Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00097
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: February 17, 1974
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00097

Full Text

: i -TE

Vol. 4 No. 7


25 Cents

At the height of the
February Revolution, he
continued, the five
branches of the oil indus-
try were "ripping off"
something like $180m as
against $160 earned jointly
by the State ($70m) and
Oil workers ($80-85m).
Only 1/3 of the gross
value of export earnings
came back to our country
iii foreign exchange.
The Tapia Secretary
cited three reasons for the
opportunity we now have.
The first was the emerging
shortage of energy. De-
mand for fuel was doubling
in less than 15 years.

Secondly, the decision
by the producing countries
to take matters in hand.
This decision, Best said,
was taken at the celebrated
Conference in 1971 at Tri-
poli and Teheran. It had
led, thirdly, to a decision

THE Organisation of Pe-. stand that w. "---"'--'-st -o-' U - L'tsfl.L
n--: ..- _-.- ..i -.. .... an tnat t'w e .o3 or so per barrel.
tries tOPEC) -has -,againe,--still .held our 1956 view Now that prices are oeve?
rejectfedThe appli-cation by that Texaco's presence $10 per barrel, producers
Trinidad & Tobago for here "is a vote of confi- had found an opportunity.
membership. Lloyd Best dence in Trindad & Toba- TriAidad & Tobago had
revealed this to a full meet- go". When we applied for a failed to seize the chance.
ing of the Economics and second time November "We are continuing the
Statistical Society at the last (1973) they rejected policy of being thankful
Shell Club last Wednesday, us again while giving full for small mercies by way
February 13. membership to Ecuador of revenue earned from
The Tapia Secretary and Associate Membership oil still in the control of
was quoting from a report to Gabon. the giant corporations".
in the PETROLEUM Our policy focuses too
PRESS SERVICE of De- much on taxing rather than
cember 1973. He said that on gaining control.
amidst the sound and fury Best told the audience Best explained that'
of multiple diplomatic mis- that all the petroleum pro- this posture of weakness
sions to every conceivable ducers outside the North had led us to give scanda-
corner of the globe, the Atlantic have suffered lous concessions to Federa-
real oil policy of the Go- from weakness in the face tion Chemicals. After out-
vernment was "negative, of the consuming coun- lining the terms of the
defensive and passive", tries. While they produced contract Best said that
He told the surprised half the world output, they whoever wrote it "should
audience that the Oil Pro- consumed only 1/5. Selling be made to declare his
dlrcino countries under- was the problem and only assets".

the economy. The Five
Year Plans simply reiterate
intentions and establish
" innumerable agencies
amounting to only paper
changes," added the Tapia

The job description of
the Energy Secretariat of
1974 "sounds suspiciously
like the prospectus for the
Ministry of Petroleum and
Mines in 1964". And both
overlap with the OIL
From the "old-hat pro-
jects" announced in the
1974 Budget, it was clear,
argued Best, that we have
not been doing any serious
work. That we are not pre-
pared to take control.
We did not see that the
time had come to take
hold of the entire Carib-
bean market within the
context of some long-term
9%. i lr gao nirs.

to- generate the profits and The assets of oil were
the- cash to-explore-new---B ojxthdess-than$ billion.
energy sources. "Assuming that prices will
The result was "a hap- hold fairly firm for two to
py conjuncture" where three years, we are in a
the producing countries position to buy the goose
were taking a stand, helped that lays the golden eggs
by the politics of the Arab out of the tax revenues
countries. Only Trinidad & alone". At an output of
Tobago still regarded oil 60m. barrels, we could
as "a defensive political earn enough to take the
weapon". entire industry over.
We have never had any Profits and deprecia-
clear strategy for dealing tion will still leave a flow
with oil save to say that we of cash with which to
must use the returns from keep operations going.
it to diversify the rest of concluded Lloyd Best.


THE Tapia Secretary Lloyd
Best leaves today, Fri. 15th
Feb. for the University of
Miami in Florida. Best shall be
the inaugural speaker in a series
of lectures devoted to the Con-
temporary Caribbean.
The Series, which is spon-
sored by the University's Gra-
duate Student Association, is
scheduled to run throughout
the present semester. Other

speakers in the series will be
Derek Walcott, Edward Braith-
waithe, George Beckford, Rex
.Nettleford and CLR James.
Best shall be speaking on!
the topic 'The Caribbean in
Western Civilization'. He shall
be away for two weeks. In his
absence the duties of Tapia
Secretary shall be undertaken
by Asst. Secretary Lloyd


Year day fire at the Royal
Gaol in Port of Spain, Prison
Authorities launched a cam-
paign against the natural hair-
styles of prisoners whom they
accused of hiding weapons and
other items in their 'Afros'.
Whether such actions consti-
tute justifiable precautionary
moves on the part of the
authorities or whether they are
unwarranted infringements of

individual rights is soon to.be
NJAC's Education and ke-,
search Secretary,Dave Darbeau,
detained on charges including
armed robbery, has filed a
motion in the High Court
which asks the Court to de-
clare that the Commissioner of
Prisons is not empowered or
authorised to cut, trim or theat
his beard or hair while in

__ __

UUAl, kj ltlva "lu i

""0 LA.' F U-... .--





THE Tapia Council of Representativesmay meet in future in two(
monthly sessions one in the north and one in the south, with
island-wide sessions every quarter.
This would be if the Council accepts a proposal made by
Secretary Lloyd Best at the last monthly meeting held in San
Fernando on Monday, February 11.
Offering this suggestion to the Council, Lloyd Best referred to
the expansion of the organisation and the difficulty '. '. to bh
encountered in getting together all the local group representatives in
a single place every month.
According to the Tapia Constitution, the Council of Repre-
sentatives comprises the National Executive would have to bc
present at both regional sessions of the Council meetings, if the
proposed procedure is agreed upon.
The Meeting last Monday also fixed the date of the Genera
Assembly of Tapia for March 31. This will be the annual general
meeting of the Tapia House Group of which the highlight will be the
election of officers for the 1974-73 term.






Ly i-Talo. si t Ser
BH. .'- ^'^,^^^B

T- Ass --isn S
^^-^ Lloyd Taylor -Assistant Secretary

THE current unrest in the
r elen t essy sugar industry marked by
protest, strikes and inter-
THE CLEAREST thing Wooding Report, yet it lacked necine strife marks the tail
about the present political the self-confidence to attack end of the revolutionary
-+*aftinn. is the "relentless it, knowing it could not carry mobilization begun in
one hand and na nme Ta"P1 --arnest in 1968.
decline of the Government Fa ,o
on the other hand-. movement in sugar, comprising tary Lloyd Taylor suRfmeol u
Tapia Secretary loyd Best the most subjugated people the situation in sugar for the
told last Monday's Council in the country, the government Council of Representatives
meeting that events had had first stalled by charging meeting in San Fernando last
meeting that events had that Panday's people were Monday night.
justified Tapia's August 13, not legitimately constituted as In tis fnal stage of te
1973 projection of the crucial recognize nn this final stage of the
importance of ',the coming 60 mobilization process people of
days". But therethe rural areas, Indians, and
That period last year had for not negotiating witi the agricultural by occupation,
seen the clear public recogni- Panday group since tey ad were on the national stage.
tion of Tapia as an important reinstated Panday constitution- And though their activities
political force and the loss of ally. It was clear that the were aimed at alleviating
the last residue of moral
author ste Wia gogovernment was determined to specific conditions, they were
toty te oen use repression. involved in the process of
ment enjoyed.
Lloyd Best argued that the
1974 Budget, its non-response
to the Wooding Report and its
intention to use repression to
deal with the sugar unrest
showed that the government J `
accepted its strength to be at
the lowest ebb.
By our three successful
Assemblies last year and on
January .20 this year, Tapia
had shown itself to be a vibrant
and steadily advancing organisa-
The Budget he described
as "the cheapest form of
political gimmickry". Despite
the fact that the government
had an extra $400 million to
use, it had not seen fit to SELL OUR PAPER EVERY WEEK-END
embark on any project aimed ARRANGE HOUSE MEETINGS
at spiritual and cultural uplift- START TAPA GROUPS N YOUR AREA
ment. The Government had START TAPIA GROUPS IN YOUR AREA
meant. The Government had
been guided only by material- ORGANISE COMMUNITY WORK
ist, nakedly political motiva- *COME TO THURSDAY WORK-SESSIONS

He noted that some $200
million had been kept in store,
probably for use as massive
political biibes, and it was
likely that there would be a
second Budget late in the year
aimed at doing just that.
Before that, however, Lloyd
Best said, the government
probably hoped to get past the
electoral/constitutional issue
by postponing it. The Williams
regime could not favour the



Lloyd Best Secretary

S .i 7 We had held a few public
meetings in Balmain in 1972
and in Dinsley in 1973 after
the Hunte and Tello issue had
arisen at Orange Grove.
Taylor pointed out that
though important gains had
been derived from our activities
in sugar over the last few
years, we were not in a posi-
tion to determine the outcome
of events in that industry.
Part of the reason for this
was that we had not sought to
change started more than five control anything but rather to
years ago by people in the encourage the development of
urban areas. leadership from among the
Tapia had begun to get people actually involved in
involved in sugar in 1969 sugar.
through our connection with He was not in a position
the Orange Grove workers, to say what would happen in
Taylor said. Since then we sugar, although there have been
L... signs of the Govern-
r .merls uinteivention in the
support and advice on occasion, arrea, r ._Trof n- nd Lennard
and making useful contacts and the Ministry of Labour's
with local leaders in the sugar .K
belt. The Assistant Secretary
The Assistant Secretary urged against the expectation
recalled Tapia's involvement of any cut and dried solution
through himself in the October or answer, and pointed to the
to December 1972 agitation of need to increase activities of
the factory workers in Brechin the kind we have been carry-
Castle. ing out in sugar.



