popula-
tion yet they own only 14% of what-
ever business is locally owned: Indians
9% and Africans 4%.
Three further questions imme-
diately come to mind:

*How do we create an economic
system which would redistribute,
the national wealth more equitably?
*What measures do we need to take
in order to and the. exploitation of
Indians and Africans by the multi-
national corporations and their lo-
cal agents, including the State?
*How do we bring the tremendous
wealth of this country into the
hands of the ordinary people, the
traditional hewers of wood and
drawers of water?

Almost 150 years after Emancipation
and more than 50 years since the so-
called end of indentnreship, Africans
and Indians own only a small portion
of the land. Clearly, we need radical
agrarian reform in order to turn the
lands over to the people who work on
them and to governments that govern
for them.
This country has to settle down and
commit itself to serious change indi-
vidual and collective. If this country
can be offered a vision of a better life
and the guidelines by which to achieve
it, then men will be prepared to work
side by side in a common cause -
racially and culturally different though
they may be but united in an
effort to create a better society.



Ishmael Samaad

IN A world that is fast
becoming ugly and un-
sightly, we in the Carib-
bean must ensure that
our beautiful islands in
the suri are not despoiled
and desecrated the name
of progress. Our greatest
wealth is not our oil,
asphalt, bauxite, or na-
tural gas but rather the
simple beauty of our
landscape, our scenic
mountains, valleys and
plains, our sandy, eme-
.rald beaches.
Columbus was indeed
overwhelmed on setting eyes
on these islands and his is an
apt description of the Carib-
".... very beautiful, and distin-
guished by the diversity of scenery
... filled with a great variety of
trees of i.nmense high .
blossoming and all flourishing in
I'i gIeaiesL perIecon... various
birds singing in countless numbers
... extensive fields and meadows
. .. different kinds of honey .. .
mountains of very great size and
beauty harbours, rivers vast
plains, groves and fruitful fields
admirably adapted to tillage, pas-
ture and habitation".
Charles Kingsley fell in
love with these very isles and
in his book "Westward Ho",
he wrote of these islands:
"'he mountains range higher
and higher, cut by deep glens.
Gullies, hundreds of feet deep,
have been scooped
out by the downward
rush of torrents towards the sea
through thousands of rainy sea-
sons.The richverdure is in strange
contrast with the rugged outline.
Each glen has its streamlet, buried
deep in forest. The islands are of
all shades and hues, from pale
yellow, through all greens, into
cobalt blue. As the wind stirs the
leaves and sweeps the lights and
shadows over the hills and glens,
all is changing and iridescent like
a peacock's neck. The island from
peak to shore, is like a georgeous
jewel, hanging between the blue
and white surf below, and the blue
sky and. white clouds above".
Yet another description
"It would be impossible to
exaggerate the exquisite beauty
of the scenery .. Cloud-capped
mountains covered from base to
summit with a wealth of tropical
vegetation, valleys densely culti-
vated with cocoa, sugar-cane, and
fruit trees, coral strands whose
brilliant whiteness is in pleasing
contrast to the indigo blue seas of
these latitudes, form pictures of
surprising charm".
Many of our islands even
today still fit these descrip-
tions but a few are on the
verge of ruin, thanks to ill-
planned industrialization. We
in Trinidad, it is quite obvious,
are amongst these few who
are paying a price for our
willy-nilly industrial growth
in the pollution of our rivers
and swamps and the destruc-

'tion of our hills and valleys.
Perhaps we cannot expect
our island to remain the jewel
it was when first discovered
Our population today exceeds
one million souls and the need
to feed, clothe, house and find
employment for so large a
populace in so small an island
would result in a certain
amount of wastage of the
environment. Once you build
factories, brewenes,refineries,
the environment is going to
be adversely affected by the
pollutants released from these
plants. One understands this
but what we must not con-
tenance and cannot allow is
the unnecessary destruction
of our parks and our savan-
nahs, our mountains and our
valleys. We ,do need stones
and metals to build roads, but
was it necessary to blast and
bulldoze the Laventille Hill
and the San Fernando Hill to
ac(li'rc the'sc. Could \\c not
-have located a source remote
from our towns? These hills

