Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00095
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: February 3, 1974
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00095

Full Text

Vol. 4 No. 5

lI>. TiTU TE
N, I2A.f




A STEADY stream of
refugees from the em-
battled island of Grenada
is flowing into Trinidad.
As, with anguished voice
they tell their several tales,
-we are in a better position
to piece together the
events of the last two or
three weeks.
From the reports, it is clear
that Grenada is now on the
brink of civil war. By once
more turning to his notorious
secret police and setting them
loose on Monday's demonstra-
tors, the Premier has reneged
on his pledge to the opposi-
tion and effectively destroyed
the last vestiges of his credibil-

I 1

It is against that kind of
arbitrary exercise of power
that the. New Jewel and the
Committee of 22 have been
able to mobilize Grenadians
in their thousands. Gairy must
understand that, far from
being a handful of school-
children, the opposition to him
embraces men, women and
children from all walks of life.

All the normal functions of
Government have now ground
to a halt. Life on the island is
paralysed as workers have
withdrawn from all essential
services. The refugees have
reported that stocks of food
are running low. By its in-
ability to pay salaries to public
servants this month-end, the
Government has probably
increased the ranks of the dis-
The latest reports allege
that there have been raids on
Police Stations by anti-Govern-
ment elements in search of
arms. Gairy is said to have
been sending his emissaries
abroad to beg, borrow or buy


It is clear that the-state h:r.
broken down, that the normal
system of Government and
politics has been destroyed,
and that unless a system of
civilised relationships is
restored soon, Grenada will
sink into a state of bitter civil
In the present situation
only the leaders of the opposi-
tion forces posess the moral
authority to intervene
decisively on behalf of a peace-
ful resolution of the crisis.
There is no guarantee that
a winner will emerge from a
civil war in Grenada. The men
and women of the New Jewel
and the Committee of 22
must recognizee the perils of
that course.
They may wish to allow
Premier Gairy the chance to
concede the revolutionary

nature of the crisis by calling
upon him to do what all
revolutions demand to
formally acknowledge popular
sovereignty by resigning from
office and bringing into being
an agency of the people to lay
the foundations of a new
Crucial to such a peaceful
resolution of the crisis will be
the roles played by the Carib-
bean Governments.
They must understand they
cannot risk the precedent of
a civil war in Grenada, so that
it will not serve them to prop
Gairy up. They must lend their
energies to the obtaining of a
settlement that accedes to flie-
historic demand of our
Grenadian brothers and sisters
for genuine sovereignty in
their own affairs.
Such a call to West Indian
Government would acknowl-
edge the unity of the West
Indian people. It would be
entirely unacceptable for any
other Government to try to
intervene, least of all the
British Government, who
would be well-advised to steer
clear of this issue which we
West Indians are determined
to settle on our own.
In Trinidad, workers at the
port and in the oilfields have
already demonstrated their
revolutionary solidarity with
the people of Grenada.
The entire nation of West
Indian people must now stand
up decisively on the side of
our Grenadian kinfolk in their
struggle against tyrannical
domination and dictatorial


THE Technical and Allied
Workers Union takes a unani-
mous decision to strike for
GAIRY broadcast on the
radio station calling for all
his secret police to report ot
Mt. Royal the following Mon-
day morning asking each one
to bring three more.


ANOTHER peaceful de-
monstration demanding Gairy's
-- -esigftation--firnishes--w-i--h--
speeches at Otway House.
WHILE Bro. Johnson is
speaking two sieen blasts rent
the air. It is the signal for the
secret police to begin their
HUNDREDS of secret
police race towards a Jaleel
Truck loaded with filled soft-
drinks bottles and begin throw-
ing them at the people.
CROWD scatteres in fear,
some jump into the sea swim-
ming desperately to boats for
shelter, others run in the direc-
tion of the fire station and
cable office. Women and child-
:en rush into Otway House.
A POLICE jeep arrives on
the scene with about ten to
twelve uniformed men all
heavily armed. At first they
fire shots into the air, then
they get out of the jeep, join
the secret police and open fire
on the brothers and sisters.
PANIC reigns inside Otway
house as bullets go whizzing by
and Tear gas is hurled inside
by the police.
BROTHER Rupert Bishop
trying to use the weight of his
body to keep the door of
Otway house closed in order
to protect the schoolchildren
is shot to death by a police
SECRET police leave Otway
House and proceed to the busi-
ness premises of Mr. Pressey,
"The Gold Store" and proceed
to smash down the doors and
loot the Store.
LOOTING continues as the
secret police run riot', breaking
into firms and business places,
ruthlessly destroying the build-
ings and business places and
taking away the goods. Public
Works vehicles appear and are
loaded with looted goods.
LOOTI NG continues
through the night.

25 Cents




Pages 4 + 9




Page 9





Pages 6 + 7


I ` YE.


ALTHOUGH written in the humourless officialese of the old regime,
the 1974 Budget is an extremely political document, one calculated to
win back for the PNM Government the sympathy if not the support of
the country. It could be an election Budget dictated by prudence -
'just in case the Wooding Report succeeds in its obvious intention of
tying Williams' foot and forcing the nation to the polls under a new
Constitution within three months of Independence Day this year.
Election Budget or not, it isunmistakeablyan electioneering one, made neces-
sary by the loss on December 2, of the remaining moral authority and hard-core
loyalty up till then enjoyed by the Doctor if not by the regime, the party or the
government. Made possible by the colossal windfall in revenue generated by the
sudden jump of prices and taxes in oil.
In politics, nothing succeeds like excess for a while, at any rate. Nothing has
a more hypnotic quality than the appeararice of being extreme, like being very
tall, or, as in this particular case, like being a billion-dollar Budget. The size of the
figure alone would have had the charismatic effect of immediately kindling hope
for a messianic deliverance from the pressures and punishments of the recent
revolutionary upheaval.
The Government cleverly contrived to foster this apocalyptic illusion by
predicting "roaring seventies" and by touting the coming oil bonanza.We were
ready to welcome this merciful Saviour, come at the very height of our dire

Mr. Chambers got maximum mile-
age from his announcement by effec-
tively presenting two extra Budgets.
To the ordinary citizen, the first
offers generous and widespread relief
while the second promises a massive
effort at rehabilitation and recon-
struction. To the unwary, together
the two suggest a sober and balanced
approach. If the relief is lavish and
even spendthrift and the government
is plainly buying friendship, is it not
still mindful of its responsibilities for
national long-run development?