NAME ------ ---------

ADDRESS-- -------- ----- ------

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RETURN TO: Tapia House Publishing Co. Ltd.,
91 Tunapuna Rd. Tunapuna, Phone: 662-5126.
Trinidad and Tobago.


TUNAPUNA 662-5126



CENTRAL to the fortunes of Orange Grove is tl e fact that no other sugar
refinery the world over has ever been able to surpass its repur;,tion for the
finest quality yellow sugar yellows now produced. Needless to say
such an enviable record could hardly have been attained except by over
30 years of ceaseless experimentation, and above all, by allowing creative
minds their fullest expression.
Pitched by the sheer force of circumstances, into the very Core of the
experiments, and their practical application, have been George Seeberan
and Charles Yallery, a formidable combination of otherwise reticent per-
s( ,alities. By their dedication, and their devotion, by their skill and their
e perience, and above all, by the application of an apparently untiring
eative capacity these two have managed to sustain without blemish
( range Grove's reputation.
As the Chief Chemist, and as
the Chief Sugar Boiler Supervisor
respectively, Seeberan and Yallery
together exercise those functions
the essence of which are the final
crystalisation of cane syrup into
Together they account for some
75 years experience in the business of
making sugar. Charles Yallery ,with 41
of those years to his credit actually
began working at the Brechin Castle
old factory in 1933. In those years B C
was' the best producer of yellows in the
entire Caribbean. It was there he served
his .apprenticeship under deceased Jo-
seph London who to judge from Yallery's
veneration for him, must have been no
ordinary mortal.


In 1936 Yallery had moved to
Orange Grove which produced until
1940 a brand of yellow crystals similar
to that of BC. Eventually he went on to
become a full-fledged sugar boiler in his
own right. Today he supervises the Pan
Loft at Orange Grove, and has a staff
made up of 6 pan boilers, and 3 super-
visors. His experience in sugar boiling
puts him a cut above his counterparts,
and indeed, it is not without merit that
he is regarded as the Dean among sugar-
IBut wna xpr1. iiJ-1 r-
called sugar-boiling? According to See-
beran and Yallery it is the art of forming
and growing sugar crystals, and eventual-
ly developing them into the size re-
quired by the consumer. So that as
Seeberan would have it, pan-boilers are
are really crystalographers.
The process involves the boiling of
cane syrup to the point just before it is
altered into a mass of tiny grains or
crystals. This is known as the point of
super-saturation. In order to shorten
the graining process sugar dust received
from the Chemist is thrown into the
super-saturated syrup. Graining'begins
thereupon, and they are developed to
the size required by accretions of syrup
taken slowly into the pan.


This process requires constant co-
ordination between the activities-of the
chemist, and the operations on the
Pan Loft. Perhaps the most crucial
aspect of transforming syrup into sugar
is that requiring the treatment of the
cane juice. In fact Seeberan assures us
that unless juice is properly clarified the
other stages the graining and develop-
ing of crystals would not proceed
smoothly. He should know since the
clarification of cane juice is overseered
by him.
But it was not until 1968 that
George Seeberan was elevated to the
position of Chief Chemist Previous to
this he languished for years in experi-
mentation, doing the bull work with
little or no notice taken of his capacity
for the job. As it turned out the manage-
ment's obsession with "papers", and
their distrust of local talent were per-
haps the main reasons why he remained
in more or less obscurity.
Seeberan's engagement in sugar
technology began in 1940 just when the
United Kingdom's Food and Drugs
Division had discovered that Orange
Grove's sugar contained a lot of poison-
ous tin chloride. Then the deceased
H.E. Murray used to complain without

fail that there was no one competent to
assist in the work of experimentation.
Seeberan, tired of hearing such com-
plaints drummed into his ear, decided
that he would switch from being a
statistical clerk to being an apprentice
in the chemist department.
Just then experiments in the use of
titanium tri-chloride, the chemical now
used by Orange Grove for curing the
sugar had begun. According to Seeberan
he was at the heart of these experi-
ments, and therefore had to learn sugar
technology quickly. Apart from a formal
course completed at the old Imperial
College of Tropical Agriculture Seeberan
had access to the Chemist's library at
OG., and with the practical experience
in the sugar house was able to acquit
himself well. Where the ICTA research-
ers had failed to produce yellows from
the newly tried chemical Orange Grove


It is interesting though, the manner
by which Seeberan finally became the
Chief Chemist. Murray, Seeberan's men-
tor finally resigned in 1957, and a
Dutchman Haarbor, the then assistant
to the Chief Chemist took over. He
continued till 1966, and was replaced
by a Guyanese, named Edward Alexan-
der Ready.
According to Seeberan, Ready who
both thought and said that he was a
sugar boiler had made a complete mess.
There was congestion all round, no
room for anything. It was boiling house
congestion Yallery explained, and the
scenes then were reminiscent of those in
1973. Ready lasted for one year and
and that was that. Management offi-
cials then found themselves in a quan-
dry. The question was who next?
Yallery was eventually called in by
management who explained the com-
pany's predicament to him. He imme-
diately recommended Seeberanhis col-

league and co-ordinator, for the job. As
far as he was concerned Seeberan had
being doing all the bull work, and
particularly in tih case of Ready, had
prepared the documents for his chief's

That was in 1968.-The last obstacle
to the flowering of indigenous talent at
Orange Grove was moved, and the
Scebcran-Yallery combination moved
into top gear. Orange Grove had enjoyed
its biggest crop ever; a total of 16,057
tons of sugar was ground from 163,000


the fabled-El Dorado. the lost City of
Yet this similarity is not one that is
immediately obvious. It is not, for
example, to be found in the fact that
the much vaunted yellows have been
found to possess the lustre of gold dust.
Nor is it that this fine quality grain ist
today sought after by certain British
manufacturers with a single-mindedness
that characterized Walter Raleigh's near
relentless pursuit of El Dorado.
Instead one feels threatened, no,
overtaken by a sense of mystery, and by

Lloyd Taylor


tons of cane. As if to applaud this
release of creative energy the cane it-
self yielded high quality juice, the most
important single factor responsible for
such a splendid harvest.
Hitherto little known, this duoshot
into the spotlight admist the c!iarges
that Clement Tello, the Production
Manager,had initiated efficiency schemes
which spelt the suppression of their
traditional functions. According to See-
beran he was ordered to sit down in the
lab in a strictly advisory capacity. Some
efforts may have been made to get a
Guyanese replacement for Seeberan
whose dismissal was recommended to
the Board of Directors. Yallery was
himself deemed redundant.


Unlike Ready, Seeberan tells us,
Tello was ursuping both the functions
of the pan-boiler and that of the chemist.
For the factory hands Tello's new
plans spelt grim forebodings. The wide-
spread evidence of sugar contamination
resulting from a new trough which
Tello had constructed was enough to
make the workers wary of the likely
consequences of his other plans. This
distrust, more than anything else finally
prompted the workers to down tools in
a protest that centered arouridthe desire
to maintain, among other things, the
Seeberan-Yallery combination, and by
extension Orange Grove's world-re-'
nouned reputation.
That a threat to their position
could have elicited such an admittedly
illegitimate, yet morally sound reaction
from the workers bespeaks a lot the
high esteem in which they are held. It
suggests that their story is above that of
the ordinary, and that it in some ways
forms a significant chunk of the entire
Orange Grove episode. With its know-
ledge tod, one cannot help but feel that
to face up to the reality that is Orange
Grove is to sense a peculiar similarity to

a sense of loss. Firstly, there .s the
mysterious because all that is pop:larly
known about the saga of Orange Grove
begins and ends with her famous yellow
crystals. For example, many may know
that the British United Biscuit Com-
pany is an 18m dollar business organised
around the yellows. But how could it
possibly be true that a firm's entire
reputation could rest solely at the end
of the production process itself? That is
barring, of course, the occurence of
And of loss too, because the missing
link that combination of technical
skill, know-how, and a singular capacity
for meticulous supervision, and for con-.
stant concentration as well is even
lesser known, and is not talked about at
all. Yet this is the one factor that must
surely account for the difference be-
tween Orange Grove's sugar crystals,
and those of the others.