are now two ugly and per-
manent features of our land-
scape, inflicting pain on the
soul each time they are seen.
Two broken hills.
What a bitter heritage to
pass oni toj the coming genera-
tions. (Our growing population
needs places to build homes
but. why must we eternally
scar and disfigure our tropical
mountainsides, just to build a
few houses?
Why must we smother
our fertile lands with concrete
and asphalt as we have done
at Valsayn,Trincity,Diamond
We do need sporting
arenas but was it really neces-
sary to site the stadium on
that beautiful piece of ground
as it was with so many magni-
ficent samaan trees? Yet
another of our city's land-
marks has been obliterated.
One cannot help remembering
ihe bcauifuil poui trcc" iihat
once adorned Wrightson Road.
They too suffered the same

fate as the samaan trees at build houses, where factories
the Park. are going to be localcd. mul
Our children will never where parks are going to be
realize how beautiful their laid out. It makes no sense
city was, once upon a time. whatever to allow factories
Just as we today cannot jma- to go up in Woodbrook, to
gine what our savannah looked build houses along the
like before they built the Beetham Highway, construct
Grand Stands on it. a stadium over a beautiful
And just lookwhat has park, and what is far worse
happened since then. The dump a labasse adjacent to
yearly parade of Carnival the city.
bands on the savannah has We must take stock of
made it necessary to pave a what we are doing to our
pitch road. If the Stands were environment and we must
not placed there in the first learn frori our mistakes. We
place this outrage would not simply cannot continue the
have taken place. This is not way we have been going.
all. Permission has already What we need is a separate
been granted for part of the department of government to
Savannah to be used as a car look solely after our environ-
park, when there 'are events ment, a secretary for the en-
at the Stadium. A vironment, who shall be re-
paved concrete car park sponsible for the conservation,
will surely result from this. preservation and beautifica-
Our Queen's Park Savan tion of the environment, the
nah is the prize of the city. It landscaping of all our high-
is sheer joy to walk around ways, the establishment of
this open expance on a Sun- National Parks, the cleaning
day morning with the dew still of all our rivers and streams
o the grass. One is sure to and making them fit for
come bubbling over, happy to bathing. (Every one of our
be alive. It is those trees, valley rivers have become open
those magnificent trees around sewers.Theyare slowly dying).
our savannah that gives one There is plenty of work await-
that feeling of elation. It is ing the Secretary for the
also' the green grass and those Environment.
majestic hills. One cannot In addition to the above,
allow them to do further he shall have to pass and en-
damage to our savannah. force laws to stop the pollu-
Enoughhas been done already, tion of our rivers and savan-
I do not for once believe nahs, the destruction of our
that our parks and savannahs, mountains and valleys and
our mountains and valleys, the felling of our magnificent
our poui and samaan trees poui and samaan trees. His
are being destroyed purposely shall be no easy task, for it is
and maliciously. It is simply going to take a tremendous
the result of bad planning, lot of cleaning, a huge amount
hasty decisions, merciless ex- of replanting, and a real lot of
pediency. Without any doubt, patience to regain our lost
there is a sad lack of serious paradise. It is a task we must
environmental plannmggin this undertake. Ouar mental maj
country. One must decide spiritual well-being depends
where people are going to on it.



THE outstandingly successful grandcharge of
the Shadow' ("Ah was planning to forget
calypso / And go and plant peas in Tobago")
has sown the seed of an idea in the head of the
Mighty Terror, Calypso King of 1950 and 1966.
But the Terror with no such strong agri-
cultural leanings would make his semi-
retirement not in the fields of peas, but in the
Central Market where, so he told the Evening
News. last week, he wants to apply for a shop to
sell "from a pin to an elephant".
From a throne to a stall: it's the up-and-
downworldofcalypso and showbusiness. Not so
fast, though. Remember that Terror, too, has
been haunted in the past by the echoes of
steelband bass notes.
Which as Shadow has shown is a good
point not to end off a calypso career but
to start from to something new.
So, don't be surprised if Terror while selling,
may himself be shopping in the marketplace for
ideas. Look what he told the Evening News:
"Terror said he would not stop singing. In


Between the Lines

A weekly peek

fact his mind would be more at ease to compose
more and better numbers".


