Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00102
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: March 24, 1974
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00102

Full Text

Vol. 4 No.12

25 Cents

THE OWTU has issued a
Call to its members to
gird themselves for the.
struggle against the Wood-
ing Constitution. The *call
.came in the report of the

_Union to the- Thirty-
fu-it nmal-Conference
of Delegates which con-
cluded its deliberations
last week-end.
; Under the headline, "The
struggle for a Democratic
Constitution," the report went
on to say that they could not
"allow the type of Constitu-
tion concocted by the Com-
mission" to be foisted on
them since, if it wereallowedto
come into force there would
never be any prospect of a
genuine workers' organisation
or a political movement winn-
ing a majority in Parliament
and abolishing anti-worker
This report came only a
week after lawyer AllanAlex-
ander had delivered an ad-
dress to the delegates in which

he severely criticised many of
the proposals in the Wooding
draft Constitution.

< 0

the Uruon. George Weekes, in
an interview with a Tapia
reporter earlier this week,
pointed out that while Mr.
Alexander's speech could not
be taken, as the official posi-
tion.of the Union, there was
much in its contents that he
agreed with. He-emphasised
the. fact that Alexander was
given a standing ovation by
the assembled delegates after
he had concluded his speech.
A committee of shop
stewards and officers is soon
to be set up to review the
Draft Constitution and to
make detailed recommenda-
tions. This committee would
be in addition to three other
committees now in operation.
These committees which_
are due to report to the full
Convention of Shop Stewards
and Officers later this eyar

have beenset up to look into
OWTU's role in the present
political situation to examine
the place of the worker in the
national economy and tp draft
proposals for a-new;OWTU.

,.f changing political and
economic circtimstances both
in Trinidad and on the inter-
national stage. He was con-
vinced, he said, that workers
had now reached the stage
where they were prepared to
accept a more direct. partici-
pation of the Union in politic-
al affairs.

Apart f6rm this, he said,
there were also important
changes taking place in the
economy of the country and
in particular in the Oil indus-
try. Referring to the proposed
participation schemes with
Shell and Texaco announced
'by the Government WeeKes
emphasised that at no stage
of the negotiations had the

George Weekes speaking at Conference of Delegates.

Government approached the
Union with a view to con-
He pointed out that in his
speech to the Conference of
Delegates he had denounced
the participation schemes as
"tokenism",and criticised the
Government for approaching
the-oil companies like a weak,
and corrupt Trade Union.
Nonetheless, Weekes said,

any scheme of participation
was better than the system
that obtained now and the
Union had consequently to
examine its own role and
orientation to determine
whether it would be enough
in. the context of a Govern-
ment owned Oil Industry.

4 See Story Page 3

Women voters hold School

at -

TAPIA- Secretary, Lloyd Best
and some of the Tapia women
will be attending "political
school". The political school
is the name given to the all-day
seminar organised by the
League of Women Voters.
The seminar shall concern
itself with the current state
of the National economy. The
Tapia Sccretary is scheduled
to deliver one of three fea-
ture addresses.
lie school gets underway
at 10 ,ia.m.-oni Saturday 23, at
the IHoliday Inn in Port of

10 1




NOTHING shows up more the contradiction of values
in the society than the row over the judges' decisions
to crown Sparrow Calypso King, and to award band of
the year to Wayne Berkeley's Kaleidoscope .
And what clearer direction can we have as to where
the society is heading than the almost sensational
emergence of two relatively unknowns from the country
- the steelband Scherzando of Curepe, and Shadow,
the calypsonian of Tobago?
For years Chalkdust has been criticising the
judging, and after his famous rendition of Dooba Doobai.
in which he ridiculed them to scorn, he indicated that
he would not be vying for the crown anymore.
This year even Ivan Williams, Chairman of the
Carnival Development Committee was forced to con-
demn the judging publicly. What is happening is that the
monopoly which a certain element enjoyed as the
adjudicator of merit and excellence in the society is
splitting with the rift in
the ranks of the PNM
In downtown Port-of-. n t
Spain, at the main thorough- o
fare of ole time carnival mas' I _
lovers gave the first place to
Ivan McWilliams'omewhere
in the Caribbean. The authen-
ticity of the production could O f o u*
not but impress the honest
eye. But in the Queen's Park I
Savannah a whole class of sessed by a demonic spirit tc
tourists and shades-wearing free it is futile to try to cast i
imitators fell for the tinted out. So the chords of the
view of the Kaleidoscope. bassman became more ant
Like the thousands who more insistent. Who does no
are unable to function crea- identify with this feeling, this
tively everyday, provoked as mood of the moment?
they are by persistent nagging As an economist, I an
injustices, Shadow was on the plagued by a sense of futility
verge of abandoning his voca- in an environment in whict
tion, instant solutions pass for the
"I was economic planning promise
up calypso, andg o ae in the People's Charter a gene
Sc a g ration ago. What are the as
plant peas in Tobago, ,
Bpat I am araid I car sumptions which underlie the
But am araidcurrent programme of public
make the grade", spending?
.T .. n,,, ;, ,_ i.*- .l^o~l ,,^>.r .c,^


r time

w clplC ~,bL




my the attainment of full
employment would require a
system of national wage bar-
gaining, certainly some kind
of system to determine what
share of the national income
should go to the various fac-
tors of production. The mea-
sure of distribution would
have to be politically decided.


In a system which is more
or less closed and near full-
employment, public spending

Don't buy cat in bag

Before you support us

read our




25 Cents



economy by stimulating con-
sumption in the short run.
Our economy is differently
organised, and the policy that
we are pursuing can lead only
to more and more inflation.
As a political being, I can
understand why it is that
Rousseau distrusted represen-
tative Government. In the
Wooding Report for instance,
on page 97 of the section
dealing with The Public Ser-
vant and Politics, we see
where the Public Service As-
sociation through its officers
has failed once again to re-
M I vdnt~,- I P,"mi.e-.-ab r sf-
F iUWU jij: arviini3z.-l .tiep ati6, y ,

THE independence of
small states is to be the
theme of a Conference
of University social scien-
tists in Barbados this
The Conference opens
at the Cave Hill Campus
of the UWI on Monday
25. It will focus attention
on the Caribbean.

Among these present-
ing papers are Selwyn
Ryan, Fitz Baptiste, Carl
Parris and Basil Ince all
of the St Augustine Cam-
Discussions will range

over diplomatic, adminis-
trative, demographic,
economic, financial and
political aspects of inde-
pendence with special
reference to the problem
of viability.
The problem of self-
determination will be
broached in the opening
paper by Dr Vaughn
Lewis, Director of the
Institute of Social and
Economic Research in
Barbados, the Department
hosting the Conference.
The final paper on
Thursday 28th will deal
with the law of the sea.


Next week

Proposals for

economic change

from Fyzabad





"The idea of a complete ban
on political activity by the
public officer seems to us
unacceptable. It would be far
too drastic a curtailment of
his fundamental rights when
regard is had to the compara-
tively minor role most public
officers play in important
policy decisions or in super-
vising policy implementation.
"We considered recom-
mending that the system be
opened up completely and
that public political activity
be permitted for all public
officers save the comparatively
smallgroup directly concerned
with the formulation of policy
and the supervision of its over-
all implementation.
"The Public Service Asso-
ciation through its officers did
not favour such a change. Since
they were the persons directly
involved we decided that the
matter be left for the time
being as it is. The area is one
which seems to us to call for
detailed study".
It is our quality of judg-
ment which will finally deter-
mine whether we are inde-
pendent or not. 'Ironically
enough, one of the reasons
why Sparrow has been under
so much fire of late is be-
cause he is saying precisely
this. Still the message has
come through., He has left us
the slogan, "In this day and
age, we pass that stage".
Sparrow's tragedy is that,
by being didactic, by trying
to make an assessment of the
stage that the society has
reached, he cuts the sorry
figure of 'the Doctor' of
The truth is that our
calypsonians, in their People's
Parliaments, continue to look
critically at the serious and
absurd in our society. Maestro
was merciless in his chastise-
Cdatirtmucd onl Page 3.

an we, be


I ndTen enka?.,.

SUNDAY MARCH 24, 1974.


Weeks: Something has

SHAKING his head slow-
ly from side to side and
staring reflectively ahead,
Comrade George Weekes
President General of the
OWTU, spoke of the
political situation. The
situation is clouded, he
said,but one thing is cer-
tain, it cannot go on like
this. Something has got
to break.
Comrade Weekes felt that
it was difficult to predict the
events that would affect the
political future of the coun-
try. He personally felt that
the constitutional issue was

* Continued from Page 2.

ment of our lack of political
judgment, and so was Com-
poser with Different Strokes
for Different Folks. while
Kitchener, prolonging his
theme, "Where is the Free-
dom" .sneers at the police in
Jericho. The name of the
fugitive suggests that the cor-
rupt wall is about to crumble.
-Shadow- S Basimlai x-
_presses a current mood of
impaitince-and emotional
disturbance. His kalinda
rhythm has the raciness and
anxiety of Sparrow's Ten to
One is Mureer, sung in an era
of rope and ironbolt.The
voice is jerky, almost quarrel-
some, and the image of "tak-
ing me head for a panyard"
sounds like the blowing of
the mind, and the building of
a head.