This is a focus that obviously means
bringing people nearer up the mind's
eye. More particularly one is brought
face to face with Seeberan and Yallery.
And with this enlarged vision of the
worth of human life, it becomes clearer
that in the lack of appreciation shown
for the merits of the Seeberan-Yallery
combination what has been lost is our
sense of process. The now-for-now reigns
supreme. Only, one is not surprised
that such little self-regard is possible in
the sleepy backwaters of our degraded
Surely, there are bound to be among
us all many more Seeberan's and Yal-
lery's. Many would have already seen
their day a long time thence; many more
are fast fading into pitiful oblivion.
Their praises are but faintly sung in the
memories of a few old souls. Their
noble spirits probably languish for the
recognition that their hard work has
strongly urged upon us.





THE aims of the Society
have not changed, we are
still concerned with pro-
moting the welfare of
architects and of architec-
ture in general. But our
ideas as to how we go
about this certainly have
changed since the society
was started in 1954. Mem-
bers of the society, par-
ticularly the younger ones,
now feel that the society
cannot any longer escape
a deeper involvement in
the affairs of the com-
This was how Ruskin Punch
the newly elected "President of
the Trinidad and Tobago So-
ciety of Architects, explained
the involvement of the society
in a project aimed at develop-
ing a plan for the reorganiza-
tion of the Tourist industry in

The plane disclosed with
obvious enthusiasm, was short-
ly to be presented at the First
Pan American Conference on
Tourism, to be held in Jamaica.
Stressing that the entire plan
had been developed on the
initiative of the society mem-
bers, Punch went on to speak
of what he considered to be
some of the really radical pro-
posals contained in the plan.
In the -first- place, he
pointed out, the members of
the" society ,ivorking on the
plan .had preceded by. asking
themselves ithe question what
do tie people want, from
tounsmn and what irifact had
they so far: gained-,'from the
operations o:f 'the tourist in-
dustry as conducted at present.
They had concluded that
Tourist industry had failed to
generate the kind of benefits
that to the people and the
society in general that were
The tourist industry had
developed as an isolated en-
clave within the economy and
was moreover dominated by
foreign interests. This had led,
Punch observed, to certain un-
welcome social effects.
In Tobago, in particular,
the social consequences were
quite marked. He pointed to
the very open hostility of the
Tobagonians towards visitors,
to 'the begging on the streets
by children and to the drift of
labour from peasant farming
and into the bellboy. trade.
Tobago, the Society felt


Emphasis on __

Dwelling house


was much more vulnerable
than Trinidad to these adverse
effects of tourism and it was
fro this reason that their plan
had concentrated on Tobago.
The key feature of the
Society's plan is that it is
based on an assessment of the
number of visitors that the
people of Tobago would com-
,fortably accommodate at any
given moment.
This figure Punch was care-
ful to point out, was more than
a question of how many hotel
rooms were available, in fact
the plan calls for a complete
reversal of the trend towards
large, lavish hotels and intro-
duces the concept of family
centered accommodation.

m am

In other words, the plan
calls for accommodation to be
provided by individual families
within the community and the
society has in fact designed a
number of dwelling units that
they feel would facilitate this.
So that the whole village
becomes a hotel and the neces-
sary integration of .the tourist
industry into economic and
social life of the village is
more easily accomplished.
In reply to the question
whether or not he felt that

the Society's Plan would find
favour in the country, Punch
observed drily that he expected
there would be hostility to any
such schemes from thoes who
controlled the Tourist indus-
try at the moment and from.
those whose conception of
tourism was limited to how
much tinketry they could sell.

Leaving the Tourist- scene
the discussion ranged through

a variety of topics. Punch re-
vealed that the society was also
involved at the moment in a
project that committed them
to designing houses for the
lower income bracket. People,
would be able to purchase a
design from the society at- a
cost of $100.00 and would
also be entitled to the advice
of the architect whose plan
the had purchased.
On the question of Govern-

ment housing schemes, he felt
that within the limitations of
their task the National Housing
Authority was not doing a bad
job. He however did not believe
in that sort of Housing de-
He felt that Government
should provide within a given
area all the basic amenities
such as water, sewerage, elec-
tricity and roads and then let
the people themselves build
their own homes, providing
financial assistance where re-
quired. This he thought, would
result in more attractive hous-
ing settlements than we had at

Finally, on the question of
the future of the Society andof
architecture in general, Punch
stated that the architects in
general were quite creative but
he agreed that there was little
appreciation of the possibilities
for fine architecture in the
community at large-
He lamented the fact that,
the Present Government had
not built a building of Na-
tional importance in all their
years in office.
He pointed to the absence
of National theatres, art-galle-
ries, and to the conditions of
the libraries and museums.
Until these buildings were
provided there would be little
.scope for architects and archi-
tecture to make a real impact
on the lives of the majority of



s Stephens
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TELE: 62 31493

62 Queen Stre'et Port-of-Spain



SUDA FEBRUARY' 17, 197 TAPI PAG 5ess, p

Eric St. Cyr

THE two most pressing problems
of the country are gross in-
equality in income (and econ-
omic security), and widespread
unemployment. These two
phenomena are obviously inter-
related since the absence of a
job implies the absence of a
regular income for most people.
In 1966, Ahiram, writing in Social
and, Economic Studies on income
distribution in Trinidad and Tobago,
poirited out that in 1958 the lowest
20% of households received 3.4% of
total income, while the top 20%
received 48.6%. The comparative
figures for Jamaica are 2% for the
bottom 20% and 44% for the top 20%
while for the United States they were
5% and 46% respec-
tively. Taxation made
little difference to the

time ago 1958. What
is the position to-day?
Well, things have got
worse! Preliminary
estimates based on the
Household Budget Sur-
veys conducted during
1971 and 1972indicate
that the bottom 18.6%
oft households received
only 1.4% of the in-
come, while 47.6%
went to the top 13.7% of households.
We should not be surprised at these
developments. The policies we have
been pursuing to 'industrialise' the
country set out to make business
activity more attractive and to hold
trained personnel from emigration.
The changes ,we have observed in
income distribution between 1958
and 1972 are the consequences of
these policies.
Still on the theme of income
inequality, let us examine some facts
on the share of the country's income
which goes to labour and to property.
Brewster has estimated that, between
1957 and 1962, the share ofthe G.D.P.
going to labour was 39%. Rental and
other business income comprised 61%.
The comparative figures for Jamaica
were 54% and 46% and for Guyana
60% and 40% respectively. Trinidad
thus had one of the lowest labour
shares in the Caribbean.
By international comparison, how-
-ever, the position was even worse.
Writing in the Economic Journal in
1960, Phelps-Brown and Brown show
that of 25 countries surveyed, 16
showed- the percentage of pay and
income from unincorporated enter-
prises between 81% and 87%. In
general, for the 25 countries surveyed
they estimate the ratio of labour to
property income at 80% to 20%. In
Trinidad we recall, the ratio is 40% to
60%, one of the lowest in the world.
The data on unemployment are so
well known as not to warrant repeti-
tion. However, unemployment stood
at about 7% in 1946, rose to about

10% in 1960 and continued its
upward trend to 14% in 1969. It fell
briefly to 12% in June 1970 only to
rise again to 13% in 1971.
By contrast, Britain took a conscious
decision in 1946 to maintain a full and
stable level of employment. Between
the end of the war and 1970, un-,
employment never exceeded 3%, and
for most of the time remained some-
where between 1% and 2%. In
America, unemployment Varies from
5% to 6% and is concentrated among
the minority groups.
Now these are bare facts. What do
they mean? It seems that as a nation
we have failed to evolve a strategy for
transforming the African, Indian,
European, Chinese denizen of colonial
Trinidad and Tobago
into citizens of-an inde-
pendent nation. Much
of what is with us to-
daa was here in 1960o

heights of the.economy
to use the phrase of
the Third Developenmi
Plan are still in foreign
hands; we have little or
no control over the
firms which operate
here, since the essence
of the Companies Act
still in operation was
fashioned for the
colonial era; the
policies of inviting foreign capital -
conceived in the context of Puerto
Rican experience were formulated
and in process of implementation in
colonial times.
All we have done since indepen-
dence is to continue these same
policies. To be sure nationals have
executed -them with dedication and
skill. But as a strategy for nation
formation and nation building I feel
they are seriously wanting.
The Current Inflation

LET us now turn to a considera-
tion of the current inflation.
While we are, as individuals, aware
of the current rapid rate of
increase of prices, I do not think
that as a public issue we are
equally aware of the seriousness
of the crisis. Let us attempt to
put the problem in perspective.
Trinidad has 'traditionally been a
country of very moderate price in-
creases. Every increase in prices over
3% in any year could be explained by
exceptional circumstances. In the
years 1941, 1942 and 1943 price
increases exceeded 8%, clearly because
of War time shortages. The year 1947
experiencing a similar increase. But
since. 1947, in no year have prices
risen by more than 3%, except in
1968 following the devaluation of the
British pound and our own Trinidad
and Tobago dollar. Even so the price
increase was 8.2%, and the increase in
food prices was only 6.5%.

There then began, in about August
1971, a strong upward trend in prices.
Prices rose by 9.3% in 1972, i.e. three
times as fast as they had risen since
1950.,Food prices rose by 11%%, and
drink and tobacco by 11%3%. Every
dollar spent in 1972 was worth only
90 when compared with 1971.
The problem was brought before
the nation at the National Consulta-
tion on Prices in July 1972. There was
little further increase in prices between
July and October. Then, with the
approach of Christmas the upward
trend resumed. With the 1973 Budget
prices took a new upward jump. The
increase has continued and the rate
has quickened.