WHO? Governor General, a knight of the
English court.
What? A meet the people tour.
Where? A place called Princes Town in a
country called Victoria.
When? One day last week.
The day after, the good townfolks' senti-
ments of "great affection and regard" were
headlined in the Express thus:
"We love you, Sir Ellis".
Believing, of course, that he had taken
possession of Princes Town hearts, the august
head of this state was humourless enough to
think he must be the Prince.
As such, the Queen's proconsul, long de-
nied a speech from the throne, saw his chance
to make a fittingly royal gesture all in the
interest of the commonweal.
Prove your love for me quoth he, by
continuing the hardwuk.

The tourist dollar


Arts now in progress in
San Fernando under the
auspices of the Perform-
ing Arts Technical Team..
Its aim is to conduct a
closed circuit discussion
on "committed art"
among group leaders and
The programme which
began on Friday April 5
includes discussion of creative-
writing, dance, jazz, soul and-
drama. Backstage technique
will also be explored as well
as the part to be played by
culture in community develop-
ment and the relationship
between different cultural
streams in Trinidad & Tobago.

Aiiiong Illts listed as
participants are (;ordon Roh-
clhr, ('live Alexander, Victor
Qucstel. Molly Aliyce and
Ahdul Malik.
lihe )programinnc extends
over thc wliole monih of
April oil Sun'day mornings,
Saturday allcrnoons and oh
evenings in mid-week. Up 1o
April 7 the venue will be
Naparima College and after
that, the Naparima Bowl.
In a release issued by
Business Manager Godfrey
Martin, P.A.T.T. states its
main purpose as "raising the
standard of theatre .. "
Founded in the pre-1970
period, the group held a suc-
cessful theatre season in
March 1973.

From Page 8

extended have no place here
in a space slightly bigger than
a good Canadian outhouse.
The Canadian travel agen-
cies that serve Antigua are
often themselves front offices
for American companies. They
simply pass on the tourist
check to New York head-
quarters,thus ensuring it never
i dibflS A2 cc. Tlhc existence
of the "host" country is,
quite literally, a detail.
Another percentage goes
to the indigenous elites, those
"Afro-Saxon calibans" so
bitterly lampooned by West
Indian writers and intellect-
uals, to pay the police forces
that keep them in power.
In the case of Antigua,
an American air and naval
base (the former's motto
blazoned on the gate: PEACE
ON EARTH) serves to protect
the natives from foreign ag-
The wages paid to those
lucky enough to service the
hotels come from the universal
ten per cent surcharge levied
on the tourist. Since the sys-
tem is not labour intensive,
work is seasonal, :here is no
trade union and the average
wage in Antigua, much sought
after, is $12.50 per week.
Recently, tourists in grow-
ing numbers have been com-
plaining vociferously to ma-
nagement about the growing
habit among Antiguans of
objecting to having their pho-
tographs taken. Some have
even smashed cameras.


Many commentators have
noted the dependency syn-
drome associated with the
Tourist system. However, it is
more than a syndrome, since,
literally, natives of Aztec may
now be invented.
Indeed new Aztecs them-
selves may be invented by
simply writing a different pro-
gramme for the Moloch com-
puter. If as Sartre suggests,
the essence of fascism is to
render abstract what is con-
crete, then we have a work-

ing model of fascism.
"With nightfall and the
rise of that lovely moon,
gaiety reigns supreme. Roman-
tic night-life echoes haunting
music and dancing to the
exotic beat of "(Repre-
sented by Oliver Engebretson,
Inc., 919 Third Ave., N.Y.,
Toronto Agent ...)
Since this kind of psychic
backdrop may be shucked
into a thousand different lo-
cales, the dependency of the
Aztecian is, for the first time
in human history, total.
In previous constellations
of racial or master-slave rela-
tions, both parties existed
and had reality for each other.
This is no longer so.
The completeness of the
domination of one over the
other is now secreted in the
brain cells of even the tourist-
actor. It is not that his power
isgreater than that of Svengali,
or Prospero or that of Itard
over his -wild child; it is of a
different order.
A West Indian journalist
recently referred to Tourism
as "whoreism". He added that
tourists come under attack
because they are the con-
venient symbols of metro-
politan control.
Yet neither whores nor
tourists can appropriately
symbolize the menticide that
befalls an Aztec population
intent only on scrabbling after
the droppings left by the big
birds of Pan Am and Air
The most terrifying vision
of that dilemma occures in a
film by the Italian director,
Jacopetti? a plane has crashed
on a mountain top in Africa
or perhaps Brazil. The natives
sit round it, squatting, im-
They are adoring it silently.
There is nothing else! to do.
Their lives are dominated by
the hunk of mental that came
into their heads from the sky.
If it goes away, they are
ruined; while it stays, they
can only serve it.
It is the ultimate fix.