With him the basic urges
df passion .and appetite run
wild. Healready knows exactly
what he wants, and reason is
bassmanifesting at a subcon-
scious level. Therein lies his .
But the crisis in the coun-.
try persists because, we lack
the judgment to think things
through, to borrow a phase
from the Wooding Commis-
sion. Panday' began his bid
for power in All Trinidad
Sugar and Factory Workers
Union by raising the issue of
the vouchers. Now he nego-
tiates for guaranteed work.
But what has become of the
Panday says that the sugar
workers have always accepted
"charismatic" leaders. That is
true. But he should have also
said that most of these leaders
tend to enjoy a halo effect
stemming from their function
as religious or legal counsellor.
Hence Bhadase, Rienzi, the
Sinanans,. Girwar, Primus,
Panday, and now Alexander
in the oil and sugar belt. It is
rare that we see a leader from
the ranks.
Within recent times we
have witnessed incidents that

important but at the moment
he did not see it capturing
the imagination of the people.
He pointed out that the
official stand of his Union
for quite some while now
was that there should be con-
vened a Peoples Assembly to
discuss electoral reform and
constitutional change in
general. This needed to be
done before any elections are
In this respect, Comrade
Weekes noted, he agreed en-
tirely with Allan Alexander's
opinion that the boycott of
the 1971 elections reflected
more than anything else grave
suspicion of the electoral pro-

ought to shake the credibility
of three major institutions in
the country the Executive,
the Legislature and the Judi-
ciary. But who cares?
In Shakespeare's Julius
Caesar there are lines which
run like this.
"You all recall that on the
Lupercal I thrice did offer
him a kingly crown which
he did thrice refuse, was

I say that I recall that in
October the Prime Minister
told this nation that he was
about to resign. And surely
he's an honourable man!
The manoeuvres behind
the Prime Minister's return,
and the role that Dr. Wahid
Ali played as head of the
Inter-Religious Organisation
is now well known. What has
passed unnoticed, and what I
want to draw attention to,
however, is Dr. .Wahid Ali's
ruling in his capacity as Presi-
dent of the Senate that there
could be no debate of the
Sugar Act. No. 1 of '65
on the ground that the matter
was sub judice, before the
It was shameful enough
for the President of a Legisla-
tive Chamber, who is pre-
sumed to be impartial, to
request that the Chief Execu-
tive should stay and finish
his job, but it is an outrage
that he should deem the
ordinary Court as superior to
Parliament which is the High-
est Court of the Land.

None of the series of
repressive Acts passed so far
holds more terror to the peo-
ple here than the ramifica-
tions of that ruling. What it
means in fact is that, in
depriving the citizen of his
rights, all that the Govern-
ment has to do is to initiate
proceedings in the Court, and
every representative of the
people inside and outside of
Parliament must then hold his
peace, and be silent.
With regard to the Judi-
ciary there are a number of

got to give...

cedures. Few people, he telt
saw the need at the time, for
any fundamental change in
the whole political system.
Nonetheless he admitted
that he foresaw problems in
finding an individual who was
both impartial enough and
wellknown in the country to
act as chairman of any such
Assembly. Wooding had dis-
qualified himself by his ad-
vocacy of the Constitution
he had drawn up.

cases that we, must ponder
upon. The first is the shoot-'
ing to death by the police of
Allan Caton-alias McFeeble,
during an alleged attempted
robbery on Famous Recipe at
Hi-Lo Carpark in St. Anns.
All the surviving accused in
this trial have been acquitted.
Does this not meao that Caton
might have been murdered?
rli -_-- .1 .. ,

I-armKe t; ml. I H. I- e....."
was tried for receiving bribe
and possessing ah offensive
weapon. He was acquitted.
The trial judge commented
on 'the lies told by the police.


But not long before the
present Chief Justice was ap-
pointed, he led a Commission
of Inquiry into the affair,
and found much support for
the police case against Clarke.
The report drew very caustic
criticisms from lawyers as
eminent as Selby Wooding
Q.C.,Michaelde Labastide and
Ewart Thorne.
The third case I have in
mind is that of Allan Hare-
wood, the brother of Guy
who was gunned down by the
police in the St. Joseph River.
Allan was this week acquitted
on a 3-count indictment of
firearms and ammunition
charges by a mixed jnry-
When Allan was arrested
I remember the obstacles that
were placed in the way of his
right to bail. I have said it
many times over: our youth
prefer to take to the hills
rather than face the heavy
penalties for such offences
under the Firearms and other
Acts, especially when they
have no confidence in the
magistracy .
Now the mixed jury has
accepted that it was a police
frame-up. But the conse-
quence might well have been
this young man's death ina
guerilla man-hunt.
m On these grounds justice
demands that all further
charges .against him be
dropped so that he may regain
his freedom.

Turning to the Oil Indus-
try Comrade Weekes spoke of
the proposed participation
schemes as being an improve-
ment over the present situa-
tion but still inadequate. His
Union would continue to
press for total nationalisation
with direct Union participa-
tion in Policy making.
In any case he said he did
not feel that the present go-
vernment could adequately
run the Oil Industry. He noted
that for all the years they
had. been in power they had
never seen -the need to in-
stitute programmes at the.
University for training the
technicians needed by the
Oil Industry in its various
This Government could
not be trusted. The refusal by
OPEC for a second time to
admit us. to that body was
proof of this. The OPEC
rhembers felt that if they let
Trinago in they would be
letting in a spy for the Ameri-
can businessmen.
Comrade Weekes went on
to recall that the suggestion
that Trinidad should join
OPEC was made by him as
far back as 1963. But at that

Arabs were merely iooKing
for trouble, so he would
have no part of them. Now
that he is knocking at the
door OPEC is not perpared
to give us entry.

So that whereas a govern-
ment that served the interests
of the working people would-
be positioned to take com-
plete control of the oil indus-
try, and to seek technical ex-
pertise from the Arab coun-
tries, this Government had to
rely on Shell and Texaco to
continue its management.
He also denounced the
behaviour of the daily Press.
While it was.prepared to pub-
lish verbatim the grand utter-
ances made by Williams and.
his Government, it made no
attempt whatsoever to analyse
For a long time the Go-
vernment had been making
promises about oil and other
things, and by now everyone
could see that they amounted.
to -nothing but political
Referring to the state-
ment which he delivered to
the Annual Conference of
Delegates,. Weekes .pointed
out that the oil companies
had been accused by many
people in the know, of deli-
berately creating the energy
crisis. What is more, they
were making huge profits.
In this regard Comrade
Weekes Xfelt some concern
the question oM ftllg tife tl
embargo. He hoped that.this
did not signal the beginning
of a split which would only
serve the purposes of the
capitalist consumer countries.

Trinidad and Tobago
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North America

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Sr-Asha Dottin

THE women's arm of
NJAC staged a very suc-
cessful "Woman's Rally"
- the first of its kind, on
Sunday 17th March, 1974
at No. 7 Belle..Smythe-
Street, Woodbrook.
A 'wide cross section of
women in the community
numbering roughly one hun-
dred and fifty (150). attended.
The- evening was highlighted
yhree (3) addresses by the
Sister Joy Alfred (Oiabisi)
delivered a paper on the His-
tory of' the Black Women..
This covered slavery and in-
de'nre's'ship.and. the entire
period right up to present
tihne. Her paper examined
the 'factors that" led up to the
woman being in the position
she is in the society.at this
time;the: process'of disinte-
gration of family life;. the
loss of respect foi women;_
the .Yankee .occupation of
Chaguaramas as' it affected
the women in the society.
The element of fight that has
pervaded .the black.womren's
history was particularly em-


Sister Asha Dottin pre-
sented the other major paper
on "'The New Woman". She
took up from where Sr..
Qlabisi's paper ended and
examined the position of the
woman in the present society
an'd suggested .guide lines for
the creation df the 'new wo-
mani' ready to carve'her own
destiny .and to' contribute
significantly to the. shaping.
.of a free society.
She .dealt with areas' of
interest to women .- rising
fobd prices, the fact 'that
capitalist propaganda is di-
rected to the woman through
the media 'so that she .buys
what she does not really need
and cannot afford; the rearing'
of children;- social services
ranging from maintenance for
children to the nightmare
conditionss in the prisons; the
sacrifices of-the women in
'the-sigar belt.
Sr..Rossetta Adams talked '
to the women 'about dead.