What better could Mr. Chambers
do? than "to make progress in over-
coming the underlying problems ...
and, at the same time, alleviate the
special short-term difficulties." (p.4).
Naturally, the Relief Budget is
fully explicit in regard to its aims and
objectives and contains a very con-
crete set of measures.
Tax rebates, subsidies and expen-
ditures are all used:
to keep down the cost of living
with special reference to food,
transport, consumer durables
and pensioners' pocket money;
to improve basic facilities such
as roads, housing, schools, public
buildings, the prison and the
mental home;
to assuage our growing anxieties
about the burden of the public


Correspondingly, the Reconstruc-
tion Budget with its "Appropriations
to Special Funds" is vague to the
point of being evasive. The only note-
worthy project in .agriculture and
manufacturing is the one which aims
to open 5,000 acres of rice and to
establish a new mill. So unprepared
are we for action, that the farmers
will not even reap the benefit of
proper field trials until new experi-
ments have been done. The paltry
allocation of $5m to the ADB and
$4m to the DFC confirms that there
has been no serious planning for any
big breakthrough in the field of com-
modity production out of the
materials of our own environment.
In regard to agriculture, tne
Government absolutely refuses to face
thefact that diversification and
innovation can only meaningfully




Against the Middle

begin from where the farmers are.
That is to say, in Barrackpore and
Balmain; in Felicity and Caroni.
Until these possibilities are exhausted
frontiers such as the Nariva Swamp
will attract only party-card carrying
taxi-drivers. It will be Waller Field
and Carlsen Field all over again with
gains achieved at prohibitive cost.
In regard to manufacturing, the
Government must see that a massive
industrial take-off would be possible
only if we canalized the grass-roots
energies of those countless drag-
brothers who now go under trying a
little thing in a backyard for want of
public support. Those shining new
assembly industries on the Churchill-
Roosevelt Highway only tie us to
imported raw materials and parts and
even when their prices arc rising, we
have to keep subsidising consumption
in this land where the branch-plants


The centre-piece of the Special
Appropriation is the Petroleum
Development Fund, targeted at
$350m. of which $150m. to start with
this year. But the size of the alloca-
tion is deceptive since it is not
related to any specific estimate of
needs for definite projects. In fact,
the projects mentioned seem to be
hardly more than general aspirations.
Sponge iron, caustic soda and
synthetics have been hopes for the
longest while, hopes for national
participation in the energy-based and
energy using industries.
The golden promise is a share in
the giant Texaco complex but agree-
ment in this crucial area has only
been reached "in principle." Even
for the two projects, liquid ammonia
and the-natural gas pipeline, for which
the Minister promises "now to provide
further details" [p. 42] the elabora-
tion rates only 17 lines in a document
of 71 pages; Priorities are hopelessly
back-to-front. When all is said and
done, our future in petroleum indus-
tries is still waiting "for the establish-
ment of a special team to prosecute

these studies and generally to monitor
developments in the international
petroleum industry."
The only real advance marked by
the Budget is in the area of future oil
taxation. The effect of the proposed
legislation will be to break up the
multi-national complex and the
"total" form of organisation by
creating separate taxation entities in
refining, production and marketing
as well as on land and sea, and in each
new concession on either. What we are
winning back here is that elusive
element called calculability which we
lost ever since the first joint-stock
merchant house'established the first
cane-sugar plantation in the Indies.
Incalculability is the stick which big
companies have always beaten small
coiunics with,.
The Budget has shied away from
the basic question as to who will
control decisions about investment,
marketing and technology in oil? The
Government Icave not provided
vigorous and imaginative policy-
leadership to the technocrats in Trini-
dad House. Their defensive colonial
mentality seems always to be leaving
the initiative to the "big producing"
countries or the "developed indus-
trial" nations. Meanwhile in such
capitals as Caracas, Tripoli and
Teheran, the very counterparts of the
men in Trinidad House are shifting.
the international balance of power.


Our failure in this Budget to
embark on a plain road to national
control of petroleum confirms that
this Government remains totally con-
fused about priorities amongst the
many national economic objectives.
Now that there is money in the
kitty, PNM strategy of economic
transformation reveals more than
ever how incoherent it is. Mr.
Chambers' discussion of the "Econ-
omic Issues" (ppl-21)is muddled and
repetitious and a repetition of last
year's hysterical performance.
The Government cannot get it
into its thick skull that rising prices,

monetary instability and reserve
losses are problems of a different
order from unemployment, in-
equality and foreign domination.
Mr. Chambers indulges interminable
mystifications from Budget to Eud-
get by insisting on an essentially false
distinction between the alleviating of
short-term distress and the laying of
long-term foundations for develop-
What he will not understand is
that the long-run and the short-run
are one and that in the long run we
are all dead. The long-run problems
are always and only solved by what
you do in the short. The problems
that appear in the short are the
symptoms of the basic disease. You
do not have a policy choice of play-
ing both ends against the middle
which is what the PNM has been
doing for 17 years. They keep us in
a world of unmanageable short-run
problems because they are mortally
afraid of launching an assault on
basic structures.


The decision that the first Tapia
Minister of Finance will take is that
we are going to eliminate unemploy-
ment, eradicate inequality and seize
control of the resources belonging
to the people of this country. After
that, price policy, reserve policy,
debt policy, wage policy and
budgetary policy would all become
the servant of these objectives.
Though the necessary choices
would still be uncompromisingly
difficult, they would always be
crystal clear to the people so that
the Government would enjoy the
political and moral strength to act.
Over the years the PNM has been
shilly-shallying in defence of the
privileged oligarchy on which their
survival hangs. Public policy con-
sists of a meaningless round of
national consultations, of indignant
denunciations of such favoured
boboolees as organised labour and
of pious calls on the well-to-do to
save and to show restraint. The
result has been abyssmal product-
ivity, industrial indiscipline in every
sector and at every level, and a get-
pay-Friday-get-broke-Monday men-
tality among people and with
Government alike.


It was not always like this.
People once voted for political edu-
cation, economic planning, indepen-
dence and morality in public
affairs. When we lost leadership and
direction, we said each man for him-
self because when you dead you
When you boil it down, that is
exactly what this year's Budget says.
It fits entirely with the spirit of the
old regime. The only difference is
that the moral and intellectual
bankruptcy of the government is
more desperate now that petroleum
is spinning money. More desperate
and more grandiose and more
charismatic. So extreme in fact that
it is certain to deliver us, at last,
from the magic of messianic Doctor
deliverance because bigger they are,
harder they fall.