THE LAST POST' May 1973.




Typesetting;Paste-up and

Offset Printin Services that
are dependable and of high

Call us now at 662-5126

or visit our offices at 82-84

St.Vincent St. Tunapuna


presentation by T.T.Archictectural Society
May 9 th ,1974
Tapia House 82 St Vincent St Tunapuna





I look at myself
Can this be real
that I, barefoot Sam one day
can say
that all is mine today.
Looking right and left
I wonder how this came to be.

Let me see now
exactly what belongs to me.
I can go everywhere in my land
Master of all I survey,
taking a closer look at what
in former days
I didn't and I couldn't call my own.

Now I can say harvest,
now say countryside,
city, army
all mine
yours and mine, ours,
together with
the sunshine, stars, flowers.

Peasant, worker, ordinary man
can go to a bank
and talk to the manager
not in English
not degrading myself
Sbut calling him campanero.

And what about being black
They can't stop me now

Elder's Council


hint from the





Whatever criticisms one
may have of3amaican middle
class administrators, (their
.penchant for ostentations liv-
ing etc.), they do seem to be
able to. implemen.t-certain_.
things well. The Jamaica Jour-
nal is one. Another is a Train-
ing School for Drama, whose
management Committee im-
mediately recruited Slade
Hopkinson to the staff when
it learnt that he would have
to stay in Jamaica for treat-
ment. Can we learn anything
from this?

at the door of a dance hall
or a bar,
Or at a hotel desk
and shout at me
that the rooms are all taken
both the small rooms and the large
so that I don't have
a pillow to rest my head on.

There's no rural flying squad
to detain me without cause
lock me up, eject me
from my land and throw
me on the street.

The land is mine and the sea
no exclusive Country Club,
no exclusive High Society or
private tennis courts
or Yacht clubs -
no waves reserved onr
beach, everything.
open, blue, democratic.

And then, I've learnt
to read
to count, to write
to think, to laugh
And I'm assured of work
and of earning what I
need to live
I have to tell the truth,
what I had to have.
Translated by Malcolm Buggeridge

Tanti go see we

ISWE, a group of actors and
writers, presents it first pub-
lic r.erf: rm:in:- Tantie Go
See h'\, : K-\IMRI HOUSE at
10 Pelham Street, Belmont.
The show will run for three
nights April 26th, 27th,
and 28th at 8.30 p.m.

The programme consists
of dramatisations of poetry
and prose written by Derek
Walcott, Errol Hill, Andrew

Salkey, Louise Bennett, Mari-
na Maxwell, Barbara Jones,
_. R D obru- Y.ft.oQ Questgl__
Paul Keens-Douglas and
Christopher Laird.
Questel, Keens-Douglas
and Laird are members of
Tickets are priced at $2,00
and are available at 22 Fitt
Street, Woodbrook, and from
all members of ISWE.

Malcolm Buggeridge

Shocking CIA presence

THE above poem is -by
Nicolas Guillen, consi-
dered to be Cuban's na-
tional poet, who was 70
on July 10th, 1972, To
celebrate his seventieth
birthday the Cuban Go-
vernment organized the
isuse of his Complete
Works as well as several
studies on his writing.
Those who are interested
in information on Guillen
may-wish to consult an inter-
view and an article by Prof:
Keith Ellis, a Jamaican at
the University' of Toronto,
who visited Cuba last year.
They can be found in Carib-
bean Quarterly (v. 19 n. 1.
1973) and Jamaica Journal
(v. 7 nos 1 & 2 1973).
Caribbean Quarterly as a
relatively small number of
people in Trinidad may now
know is edited on the Moria
Campus of the UWI and
comes out at unpredictable
moments. Intended presum-
ably to cater to an intelligent
West Indian reading public, it
has an editorial committee
which treats that public with
scant and scandalous regard.
No attempt is made to dis-

tribute the journal in Trini-
dad and its editorial policy is
obviously nil.
Because it has a guaran-
teed budget from the Uni-
versity, its administrators
have a total contempt for
problems of distribution and
an obviously equal contempt
for the way in which it spends
the people's money.
The situation of the
Jamaica Journal is rather more
interesting. Financed by the
Jamaica Government, it gives
an idea of the kind of journal
that our National Cultural
Council might emulate in
some ways.