-Women caught in attentive mood at rally

Black women who struggled
to free their people. Sisters -
like Ginga of the Congo, Har-
riet -Tubman, Sojourner
STruth, Carmen Perriera and
Beverly Jones. The gathering
stood in silence for'a minute
as -a. mark of respect to
SThree (3) special guests
addressed the rally- Sr.
Soyini of NORS' National
Students spoke about, the.
girls in the society on what
kind of women ihey should
be. She.also stressed the mis-

S A d.Ob
Sr Joy Aifred, ('Olabisi)

direction and the emphasis on.
sex and materialism played up
by all the media. As a'young
woman .at school, she noted
the lack of relevance of the
curriculum to life in the so-
ciety and the failure'to provide
,employment opportunities
for young people.
Mother- Inez, known to
NJAC as the mother of the
Revolution, and Wh6 was a.
strong- Butlerl-te woman and
has been with NJAC since
1'7o tu0alaei s the w',t.i l
about the necessity of doing
something constructive to
effect 'change ratlier :than io-

dulging in ole talk or grousing
about- the society. She -also,'
advised women to lead mo-
rally pure lives and dealt at
length with the question of
SBirth Control.
To her, people wanted
fewer children because' they'
'were to6 greedy'. They
weighed having a chijd against
additional material things. She
-also saw. Birth Control as a
vicious plan by the establish-
men.t. to limit the numbers of
the twe black iiagcs ill tlhe
society so --that they could
be.handled more easily.
The Southern Borough

was represented by Mother
.Gamba who gave a stirring.
address on the. problems 'of
black women in the society
and reiterated the call of other .
speakers .for action. Women
firro as far as Princess: Town
. .hadjourneyed down for the-
There was drumming and
the reading-of poetry dedicat-
ed to the black woman. By
the unanimous wish to the
women. present the' rally was.
adjourned t. a date *in April
to b'ecannounced by. the NJAC
women. The evening prbceed-
ings were chaired by Pearl.
Springer (Sr Einfou).

cribbeanii alks on Cuba s isloation avoided
Car~Pi'bb e an Ofl

THE. SEARCH for ."a
new creative road" in
inter-American relations
was agreed upon during
the Feb. 21-23 meet of
24 Latin American .and
Caribbean foreign minis-
ters. with US Secretary
of -State Kissinger- in
Mexico City.
S However, the toughest
issues, such 'as the' isolation
of Cuba, were avoided in the
parley's final declaration. The
talks were informal,'a wel-
come change from the ritual-
istic rhetoric of past hemis-
phere conferences_
Mr. Kissinger's early call
for a Western Hemisphere
"Community" was cooly re-
ceiied.'He then said he didn't
mean a political bloc.
One adopted proposal of
Mr. Kissinger's was. the es-
tablishment of "an .interna-
tional mechanism" to settle
disputes over' the expropria-
tion of the property of US -
controlled, multinational
The Tlatelolco. -Declara-
tion said "the reality of Latin
.American unity" and 'Latin
American ties with other de.-
veloping countreis were the
'foundation for a -"frank and
realistic relationship with the
'US". The US said it "accepts
a special responsibility" lor
the-economic development
tin': Aimeica. Tlhe JUS
pledged: to maiintaii, as a
"ini:inimum; present ;id levels;

to push for trade preferences
Sfor underdeveloped nations,
part. of the .foreign trade bill
now before its Cofigress: to
avoid implementation of.any
new measures'"restricting ac-
cess to.the US market for the-
exports of Latin American'
countries; to" make, it easier
for Latin nations to utilize
US technology." '
Severall.of the South and
Central'..Ameridan and Carib-
bean foreign ministers tried

THE Movement for a New
Dominica (MND) has resolved
to biild' a serious political
organisation which is capable
of dismantling' the present
social .and economic order.
Thus states a r.eport.published
in.a recent'issue of the (Group's
organ, Twavay.

This position, the report
continues, has been taken as
a matter. of policy.'And the
most important consequence
S for.the MNDis that its method
must steer clear of electoral
Electoral politics by it-
self is seen as .'old politics".
And that is the method where-
by a political party is formed
simply by writing a constitu-
lion, gelting .a -name and.a
slogan, registeting .with thei
S.autlihprilic. an; d finally ii-
..0na u1ci0hg to i. l. public the Il' --
i-majitin o .1. poli'icil ..party.

to discuss the. isolation, of
SCuba. -Jamaica's .Dudley.
'Thompson grew so angry at
'Mr. Kissinger's long silence
after Mr. Thompson's query
on .Cuba. that he stormed
from the room, saying "There'.
.are times when silence- is
Golden, but this is sheet Stone
Age stupidity."
S-Later, at a press confer-
ende, Mr, Kissiinger'said that
the US would consult its
.Latin American neighbours

The MND sees at its-first
step towards the formation of
a popular political organisa-
tion,the task of presenting-for
the 'boad masses "a greater
understanding of the problems
confronting them. Out. of this
initial- activity wouldd come
''a sense of purpose, direction-

A GENERAL strike in Marti-
nique began in mid-February,
sparked by the death of 2
islanders when police' clashed
with demonstratingg workers.
Troop reinlforcements' from
Guadeloupe helped to restore
Officials said .l:ihat Ilie
Paris gov't was I.rying to solve
boli0h reichl. Isles' social alld
e'coiiomilic piobleis.. The k'
Marlini t uan Adtmitistration
blAlni'd lellislM exilenusts h lol

.before making any change in
its .Cuban relations, adding
that "it.'will be something
other than notification of
Impending change". We do
not believe this [meeting)
is the appropriate forum to
discuss Cuba. We believe this
issue only can be addressed
in a wider 'context",
The Organization of Ame-
rican States will meet in-
Atlanta, Georgia, ifl April.
(C. News)

and ideology'.
This.process envisages no
short-cuts. Instead it is seen
as a long-term matter.'"If the
time coines to enter the elec-
toral arena we would know it,
because the people will let us

the riots, but noted that the
French Communist Party had
tol-d its followers to stay
Officials said extremists.
tried to call plantation work-
ers away from their jobs. and
police were sent to prevent
SUneniployment 'in the
French Ciribbea'n, called a
key reason tfor' unrest, i. said
to he between 2574, aid 40'' .
(C. ,\'cws


Old politics is out

Strike grips M a rtinique

~ I


e -o 0 0 0 1

THE PEOPLE Gandhi rallied to-
gether were a subject people, a
people divided as few other peo-
ple have been. Out of this frag-
mentation, this mass of rivalries
and petty jealousies and even
pettier parochialisms, Gandhi
created a "strike force" which
welded together the nation. He
was able to unite together into a
team a series of totally diverse
personalities think of Nehru,
Rajendra Prasad, Sardar Patel and
Maulana Azad and to encou-
rage them to grow and to develop
in their own way.
Gandhi was a man who did not
regiment; .on the contrary, he en-
couraged the many varieties of persons
to flower in line with their personali-
ties. After centuries, he created again
the idea of India as a single, united
nation. It seems even a greater achieve-
ment as time passes this ability of
Gandhi to permit the growth of the
younger cadres of leadership.
For, above all, Gandhi sought to
nourish and encourage leadership at
all levels of society. He created a net-
work of several types of leaders in
Indian society, and this was something
we respect. He was able to direct and
control the nationalist movement and
bring into its fold the entire nation,
but he was also big enough to en-
courage others to share in this power.
This aspect of his leadership is some-
thing which will, with time, impress us
with the magnitude of its achievement


Gandhi was able to establish a

has been unequalled in modem times.
What was the secret of his intimacy
with the millions of his country? Many
reasons could be listed for this but the
foremost I think is that the entire
nation identified itself with him, trust- .
,d him, followed and revered him,
becausee he was able to identify him-
ielf with the core values of the nation.
He was able to create his own identity
in the mould of the culture to which
he belonged.
There is little in Gandhi'sthinking
and appeal that is not distinctively
Indian. There was no grafting of ideas
that were not of the soil, and because
of this quality, of this Indianness he
came closer to the people and they to
Gandhi's popularity lay in the
authentic quality of his word and the
deed that followed from it. In the
present quest for a national identity,
we will need to reflect upon the rele-
vance of emotions and ideas alien to
our people, more so as we are swept
into the troubles and the violence of
a world that is not of our own making.
The immense psychic distances that
prevail among the leaders and masses
can be broken down only by imposing
a new mode of thought and action and
thus altering the existing culture, or
by genuinely moving towards the peo-
ple, of taking a share in their destiny.
Leaders more often. than not dis-
guise the manipulation of the masses
with honeyed words. Gandhi stood
apart from a conventional politician
simply because he was not an exercise
in manipulation, he was a movement
towards the masses and sharing in their
fate. Such a link between a leader and
the masses is seen from time to time,
for instance, in moments of great
national crisis, but this was something
exceptional with Gandhi.
For he was able to sustain this link
beyond a particular crisis. It is not
easy to think of many parallels of this
kind in world history. When the his-
tory of our times will be written, this
relationship of Gandhi with his people









... but













will stand out as a unique phenomenon.
Indeed, it still.inspires,we and a sense of
wonder among us.
By emphasising his proximity to
the people, his ability to create an
identity of his own, which brought
him so close to his people, I refer to
a part of the picture only. Beyond this
the greatness of Gandhi lay in his
magnificent self-assurance, which was
born out of an incredible lack of dog -
This quality comes from an open
mind, from receptivity to the experi-
ences and ideas of others. Despite his
Indianness Gandhi was capable of
responding to the world of others, to
ideas which weye as diverse as those
of Tolstoy in Russia and Ruskin in
England. His greatness lay in his ability
to absorb streams of knowledge other
than those of his own, to confer with,
debate and assimilate other modes of
thought. This is always exceptional,
but how much more exceptional it is
when we think of the times which he
lived, of the great current of national-
ism that he embodied.