25 CENTS. ALL BOOKSTORES ....... PHONE 662-5126

Tapia White Paper on

The Budget



...ASK FOR:-


The Acid test

of freedom

Angela Cropper

THE National Debt has been rising
over the last decade but it is still not
high. At the end of 1973, the Gross employment has been a response to the failure
Pbic h AD t stod at $ m ad of the development programmes to create jobs
Public Debt stood at $624..2m and the on the scale necessary to take up the backlog
Net Public Debt at $551.6m In 1963, and to cater for the rapid increase in the
Year after Independence, the labour force up to the early 1960's.
comparable figures were $191.6m Expenditure on the capital account has also
and $153.8., respectively, grown markedly. In 1962, expenditure was
In 1970, Year of the.February Revolution, $85m, in 1972, $124m. Again,the government
they were $392.6m. and $324.2m respectively, could rightly argue that its responsibilities to
Domestic Public Debt as a proportion of the the country has increased. The question is
Gross Demestic Product amounted to only 9%- whether the money has been wisely spent.
as compared with a figure of 78.8% for the The PNM idea has focused attention on
U.K. 32.1% for India, 27.2% for Ghana and building up the infra-structure and providing
11.3% for Jamaica. more social services in the form of utilities,
This year scheduled repayments will health services and education services in
amount to $31.4m. Moreover, against the particular. The effectiveness of this strategy is
background of the petroleum windfall, no new very much in doubt having turned out neither
loans are planned for 1974 and $100m have fish nor fowl.
been budgeted for in the Special The government has not gone for any
Appropriations Account for the retirement of genuine equality on the basis of widely
short term debt and the reorganisation of the available collective goods; education and health
portfolio. The net National Debt per head of have been free but unavailable to many because
population will therefore fall and reverse the of lack of hospital and school space. The
trend of the years since Independence. Net country has not been committed to effort by a
Debt per head now stands at $516 as compared regime imbued by the egalitarian spirit. High
with $131 in 1962 and $276 in 1968. productivity and widespread democratic
Viewed from this particular statistical angle, political participation have been driven away in
it would be difficult to understand either the the process.
anxiety of the public, or the government's Yet, we have not had any serious economic
constant concern with the problem in spite of thrust either. The inequality has not produced
the protestations by the minister of Finance any class of serious economic builders, only an
that the underlying position is sound. Perhaps oligarchy of consumers and con-men. The
the Government is worrying about the burden combination of deficient economic policy and
of debt service charges which in 1973 inadequate social policy has meant lower
amounted to no less than $61.3m or full 13% output, lower income, lower revenue and lower
of its current revenue; Whatever the reason, we national saving on both public anid private'
Swill discover when all the issues have been account. Here is the clue to both the growth in
adequately aired.` burrowing abroad and tdie breakdown of the
political system which culminated in the
$ $ Februaryrevolution of 1970.
The frightening thing is that the government
The country is certainly worried by the fact has been "as clear as its critics about the issues
that in the years since Independence, the real involved. Time and again, ministers of finance,
burden has increased by 21 times measured from Robinson in 1962,. to Chambers in 1972,
in 1960 dollars. After a genuine discussion have all pointed to the need for higher
of what is here involved, we will be worried revenues, more efficient expenditures and less
about plenty more. reliance on external resources to finance
As the 1974 budget shows, the Government development expenditure.
does not need to borrow if revenue is high Hear Robinson in 1962;
enough to yield a decent surplus over ". our favourable debt position in no way
expenditures on current account. In suchl a relieves us of the obligation to make a propor-
expendtures on current account. In such a tion of current revenues available for develop-
case, borrowing may still be necessary but only ment. It in no way relieves us of the obligation
as an aid to policy in the money and capital in orer to more ntaoin own destic resources
market a point the government has economy and, its healthy rate of growth. This
opportunistically failed to make although it will be the acid test of our independence...
claims to be fighting inflation. In 1968, Willians was playing the same
Debt policy therefore opens queries on'the record in relation to monetary policy.
"our target to finance a reasonableshareof
patterns of expenditure and revenue developed our development programme by free funds and
by the Government over the years. If debt is to raise as much as possible of the loans
required on the local market. This will be one
not significant in relation to the national of the principal guidelines...
income then it can only be significant in Later that year, the February revolution
relation to Government revenue if expenditure started tuning up. Nobody was listening to the
is excessive and wasteful and/or if, for some government and clearly it was not a question
reason, the government refuses to tax those of administrative incompetence or a failure to
who earn the bulk of the total national income, formulate the needs of the time. The problem
On the revenue side, it has been a basic as always, was a political one.
plank of PNM policy to undertax profits. .The To promote savings in the public and
programme for encouraging investment in private sectors entails radical income and wage
manufacturing and tourism has never deviated policies; it necessitates fundamental changee in
from the strategy of tax holidays, duty rebates, consumption patterns and styles of living; one
accelerated depreciation and a range of prerequisite for such changes is a government
measures designed to inflate the normal profit with the moral authority to act.
rate especially on foreign capital. The damage PNM lost this moral authority when it
done by this strategy is now a legend all over became the waggon of the privileged parasite
the W,.;t Indies butthe point here is that it class, maintained by the patronage of the state
leaves the taxable capacity of the economy far in exchange for an easy political support. The
from exhausted in exchange for very dubious marxists say it is a bourgeois class but it is odd
gains. .I 1972, duty concessions alone that this class lives and is known by its
amounted to $59.9m., nearly one fifth of the consumption, not by its contribution to
petroleum windfall this year, so highly rated as investment and accumulation and technology.
a golden bonanza. That in fact, is the trap in which the
On the expenditure side, emoluments government is caught.
account for the bulk of the outlay, 44.4% in So long as the basis of its political
1973, $188m. Part of this is due to the organisation is the promotion of this
increasing responsibilities of the State for spendthrift class in the utilities, such as 'WASA,
economic planning under conditions of Telco and the PTSC, and in the various
independence. The public sector has become branches of the public service, the problem of
the largest single employer of labour, the national debt will only compound itself.
accounting now for over 30% of all paid And the'relief brought by petroleum windfalls
,employees. This rapid growth in- state can at best be only temporary.