$ $%
So far this year, for the 9 months
between December 1972 and Septem-

five tmos ai en
f tive tj -t as they did hbt,.eent
1950 and 1970. Far worse, looa
prices have risen by 19%in that period.
The inflation in 1973 will easily be
20%, twice as much as last year.
Worse, it has been accompanied by
shortages of basic consumer goods -
rice, flour, onions, potatoes, milk,
butter. The nation it seems is develop-
ing an unhealthy psychology regard-
ing prices and shortages.
Why has this been so? Some of the
immediate causes of inflation'we can
easily identify: -
(i) a total dependence on
imports for basic foods at a
time of rising world prices and
currency movements against us;
this has led to -higher import
prices which merchants pass on
and which Government has been
powerless to control;
(ii) increased indirect taxes
which have added to the final
prices of goods in the shops;
one might argue that the loss of
revenues of Government caused
by granting tax concessions, and
the rising costs of administra-
tion (especially salaries and
wages of public sector em-
ployees) force Government to
look to increased indirect taxes,
a policy enunciated in the 1968
(iii) increased money in the
pockets of individuals caused
by rising wages and salaries and
increased public sector expen-
diture on development projects;
(iv) rising costs of production
caused by increased costs of
inputs raw materials and -fuels
whose prices have risen, and
increased wages, interest and
profit mark-ups;
(v) increased money supply
caused by the method of
financing public and private
sector expenditure from foreign
(vi) increased protection; and
so on.

Let us not, for a moment, leave
the impression that the current infla-
tion is restricted to Trinidad and
Tobago. It is world wide. Neverthe-
less it is clear that by comparison with
past experience, the rate of price
increase in Trinidad must rank among
the highest in the world.
We cannot however stop at a
consideration of these short-run or
immediate causes of inflation. If we
did we must conclude that there is
nothing we could do about it, and we
may then wish simply'to lie down and
await death.
A strong case can be made that our
long term policies have put us in the
position where short-run factors force
an inescapable inflation on us. Let us
examinee some of these.
The simplest matter is of course the
structure of the economy which
places us j" lhc riC'';-" .--.r
dependepspdg it enn ationialltaie

structure, uRpSction/consumnptiof
with 14% of the labour resources
unemployed it could be. But let us
focus on a more straight forward
consideration. If there is international
inflation it would be rare for this to
be confined solely to our imports.
Export prices too must be rising -
certainly of our oil.
With both import and export prices
rising, Government revenues and
labour incomes can both rise. The
structure and ownership of our indus-
tries explain why they do not. The
foreign ownership of key resources,
and the structure of firms operating in
these sectors prevent this. Public
revenues from oil are based on a
valuation of oil which is not wholly
determined by world market forces.
The direct local labour input into this
sector is small, so that the proceeds
of the exploitation of national re-
sources accruing to the nation, does
not reflect trends in the interna-
tional economy. But our imports mir-
ror international price increases. We
lose on the swings but don't gain on
the roundabouts.
Continued on Page 8








ART in India today probably
marks a new phase of development.
There is a definite change in the
art climate which is characterized
by its wider range and depth than
ever before in the country. Around
the close of world war II-or more
precisely since independence this
became quite noticeable.
With more and varied cultural
contacts and programmes the
artists today are certainly exposed
to conditions hitherto unknown
to them. It is only natural, there-
fore, that contemporary Indian
art should be full of experiments
and diversity of styles.
In a way Indian art is now closer to
the mainstream of world art. This is
amply reflected in many of the experi-
ments. For example, a good number of.
works by our artists show a distinct
shift towards abstraction. Well past the
stage of western academism as well as
romanticism, quite a few of the works
even try to probe deeply into the intri-
cacies of the human mind. Many of
these artists are talented and have made
significant contribution to art move-
ment which cannot go unnoticed.

But parallel to this trend, partly
inspired by western styles another style
has been attempted. This is distinctly
different, both in character and expres-
sion. To the artists making this new
attempt, apparently western sources and
inspirations have started losing much
of their meaning, as it held no further
promise. May be they felt that Indian
art should be rooted in indigenous
T--fhigoht-ati -philosophy. Matter, in
their view, perhaps had long been given
preference over spirit.
But whatever the reason, we notice
a clear attempt at rethinking, something
of the kind of an introspection. Accord-
ingly, we find a group of Indian artists
drawing inspiration from sources solely
indigenous, such as Indian philosophical
treaties, and religious tenets, ritualistic
motifs, myths and symbols.
This attitude points to a new direc-
tion in the development of contem-
porary Indian painting, though each
artist has reacted to it differently. But
irrespective of the degree of each
artist's conviction, there can be no deny-
ing that the overall effect offers an
interesting story. Taken together, there
is a noticeable attempt on the part of
Indian artists to seek a new identity
which certainly enhances the value of
their works.

To trace the beginning of these
attempts, we should necessarily turn to
Jamini Roy who perhaps is the first
major artist to try and evolve a success-
ful synthesis between the old forms and
a new expression. He tried to interpret
his world in terms of pat or the Bengal
variety of folk painting.
Economy in lines and simplicity of
colour in depicting women, gopinis,
horses, elephants and even Christ, have
given his works a peculiarity of their
own. In turn, he inspired a number of
artists. For instance, K. Sreenivasulu at
least in one stage of his development
appears to have been greatly influenced
by him.
Later, we come across paintings
where artists have freely used common
motifs, both of animal and vegetative
world. Animals, bulls, birds, scorpions,
zodiac signs and even floral decorations
start attracting their fancy. Folk designs
and lores apparently have been inspiring
many of them.

A" other and Child" in terracotta by Chintamoni Kar

J. Sultan Ali is another such artist
who has consistently and often success-
fully tried pictorial compositions with
many aforesaid motifs and designs.
Another artist, Badri Narayan, seems
to look for folk inspiration, even though
J. Swaminathan too is somewhat in-
volved and appears to be interested in
folk idiom. His works carrying a two-
dimensional effect, depicting a bird
sitting on a mound or a stone half
immersed in water, both as an expres-
sion and in colour effect, undoubtedly
communicate a new experience and
Mythology obviously has provided
inspiration to many. Nirode Majumdar
is one of them. He spent a good part of
his life in Paris, and he is an artist
noted for his draughtsmanship and
sense of colour. He has over recent
years tried a number of paintings in
which an effective blend ol technical
skill and philosophical attitude is
clearly discernible. His series of works

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Another artist R. Sarangan's works
also seem to have a strong religious
bias. He shows a preference for depict-
ing the temple facades and motifs,
festivals and deities in colorful moods.

But it is K.C.S. PaI::;.,. 'o, specially
in his later works wordss :mn
:symbol" series in particu .- attempted
an effective use of symbols and signs.
He tried to show how mathematical
equations and formulae and even
horoscope-like designs cane he effectively
integrated into the scheme of pailt-
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by signs and symbols which, lie has
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Indies. has intensified our
search for identity and turned
our scrutiny towards the
ancestral homelands of all our
constituent peoples. Nowhere
is this more true than among
the Indian West Indians for
whom India has increasingly
been a source of pride and
inspiration ever since the
nationalist movement in the
sub-continent culminated in
political freedom in 1947.
EVEN as West Indian East
Indians have become more
confident inheritors of the
post-Columbus Caribbean
tradition and taken their place
alongside African and
European peoples as another
cultural tributary of a new
American race, the assertion
of Indian-ness has lent the
movement strength and en-
hanced its capacity to come to
terms with the harsh facts of
the transplantation.
SUCH is the paradox of
human evolution. West Indians
often discover how West Indian
they are only when they
better their understanding of
Africa and Europe and Asia so
that they come to love their
past, embrace their present
and chart their future course
in some reasonable relation to
On this page TAPIA re-
prints two suggestive pieces
from Indian and Foreign
Review. They focus on the
evolving traditions in art and
music within a Mother
Country, itself in search of an
independent identity.

sign language, known by a popular
label, tantra art, a convenient but some-
what loosely used expression. The bulk
of works apparently carry a deep con-
viction and philosophy. The cult of
tnatra, depicting abstract thoughts, by
itself offers a scope for symbolic expres-
sion and, as such, has rightly caught
tlhe fancy of many of our artists. With
it, one, can go for a varied range of
compositions inspired by vantras or
geometrical signs Abstract ideas too
can be expressed in terms of lotus,
flame, circles and geometrical schpes,
often in their luminosity.
Quite a number of our artists have
taken to tantric expression rather
seriously. And many of them are indeed
wellknown and mature enough to be
taken serious note. of. Among those who
have successfully combined some grasp
of the underlying philosophy with an
effective expression, mention can be
made of G.R. Santosh, Biren De, S.
Palsikar, Balkrishna Patel, Asvin Modi
and K.V. Haridasan,
Language or the mode of expression,
as is only to he expected, is different
with each of them and the degree of
attachment too varies individually. For
example, if sex as the symbol of primary
force has been more important with
Santosh, some luminosity has been per-
haps tlie chief concern of Biren De. So
the story is different with each of them.
Some, even though inot avowed tantrics.
as such, appear to hlaveIC beein dawn into
the orbit. Bitnal Das (;upta:i'nd Om
Prakash are suchi notable a lists.
But in spite of diiveciene, the fact
is lthatl hece is a comnnmi(in nhtII i force
or a kind of plhlilosophilc l liuideltolne
ielihild all! these w~\orks. .\milithei i 1i ,
iiim p rl:ant point ab.i l 1out tlem i> that i '
1not ll. sl IIt:It\ \iworll ks .le com
pcl Iintl handled and. s s1,h. Jtserve'd

UM --9



ARY 17, 1974





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all notice.
This recent trend indicating a new
direction is significant. If not nothing
else, at least it points to a new effort,
a search within a necessary introspec-
tion. Instead, never before has it been
attempted in the way as is being tried
now. Undoubtedly, the outcome is both
varied and colourful.
In fact, the creative output of Indian -
artists is quite enormous. Whether the
artists in some cases are silip yogins or
are just fascinated by a "new world of
art different from the west" is not
probably relevant. But the significance
lies in the fact that although a mixed
bag, there are definitely some really
interesting items, handled and presented
in a competent manner.