To have preached continuous strug-
gle against the British rule, to have
taken an uncompromising stand on
freedom from the British but always
respect individual Englishmen and their
collective identity-this was an achieve-
ment of no small magnitude. Decency
is a common word but I think it
describes an important part of Gandhi's
personality. He was truly a decent
man. He waged a struggle for national
decency but he was not prepared to

humiliate his enemies.
This leads me to another point -
Gandhi's view of the individual. It has
.now become quite common in our
time to think of the personality of
the individual as having been formed
early in life. There is much of know-
ledge to support this claim. But for
Gandhi there was an openness about



an individual personality. He saw the
potentiality of decency in even the
most corrupt of persons. He provided
for growth, for development of all
Men, for Gandhi, were created by
circumstances but also by themselves.
There is a zone of freedom for all of
us to alter our present course, to some-
thing which is different. This amazing
faith in the potentialities for human
development cannot come to those who
are basically elitist in outlook, it can-
not come to those who consider them-
selves as somehow- indispensable, to
those who think they are born leaders.
It. can only come from someone who
sees, in mankind as such, qualities that
make him no more than an ordinary
Gandhi's greatness lay in his con-
sistent sense of belief in the basic good-
ness and decency of all men, including
those to whom he was opposed.
It was typical of Gandhi that al-
though he was in favour of keeping
apart state and religion, he never
denied his religious faith, nor did he
encourage others to deny theirs. What
mattered to him were the core religious
values, values which to his mind were
common. Not the religious dogmas
with their taboos but the essentially
humane meanings of religious insight
were what he seemed.to have in mind.
Gandhi's personalty and charac-
ter have been grossly simplified when
we come to think of his work in build-
ing the nation. Fragments .are taken
out of context from his writings and
speeches and he is presented as if he
was opposed to modern industry and
Obviously modern industry and

think it was in a different context tat
Gandhi addressed himself. He was
bothered by the scale of giant industry
.and what it does to man. Today there
is a movement of thought in the direc-
tions Gandhi thought. He was upset by
the "mystique" of science as a method
indeed, its claim as being the only
correct method and it was this
idol-worship of science that worried
He was obviously not the man to
be frightened by truth it was his
understanding that the total and un-
compromising demands of contem-
porary science would lead to men
serving science instead of science serv-
ing them. Indian & Foreign review





* BUY and SELL







I m ......

Amilcar Cabral, has taken his place as the hero of the
struggle for the independence of Guinea (Bissau)
where he was born, and indeed of all the territories of
Portuguese Africa. A man of rare stature, both as a
thinker and a fighter, he was-concerned with every
aspect of his country's future. Cabral was assassinated
at Conakry on:January 20th.
The article published here, the last in our series
on the liberation movement in Portuguese Africa, is
taken from a study presented by Cabral at a meeting
on the Concept of Race Identity and Dignity held in
Paris in July 1972. The article was originally published
in the UNESCO COURIER of Nov. 1973.

THE struggle of peoples for national liberation
and independence has become a tremendous
force for human progress and is beyond doubt
an essential feature of the history of our
Objective analysis of imperialism as a
fact ofhistorical phenomenon that is "natural",
even "necessary", to the economic and poli-
tical evolution of a great part of mankind,
reveals that imperialist rule with its train of
misery, pillage, crimes and its destruction of
human and cultural values, was not a purely
negative reality.
In the rich countries, imperialist capital, ever
looking for higher profits, heightened man's creative
capatr~- Aie-y-theacgcel.gated. progress of
science and technology, it profoundly f(':ansfforfmd
the means of production, stepped-up the social
organization of work and raised the standard 'of
living of vast sections of the population.

0 0 0
In the colonized countries, colonization usually
arrested the historical development of the people -
when it did not lead to their total or gradual elimina-
tion. Here imperialist capital imposed new types of
relationships within the indigenous society whose
structure became more complex. It aroused, fomented,
inflamed or resolved social contradictions and con-
The practice of imperialist rule its affirmation
or its negation demanded and still demands a more
or less accurate knowledge of the people dominated
and its historical background (economic, social arnd
cultural). This knowledge is necessarily expressed in
terms of comparison with the dominating, power's
own historical background.
Such knowledge is an imperative necessity for
imperialist rule which results from the usually violent
confrontation of two different identities, distinct in

their historical backgrounds and antagonistic in their
functions. Despite its unilateral, subjective and often
unjust character, the search for such knowledge
contributed to the general enrichment of the human
and social sciences.
Indeed man has never shown such interest in
learning about other men and other societies as
during this century of imperialist domination. An
unprecedented amount of information, hypotheses
and theories was thus ?'-cumulated concerning aub-
jugated peoples or ethnic groups, especially in the
fields of-history, ethnology, ethnography, sociology
and culture.
Concepts of race, caste, clanship, tribe, nation,
culture, identity, dignity and many more besides,
have received increasing attention from those Who
study man and the so-called "primitive" or "evolving"
More recently, with the upsurge of liberation
movements, it has. been found necessary to analyse
the characteristics of these societies in terms of the
struggle that is being fought, so as to determine
which factors spark off or restrain this struggle.
Researchers generally agree that in this context cul-
ture takes on special importance. Any attempt to
throw light on the true role of culture in the develop-
ment of a liberation (pre-independence) movement
can be seen as making a helpful contribution to the
general struggle of peoples against imperialist rule.
With a few exceptions, the era of colonization
was too short. in Africa at least, to' destroy or
significantly depreciate the essential elements in the
culture and traditions-of-T-r ~'-colfhized peoples.
Experience in Africa shows that (leaving aside geno-
cide, racial segregation and apartheid) the one so-
called "positive" way the colonial power has found
for opposing cultural resistance is "assimilation". But
the total failure of the policy of "gradual assimila-
tion" of colonized populations is obvious proof of
the fallacy of the theory and of the peoples' capacity
for resistance
On the other hand, even in settlement colonies,
where the overwhelming majority of the population is
still indigenous, the area of colonial and particularly
cultural occupation is usually reduced to coastal
strips and a few small zones in the interior.
The influence of the colonial power's culture
is almost 'nil outside the capital and other urban
centres. It is only significantly felt within the social
pyramid created by colonialism itself and affects
more particularly what may be called the indigenous
petty bourgeoisie and a very limited number of
workers in urban centres.
I We find then that the great rural masses and a






* BUY and SELL

large fraction of the urban population, totalling over
99 per cent of the indigenous population, are virtually
isolated from any cultural influence by the colonial
This implies that, not only for the mass of the
people in the dominated country but also for the
dominant classes among the indigenous peoples
(traditional chiefs, noble families, religious leaders),
there is usually no destruction or significant depre-
ciation of culture and traditions.

0 0 0

Repressed, persecuted, humiliated, betrayed .by
certain social groups which have come to terms with
the foreigner, culture takes refuge in villages, in
forests and in the minds of the victims of domination,
weathering all storms to recover all its power of
expansion and enrichment through the struggle for
That is why the problem of a 'return to the
source" or a "cultural renaissance" does not arise for
the mass of the. people; it could not, for the masses
are the torch-bearers of culture; they are the source'
of culture, and at the same time, the one entity
truly capable of creating and preserving it, of making
For an accurate appreciation of the true role of
culture in the development of the liberation move-
ment, a distinction must therefore be made, at least
in Africa, between the situation of the masses who
preserve their culture and of the social groups that
are more or less assimilated, uprooted and culturally
Even though marked by certain cultural features
of their own indigenous community, native elites
created by the colonizing process live materially and
spiritually the culture of the colonialist foreigner
with whom they seek gradually to identify themselves
in social behaviour and even in their views of indige-
nous cultural values.
Over two or three generations'at least under
"colonization, a social class has been formed of
government officials, employees in various branches
of the economy (especially trade), members of the
liberal professions and a few urban and agricultural
This indigenous lower middle class, created by
foreign rule and indispensable to the colonial system
of exploitation, finds itself placed between the mass
of workers in the country and in the towns and the
minority of local representatives of hte foreign ruling
Although its members may have more or less
developed relations with the mass of the people or
the traditional chiefs, they usually aspire to a way of
life similar to, if not identical with that of the foreign
minority. Limiting their relations with the masses
they try to become integrated with that minority,
often to the detriment of family or ethnic bonds and
always at personal cost.
But despite apparent exceptions, they never suc-
ceed in crossing the barriers imposed by the system.
They are prisoners of the contradictions of the social
and cultural reality in which they live, for they can-
not escape their condition as a "marginal" class. This
marginality is the real social and cultural drama of the
colonial elites or indigenous petty bourgeoisie. While
living conditions and level of acculturation determine
its intensity, this drama is always lived at the indivi-
dual, not the community, level.
Within the framework of this daily drama,
against the background of the usually violent con-
frontation between the mass of the people and the
ruling colonial class, a feeling of bitterness, a
frustration complex, develops and grows among the
indigenous lower middle class. At the same time they
gradually become aware of an urgent need to contest
their marginal status and to find an identity. So they
turn towards the other pole of the social and cultural
conflict in which they are living the mass of the
Hciice the "return to the source" which seems
all the more imperative as the seseene of isolation and




,CH 24,1974





frustration of this lower middle class grows. The
same holds true for Africans dispersed in colonialist
and racist capitals.
It is not by chance then that theories or move-
ments such as Pan Africanism and Negritude'(two
pertinent expressions based mainly on the notion that
all Black Africans are culturally identical) were con-
ceived outside Black Africa.