THE popular response to State borrowing is an index of
our lack of confidence in the PNM regime second only to'
coolness of the electorate towards elections, parties, Parlia-
ment and politics..The announcement of a new loan is
invariably met by stupes; there exists no hobby-horse more
favoured than "the size of the national debt."
Equally, the Governinlnt's retort has been an index of a deep-
seated attitude. Once the PNM began to lose the extraordinary
receptivity which it initially enjoyed with large sections of the
country, its utterances be-
trayed a corresponding loss
of confidence, exemplified
in such arrogant instances
as -if-you-do-not-like-it-'et-to-.
hell-out-of- he re and if-l-can't-
By the time long years of
cynical pragmatism, in sup-
port of the privileged new
oligarchy had exhausted this
receptivity altogether, the
stock-in-trade of the party
unabashedly became prevarica-
tion, conmanship and evasion
as the Government's spokes-
men increasingly viewed the
country with an undisguised
Political education has been
abandoned. The stock response
has now become the authorita-
tive simplification in the form
either of a false analogy or a
crushingly favourable com-
parison. "The whole world is
in crisis; all developing coun-
tries have problems; the rate
in Trinidad and Tobago may
be bad but it is better than
most. Such is the irresistible
PNM logic and matter fix. What
you complaining bout?
Yet, on the question of the national debt, people continue to
gripe. We are not at all,reassured when Mr. Chambers tells us that:
"comparative data on the public debt of selected
developed and developing countries shows that
while the growth in this country's public debt
must be carefully:managed, th6 existing levels are
not, by international standards, particularly !bigeh."
/i3udget, 1913j.
The information is doubtless correct but we do not respond to
his exhortation "to mobilise resources internally and to take all the
measures which are necessary to reach our goals". [Budget, 1972].
Unless there is a revenue windfall, our current expenditures keep
outdistancing our current revenues, our surpluses fall short of what
we need to finance capital expenditure, and we have to resort to
borrowing at home and increasingly, abroad.
And we will continue to hand down this "intolerable heritage to
our future generation" until the issues are honestly discussed.
Discussion of the national debt should focus not only on State
borrowing but also on budgetary policy as a whole including the
fiscal (tax) aspects. It should probe the ability of the government to
harness and use resources for the improvement of the country and
the country's capacity to finance its own expansion and to acquire
and maintain the ownership and control of its own productive assets.
To commit the country to our programme of Government bor-
rowing, these are the issues on which Tapia must brifig information
and analysis to bear.



TUNAPUNA 662-5126




Continuing the series: Profiles in Sugar Chandrika Singh

Lloyd Taylor

A LIFE time of toil and
of struggle, yes, that is
what it has been for
Chandrika Singh. And
since 1925 to boot.
For ordinary men that
would have been time
enough. They would long
since have faded from
active involvement es-
pecially in a place riddled
with ketch-ass like sugar.
Take the question of laying
down effective bargaining units
throughout the sugar belt.
Here untiring efforts have
resulted only in the barren
fruit that is the All Trinidad
Sugar Estates and Factory
Workers Trade Unioi.
Fighting for a better order
has always meant knocking
your head against the twin
pillars of Company and Union.
Sutton, remembered by
Chandrika Singh and sugar
workers for leaving them all in
the lurch, is known to have
described sugar as a headache.
You have to wonder just what
kind of pressures he endured,
or what threat may have ulti-
mately forced him to retreat?
About Sutton, as it is for
anyone else who has withdrawn
from the battle front, you
can't just jump to conclusions.
The experience of Chand is
very instructive in these
Unlike his chieftains, Chand
has not faded quietly into
another life, or become a relic
of the past. Cipriani, Butler,
Quintin O'connor, these are
but a few of the men under
whose regime he laboured to
establish the routines for the
formation of a sugar workers'


Cast in the role of lieutenant,
Chandrika Singh remains a
kind of thread from a distant
past; yet bearer of an old
vision still largely unfulfilled.
Last year Orange Grove pro-
vided another opportunity for
Chand's zealous efforts to
advance the workers' cause.
Would he be forced to sell-
out, or would his life time in
sugar be forcibly brought to an
Conflict between himself
and the Union bosses was in-
evitable. As Grievance Officer
for Orange Grove workers too,
Chand had taken up the call
to remove Hunte and Tello
an issue which the Union
avoided like the plague. Until
a demonstration of workers
brought it to the very doorstep
of the Triennial Conference of
Delegates last May and it could
be resisted no more.
Now something would have
to give. As far as the Union's
Executive was concerned,
Chand's neck was on the block.
The first stroke to cut it off
came from the pen.
Chandrika Singh was to
have been fired. The orders
were issued three days before
the Triennial Conference. For
Panday this was to have been
his first official act.
According to Chand,
Panday, seeing the crisis at
Orange Grove, had told Fitzroy
Wanza that he could not think


of carrying out his instructions.
He would surely be looking
for trouble.
Instead, Panday, the present-
day spokesman, set in train
procedures for reviewing
Chandrika Singh's salary. He
found $150 per month, with-
out travelling, far too low for
an officer who had to service
grievances in Caroni (Curepe
Section,) Distillery, Wilderness
and Orange Grove.
Thus it was Chand got his
first increase in years .... $50,

plus $10 extra for travelling.
And in a letter, dated August
24, 1973, Rampartap Singh
wrote: "... we expect you to
assist in boosting the integrity
of the Union since I am sure
you will eventually reap greater
In the meantime the Hunte
and Tello issue had dragged on
into the rainy season. By the
time the workers were back
out to work, the Union was
forced through the sheer pres-
sure of circumstance to

convene a meeting of the
Branch Representatives to
decide on some form of sup-
port for the Orange Grovers.
So that, pay increase or
not, Chandrika Singh could not
be silenced once the issue of
Hunte and Tello continued to
foul the atmosphere.
Rampartap Singh and his
clique then fell back upon
another stratagem. Deny
Range Grove any form of
trades union representation.
This new ploy aimed to re-

THE TEN-YEAR grievance over compensation to the Oropouche farmers and
general skepticism, on the part of farmers, of government plans, is going to affect
the decision to put 5,000 additional acres under rice this year.
This was made clear during the Seminar/Discussion on the "Prqblems of Rice Production"
held last week at the St Augustine campus of the University of the West Indies. The Seminar,
which was organised by the Students' Guild and the Faculty of Engineering, was opened by
Pro-Vice-Chancellor, Professor Lloyd Braithwaite. Charing the morning session was Mr. S.N.
Three papers were presented by members of the university community. Professor N.
Ahmad, presented a paper on "Problems and Possibilities of the Rice Crop in Trinidad". Dr.
H.O. Phelps spoke on "Drainage and Irrigation for Rice Growing in Trinidad" while Mr. Dennis
Pantin spoke on the "Economics of Rice Production".
The real gain in the Seminar was the interaction and participation by the 300-odd rice
farmers who came from the various rice growing areas to make their contributions.