The broad panoramic view that these
works offer convinces one of the quest
on the part of some of our artists. It
does not matter if the source of inspira-
tion is different with each of them.
May be some are fascinated by folk
world and others by mythology. If the
tantric philosophy inspires some, still
others are ijispired perhaps by the
miniatures. But whatever the source of
inspiration, the common goal for all is
to add a distinctive flavour and give a
definite character tt their works.
The search for an identity is still on
and the story is yet to be complete. But
from what we have already seen and
what has come tot the surface it can be
categorically stated that this new artistic
effort taken together, is bound to add a
new and distinct chapter to the story
of contemporary Indian art.U

THE ancient music of India, still I 's
preserved in its pristine purity,
has over the last two decades
gained much appreciation abroad,
especially in western countries,
and increasing attention is being
gven by leading musicologists -
and musicians to popularising it
more widely among western
audiences. But to achieve this
laudable objective, a "synthesis"
of the classical systems of western
and oriental music is not always
practicable or even worth attempt-
ing. What needs to be done is to
so interpret each system that it
lends itself to better appreciation
and greater understanding, at least music. Shahji Maharaja in his opera
among the musical\elite in another Pallaki seva pravandham refers to the
country. sangita mela in the song Singarampu
The Indian classical music, with its Pallaki in sankarabharana raja and chapu
two distinct divisions, Hindustani and tala. The sangita mela was maintained
Karnatak, is essentially melodic and is till Serfoji's time (1798-1832). in Tan-
rooted in religion and culture. It has jore. Afterwards it was disbanded. This
complex solfa and rhythmic patterns, band performed whenever distinguished
While vocal music is given pride of visitors came to Tanjore. There are
place in India, solo instrumental per- descendants of the performers of the
formances have been claiming equal sangita mela even now in Tanjore.
importance, and there are many instru- The terms naiyandi melam and
mental wizards who have established urmi meinm denoted the r"oIk orchestra
their international reputation and con- The naiyandi melam consisted of per-
ibsitc lu -ppi s ionit-hc iS oabg-naghaswaram, ottu, tavil,
music abroad. pam i
The question, nevertheless, remains which are wmu u. .. ..
whether Indian music could be pre- were two performers on some of these
sented in an orchestrated forni to instruments. The rhythinic element was
western audiences. Such experiments very dominant in the performances of
will not be altogether new, but will the naiyandi melam.
they enrich Indian classical music with The kutapas are referred to in
its total concern .for preserving its Bharata's Natya Sastra. The Sangita
unique characteristics and vitality? Ratnakara of Sarngadeva deals with the
To examine this problem, we may topic of Vrinda Lakshana. The classifica-
inquire whether there is any historical tion of kutapas into uttama, mahdyama
or artistic sanction to this endeavour. In and kanishtaka, according to the sizes
ancient times, we knew brinda gana (that is the total number of performers),
or collective music, (brinda means group of the kutapas is referred to in it.
and gana is music). When it is a choir Kutapas are also mentioned by Kum-
or a group of singers it is called gayaka bharana in his work Sangita Raja. The
brinda. When it is a group of instru- kutapas provided accompaniment to
mentalists it is called vadya brinda. dramatic performances in ancient and
When it is a group of dancers it is mediaeval i times.
called nritya brinda. The naubat is a In the mediaeval period there was a
vadya brinda. sprinkling of wind instruments in the
Most performances in those days orchestra. In modern orchestras, tie
were given in open air. The theatre in string, wind and percussion instruments
Nagarjunakonda is an open-air theatre, are represented in their proper propor-
Brinda -ganam naturally became more tion. The plucked and wind instruments
popular than individual performances. considerably enhance the tonal richness
Vadya brindas were frequently used to of the modern orchestra.
provide accompaniments.
Orchestras also have existed before,
for instance, the ancient Jewish kings
and the Pharaohs of Egypt. The
orchestra of ancient and mediaeval
periods in many countries performed
only melodic music. The compass of
orchestral music was also of a limited Special compositions to be played
range. by vadya brindas have been composed
The only orchestras consisted of from mediaeval times, which were com-
drums and instruments, like the harp posed, taking into consideration the
and lyres which were played on open technique, compass, speed and possibili-
strings. Manickavachagar, the Tamil ties in gamakas or graces of various
poet, (3rd century A.D.) in his Tiru- instruments. These compositions kept
palliyezhuchi refers to a tata kutapa alive the finger technique. With the
when he says "Vinaiyar oru pal" (veena emergence of new musical instruments
players on one side) and "yazhinar oru with captivating tone-colour, and with
pal" (harpist on another side). the appearance of the compositions o
The ancient name for orchestra in Tyagaraja, flooded with sangatis and
India was kutapa. In Tamil literature variations, the modern orchestras are
the word palliyam or many instruments able to give a richer, substantial, colour
denoted the same concept. The word ful and charming performances. Gamana
mela superseded the term kutapa during gitas (marches) and Mukha gitas (over-
the mediaeval period. Thus the term tures) have now been composed for
sangita mela was used to denote the being performed by an orchestra in full
orchestra which performed classical' strength.


Melodic orchestras concentrate more
on melodic harmony, that is, harmony
resulting from playing of instruments of
variegated tone-colour in unison and in
octaves. The rhythmic harmony pro-
vided by the mridangam and the uptala
vadyas, secondary rhythmic instru-
ments, adds lustre and charm.
Fr om the structure of the Indian
musical instruments of ancient times, it
is clear that anything like a high class
music could not have been played. With
the development of instrumentation
and emergence of new n l-i. .l inlislu-
ments, with varying and ittractiv'elone
'flu i( oeeqWB -._-form of
S,'-'.tral music came into existence.'
also evolved. Beautiful compositions for
being played by orchestras came to be
composed. Performances by the modem
full-fledged orchestra provide first-class
Scoring for the orchestra means
the assignment of different parts of a
musical composition to the component
groups of instruments forming the
orchestra. In a varna, kritti or raga-
malika, while the entire orchestra can
play, the pallavi,the anupallavi and
each of the succeeding charanas can be
assigned respectively to violins, veenas,
and flutes, the full orchestra playing
the pallavi at the conclusion of each of
these sections. The mridangamn can
provide the rhythmic accompaniment
when the full orchestra performs, and
other talavadyas like the Kanjira,
Ghatam and Morsing may respectively
accompany when smaller groups of
instruments play.
In a ragamalika composition, after a
group of instruments had played a
particular charana including the chitta
svara, the full orchestra can join in the
makuta svara, concluding a passage of
notes, and follow it up with the pallavi.
In the viloma krama passage, different
groups of instruments may play the
parts in the reverse order and thus
contribute to the total effect. In tala-
malikas, laya vadyas can be used, one
for each section. In ragatalamalikas the
sangita vadya as well as the laya vadya
can be changed for each section.
The alteration of tone colour effects,
coupled with the intelligent sequence
of instruments, and the neat, clean and
polished play of the performers will
make the orchestral performances both
an education and an entertainment.
Particularly in ragamalikas and ragatala-
malikas, the change of instruments for
the several sections will produce a vivid,
aural impression.

Continued on Page 10







Unemployment and Rising Prices

From Page 5
On the topic of long term agricul-
tural policy, it would also seem that
domestic food industries ought to be
.made to take priority over producing
cheap sugar for export to interna-
tional centres. The first claim on
wages is food so that if food both
quantity and price is subjected to
the vagaries of the international
market, then the real worth of our,
wage package cannot be under our
control. Since independence there
have been only marginal attempts to
think through the use of our agricul-
tural resources, and so far as one can
determine there has been no conscious
effort to work out a food policy.
Historically, the plantations dis-
couraged food production as one way
of maintaining the dependence of
labour on money wages from them
-- :th ..Ohi ..O.4? f'- "m im e ood,
Have we since indepelndnce acted in_
a way vastly different?
Policies, on industrialisation have
similarly tied the country to inter-
national prices. Most of our manufac-

Power to the People
Tapia's New World
TAP:IA Back Numbers
Tapia Constitution
Democracy or Oligarchy?
Reform of The Public Service

Foreign Investment in T. and T.