0 O 0
More recently, the Black Americans' claim to
an African identity is another, perhaps desperate,
expression of this need to "return to the source"
though it is clearly influenced by a new factor the
winning of independence by the great majority of
African peoples.
But the "return to the source"' neither is nor
can be in itself an act of struggle against foreign
(colonialist and racist) rule. Nor does it necessarily
mean a return to traditions. It is the denial by the
indigenous petty bourgeoisie of the superiority
claimed for the culture of the ruling power over the
culture of the dominated people with which this
petty bourgeoisie feels the need to identify.
This "return to the source" then is a
voluntary step; it is the only possible response to'lfe
irreconcilable contradiction between the colonized
society and the colonial power, between the exploited
masses and the foreign exploiters.
When the ',return to the source" goes beyond
the individual to find expression in "groups" or
--"movemnents"-- -his--opposition turns into conflict
(under cover or -open), the prelude -to the pre inde-
pendence movement or struggle for liberation from
foreign yoke.
This "return to the source" is thus historically
important only if it involves both a genuine com-
mitment to the fight for independence and also a
total, irrevocable identification with the aspirations
of the masses, who reject not only the foreigner's
culture but foreign rule altogether. Otherwise it is
nothing but a means of obtaining temporary ad-
vantages, a conscious or unconscious form of political
It should be noted that this ',return to the
source", whether real or apparent, is not something
that happens simultaneously and uniformly within
the lower middle class. It is a slow, discontinuous,
uneven process and its development depends on each.
person's degree of acculturation, material conditions
of life, ideological thinking, and'individual history as
asocial being.
This unevenness explains the splitting of the
indigenous petty bourgeoisie into three groups in
relation to the liberation movement: a minority
which, even though it may want the end of foreign
rule, hangs on to the ruling colonial class and openly
opposes the liberation movement in order to defend
and secure its own social position; a hesitant or
undecided majority; another minority which helps to
create and to direct the liberation movement.
But this last group which plays a decisive role in
developing the preindependence movement, dops not
really succeed in identifying itself with the mass of
the people (with their culture and their aspirations)
except through the struggle, the degree of identifica-
tion depending on the form or forms of the struggle,
the ideological content of the movement and the
extent of each person's moral and political awareness.
Culture has proved to be the very foundation of
the liberation movement. Only societies which pre-
serve their cultures are able to mobilize and organize
themselves and fight against foreign domination.
Whatever ideological or idealistic forms it takes,
culture is essential to the historical process. It has
the power to prepare and make fertile those factors
that ensure historical continuity and determine a
society's chances of progressing (or regressing).
Since imperialist rule is the negation of the
historical process of the dominated society, it will
readily be understood that it is also the negation of
the cultural process. And since a society that really
succeeds in throwing off the foreign yoke reverts to
the upward paths of its own culture, the struggle for
liberation is above all an act of culture.

S The fight for liberation is an essentially political
fact. Consequently, as it develops, it can only use
political methods.
Culture then.is not, and cannot be, a weapon or
means.of mobilizing the group against foreign domi-
nation. It is much more than that. Indeed, it is on
firm knowledge of the local reality, particularly the
cultural reality, that the choice, organization and
development of the best methods of fighting are
This is why the liberation movement must
recognize the vital importance not only of the cultural
characteristics of the dominated society as whole
but also of those of each social class. For though it
has a mass aspect, culture is not uniform and does not
develop evenly in all sectors, horizontal or vertical,
of society.
The attitude and behaviour of each class or each
individual towards the struggle. and its development
are, it is true, dictated by economic interests, but
they are also profoundly influenced by culture. It
may even be said that differences in cultural level
explain differences in behaviour towards the libera-
tion movement of individuals of the same social class.
It is at this level, then, that culture attains its
full significance for each individual comprehension
of and integration within his social milieu, identifica-
tion with the fundamental problems and aspirations
of his society and acceptance or rejection of the
possibility of change for the better.
Neo-coionaiaism is above all the continuation
of imperialist economic rule in disguise, but never-
theless i st is also I: T;. ": ..- n --..:.-. .. -
power that the people it rules and exploits have an
identity of their own demanding its own political
control, for the. satisfaction of a cultural necessity.
Moreover, by accepting that the colonized
people have an identity and a culture, and therefore
an inalienable right to self-determination and inde-
pendence, metropolitan opinion (or at least an im-
portant part of it) itself makes significant cultural
progress and sheds a negative element in its own
culture the prejudice that the colonizing nation is
superior to the colonized one. This advance can have
all-important consequences for the political evolu-
tion of the imperialist or colonialist power, as certain
facts of current or recent history prove.
The existence of genetic, somatic and cultural
affinities between certain human groups on one or
more continents and a more or less similar situation

in regard to colonial or racist domination have led to
the formulation of theories and the creation of
"movements" based on the hypothetical existence of
racial or continental cultures.
The widely recognized or sensed importance of
culture in the liberation movement has helped to
give this hypothesis a certain following. One would
not wish to minimize the importance of such theories
or movements as attempts successful or otherwise
- to find an identity and also as a means of contest-
ing foriegn rule. But an objective analysis of cultural
reality leads one to reject the notion of racial or
continental cultures.
In the first place, culture, like history, is an
expanding phenomenon and closely linked with the
economic and social reality of an environment, with
the level and methods of production of the society
that creates it. Secondly, culture develops unevenly
at the level of a continent, of a "race", and even of a
community. In fact, the co-ordinates of culture, like
those of every other developing pheonomenon,vary
in space and time, whether they are material (physical)
or human (biological and sociological).

0 O O
That is why culture the creation of a com-
munity, the synthesis of balances and solutions it
produces to resolve the conflicts that characterize it
at every phase, of its history is a social reality
independent of man's will, of the colour of his skin or
the shape of his eyes, and of geographical boundaries.
movement must lay oown the precise.objectives to be
achieved on the road to the reconquest of the rights
of people it represents the right to make its own
history and the right to dispose freely of its own
productive resources. This will pave the way to.the
final objective of developing a richer, popular,
national, scientific and universal culture.
It is not the task of the liberation movement to
determine whether a culture is specific to the people
or not. The important thing is for the movement to
undertake a critical analysis of that culture in the
light of the requirements of the struggle and of
progress; to give it its place within the universal
civilization without consideration as to its superiority
or inferiority, with a view to its harmonious inte-
gration into the world of today as part of the com-
mon heritage of mankind.


I -I II II ~II ~Jl~~b~l~~"~e ~~ SSB~BB-_dCI ICdl ---LI

a I e ~ -~s~--F -- 4 ~a~L~ ~qBIIL &I ~p,


Dear Friends,
I was pleased that the
Secretariat was kind enough
to provide me with a few
back issues of the official.
organ. I read and re-read
'Ivar Oxaal's reflections on,
the Group's thinking and life.
Here in Switzerland
Lloyd's oft-repeated maxim
,that 'politics is life' takes
concrete form. The nation
literally goes to the polls
every month either by Go-&
vernment's mandate or their
'own accord (peoples' initia-
tive) to vote on nearly all
aspects of the nation's life -
price of beer and public trans-
The proposal to raise the
price of beer occasioned such
a storm of protests that it was,
removed from the Federal
Agenda within two weeks
Not even the Yoga school
is free from a political hap,
opening. It is not unusual for
some angry Swiss to run into
lit looking for co-signers to a
private initiative to freeze a
recent Government proposal.
The depth of their involve-
ment is fascinating:
I have recently started to
ive-courses in Eastern Thera-
pies in Austria to meet the
:expenses of a project I have
started in Trinidad. My firm
intention is to return to Trini-
'dad in two years time.

SUNDAY MARCH 24,1974 '

Your Manifesto expresses what


Dear Tapia
I have read through the
Manifesto. It is an extra-
ordinary prospect you offer.
What others would deride -"
visionary, for you is utmob.
pragmatic..The society you
visage is the expression of
what it isi people want, rather
than the way in which society
appears when organized to pit
men against each other. One
is a social order; the other, an
In the society you en-
visage, wnat we call "tourism"
is organized in terms of how
,can the person from outside
our society, here at leisure,
nourish our development. We
do not want to divert our
energies from our objectives
ito accommodate his presence
among us. We want to use
,the energy of his presence to
help us to do better.
This means for him to
'experience what is happening
in our society and to represent

My thoughts are always
with' the Group's life 'and
S Greetings and good wishes
'to all.
Tony Meias.

Mrotr eaB is trel

double fot me

,Dear Sir,
IF YOU own a motor car
-like me and you can't afford
to change a car every two
years and you can't fix car,,
you in for a lot of harassment.
When a car is two to
three years old the agents
stop bringing down parts. You
are then thrown to another
pack of wolvesthe second
hand parts dealers into
a world of pilferage, chipa-
.nery, smart man thing. Mr
Editor, when you do get it
-running you have bad road,
reckless drivers, traffic jam
to contend with. On top of
'that prices rising all the time.
Mr Editor if you could
stay from that License Office,
stay away. If you think you
could get anything cone down
there within an hour or so.
Yuhlie. Make sure you have a
day to waste.