It regularly publishes
creative work ,by Jamaican
writers, as well as offering
photographs of painting and
sculpture by Jamaicans, spon-
soring competitions, etc. Our
National Cultural Council
might like to take note that
it isn't only its director who
has written things worth pub-
lishing about Trinidad and
Tobago. And its editor might
like to fill all those wasteful
blank spaces in the journal
by inviting contributions,
from the public.

at Presidential


INSULTING, shocking and
incomprehensible were but
three of the words some Vene-
zuelans used to describe the
US delegation to the March
12 inauguration of President
Carlos Andres Perez.
Many felt Mrs. Nixon's
presence was insufficient, that
President Nixon, if tied up
by Watergate, should have
sent Vice President Ford or
.Senate Majority leader Mans-
field. Most irksome were the
two who did accompany thle
First Lady and A.nbl Iassadlor


One was familiar: CIA
Deputy Director Gen. Vernon
Walters (in his Army uniform)
who was interpreter on
Nixon's '58 Caracas trip. The
fourth delegate, a bearded,
corpulent man, was a mystery
to most. He was Nicholas H.
Morley, 45, Miami business-
man, said to be a pal of Mr.
Nixon's friend, Mr. C.G.

Mrs. Nixon said that Mr.
Morley had been icoinend-
ed by Sen. Gurney (Rep.
Fla.) for the event because
of Mr. Morley's interest in
South America and Ihat lie
was known for his civic work.
Actually. Mr. Morley is a
lhulgarian-horn realtor who
came to the USA in 1950

via Italy and Palestine, with
only a few dollars. His ex-
pertness in selling land for a
Florida firm, from offices in
Latin America and Europe,
led to his present position: a
wealthy executive holding
interest in South America,
Florida and Britain. He also
recently sponsored some
Nixon advertisements.
The news media's probe
of the mystery delegates'
identity may have caused him
to seek a low, profile on the
Velnezuela Brazil trip. Mr.
Morlc who stkrled out as
lhe lil'e of the party, soon
became conspicuous by his
absence from most of tlie
ceremlll ies.

/ (itioihian .Vc.'ws/



L~l -e





'T e am i n. -t niSy. ,, aoS S h batS d-b. 5 0-

'by "Windball"

AS IT started so it ended
- only this time the shoe
was on the other foot. In
the same way as West
Indies defeated England
through batsmen suc-
cumbing to psychological
pressure and giving away
their hands in the first
test, so in the final, West
Indies was to succumb to
the same pressure and
fall to defeat.
This emphasises once
more the fact that the game is
not only about prowess with
bat and ball, but about tem-
perament and mental energy.
No one can doubt that in
sheer cricketing ability we
are the superior side, but in
the end it was the team that
showed the better fighting
spirit that emerged with a
moral victory.

England had come out to
dogs. They had been wrecked
by the West Indies a few
months before, and in the first
test here we had taken ad-
vantage of the lively wicket
to humiliate their main batt-
ing hope and send them falling
like ninepins.
Many of us thought that
they would never recover. But
although in the two following
tests most of their main-live
batsmen failed, Amiss emerged
and with the help of later
batsmen inthe second test,
and timelybattingby Fletcher,
Greig, and Knott in the third,
England was able to fight off
certain defeat to stage two
epic feats of survival.
In the meantime there
were obvious tensions within
the touring party. Denness
never appeared to be an im-
posing captain, or someone
who had full control of his
team. Yet such is the profes-
sionalism the team as a whole
exhibited that in spite of these
handicaps they could seize
the advantage on the last day
of the final test, and press
home to victory.
On the West Indian side
to let England get off the
hook in both the secondhand
third tests matches, showed
up the lack of at least one
penetrative bowler and a cer-
tain lack of urgency in the
approach on the field. Al-
though they had showed im-
provement on this aspect by
shooting out England for
small scores in both innings
of the final test, it was in the
area in which we are most
powerful batting that we
were let down.
For a middle order of a
side to be shot out so hurried-
ly and so foolishly in both