Central Banking
Non-Bank Financial Institutions
Foreign Capital in Jamaica

Post War Economic Development
of Jamaica

turning industries can hardly be dis-
tinguished from traditional import
trade. Instead of the finished product,
the machinery and components are
brought in and assembled. These
industries are small scale and high
cost, enjoy protection from competi-
tion, and are totally uncontrollable
since they acquire political power
because they provide employment.
The long term policies for develop-
ment have had consequences of an
inflationary nature either directly or
indirectly. The short term costs,
incurred by these policies, do not
appear as if they will be matched by
commensurate benefits in the long
run. In thinking on these matters a
path through darkness into light does
not seem to exist. The time to alter
our course has come.

-. WITHOUT attempting to spell
out iow tiiese priuposals will be
brought about it seems to me
that to preserve the future of the
nation a number of things must

- C.V. Gocking
- Denis Solomon

- Mc Intyre & Watson

C.Y. Thomas
- M. Odle
- Norman Girvan

- O. Jefferson

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be done with urgency.
(1) The country must receive
a far greater share of the income
from the exploitation of its
mineral resources.
(2) The country must effect a
more equitable distribution of
its income.
(3) The country must bring
into effective use rather more
of its local resources, particu-
larly its labour, agricultural
potential, and minerals other
than oil.
The possibilities for increasing
benefits from oil range from outright
nationalisation to localisation and
joint ventures. The pros and cons of
each strategy must be evaluated at a
different time. fo date, the attempt
has been to purchase assets and to set
up j6int ventures for new exploits.
SThis has however left the vast bulk of
the industry unaffected .....

In affecting a more egalitarian
income structure, attention cannot
be focused on wages alone, as has
seemed to be the policy so far. The
structure of the economy makes it
politically impossible to control wages
in the leading prosperous oil sector,
and so it has not been possible to
restrain wages elsewhere, where argu-
ments for a just comparative wage
could not, on moral grounds, be
resisted. An incomes policy, synony-
mous with wage restraint, has at any
rate been indefensible while proets
(and possibly profit shares) have been
rising. Wage restraint would now be
impossible because of the current
inflation which has far outstripped
wage increases during 1973 at any
rate. On the contrary, Trade Unionists
must perhaps be considering negotiat-
ing for escalator clauses to future wage


In strengthening the economy far
greater emphasis must be placed on
increased use of domestic resources
for domestic consumption. There is
tremendous need for housing in this
country. If the style of houses could
be modified to reduce the components
of fancy fixtures, tie major inputs of
sand, bricks, cement and labour, and
increased local finance could solve the
other pressing problem as well
unemployment. Increased local food
production would however have to
be simultaneously brought on to tihe
To date we have behaved as if
labour is pricing itself out of the
market. Both Sir Artlhur Lewis' view
of the development process and the
more recent view of Mr. Dudley Seers
put the full brunt of employment
expansion oni restrained wages. Thus
Iewis. has argued that since West

Indian markets are small, then exports
must play a key role in expanding out-
put and employment. Wage restraint
followed logically as a control over
cost if West Indian goods are to
remain internationally competitive.
Seers on the other hand regarded
Government as the main generator
of added employment. This being so,
the .limits of Government's revenues
place a limit on its ability to expand
employment, and rising wages would
be a further constraint.


The experience over the years
1965 to 1969 when wage rates rose
by 4% per year while prices rose by
4.3% p.a. ought to have been accom-
panied by increased employment. In
:fact this was a period of retrenchment
in oil and sugar, and the number of
..... personsahth_.4Qb _creas rd4yl-y--
idiarginally trom-305 thousands to
about 317 thousands, the unemployed
rose from 48 to 50 thousand and
participation rates fell from 63% to
Full employment is perhaps a
matter of national commitment as
was the case in Britain in 1946. There
the War jolted consciences. The nation
.took full employment with.its con-
sequences because of its moral com-
When all is said and done perhaps
the necessary pre-requisites for
national economic and social advance-
ment touch on human qualities. These
may include a greater awareness by
people of the possibilities and limita-
tions on economic progress; greater
willingness by people to make
sacrifices in terms of hard work;
to temper the mad scramble for
material goods (especially imported
luxuries); and to leaving some room
for those below to share, however
marginally, in the national wealth and
to partake more fully in the society's

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Syl Lowhar

Two Poems

Martin Carter
Your voice and tongue are wind and wave
Breaking the dykes of Europe's power;
Your heart's a Shango drum
Waking the spirit of your ancestor
From the damp shadow of his leafy grave
Deep in the Canje Creek. If he could speak
Lips would spill an epitaph in blood,
Vengeance secrete from his bare bone,
Priming the dung-rich stalks to bloom with fire.
But he is cold and silent as a stone
That the torrential steam has pushed aside
If you could dream of nightmares in the wood
With dogs nosing those footprints in the swamp;
Of his encounter
With cutlass, whip, his own black brother,
You'd curse your colour and your race forever
On the Groyne where the wet wind groans
The hair of the drowned is washed like weed;
Rafts rock in the waves, foam spits on our dead
Whose seed and runners spread throughout the
If only Massacooraman would come
To avenge our murdered fathers
And break these powered liners
Arriving again for gold
There is a stirring ir. the leaves,
A movement on the banks of three great rivers
Birds panic from trees into the sky
Shrieking, shedding feathers.
The drum beats louder, louder
The echo deep inside grows clearer, clearer,
I see a creative rising froti the water,
Whose eyes are torches of fire.

* Bureaucracy
Under the temple dome of man
In the basement cells of the dungeon
The ripples in the thigh wrinkle away:
The rivers of the flesh run still.... '
The bureaucrat,
A wooden mantis,
Stern, stiff-collared, bolt-upright;
Cuff-linked, pedantic, perpendicular
With elbows squarely braced on the lacquered desk.
Thumbs through the dingy mound of red-taped files
And dips his pen in the blood of h the people.
The order rumbles through the hollows.....
'Folio 21 for your attention:'
'Reference your minute above, action completed.'
The written word is burning in the desert.
The parching tongue numbles for starless night
To fall on the prison of loneliness.
Power is not enough to make us strong.
The heart must also sing the human song.

ABo .-

Start Out!

Raoul Pantin
This is a sun day white
hot at Maracas
where couples crowding each
other huddle in
cluttered clumps the men read
ing the Coppertone
oiled women tanning their
curved sex keeping
an eye on children at
play. It is crowded
every foot of sand arc
ing in a silver
swath down the line of this
land locked lush green bay.
Waves three-four feet high mount
in walls rising up
from a pitching hazed grey
ocean rolling in
ward in a roar breaking
down on the beachedge.
Rocks jut jagged at this
end, there crabs scuttle
into holes drilled by the
sea exploding in
lash after lash, sea ric
cocheting on the
cracked open stone tumbling
strewn in a broken
heap. This is a sun day
unfettered I am
walking towards this now
clarified place; in
to this sudden flame red
sun downing the day
I am striding to the
rhythm of my black
shadow cast across this
land An'is right dey
one Sunday meh skin peel
in' riddle through wit'
salt sand dat dis journey
dis simple pilgrim
age to my own start out.




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Since Indian music is melodic, the
orchestras herein have been so designed
as to perform melodic music only. The
modern western orchestra is, however,
constituted to play music extending
over a wide compass of seven octaves.
In India the compass of the music per-
formed rarely exceeds four octaves and
the orchestra is naturally designed to
suit indigenous needs.
Moreover, the huge orchestras of
the west are constituted to play music
in several parts.
Tana varnas, ragamalikas and kritis of
Tyagaraja like darini telusu konti
(suddha saver raga), najiva dhara
(bilhari raga), nagumomu ganaleni (abheri
raga) and giripai mela konna (sahana

riches of Indian Music

raga) are ideal pieces for a melodic
orchestra. Some parts of the composi-
tion are assigned to various instruments
or groups of instruments, and all Qf
them join and play when the pallavi
comes. The alternation of the music by
the parts and the whole groups as well
as the ghana (rich) and naya (soft)
effects considerably heighten the charm
of orchestral performances. Melodic
orchestras can perform classical, popular
light and martial music;
Furthermore, western music is
founded on harmony and'Indian music
on melody, and any orchestration of
melodical music will necessarily suffer
from serious limitations.