Everyone got their share
when the farmers spoke -
the university should be a
storehouse of knowledge but
were not passing on this in-
formation to farmers; the
three papers were theoretical
and did not deal with the
reality of rice farming; uni-
versity graduates were only
interested in their big jobs
and high salaries and not in
the rice farmer.
But the bulk of the farm-
ers' resentment and grievance
was directed towards the go-
vernment and their frontline
representatives, the Extension
The first farmer who
spoke decided to answer Pro-
fessor Ahmad's query as to
why rice production has not
increased over the years. He
said that the first Minister of
Agriculture of an independent
Trinidad and Tobago had told
farmers that rice was un-
economical to produce while
we could buy from Guyana
which was a lower-cost pro-
Today, he lamented, go-
vernment has to subsidise
wheat and rice and now wants
to increase rice production.
Earlier on an Extension
Officer had announced that

Rice farming


faces dull future

the Ministry had purchased
ten rice threshing machines
from England. A member of
the newly formed Island-Wide
Rice Growers Association,
Ramdass Mahabir, said that
he was only now hearing from
my Extension Officer.
The Rice Association pre-
sented a document which
dealt with the compensation
issue and made proposals for
irrigation and drainage.
The statement points out
that since 1963 about one-
third of the rice producing
field in Oropouche became
too high for rice cultivation
as a result of the poor drain-
age. Production declined by
about 75 per cent.
A Commission of Enqinry
recommended $1.5 million for
damages to crops for 1,141
claimants of which only 316
farmers were paid in full in
1972-1973, 385 were paid
one-third compensation prior
to recommendations in 1963
and no payment had been
made to 440 farmers.

The total payment made
-was $325,815.26 while
$1,174,184.74 is being with-
held by the Ministry pending
investigations by the police
over fraud in the payment of
the compensation.
The Association argues
that while 160 pig farmers
received over $2 million for
pigs destroyed r cently during
the outbreak of swine fever,
rice farmers are still waiting
after ten years for their com-
The Association put for-
ward 9 proposals to help the
drainage and irrigation prob-
lems in the Oropouche La-
goon. It also recommends
small engine-driven hand
ploughs, agronomic research
for better rice varieties, train-
ing in the use of fertilizers,
and weedicides.
It argues for the intro-
duction of some mechanical
aids in harvesting and thresh-
ing, the use of mechanical
driers, and the development
Cont'd on Page 9

move Chandrika from the
Hence the reason for a new
focus on Caroni (Curepe
Section), Wilderness, and the
Distillery. Chandrika was re-
lieved of duties in these areas.
And in a letter dated Septem-
ber 9, 1973 he was notified
that one Gafoor Mohammed
would replace him.
Apparently he was to have
been systematically broken as
well. Firstly he was denied
bread. His cheque for two
weeks pay, dated 9-11-74, and
amounting to only $100.00
was cashed at Lutchman's Gas
Station. It was later discovered
to have been irregularly drawn.
Chand had to repay the


Two weeks later, Chand
received a notification, written
and signed in Rampartap
Singh's own hand, that he must
proceed on leave with effect
from November 26, 1973. He
was also requested to attend a
meeting of Grievance Officers
and to collect his full month's
pay in advance.
Smelling the ruse to deny
them representation, Orange
Grovers immediately penned
a letter to the Executive in
which they rejected "... the
decision taken by the Union's
Executive as regards sending
the Grievance Officer of the
said branch on leave at this
crucial stage of unrest.. ."
No reply was received to
that. So business proceeded as
usual. Chandrika Singh was in
receipt of mail again. Now he
was urgently requested to take
up duties at the Union's Head
Office in Mon Chagrin St. San
Fernando by January 2, 1974.
By this time too he would
have returned from leave. But
Chand had himself refused to
budge from active support of
Orange Grove workers. Above
all he would not be found in
Mon Chagrin by any chance.
How could he tell what fate
awaits him?
He has not received a
salary over the last six fort-
nights. Workers out of gratitude
contribute to the Chandrika
Singh fund. To date that
remains the position. And the
struggle? That too continues
- at an even higher stage of




Tapia New Year Assembly January 20th

WE have to open up the discussion. That was Tapia
Secretary, Lloyd Best's driving appeal in a soulful
address that sought to "unlock" the ideological
discussion that has been "constricted in a debate
between socialism and communism on the one hand
and liberal capitalism on the other."
Charging that both these ideological camps provided no
answers, Best pointed out that there was no essential
difference in the kind of social structures, in the kind of
approaches to power that both systems were producing.
"And part of the decolonization
that we have to undertake is to
unlock the discussion from these
rigid formulas of nineteenth cen-
tury liberalism and the antithesis
to it that has come out of Europe,
German marxism or Russian
communism," he urged.
And introduce what? State-
ments "so relevant to the condition
of man where he is on the spot that
it will illuminate the path forward,
to action and break that deadlock
the result of which has been a
brutalized civilization without
either leadership or clarity."
Race and class as ideological
concepts were clearly under scrutiny
here. Because the way in which this
deadlock showed itself from day
to day was "in the tendency of
people whose responsibility it is to
act to fall back on simple categories
of this kind."
Best argued that it was the
urgency and immediacy of .the
crisis that has led to these simple
"People are living under pres-
sures every day the rising prices,
the shortages, the incompetence of
the administration these things
mean something to people every
day in terms of living and working LLOYD BEST
and playing."
,But the shortest way is the ..
9lQ06^gs .Ja9ay9LiS 4.. Andl.Shere we ,
were in 1974 seeing that the revolutionary consciousness had touched the
country's backyard the sugar workers who are, in terms of income, at the
bottom of the heap.
"Sugar has locked up passions relating to every segment in the country. The
Caribbean civilization has been built on the sugar industry and-we are going to
break the regime on sugar and when the sugar workers are stirring those who keep
the people in chains had better take notice," Best warned.

The problem of taking the power,however, still remained. How are we going
to effect the mobilization to take the power? How to mobilise hopes, aspira-
tions, dreams, agony, anguish, indignation in the public square into constructive
political organization that can organize the communities and take the govern-
That, of course, was the fundamental political question and it had been held
up all the years because of the "lack of clarity" among other things. We had,
however, come to a stage where it was necessary to "make sense of our dispos-
session, of our differences and our divisions, to make sense of who is what and
where we are going and canalize' the forces into a single striking force.
Crucial to the task of "bringing the tributaries together in that torrent was the
discussion on race and class "because of the kind of-society we have."
"Blood is thicker than water".Bestquoted, "and when people are under stress
they look for kith and kin- naturally".
"So that," he stressed, "we do not want people to give up their race, but to be
proud of it. We have, however, the noble vision of a race that is made up of
different races.
"Because we believe race is essentially about culture. Race is about how you
perceive race-.. when people say they are black people they are making'acul.
tural or political definition it is entirely possible to have different physical
types and yet perceive in such a way that you see a single race. We have to
create new notions of race. :But that is the end and we cannot start there
because people do not now see themselves in that kind of way." Best said.