innings it was bad stroke
play rather than particularly
good bowling that accounted
for the wickets we paid
dearly as we deserved you
are not supposed to get away
with this quality of cricket in
a test match.
Yet one is completely
confused the same West
Indian team (without Rowe)
-batted so well in England, a
few months earlier, in condi-
tions and on wickets that were
trying. Even on this tour up
to the last-match we had no
problems making large scores.
While we can excuse a col-
lapse in one innings for the
side to collapse in both inn-
ings of the same match is very
puzzling and with that goes
our bad .record at home, for
almost always when we have
been defeated at home in re-
cent years it has been due to
/ batting collapses rather than
facing mammoth totals from
the opposition.


On, a more encouraging
note, it was good to see the
continued development of the
three young players Rowe,
Kallic;aaran,and Julien. Rowe
has finally silenced the doubt-
ers and Kallicharan (in spite
of his last three innings) has
continued to show all the
ability,while Julien developed
into a really good all-rounder.

Time and again -in the series
he would get that vital wicket
which would open, up the
game in the end he headed
the bowling averages and was
fourth in the batting after
the three in-form batsmen
Kallicharan, Rowe and Frede-
What about the older
players? Lance Gibbs has
shown that he is still a very
vital part of the West Indies
attack he gained more wic-
kets than any other West
Indian bowler, and although

he appears low down in the
bowling averages this is a false
picture. Since he was almost
the most economical ;of the
bowlers conceding just under
two runs per over, and bowl-
ing almost twice as many overs
as anybody else.
Sobers did not bat well on
the tour he was actually
booed in Jamaica for his batt-
ing, and in both innings of
the last test succumbed to
bowling which in an earlier
day he would have destroyed
easily. His catching too has
fallen off, but his bowling
remained an asset to the side.


The real problem here is
that Sobers seems to have lost
interest in the game. And it is
rumoured that he is not going
to India. I think there is life
in the old man yet, and if
he could muster up the en-
thusiasm he will be an asset
in India but will he?

And now Kanhai he
has been a good captain -
-even when we lost to Auslralia
last year, he had injected
somethinginto his team the
result was that overwhelming
performance in England last
summer. In this series too
he did well only to be let
down by the batting in the
end (including himself).
I have no doubts that as
captain he should be retained.
But as batsman if we are to
judge from his abysmal per-
formance in this series he can
no longer make the team and
we cannot afford the luxury
of a specialist captain. But
there are several imponderables
at the moment. A man who
fielded so well during the
series and took seven catches
several ofwhichwere adjudged
as brilliant must still have
some reflexes.
In addition, less than six
months ago he played an

innings at Lords in the final
of the three match series
which many critics claim as
the finest they had seen since
the war. My feeling is that
he was so preoccupied with
captaincy in this series that
he never really buckled down
to getting into batting form.
True he did not need to bat
very often but of the four
occasions when it was re-
quired (the first innings of the
fifth test) only once did he
show that he knew something
about it.
Of course the situation is
further complicated by the
fact that we have not been
grooming anybody for future
captaincy --so to take .a side
to India and Pakistan without
any of the seasoned cam-
paigners, and a brand new
captain is not a situation I
I would go for retaining
Kanhai and naming a vice-
captain (Lloyd and Murray
must be two contenders the
former however because of
his inconsistent batting must
be no longer a sure pick on a
final eleven) and so can lose
out to the less dynamic, but
nonetheless competent Mur-
ray, for the job.
We can accommodate an
extra player by making Lance
Gibbs Asst. Manager/Player;
We will still be taking on two
officials (as is our custom these
days) By judicious apportion-
ing of the administrative work
Gibbs is quite capable of
taking on both roles, and so
make room for another player.
In that final touring party
I would like to see our two
fastest bowlers (at least one
of whom should be taken
even if he is erratic at the
moment). Jumadeen and Pad-
more and one of the bright
young bastmen in the Carib-
bean today Collis King,
Larry Gomes,or Bacchus from
Guyana must be among the
contenders for that spot.




Step hens



lir~e Andrep Talbutt,
Reasarch ,,3ttute for
Study of Mlan teets
~,j2, East 78tNr~~
NI.IYORK Rijl Yot~~
Ph. *ehigh 5
-G. S. 1'.