In my time, I have owned
two cars. The first one was a
fourth hand Volkswagen in
the "D" series and a Vauxhall
102.When I boughttne Volks i.
knew I had to do an engine
job on it. So, a friend of
mine advised me to take it.to'
his uncle in the deep south to
do the job. But stupid me
thought that Palo Seco too
far. Well, I never had a greater
I took the car to a mecha-
.nic in the back of San Juan
not knowing that San Juan is
the capital of that underworld
in stolen parts and second-
hand parts. The engine .job
took about tree months to

be completed. After two
months the engine was
mounted back on the car. Yet
my mechanic kept telling me
the job not finished.
Then one day a friend
told me he, saw my car in
Diego Martin and the descrip-
tion of the driver fitted that
of my mechanic. In a rage I
went back by the mechanic
and after we exchanged some
,cuss words he told me I could
take it the next day.

@ 6
Well the next day I arrived
in time. When I arrived at the
open air .garagehe was pour-
ing some oilinto the engine
and he was dressed to kill.
Boy if I had arrived a.minute
later neither man nor car
would have been there. Any
how I took the car and you
know what happenedInthree
days itime-the engine seized
and I was back in the frying
pan. I sold that car and de-
cided to buy another car;
more worries.
Hear, what I buy a
Vauxhall 102 the most noto-
rious bad car imaginable. This
time I said I will have no
dealings with backyard me:
chanics otherwise I might get
murder charge. ame Khaki
pants. For two years i have
been trying to get a rack
assembly for the car. and i
cannot get it. Well Sunday
gone something in the steer-
ing snapped and the car down.
Mr Editor, what you sug-
gest beat somebody?
Yours Truly


Ithe truth of it to others.
Our need is to get messages of
what is real in the world so
we know how to deal with
each other. The experience
of the visitor within the
'State becomes an instrument
of both domestic nourishment
,and of foreign policy.
What we need., then, are,
accommodations and experi-'
ences organized around hav-
ing the visitor gain insights
into our cultural perspective.
It should be an expression of
how do we, introducing a
,visitor into an understanding
of our society; utilize our
range of resources so he under-
stands where he is and what is
going on.
The expression occurs in
architecture,use of materials,
organization of scale and
pace, the spectrum of sounds
and sights and smells which
characterized our place as ours.
The entertainments'are those
'which represent our arts to

the visitor: these. are the things
about which, we express our-
selves. It is also a form in
which you can come to under-
stand us.
It becomes an expression
,somewhere along the range
of how we respond to those
who do not understand the
,idiom of our community. The,
visitor from abroad is an
elaboration on the theme of
We can draw him in and
experience the joy, share
,witt-him the pleasure, of hi?
'learning something new, and
about himself, by overcoming
such prejudice as he brings
and freeing himself of it.
There is no reason why
this should be other than a
joyous 'expression for the
visitor. Surely one wants him
to share in our delights, and
we can understand he does
not seek a "heavy" experi-
ence. We can enjoy our own
amusement in making it fun
-for the visitor.
Surely if our society is to
,enjoy itself, then it is this
same enioyment to be shared

with the visitor. The range of,
amenities which are available
to be developed in our society.
is what we organize for our
use and share with the visitor.
One wants to commum-
cate this to the people we
would have come. Everyone
who participates in the com-
municating wants to under-
stand all of what is going on..
One wants to speaK to 'ver-
seas agencies concerned to
assist our development so that
they understand it is for such
a tourism that we want to be
helped, and if necessary, to
help communicate this to the
marketplace for us. It may be
just that which we need to
make us strong through the
energies of tourism.
As a marketplace thing,
all of this is workable. There:
is no question that this is the
clearest message the market-
place could- receive. It would'
be the least costly to estab-
It would be the representa-
tion of the society in all ways
in which it is represented
overseas, whether by political
representatives or artists or:
our own tourists there or in;
any other way.




Typesetting;Paste-up and
Offset Printing Services that
are dependable and of high

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or visit our offices at 82-84

St.Vincent St. Tunapuna

_ ___ __ I __ L



Third World

A Prensa Laiina Report

A RETIRED General of German extraction, Ernesto
Geisel. has recently become president ot Brazil, sur-
rounded by an aureole of propaganda which tried to
present him as a democrat and a protector of foreign
capital investments.
Geisel, 64, retired from the army in 1969 to
become the director of PETROBRAS, the state oil
agency, was chosen by General Emilio Garrastazu
Medici .as presidential successor.

Upon presenting Geisel to
the public after a meeting of
.several hours on June 18, Pre-
sident Medici said : "My
choice for candidate more
than satisfies all the requisites;
and I have the fullest confi-
denice that as president of the
republic he will .not permit
any deviation whatsoever
from the economic, social
and. political philosophy go-
verning our society".
The rb.ew president will
take power. with- the blessing.
of'his older brother who is
minister of the army' (de-
fense), General Orlando
Geisel, who has strenghtened
and modernized the Brazilian
armed forces.-
Ernesto's inauguration as
president of 'this immense
country of 100'million in-
habitants. is marred by severe
Criticismm, national and inter-
national,. of a political and
social system in which police
terrorr, violation of human:
* rights .and corruptionn march
Together with .the riotable
capitalist economic "growth.
being formerited by .trans-
national investments.

Since the military coup
against .Joao Goulart in April
1964, great masses of the
Population have been neglect-,
ed and repressed, and an in-
creasing number of incentives
have been. offered to the
overseas corporations.
The absence of popular
.participation in the choice of.
the presidential siccessor- is.
one of the riost notorious.
aspects of. the'regime's po-
litical, practices. Elections are
indirect, 'effected through the
votes of an "electoral college''
made-up of. the members of
the -only. two parties allowed
to function, with the National
S'Renovation Alliance. (arena)
(government) possessing the
"This is only a farce under
the guise. of elections", said
Lysaneas Maciel, member of
the .Brazilian Democratic
Movement (MDB) (opposi-
tion) recently in. Congress .
In April 1974 Geisel will
have to re-establish the politi-
cal' rights' that were taken
away from hundreds .of in-
tellectuals and political figures
ten yeais ago, among them,
Joao Goulart, Juscelino-Kubit-.
schek, Leonel Brizola; Fran--
cisco Juliao and Miguel Arraes
The restriction of .civil
rights since Marshal Arturo
Costa e Silva decreed Insti-
tutional Act No. 5-in Decem-
ber 1968, has given the coun-
try an extraordinary regime
where strikes, habeus corpus
and other basic human rights
are completely non-existent'.
Press censorship is general.
Many press organs have ac-
cepted self-censorship; others
a permanent state censor on
the premises who processes
au material before publica-

Corruption in the army
continued to increase in 1973.
According to well-informed
sources, nearly 70 army .offic-
ers and 65 officers froin.other '
branches have been involved
in thefts, embezzlements, cor-
ruption and narcotics'peddl-.
ing. .
The Death Squad. has re-
sumes its .activities- and in
November of'this year killed
more'than 20 people;.leaving .
their bodies marked .with-the
symbols of the organization. .
Observers estimate that' the
killings.. committed .by the
Teat5h ,_Snila d -7 mriim"l"".-iFr"

policemen i "-- n u' -m .
repressive line of the regime
to assure the presidential
In the economic field,
Brazil's foreign debt at 'the.
b e g i i n i n g of
July. ascended to 11.125
million dollars. For the fifth'
consecutive year the economy
has grown at a rate of 9 per
cent,'. but in uneven terms,
since industry (1'5 per cent)
surpassed agriculture (5 or 6
per cent) by .a wide margin.
Inflation, which the'Medici.
regime had set at '12 per-cent
for this year, has soared to"
35 per cent, according to the.

The three military govern
ments in power since 1964'
(Humberto Castello Branco,.
Arturo Cosia e Silva and
Emiiio Garrastazu Medici)
have'opened up the country .
to foreign investments.'
Inrecent years, hundreds
of overseas factories have
moved into .Brazil and the
regime has given them a gua-
raitee of a tranquil, political'
climate based on repression,'
cheap labor power and tax
exemptions with the obliga- .
tion that. all their output be
exported. The volume of
foreign investments in Brazil
increased from 1632 million
dollars in 1967 to 3404 mil-
lion in 1973, according to the
Planning Ministry.
US. Ambassador in Bra-
zil, John H.. Crimmins, re-
cently said in Washington that .
"U.S. investors can find con-.
siderable- opportunities for
their capital in Brazil"..
MDB deputy iin the lower
chamber, Aldo Fagundes, said
in December that the so-called



expected as


assumes Brazil's



B.razilian nriracle in the field
of ecpnbmy ."is .the work'of
Foreign saints. The; facilities
given for the repatriation.'of
profits to.the overseas parent
companies endangers national
sovereignty and- Brazil in
general". .
riTam TIT-' -T^v^- ^ --.,

This policy of open doors
to foreign capital,' in' tfhe
opinion of experts, will con-
tinue since,. as Medici- said
when he presented his. suc-
cessor,. "Geisel'is the regime's
man and that is why he was
SIn the social order, the
future administration of
Erriestb Geisel will have to
tackle the country's worst
problems, for which previous
governments have. given no
S The. distribution of the
national income is .becoming
more and more lopsided. Sixty
per cent of the population in
1960 received 25 per cent.of
theilational ineoine;at and the
end. of the -decade of the
sixties only 20 per cent re-
ceived the same amount. The

top 10, per cent on the scale
who obtained. 39 per cent of
Sthe national inc6me-in 1960,
received 48 per cent in 1970.
Theil there is the great
number of unemployed -and
underemployed .The biweekly
publication. of the achdiocese..
of Sao Paulo. "calls attention

-are often healthy men and'
women who. cannot find
The country has one of
the highest infant mortality
rates in the continent, 112 -
deaths per every 1000 live
births, bettered only by Haiti
which has 130...'