Best reminded the Assembly that in 1970 the revolution
began with racial formulations:
"Understandably so because there is no question what-
soever .that the black people in this New World and in
Trinidad and Tobago are a disposessed and disadvantaged
people especially in the Caribbean, in a land that they are
natural inheritors of. So that there is no question that there
is a fundamental problem of race and blackness.
"The point is how you locate it. And in 1970 we
started with Black Power. And when it exploded and the
revolution went into the streets we saw we couldn't hold
that formulation. We began to introduce notions of socio-
logical whites as well as sociological blacks such as Fidel
Castro. We saw how it affected Indians, so Black Power
immediately sought to embrace the Indians Indians and
Africans Unite.
"In other words people have sense. And in a political
situation where only sense can work, we had to adjust the
positions. And in 1970 we saw very clearly we had to for-
mulate the business with great delicacy."
But we weren't organized for that. The operation ran
down. We couldn't communicate to the population and
hold it together. So what happened?
"You got the fantastic phenomenon of those who were
the most rabid exponents of race then turn to class and
you got the contradictory phenomenon of Black Power
Marxism which you may laugh at if you are not sympathetic
but you have to understand the difficulties which our people
are going90 through the need for clarity and. so on .
S "Best had earlier suggested that the crucial point about
class was that "political necessity demands automatic
mobilisation if'you are not organised.
:-;:.: :. ....... :.-" "If you can.fall back on race you don't have to do any
world. because God has already done it for you. He has
defined what the Party is ana the significance o0 the Marxist concept f class
in all of these political situations is that because we are rational enough to
know that God is not going to do that work and that we know that people
within single racial categories are not going to behave the same we look for a
man-made God. In other words what God can't do for us we ask capitalism to
do for us.
"The significance of the Marxist concept of class when you have not done the
work is that class defines all who are one side and all who are on the other. Use-
ful as the construct was in Europe in the nineteenth century, it is not useful here
in that way.
"Marx was talking about two sets of people in a single situation the
Industrial Revolution in Britain children going into the factories and dying in
the factories. Marx's notions of class attempted to identify a set of people who
were in a certain existentialist situation, cramped into those factories and taking
licks like fire until they died. It made political sense. And it identified on the
other side all those capitalists, the bourgeoisie who had emerged in medieval
Europe to break up the feudal order, who had emerged in collaboration with
the merchants, to accumulate capital and build technology; they built cathedrals,
wrote beautiful music, organised'nation statesset their enterprise of the Indies
in search of gold...
"These were people of substance, organized, competent, harnessing technol-
ogy and running.the civilization and Marx saw a historic clash of forces between
the two. It was a beautiful romance, a beautiful drama. It didn't work out that
way when the time came in the first World War the workers did not unite,
they fought for the Kaiser of Germany and the King of England."
According to Best we had to understand what weight to put on class. There
are inequalities in the society which Tapia was dedicated to eliminate but we
had to understand how important class was in our context.
To what extent are men committed by the fact that they are drawing big
salaries or that they went to a university and got a big job when they came out'.
Continued on Page 8

De Luxe
Danish Teak fnish
Living Room Suite
Reversible Cushions




68 70.HENRY ST.

_ L_

L ~- -2-i C-




ERS is without doubt, Garth St. Omer's
finest achievement to date. The promise show-
ed in SYROP (a novella published by Faber
in 1964) and in the first three novels finally
comes to mature fruition. The other novels
were "A Room on the Hill" (1968), "Shades
of Grey" (1968) and "Nor Any Country"
(1969).Inevidence immediately in "J-, Black
Bam and the Masquera'ders" is maturity, great
control, highly developed technique. Here the
themes of the first three novels find a unique
There is that continuing concern with the West
Indian growing out of his society through his educa-
tion, the resulting crises in personality this colonial
education produces; there is his examination of the
role of the church in the society; there is too explora-
tion of the class/colour prejudice that grew out of the
effects of the education received and the result of
having white French priests in positions of power in
the church. All these themes play out the pattern of
the novel which goes on for only 109 pages, a
technical achievement.
As usual in St. Omer there is no conventional
story-line, plot or characterisation. But by the end of
the novel one has a strong sense of situation and
individuals. It carries on where NorAny Country left
off, is an essential epilogue to the other three
novels, but can stand firmly on its own.

He refuses to play in the school steelband, aware of
the negative values it represents to the society. It
was local and therefore inferior. He does not wan to
share these values with former elementary school
friends io whom he no longer speaks.
'And daily, I walked the streets, and measured my
potential distance above, and my growing superuriiy
tu them. i wouid not play in the steelband to be
enclosed by them, or by their friends'. p. 34

The self-contempt that is below the coniempt for
those.around him is well illustrated in the example of
the usurper ejected from the church pew. Already
there are potentially dangerous schizophrenic signals
in Paul's dual identification with usurper and usurped:

it was always with regret that I watched the
usurper get up and walk away. 1 wanted him to
continue to be defiant, to refuse absolutely to.move.
I wanted to see hin carried bodily out of the pew by
the church orderlies, perhaps be clubbed by the trun-
cheonm they carriedd ;and which liave never seen
then use. iFor I knew, sitting in the pews reserved for
us, that 1, like him, was a usurper, and it was my
own defiance that I wished had been total. It. was
myself that I watched going shamefacedly down the


His relationship with Patsy, commencing .after his
return from a neighboring island where he had been
a success, is one of vented frustration and anger.
Patsy is for him, like the others, only an object of
contempt. He admits that 'it had always been Ier body
only that i wanted'. The sordidness of his short, un-.
involved affair leads to the beginning of disaster. On
the 'threshold of success,' all is lost as Patsy becomes
pregnant. The sin is committed and the triangle closes
around him.

it is the notion of respectability shared by Mr.
Breville and Patsy's mother than makes her demand
marriage from Paul. His confidence in his ability to
move beyond the old ready-made solutions makes
him refuse. But getting no help from IPatsy's mother,
who sees no other way of solution, but the old and
time honoured, lhe is doomed to failure. Before he
leaves her house, to which she had summoned him, he
asks her daughter to come and live with him:
'It was a sudden and impulsive suggestion. But, and I
can see tlit even more clearly now, it held out more