Despite this, in India orchestration
of Indian music has been attempted by
the all India radio vadya vrinca (orches-
tral group) by assembling all string,
wind and percussion instruments and
giving each a place in an over-all scheme.
Invariably this attempt is confined to
evolving a melody based on the principal
notes of a chosen Indian raga and
arranging the notes and vibrations in a
way that the effect is similar to the one
produced by a symphony in the west.
Theoretically, it is possible to make
notations in India of western classical
pieces wherever they resemble any of
the Indian ragas and play them through
a group of instruments. This is specially

true of march songs or certain melodies
from the opera music of the west.
While it might be easier to orchestrate
"light" classical varieties of Indian
music for presentation to western
audiences, the melody, rhythm and
weaving of imaginative patterns, which
are the hallmarks of Indian music, can-
not be adequately reflected in a
western-style orchestra.
Instrumental combinations can be
achieved to produce heightened effects
on listeners both in India and abroad
without distortion of the classical
forms, styles and techniques. But
Indian music cannot and should not be
attuned to full-scale western orchestra-
tion, for this would leave no scope for
the individual's imagination and
creativity to come into full play, which
form the essence of Indian classical



NIGEL Gill, TAPIA's man
about San Fernando reports
on that shooting which took
place at the offices of the All
Trinidad Sugar Estates and
Factory Workers Trade Union.
ON arrival, I met every-
thing quiet, but tense. A
Brinks guard stood at the
door and quite a few
policemen in uniform and
civilian clothes, were mill-
ing about.
The workers had spent the
night in the building with a
police patrol car parked out-
side. At about 3.45 a.m. the
patrol car left and soon after-

wards about two men entered
the building. One drew a gun
and fired a shot in the air.
As the workers fled towards
the door they were attacked
by another set of men armed
with cutlasses and sticks.
It is believed by the workers
that this violent attack is
meant to scare them off and
fo force them back to work.
However, if that was the
plan then I can safely say that
the enemy failed because the
workers have become more
determined and are prepared to
fight to the end to achieve
their goal.




Dennis Pantin
LIKE most people in the coun-
try we are glad that justice has
been done in the Neville Clarke,
David Salina corruption case
and both men have been freed.
It must do something to the
hearts of members of the legal
profession to see their protests
over the searching of Clarke
The case allowed wide-
spread publicity of police
methods including the inter-
vention at cocktail parties by
police commissioners to pro-
test a magistrate's decision,
and a vicious system of in-
forming which thrives on fears
of commital on real or cooked-
up charges.

The case also saw senior
officers cynically admitting to
running this "informing" ring
and to swearing to false state-
ments. The Crown witness
proved himself notorious for
his inconsistencies.
Lawyers are being accused
of sticking together for kith
and kin and not carrying that
zeal for justice in other in-
stances. We all know of com-
plaints by so many brothers of
being framed on arms or ammu-
nition charges or marijuana.
Some people are asking whe-
ther only magistrates or other
well-known citizens who can
pay the faublous guineas are
entitled to a fair trial.

If legal people are con-
cerned about justice then they
must raise their voices. If they
are looking for issues let us
suggest two.
The first is that of Santa
Claus of Belmont who was
shot dead by police. The police
were cleared by a Coroner's
inquest in spite of conflicting
evidence by at least two wit-
nesses to the event. The Law
Association called for a re-
opening of the inquest and the
A-G's Department announced
that it was considering the
Open your mouths lawyers
Santa Claus is as important as
Neville Clarke, he is also worse
off; he is dead and can gain
nothing personally, it is only
the society which can gain
from seeing his name cleared
and justice done.
While you're at it, don't
forget Allan Caton ofMorvant,
shot down at the Famous Re-
cipe "robbery"atSt. Ann's The
judge and jury free all the other
men involved because the po-
lice case was not convincing
The accused charged that i
trap was set by Burroughs anD
the driver of the car, Pele, wi;
was not charged. Raise your
voices about that too, lawyers
and solicitors. We will. We have
already called for a full-scali
enqiuiry into the police service
where all types of gestapo
tactics are being used on or-
dinary citizens without a mur-
mur from people like lawyers.

ALSTON Grant, another Tapia
S? man from the deep South was
on hand when Raffique Shah
" iand Winston Lennard were
, arrested.


AT 9.05 this morning,
Monday 11, Feb. some
800 cane farmers gathered
on the Harris Promenade
Band Stand. Spirits high.
Peaceful. Whole atmos-
phere of an Assembly -
people talking and debat-
ing issues.
At about 11.40 the sugar

workers held a march through
High Street. By this time the
numbers had swelled to some
After Shah and Lennard
were arrested there was tension
in the air.
Traffic was at a standstill.
The episode was reminiscent
of the upheaval of 1970. I
could feel the tension in my
A conversation with a sugar
workers from St. Madeleine
summed it up: "the workers
'are conscious of their exploita-

- p

_ __


gs-;:~.C PF6~


Concluding Lloyd King's review of
19th Century Cuban literature

THE novel in which the best of the Cuban liberal
tradition shows through is El negro Francisco by
Antonio Zambrana, published in 1875 in faraway
Chile. Zambrana (1846-1922) played a quite active
role in the struggle for Cuban Independence. A
brilliant speaker, he is credited, together with Ignatio
Agramonte, with having played a major role in the
drafting of the First Independence Constitution in
1869 at a meeting which brought together Carlos
Manuel de Cespedes and other independentista groups.
He was sent abroad to win support for the patriots
and spent time In Chile, France and Costa Rica,
where he settled and practised law after the Peace of
Zanjon in 1878, which temporarily halted the
struggle. He later returned to Cuba with a changed
political position, coming out in favour of
"autonomismo" (or Associated Statehood Status)
for Cuba, which earned him the hostility of some

His solution is surprisingly modern. He shows Camila,
the heroine, half white and brought up a member of
a white household discovering virtues in Francisco
which lead her to adopt consciously a fundamental
identity with her black brothers in slavery and desire
to identity with their world:
Whatever that man thought, whatever he
felt, whatever he desired to achieve,
made up the feelings and desires of
Camila. The sombre traditions of his
race, his love for the dark symbols of his
homeland, manifested in strange rites,
in a still savage poetry, all these things
which were so inadequate to move or
interest the young woman acquired in
her eyes an extraordinary value when
they were described, explained and .de-
fended by Francisco (pp. 64-65).
Zambrana here is about as generous as one could
expect of a white 19th century Cuban, for whom
Africa was an area of darkness.
He even goes further and rejects the argument of
pro-slavery advocates who insist that they were
rescuing the negro from savagery. Barbarism plus
freedom, one's family and homeland, according to

But as blacks tried to fit themselves into early
Republican society, they were left in no doubt that
they were second-class citiczer finding themselves
confronted with what can.only be described as the
desperate advice of one of their leaders, Juan
Gualberto Gomez: "What do I say to my people?
Let us invent nothing, let us acquire no taste for
originality in any domain, let us accept the minor
role".(l5) The message was loud and clear. To
survive in in Cuban society, to be regarded as decent
and respectable, you must renounce every racial
idiosyncracy, you must suppress your negritude.
Except that, as Hernandez Cata showed in the long
story, "Skin", the weary road to acceptance in the
dominant society was liable to plunge one into a
quagmire of contempt and self-contempt.


When his mulato protagonist, Eulogio Valdes,
enters a seminary he is defeated beforehand by the
fatal racist aphorism: "A black saint was possible;
but nobody could imagine a black priest".(16) The
white view of his people is introjected into his own


and the distrust ofothers(13).It was while he was in
Chile that he drafted a novel based on Suarez y
Romero's Francisco, el ingenio which he had heard
the latter read at a literary soiree in 1862. Zam-
- raas..Erancisco El negro was his only literary
effort and was not published in Cuba till 1948, so
that it certainly iha-d noinflfuencein-rCuba, although-
it may well have made an impression on liberal
Although Zambrana's novel was based on the
earlier novel, the resemblances in plot are super-
ficial. Zambrana had a far better grasp of the
psychology of situations and an instinctive talent for
story telling, with which Suzrez can scarcely be
credited. What his story lacks is the rough texture
deriving from the direct experience and observation
of plantation slave society which Suarez brought to
his account. Zambrana, like Suarez, tells us the
story of the sentimental vicissitudes of two young
house slaves whose love is thwarted by a callous
mistress and her spoilt, self-willed son. As such both
novels present us with transparent parables which
pinpoint the iniquity of an oppressive system but do
not in themselves constitute a radical indictment of
that system. Not till Carpentier's The Kingdom of
this World (1949) do we get a novel about slavery
which sets out the brutal contexts of that "peculiar
But there are at least two ways in which
Zambrana shows a superior awareness to Suarez.
Firstly he makes, through one of the characters, the
first straightforward connection between the struggle
for freedom from Spanish domination and the struggle
to secure the abolition of Negro slavery: "You say:
Ah, if only Cubans were not slaves; I say: Ah, if only
they did not have any".(14) Secondly he realized that
he would have to account for the plot situation in
which a mulata falls in love with a savage black
slave, clearly not the norm in a Caribbean context.




Zambrana, was preferable to the Middle Passage
anytime: "Family, homeland, freedom are the most
powerful motive forces ofthe soul". [p. 153] A full
scale interest in what Zambrana called "its unculti-
vated forest, its crude music, its primitive customs"
[p. 153] would have to await another generation of
--Cuban intellectuals and anthropologists for study and
evaluation, as a neb:o-c-6oliia-Repulliciane-Cubla re-
placed a colony called Cuba. Lydia Cabrera would
expose the significance of this "bosque inculto" as
"el monte" incorporating a myth of origins and a
religious conception of immanent world spirit.
Fernando Ortiz and Alejo Carpentier would uncover
the singular influence of this "gross music" on the
development of Cuban musical sensibility as well as
its complexity in both a musical and religious sense.
El negro Francisco is undoubtedly the most progres-
sive of the Cuban novels of slavery, as far as its
ideology is concerned.