The Government budget
for 1974 ascends to 9,959.
million dollars, of which only
96 million have been allocated'
to the Public Health Ministry;.
giving a per capital expendi-.
ture of 94 cents for. health.
'Brazilian' art and culture
have' also been' adversely 'af- .
Sfected. Nearly 400 plays have
been censored, an infinite
number of songs banned an.d





. Stephens

dozens of internationally fa-
mous films prohibited. Several
intellectuals have gone to pri-
son without the public.being
informed .about it, as. is the
case-with Cesar Vieira.
SOn' December 5, the day
Congress took a recess until
,next March when the new

"There- is talk of develop-
ing the country but govern-
ment statistics are made up of
clod members, the pain, blood
and sweat of millions of des-
perate Brazilians"' And he
asked: "What kind of develop-
ment is. this in which the
people do not participate?
It. is expected that .Geisel
will not bring any-changes on
the political .scene.. In the
Arena Convention held on
September 15, Geisel himself
eliminated all doubt's when
he affirmed:
"Security is and will be,
'perhaps on a bigger scale, the
essential condition of the
nation's development and
both security and develop-
ment will be based on a
responsible foreign, policy".







I - --



Lennox Grant
THE THIRD in the series
of Tapia Regional Assem-
blies came off last Sun-
day at the OWTU's Hall
of the Revolution in Fy-
With the aims of boost-
ing commitment and mo-
rale; tightening organisa-
tion and cementing ties
between Tapia groups, the
Regional Assemblies be-
gan in La Brea on March 3.
The second was at Point
Fortin on March 10 and the
last in the series, before the
the Annual General Assembly
on April 7, will be held on
Sunday, March 24 in Corosal.
Journeying from Tuna-
puna ;and other areas in the
north, and from San Fernando
and neighboring districts in
the south, the usual combina-
tion of Tapia members, asso-
ciates and friends joined Fyza-
bad counterparts in the Hall
of the Revolution last Sun-
day morning.
The day's programme con-
sisted of presentations from
Fyzabad main-men. Mickey
Matthews and Alston Grant,
addresses from Campaign
Manager Michael Harris and
.Secretary Uoyd Best, and
discussion involving every-


In a brisk review of "The

devenlpments in the national
political situation since the
end of 1973.
Recalling the coming-and
going of Williams, the 1974
oil budget and the Wooding
Commission Report, Alston
Grant told members that the
Tapia position had retained its
validity and relevance.
Now more than ever be-
fore, there was need for the
Constituent Assembly. We
could expect that the idea of
bringing all the fragments to-
gether in a bid to constitute
the new state and society
would finds support among
more and more people.
Grant cited the Commit-
tee of 22 which has mobilized
against Gairy in Grenada, and
the report that the OWTU
and the Trade Union Congress
have been discussing recon-
Call the Constituent As-
sembly; the Fyzabad Tapia-
man pleaded, and let the
leaders of the people emerge.
The sober and purposeful
atmosphere of the Assembly
led Campaign Manager Michael
Harris to contrast the Tapia
method of organising with
the conventional way.
But not everybody saw
the difference for what it was
- a difference of means lead-
ing to a radically different set
of aims.
Indeed some have been
confused by the Tapia method
of mobilization which does
not go in for "the grand
hurrah, the big parade, the
motorcade, the agitational
Opposing the traditional
exclusion of the people from


the corridors of power, Tapia
set out instead to nurture
community organisation and
to encourage community ini-
tiative as a basis for having
strong local government.
Local groups like the one
in Fyzabad, Harris said, are
the "seedlings of the local
government plants".
The experience of organi-
zation, of mobilization, of
developing and implementing
policies and programmes, and
the experience which enables
people to recognize genuine
as .distinct from charismatic
leadership these were what
will be developed in the pro-
cess of community organisa-
tion, Tapia-style.
But because people have
not been accustomed to tak-
ing such initiative, the re-
sponsibility was frightening;
it required courage.
Tapia, Harris said, could
not boast as much success as
we niid have liked. Never

-And to groups like his
Fyzabad hosts, he directed
this exhortation:
"There will be frequent
depression, a result of lack of
receptivity to your ideas and
methods. It is an arduous task.
"But you must remem-
ber as you struggle that other
Tapia people are engaged at
the same time elsewhere in
the same struggle. And re-
member, too, that your great-
est strength lies inyour unity".


Mickey Matthews, who
acted as chairman of the
Assembly, gave a powerful
statement of Economic Re-
organisation which moved
Tapia Secretary Lloyd Best
to te~s.
Arguing that economic re-
organisanon was basically a
question of ideology. Mat-
thews warned his hearers not
to get trapped in a debate
between capitalism and social-
The unconventional forces
in the world today have dis-
avowed both capitalism and
socialism, neither of which is
fundamentally different in
the approach to power and
the view of man.

What Tapia and others
seek is a whole new civiliza-
In Trinidad and Toabgo,
he said, what economic re-
organisation means is full em-
ployment; taking over the
metropolitan sector; control
of the economy residing with
people in the localities; and
social equality.
This is Localisation, as

Tapia means it.
Elaborating on the pro-
posals, ,he called for taking
control of the oil industry,
of banking and insurance; the
phasing out of sugar produc-
tion in Caroni and rationalis-
ing land use; distributing
former sugar lands to farmers;
a genuine freeing of enter-
prise not what the Chamber
means by that but in such a
way tobring real entrepreneurs
into the game; and a large
scale house building pro-
Filled with emotion, Secre-
tary Lloyd Best commended
the "lucidity and clarity"
with which Mickey Matthews
had articulated the Tapia
position on localisation.
"I have never: heard", said
Lloyd Best, "the position put
more clearly and concisely.
And when I hear that, I
know that we are winning.
"I know that many peo-
ple in this country and else-
where are trying to do what
we are trying to do to
articulate the position for the
unconventional opposition in
the whole civilization.
"And they can't get a
hearing for the simple reason
that what they say in all their
little ways is drowned out by
the din of irrelevancy. We are
tied up with statements of
position that have nothing
to do with us.

"The most damaging con-
sequence of the colonial con-
dition is that we have to see
ourselves through other men's
eyes. We speak a language that
is not our own. Not so much
the words as the music.
"Because we're so lacking
in self confidence, we don't
say what's important to us.
In school we are taught not
to learn, but to know.
"The result, after 100
years of that kind of educa-
tion, is that the whole nation
is in revolt; everybody up in
arms; a million flowers bloom-
ing. And we know that the
game is over.
"Now every segment of our
people is trying to speak what
is inside itself. Truly a revo-
lutionary process. And that
we are here is partly.a cause
and partly an effect of it.
For we know that a new
morning is at hand.
"Little by little, citizens
are coming into the revolu-
tionary stream. And like
every river, it. begins as a

trickle to swell into a mighty
estuary at the end."
Explaining himself by re-
ference to the Rodney issue,
the February Revolution and
the groups of ordinary citizens
who have since come into the
struggle, the Secretary said
that when ordinary citizens
pick themselves up even
on a small issue it was a
sign that something is happen-
However, he warned:
"Revolutionary dimensions of
political significance will be
assumed only when there
exists a political nexus to
harness the little bits and
make them into a coherent
"We must see the indica-
tors of a new dispensation
and take the opportunity to
create organisation that is
superior in every political
department. Until that comes,
the instability will. continue
- until that is, the country
finds the moral strength to rise
against the instability";



Power to the People
Tapia' New World
TAPIA Back Numbers
Tapia Constitution
Democracy or Oligarchy? C.V. Gocking
Reform of the Public Service Denis Solomon
Foreign Investment In T and T Mc Intyre & Watson
Central Banking C. Y. Thomas
Non-Bank Financial Institutions M. Odle
Foreign Capital in Jamaica Norman Girvan
Post War Economic Development
of Jamaica 0. Jefferson
Underdevelopment and
Dependence ed Norman Girvan)
Persistent Poverty George Beckford
Readings in The Political Economy
of the Caribbean N. Girvan & O. Jefferson
Political Economy of the English
Speaking Caribbean W. Demas
The Dynamics of W.I. Economic
Integration Brewster & Thomas
The Adjustment of Displaced
Workers In A Labour Surplus
Economy Roy Thomas
The Integrated Theory of
Development Assistance Davidson L. Budhoo
Cuba Since 1959 James Millette
- From CARIFTA to
SCaribbean Community (CARIFTA)
The Caribbean Community
A Guide -(CARICOM)
At the Tapia House, 82-84 St. Vincent St. Tunapuna, Trinidad & Tobago.
Phone: 662-5126