In J-, Black Bar and the Masqueraders our
two main protagonists are Paul and Peter Breville.
Paul is the brother of promise who never escaped from
his island society, and Peter is the brother who
escaped and later returns. At present Peter is working
at the university on another island. He has taken there
with him his wife Phyllis and his brother's son
Michael, and together they are trying to pick up the
threads of an existence they had barely had together
before he left for Europe.
As we saw at the end of Nor Any Country his
return only symbolises a further and perhaps more
important departure into self, which has now become
a dominant theme in the progression of St. Omer's
writing. The scarih for self is a hard one as v.' st:
husband and wife facing the turmoil of disenchant-
ment, extra-marital excursion, professional frustra-
tion, age.
Paul's failure leads from one depth into another.
His escape has also been into himself. But it has led
only to despair, the masquerade and rmadness, his
only means of survival:

... e nOed to perform. Otherwise our world ends.
For we have become both actor and audience and to
end our performance is to remove the need for both
and annihilate ourselves'.
'The y say I'm mad. 1 know it's only lhat I have
chosen a way to live with my confusion and with the
pain that results from my inability to resolve it'.
St. Omer's early major theme of frustration in
a small society governed by a strict triangular code of
sin/guilt/punishment is fused here in Paul. This is
again enhanced by the tone of the confessional, now
given final, climactic presence in the form of letters
from Paul to Peter. (Letters which of course, will not
be sent). His whole life is now one of expiation for
the sin of defiance he had made tothe society several
years before. Too proud to give in, his letters trace
his do\\-nfi.ll and his search for a way to live with
himself and his society.

The first chapter of the novel, labelled 'Paul
to Peter', shows the young Paul asserting his confi-
dence .rtert victory of a sort. Dissatisfied with the
meal his mother has prepared, he rails unkindly at
her, We can be certain that this kind of lhinid'." mst
have happened several times, in whatever different
Paul, like the olher St, Oiner protl:gonists, thais
been citated anew by the cdiattional rcqunitrimr ts
of !ii it i'i lv, Fiil hi nste fi fithet has to icknowledge
the lotous at work op his sons!
,Clo u-c R haid g i len i ,' a-iail im!inuri y i t- '.atiti
his dtiapttov.l!, 'Viu,iititiativr was ;%i4aliinF away ion i
hliin to '.uiii ir !M to d iu !i, Nhit tia "I'lu'ih. n-I l i.e s A
,.- cl.-.. mw'i. not tu id!'l, l o n (. hut ioi.-lin..i .bC. a
inw w aiuthtniiv thifl eisxted ouiide r Ih,- n. ..,,- aidl
wvlic' hlw, oa, rcpr'oltd but Im ppi0theded onhl
Contempt ilfor his fellows, which is essenhally a so. i
-coneupt, grows quickly, !His education (pl'el'.niiu;
hnm l', cogdes .and values Irici;nl to him) separate's
him quickly f roml them.
i'They we.te nOt prttfesionalst not doors nor
lAVM ts t and l, itie wiL n t white. And I didd not
-- -----O. m>ha u'' n.notA.

I was always disappointed. No matter how long hie
remained obdurately sitting in the pew, the usurper
always got up in the end and walked sheepishly away.
And, always, it was myself that I watclied self-
justifiedly taking the place he had vacated for me. I
knew that, in a few years, I would insist, even more
forcibly than those I observed, that every usurper
remove himself to make room for me'. p. 38/39
Thlre is already too, in Paul, that desperate need to
gaiin favour from the whites and mulattoes of Colum-
buts Square: noat tany cost to be identified with the
black miss following the steelband his brother Peter
plays in,
Growing recognition as a sportsman brings a
tier ilcdesire for acclaim, especially from his parents.
It is oil[. thie failures that are taken notice of. (A
feature of W.I. society already given prominence by
Naipaul.) like the society around him Paul's father's

notions of success and failure could only be
based on standards that were not his own. And for
him, it wrNis the public response to my performance
thatt becaei the determinant. But neither he, nor the
public, had the knowledge which made all performance
relative. For me to appear to fail. therefore. no
matter what the circumstances, was always to incur
his and the public's disapproval, and his sarcastic
'mnumients in the house'. p.50

"There is that continuing concern with the West Indian growing{

hope for the survival of the two of us. Patsy
hesitated', p. 83
And she chooses her mother. Because his pride will
not let him change his mind, he is now at odds with
society, and threatening it. We are reminded here of
Stephenson in Shades of Grey who in-a similar situation,
likens himself to a runaway slave in the hills.
'They had been fighting (for their freedom) a system
that had seemed no less logical than the one he saw
himself, in his dreams, fighting now. They had been
defeated because, being against the system, they had
to be. And he too, since hie could see no way of
escaping, would have been defeated as well'. p. 106

Stephenson, in a sense, is lucky, where Paul is not.
For Paul never escapes. caught by his own pride and
contempt; but in a larger sense, caught in the greater
closed circle the society itself has created, since his
education in the society provided the contempt and
pride that destroys him.
Losing his job at the Catholic college where he
teaches, he refuses jobs he considers below his worth.
Finally there is nothing more to refuse. He feels




'humiliated, blackmailed and punished'. And he be-
comes aware of the value system used by the totally
Roman Catholic society to judge itself:
'I saw that the whole town accepted the idea of sin,
guilt, punishment', p. 97

He succumbs to the 'squat, ugly edifice crouching in
the middle of the town' and goes to church every day
for a year. 1t is after one of the masses he has attended
that he comes upon J-- and Black Bamn who provide
for.him the way to live with himself.
In his last 'letter' we discover how Patl learns
to !ive with 'his confusion and the pain that results
from his inability to resolve it'. He tells us that

'Eager to convince, we intensify our posturing until
the impersonation we intended as reality for others
begins to assume reality for us. We play less and less
for those who watch us and, in the end, it is ourselves
that we fool. It is then that, more than ever, we need
to continue to perform. Otherwise our world ends. For
we have become both actor and audience and to end
our performance is to remove the need for both and
annihilate ourselves'.

For Peter, Paul's brother, the journey to self-
discovery that commenced in Nor Any' Country,
continues. The past of that novel has given way to a
present tlat is ugly. His wife, Phyllis, single-minded
in her possessive-ness of him. follows him everywhere,
waits for him outside his mistress' home, allows
herself to be brutalised by him. His entreaties to her
to return to their island home, taking their child and
nephew with her, have no effect.
Phyllis is a creature of instinct created by the
narrow island society. A mulatto, unreleased by
education, she knows only her simple basic desires of
self-preservation; hers is an unsophisticated approach
to her desire, which here, is directed solely at Peter.