WILL Muhammed Ali be
able to dance away ffom
the lethal punches of
W o r d Heavyweight
Champion George Fore-
man when they met in
Kinshasa, Zaire, in Sep-
tember, this year?
This is the question
that is worrying boxing
Worrying them, because
Muhammed Ali the famous
Louisville Lip has won the
hl l. t il-r" noilli,',lnn r lf p-,_._

normally regard Boxing as a
brutal and uncivilised sport.
Ali's popularity stems from a
number of factors.
In the realm of technique,
Ali has baffled all the ortho-
doxies of the trade by boxing
with his guard down, taunting
opponents and literally danc-
ing around the ring.
He has boasted of being
the prettiest -boxer in history
since his features don't show
the marks of his profession.
This was until last year's fight
with Ken Norton whobroke
his jaw.

Ali's famous maxim has
been "Float like a butterfly
and sting like a bee".
The almost perfect phy-
sique, the height and elegance
of movement and the uncon-
ventional style had baffled
boxing buffs and made him
enormously popular.
Ali's out-of-ring activities
have also added to his popu-
larity. His predicitons in the
early days, of which round
lie would score tLe knockout,
1 i .... .,,. r ; ..;,,'-,:;

-- --' -H .

greatest" boasts, added that
touch of style which former
champions had sadly lacked.
When Muhammed Ali took
his Muslim name, rejecting the
slave name, Cassius Clay, and
began to support the causes of
black people in the U.S. he
won the support, of black peo-
ple and other Third Woeld
His three-year run-in with
the U.S. Govt. which kept
him on ice, cemented his
Ali boasted in Caracas,
Venezuela,following last Tues-

day's fight between Foreman
and Norton that he was the
drawing card for the Zaire
fight: "Ali is a common name
there and the people will, be
shouting Ali, Ali, Foreman
will think to himself, I'm a
black man and it seems like
I'm the enemy"
Foreman won the Caracas
fight in the second round
with a devastating combina-
tion of blows climaxing with
a Ic;'1 hook which spun Nor-
, ... ... ,
Norton on his back.

Most of the support for
September's fight begins with
Muhamme d Ali;but the knock-
out power of the ever-scowl-
ing Foreman is raising doubts
among the most fanatical Ali
Last Tuesday's fight tele-
vised live from Caracas, showed
a powerful Foreman, nursing
an injured leg, which almost
caused the postponement of
the fight, dishing up Norton
without working up a big
The' same Norton took
Muhammed the full distance
in two encounters last year
and also broke his jaw.
The Strand cinema in
Port of Spain has also been
showing the recent fight be-
tween Ali and Joe Frazier
which Ali won on points.
The film shows a slower
Ali, only bringing out that
famous combination of speed
and whiplash of left and right
combinations in occasional
sparks. In between, Ali's
strategy centered on hugging
the shorter Frazier when he
was cornered.
The film shows Ali pulling
Frazier towards him with his
right and holding down Fra-
zier's powerful left hand with
his own left arm.
His strategy was obviously
to take Frazier the full dis-
tance, sparkling, with the occa-
sional shuffle and staccato

Can this strategy work with
It seems unlikely.
Foreman is as tall as Ali
and the hugging game will be
more difficult than with th
shorter Frazier.
The Ali-Frazier fight also
showed that the former
champion has no knockout
punch. He was hitting Frazier
throughout the fight without
causing any real damage.
The possibility of knock-
ing out Foreman also seems
slim. Which leaves the other
option. Can he go the full-
Boxing experts are charging
Foreman for being one of the
hardest hitters in the modern
era of boxing. Manager-trainer
Dick Sadler has said: "I've had
a chance to mould and create
a monster".

Ali admitted after the
Caracas fight that Foreman is
the stronger and more devas-
tating puncher. He promised
to dance out of Foreman's
reach for 5 6 rounds of the
Zaire fight and then "I'll deal
with him".
Until September, the con-
troversy, arguments and bets
will continue.
Muhammed Ali, black
people's champion, prettiest
boxer of them all, goes into
that ring against the 25-year-
old Foreman, World Heavy-
weight Champoin, also black,
slower perhaps,not as popular,
definitely, but packing a
powerhouse combination that
no boxer in recent times has
been able to resist for more
than two-rounds.
Come September, I know
where my heart will be, if not
my head.









Tapia House 82-84 St Vincent Street Tunapuna