$ 3.60










L c

ed er -h

hoids S h

F a ad

Assem' -bl

AL no% M JL

- I


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ICC _I I;~- 111






last in a long line of MCC hasn't gone down well with
captains who have been se- the English team and it is
elected on the judgment that particularly gallingto Boycott.
great players don't become What we find as a result-
great captains, is that the same forces that
have demoralised the West
Indies before is now hindering
0* England. Many people are
saying this is the weakest
Few other judgments on English team ever. Yet, the
the game have done as much present team is basically the
damage to it; it really has been same team which beat the
the excuse for mediocre W I in 1969, beat Australia
amateurs to be captain over in 1970/71, and drew 2-2
more seasoned and talented with Australia in 1972 under
campaigners. Illingworth's captaincy.
The exclusion of John
The selection of Denness Snow has also weakened the
as Captain over Ray Illing- MCC team. All these factors
worth in the first place and plus' the Boycott affair in
Geoff Boycott in the second England last year has knocked
has proven to be a costly a lot of wind out of this
mistake. Denness' selection current series and made such

II r~3

a one sided affair in the Wl's


Secondly, Sobers probably
sees himself as superflous in a
situation where the opposing
team is weak and the WI
brimful of talent.-With Julien
growing into a splendid all
rounder and Rowe and Kalli-
charan in top form, our batt-
ing is extremely strong even
in his absence. With Boyce
coming back into the team,
WI new fast bowling find,
Andy Roberts, is certain to
be left out. But Boyce is in
his early thirties, the retiring
age for most fast bowlers. So
the W I needs to groom young
fast bowlers. Roberts is one
of them. Consequently the
king abdicates to make way
for the 23 year old man. I
don't think any other sport
has known a finer sportsman
than Gary Sobers.



Ruthven Baptiste
with Test cricket? Last
Wednesday the great ad-
vocate of bright cricket
announced that he was
unavailable for the fourth
test at Bourda. Following
up on a statement he
made last year that he had
no plans of retiring from
the game but that he
would fade from the
game has he begun
the fading process? I cer-
tainly think so.
I think there are two
reasons for Sobers' decision.
Firstly, Sobers loves -a fast
pitch and bright cricket and
the prospects of such is un-
likely at Bourda. Sobers hav-
ing mastered all departments
of the game, played on every
major cricket ground aronud

the world, holder, of several
records including the mghest
individual test score, at this
stage of his career only a
tense battle of the willow
fraught with challenges can
can sustain his interest..

S *

The Bourda pitch is probably
the slowest pitch in the world.
and it is there the most bor-
ing test match in cricket his-
tory was played between the
West Indies and New Zealand
in 1972. 1974 only promises
a slight improvement.
With a slow pitchDenness'
defensive tactics willaddinsult
to injury. We can expect
another big score from Rowe
who is sound in temperament
and technique. A defensive
approach will guarantee a
massive total. Denness is the

still- Number

ing the keen edge of form
that won him the Tunapuna
Tigers Bat-O-Rama champion-
ship last week, on Monday
evening gave Stephen Wade,
Trinidad National Champion,
a small shock.
In the first game of a
three game set, Brewster ex-
cited the handful of onlookers
by chopping and flicking his
way to a 21-8 victory over

As the murmur of excite-
ment spread through the
crowd, Wade could be seen
gathering all his mental forces
together. Ana the next two

games produced some of the
uevastatmg form that has
kept Wade at the top of the
National standings.
A steady stream of loops
and powderdrives kept Brews
ter scrambling from one side
of the playing area to the
other. But Wade.did not have
it all his own way.
For Brewster, encouraged
by his victory in the first
game and scenting the possi-
bilities of a real upset, gave
of his best. He was able to
retrieve some of the most
-powerful of Wades drives.
Wade won the second set
In the third game how-
ever, all Brewster's hopes
vanished. Wade was unplay-

able. On one occasion Wade
executed a loop using his
wrist to keep the ball down.
Brewster almost kissed the
cold earth as he bent to re-
trieve it. The slaughter went


With the game in Wade's
favor 15-1, bets were passed
around as to whether Brewster
would ever get beyond 1. At
18-1 with Brewster looking
ragged, Wade relented enough
to allow Brewster, gambling
now, to gain two more points.
Then with a vicious drive
Wade ended it all. Brewster
had got the message. Not this

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16z, .i::- 1 ,8t cli Ftr ,:,
IE"T YChi,- N.Y. :.01,
Ph. Lehigh 5 848,

____ ____/,I1 / ii .jnS,7.

THE election of officers to
the Tapia National Executive
for 1974-75 is to take place
on Sunday May 5. At the
meeting of the Council of
Representatives held in San
Fernando on Monday March
17, it was decided that a
second session of the 1974
Annual General Assembly
would be necessary if ample
attention were to be devoted
to the political situation in
the country, the internal busi-
ness of Tania and the elec-


increased oil revenues on po-
litical opinion, and the pros-
pect for the consummation of
the February Revolution in a
new government by the end
of the year.
The second sitting of May
5 will be open to Tapia mem-
bp~ lnx In n ~idnl l tte

2nd Vice-Chairman
Assistant Secretary
Community Secretary
Education Secretary

Three Unassigned Members
The Executive also in-
cludes six other members,
ex officio.
These are:
Administrative Secretary

n.. 0 1 1 Uci UiLe111 i iLrcuitl ar ler
tions for the new term. to members and associates,
The first sitting of the Community Secretary, Ivan
Annual General Assembly is Laughlin, has urged members
carded for Sunday April 7 at to place themselves in good
the Tapia House. The session financial standing by 12.30
is to be open to all Tapia p.m. on April 7 so as to
associates and supporters as facilitate the distribution of sU
well as members in line nomination forms at the first
with the practice established session. Both proposers and
at the three extraordinary seconders are required to be
assemblies held in recent paid-up Tapia members.
months. Nominations will close on
The entire attention of Sunday April 28, one week
the Assembly will focus on before the elections.
political developments with The 11 Executive offices GE
special reference to the im- involved are:
pending climax of the consti- Chairman
tutional crisis, the impact of ist Vice Chairman

Outgoing Executive ASSMIw

Chairman -- Syl Lowhar Secretary to the Executive ..
Vice Chairmau Volney Ca;iv Pe-t-- ..
Pierre Editor Lennox Grant
scci..- yDirector of Tapia Enterprises
Asst. Secretary Lloyd Arthur Atwell
Taylor Public Relations Officer -
Admin- Secretary Allan Dennis Pantin
Treasurer BaldwinrMootoo Unassigned -
Education Secretary Denis Hamlet Joseph
Solomon Keith Smith
Community Secretary Ivan Alston Grant
Laughlin Mickey Matthews a unday April 7,19

Education Oam

Committee starts work
ON Thursday March 14th ships between education and A T
the TapiaEducation Com- areas of national life such as
mittee met in Tunapuna economicorganisation,health,
to begin work on a com- religion and sport. It would T a H
prehensive statement on thus reflect the Tapia philoso- T he T apia H ou
education. phy of integrated planning in
e E C the context of administra-
The Education Commit- tive decentralisation and par- 8 S t V in c e n t
tee is one of the committees ticipatorypolitics. 2 -
set up by the Tapia Council of Education Secretary, Denis
Representatives to study and Solomon, was charged with
report on major areas of na- editing the outline and pre-
tional ifte. paring documentation for the
The meeting on March next meeting at which the uu i
14th, which was chaired by outline will be amended and T
Mr Ishmael Samadh, first con- finalized and a drafting sub-
sidered a set of guidelines for committee appointed.M mr Ai rt
educational policy prepared The meeting also adoptedem er Aa e -S ppor
by Mrs Sheilah Solomon, and
by Mrs Sheilah Solomon, and proposals for two Tapia pro-
then discussed the preparation jects in the field of educa-
of an expanded outline for ion: a journal for teachers
tion: a journal for teachers
the comprehensive statement. and other workers in the All Tapia people who need or can assist with
I t was agreed that the educational field, and a child- transportation to and from the Assembly are
both a philosophical state- ren's magazine, asked to advise the Administrative Secretary,
ment on the aims of educa- The Education Commit- Allan Harris, not later than Wednesday April
tion and a set of concrete welcomes participation ined 3. Telephone 662-5126. Group arrangements
proposals both short and long its work by all interested for travel from the South can be made with
proposals both short and long persons who can manage to for t with
term, for a national educa- attend meetings by calling the Nigel Gill at the San Fernando Office, 17.
tional policy. Tapia House (662-5126) or Royal Road. Telephone
In addition, the statement Denis Solomon at UWI (662-
would consider the relation- 5511).
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Campaign Manager
Director of Tapia
Public Relations Officer
Secretary to the Executive
Editor of Tapia



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