It is clear that the commonly projected view that
during the nineteenth century literary intellectuals in
Cuba campaigned against the institution of slavery
with great humanitarian fervour is largely fantasy
and not fact. Such novels as were written were
published abroad and cannot be proven to have
seriously influenced in any way the abolition of
slavery. Their value lay largely in the future in that
they have provided a testimony of the times of which
they were a product. What they signal to us is that
white Cuban society, as history has shown, would
spend long, painful and ambivalent years coming to
terms with the notion that black Cubans are as equal
as others, in spite of stirring and highly idealistic
declarations by the Cuban Moses, Jose Marti, to the
effect that blacks and whites were brothers in the
struggle against imperialism.

A-- .Z




t ,

The slaves had been manumitted, but
moral slavery was more visible, more
prejudicial than ever before. The soul of
the-eTr aerrsi
toward redemption; it followed its African
heritage, its barbarous and bloody in-
stinct, frenzied dances to the rhythm of
-guttural-CariesAhatw eras- q ngry
as sad; belief in God co-existed with the
rites of pagan liturgy, with ill-digested
ideas of democracy. For them, liberty .
meant licence, and authority equalled
tyranny. (p. 127)
His mother and sister, black, and sexually loose,
haunt his life like so many ghosts in the racial cup-
board, and he, masochistically, comes to think of
himself as being possessed of a white sensitivity
trapped in a primitive skin: "It was his skin, with its
cursed pigment And he felt that the legacy of his
unknown father was that poor white soul held captive
in his body .. .(p. 130). This self-contempt leads him
into the role of a colourless, passive, manipulated
self-pitying mimic man, an outsider in his own society
but equally an outsider in Europe, holding the rather
unreal post of Cuban consul in Birmingham. Return-
ing to his homeland, he is shot dead during a riot,
contrived to take place as he lands.
Hernandez Cata's image of the pathetic mulato,
trapped in the barracoon of his skin, is but the
obverse side of the nineteenth century image of the
Cuban version of the American black and white
minstrel show, Los negros catedraticos. Here as in
the United States, the negrito was never played by a
black man. (17) The sad truth is that the Cuban
negro moved from being a slave in an adopted land
to being a black colonial in the days of the Cuban


1. Raza y color en la literature antillana (Sevilla, 1958)
p. 28
2. Francisco, el ingenio (Miami, 1969)
3. Leonardo Grnnan y Peralta. Ensayos y conferencias
(Sanuago\de Cuba, 1964)
4. See Phillip S. Foner A History of Cuba V. 2. (New
York, 1962) Chap. 6
5. Francisco Calcagno Poetas de color (La Habana,
6. Foner has this to say: "Domingo del Monte reported
that Turnbull and Cocking were offering indepen-
dence to Creoles on condition that they will unite
with the colored people in effecting a general emanci-

pation of the slaves, and in converting the Govern-
ment into a black Military Republic under protection.
(It was typical of even the reformers in Cuba to
associate abolition of slavery with a "black Military
Republic ). A History of Cuba V. 1. p. 208.
7. See A History of Cuba V. 1. Chap. 12.
8. The first Cuban story on slavery and the one which
also poses the theme of incest is Escenas de la vida
privada en la Isla de Cuba by Felix Tanco y Bosmenial
published in 1835. See Max Henriquez Urena Proceso
historic^ de la literature cubana V. 2. ILas Americas,
1963) p. 235.
9. Sec A History of Cuba V.-2. Chap. 4.

10. Cecilia Valdes, V. 2. (La Habana. 1972) p. 91. All
references are to this edition of the novel.
11. See Marvin Harris Patterns of Race in America (New
York. 1964) pp. 65-78.
12 See Raza y color p. 12.
13. See Proceso historic de la literature cibana. V. I. p.
14. El negro Francisco (La Halhnai. 1951) p. 165.
15. Ldreira de Caballero Vida y obri de luan Gualbcrto
Gomez (La Habana, 195) p. 11
16. Los frutos acidos y otros cucentos (19') p. 124
17. Panorama de teatro cubano (La Ilabana. 1965) pp.


i.So. ndrea Talbutt,
Research Institute for
Study of vian,
162, East 78th Street,
S'T YO.i, N.Y. 1.0021,
Ph. Lehigh 5 8448,
U.S.A. \\
-- -I-.~-----------





Ruthven Baptiste

Boycott's refusal to walk and
Arthur Fagg's conveniently
tuirnint a hlind eVe was no

THE Kanhai incident (or drnt t cacing a thief.
different to catching a thief
,is it the Boycott inci- red-handed and giving him
dent?) is casting dark global coverage.
shadows over the current The incident has further
England/WI series. The wounded an already embattled
incident largely because national pride. The English
of the English response press has sought to make all
ihas set an unfavorable kinds of excuses to cover for
tate.tone Draesent series it. Yet, whatever is said or
Sin fact emerges
event-that has and --the dangs oT-" tortured
continuing to mar consienc. t
continuing to m,, For the first test the
England/WI cricketing English players their cricket
_, .. tgnsn plyer. Q


To cover for Edgbaston
the English players particular-
ly Geoff Arnold wants to
catch the WI thiefing in
return. The result has been
to make a scene of every odd
occurence coupled by an
insistence in both WI and
English camps that relations
between the two teams on
this tour are the friendliest
Everyone is skinning teeth
but behind the grins are the
unceasing efforts gp even up.
For Geoff--Arnold it seems to

be his appointed task on this
tour. Before the tour began
Arnold predicted to the Inter-
national Press that there is
going to be a bumper war in
the coming tour. Now comes
his wild antics at Sabina when
Umpire Peart did not judge
Rowe to be out by his
The ultimate result is that
the current series is being
reduced to a farce. Umpiring
standards in the West Indies
has not matched the

flowering of West Indies
cricket since the war and
misjudgments as Sang Hue's
giving Kalliecharan out is
likely to be repeated in one
form of another providing
fodder for mischief makers.

As regards Sang Hue's
observance of the letter of
the law rather than the spirit
of the law has led unwittingly
to what may well be a bad
precedent. The precedent set
is that a committee com-
prising members of a national
cricketing body, the opposing
captains and managers and
the consent of the umpire
can reverse an umpire's
decision off the field.
The question is whether
everything concerning a cric-
ket match should begin and
end on the field with the
players and Umpire's or
should backroom committees
have powers of review over
decisions taken on the field.
For myself it is better to
suffer the misjudgments,
abuses even from Umpires
than to entrust court martial
powers to backroom com-



England last year, was not
the first victory the WI has
inflicted on England, yet,
for the English that last one
was intolerable. In 1966
England lost to the WI in
three days. Only losing in
two days time could be more
humiliating, yet, there were
no bomb scares, or talk of
too much expatriate talent
in English County Cricket.
The difference this time
was that Kanhai's demon-
stration of disgust at



T1in puposeful. In Boycott
in particular, there is an air
of contempt about his batting
these days that has created a
flaw in his temperament.
With Boyce getting the ball to
lift nastily on the first day,
hooking at that stage of the
game was unwise. However,
on crossing fifty during his
second innings one of his
West Indian fans ran unto the
field an offered him a drink.
Boycott seemed surprised
that he still has fans in the
West Indies.

25 Cents




THOUSANDS of sugar
workers, last weekend
(9-2-74), gathered in the
Mon Chagrin and High
Street corner to keep vigil
for any untoward incident
that might have disturbed
an Emergency session of
the General Council of
the All Trinidad Sugar
Estates and Factory
Workers Trade Union.
The meeting was called
after a delegation of sugar
workers had failed in a bid to
contact the General Secre-
tary so that they could present
him with a petition to call an
Emergency session of the
General Council. According
to Basdeo Panday the General
Secretary had refused to hold
the statutory monthly meet-
After deliberating for a



full 3 hours in the tiny head-
quarters of the All Trinidad
Union the General Council
resolved among other things,
to take possession of all pro-
perties of the Union, and to
appoint an Interim Executive
to take charge of the Union's
business while the vouchers
and other issues are pending.
The General Council also
passed a resolution reinstating
Basdeo Panday as President
General. Then Panday, speak-
ing from the balcony of a
restaurant, presented all the
adopted resolutions to the
nmanm oth crowd below.
T'he members of the In-
terinm :",'c'utive include:
Basdeo Pianday, President-

General; Sonilal Sookoo,
First V/President St. Made-
lene; Logan Gonia., Sec. V/
President Wilderness; Frank
Seepersad, Gen. Secretary -
St. Madelene; Gaffor Moham-
med, Assistant Sec. Wilder-
ness; Ramberan Sookhdeo,
Treasurer St. Madelene;
Gaimungal Parboo, Trustee -
Todds .Rd; Michael Chadee,
Trustee Cedar Hill; Ram-
kisson Dookie, Trustee -
Together with the con-
tinued occupation of the
Union's headquarters, these
recent resolutions have
brought the struggle for trade
union democracy within All
Trinidad one step forward.
The meeting ended peacefully.


Starting Friday








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