Yet their early days on the university island
had been happy together. t;, r.,'.,o more and more
discontented with his job, Peter began to see his
purpose in life as that of making P1L II.. happy. but
gradually, the relationship disintegrates as their
differences in educational achievements begins to
make itself felt. Phyllis is 'impatient with ideas and
unwilling or unable, to deal with them'. Her un-

'The slaves had not acquired one, nor the island
governments the other. But they had made of
another's expedient concession their own achievement
and were proud of it. We are like children ... mindlessly
imitating adults, informing our fantasy with total and
ligh seriousness We not only make cakes out of mud.
We cat them as well. We are so busy imitating others
that we have no time to do anything of our own.'
p. 14
At the end of the novel, this theme returns.
Standing in front of a miniror, he suddenly becomes
aware of the ravages of time on him. He remembers
an opera he had been to see two days before, done
with the island's black performers. The incongruity
reminds him of a picture he had seen of slaves dressed
up in their rnasters' old clothes.
'Peter h.:d the sense of an absurdity, of children gathering
about them the adult clothes they wore and hobbling
smilingly about in too-large shoes, pleased with
themselves'. p.109
Peter and Paul Breville are, finally, portraits of
the greater West Indian dilemma. Each recognizing
the shortcomings of the society, a direct heritage of
the colonial experience, and each, working his way
toward resolution of the great psychosis. Paul,
representative of one kind of West Indian,
'copping-out'; Peter, not copping-out, but unable to
find, within himself, the resources necessary to see
beyond the obstacles.

ut of his society through his education, the result -ng crises in personality this colonial education produces",

He begins the masquerade of madness:
'When i decided to become mad, it was to preserve
my identity whole for myself that I reflected its bits
for others to look upon.' p 93


Paul identifies with J-. Both have been College
boys, well educated, with all the attributes of that
education, such as contempt for those 'below' them,
and both have become, in their own way, failures.
(We are not told why J- has failed). It is through the
degradation of Black Barn, as black as his name, that
J- earns his money. And Paul, watching the drama
being played out, understands,
'the extent of his (3-'s) contempt for all those whom
he performed for. They,nor I, existed for him'. P 102
To Paul is revealed an actor and his audience, both
contained in the one man. An exclusion of everyone
outside himself is the mark of supreme contempt.

'It was as if I had come face to face with contempt
suddenly and for the first time. I who thought I
knew it so well': p. 102
And he decides
"I felt that I too, to survive, would need to be as
contemptuous as J- had been'.

concern with events in the world around and beyond
them makes him begin to regard her as 'incomplete
and ill-equipped' to be his wife. More and more he
becomes irritated by her claim on him.
'He was struck by a quality he thought he detected
that was much like arrogance in the assurance with
which she had waited once before, and waited again
now, for him to come to her'. p. 70
His relationship with Jeanine, a French lecturer,
begins. Phyllis' pregnancy only makes things worse
as she refuses to abort. Things finally come apart
when he decides to move into a room by himself.
From then on, their life consists of quarrelling and
fighting. At the end, with age making itself apparent,
the situation is unchanged, and hope seems to rest for
Peter and Phyllis in the baby suckling at her mother's

Peter's continuing awareness of the imitation
in the society around him, is one of the indications of
a deeper search within himself for something validly
him. Early in the novel, he says of Emancipation
and Independence:

St. Omer's novels are all portraits of the West
Indian dilemma, viz., that lack of true, meaningful
identity. All his characters, major as well as minor,
seek in their ways to live with an emptiness that has
always, in their experience, bean there, St. Omer
himself seems unable to offer anything more than
hope for a better future; and nowhere is that primary
vacuum filled. A change of society, a 'change of
mind', babies, are all only hopeful efforts.
In the most intense sections of this intense novel,
one senses strongly the presence of the author.
Attacks on the church, on the selling of land which
means that the people have now even less than
before, these are vehement protests registered by St.
Omer himself. But generally, the style and technique
of the author is tightly controlled, allowing the
characters and subjects to present themselves to the
reader. Whatever solutions that seen offered are

As in so much else, St. Omer here has achieved a
virtuosity in style that should put him among the top
craftsmen in the West Indian novel. His favourite
technique, that of the flashback, is no longer
exasperating in parts as formerly. Evident now is a
clear transition between events and time boundaries.
The form of 'confession' that was evoked through the
flash-back sequence reaches perfection in the letters
of Paul to his brother.
A kind of total involvement is acquired with
chapters being headed with the names of characters.
As their chapters are part of the whole of the novel,
so are the characters inseparable components in one
His prose, (made almost 'poetic' in its excursions
into the. human condition of suffering 'for the sins of
the fathers') makes the harsh reality of these islands
almost romantic in its telling. There is compactness.
St. Onmer wastes no words as he sketches directly, and
without fuss, his particular portraits of these
wretched of the earth.

One wonders whether the symbol is at work in
the names Peter and Paul. From the beginning, St.
Omer has been strongly anti- i'thei Romn Catholic
Church that has dominated the lives of his people;
and here one can perhaps see irony in the fact that
this Peter and Paul are certainly no saviours of men or
holders of the keys to any particular heaven. If this is
to be so, as they move through trauma after trauma,
then it will be in the future. But one is not given
much encouragement here. They can hardly survive
day-to-day living themselves.
The baby suckling at Phyllis's breast seems a
symbol of hope residing only in the future
generations, a very pessimistic view.

'Hle heard her footsteps begin to follow him and the
sound of the baby suckling her breast'. P. 109.

The sound of Phyllis footsteps, terrifying in their
persistence, is almost death-like in its echoes, and this
gives sombre tones to the possible symbol of hope
suggested in the baby. So even the future (perhaps
depending on the devil's child) is seen pessimistically.
Drawing as it does so completely on the author's
own island, St. Lucia. it should make interesting and
revealing reading to St. Lucians. Perhaps even more
than to many other West Indians who have not the
peculiar form of Catholic society that is in St. Lucia.
The novel, and Garth St. Omer's earlier work, can be
found in bookstores around the island.


Lloyd Best on Race Class and Power
Continued From Page 5 certificate and make him a The human consciousness is Secretary the crucial thing in human mind, not a machine,
Stood complex. And the thing the situation is ambivalence, it is not fixed. And whether
"That dusen t create a middle-class man.
about the Marxist concept is "People are moving out of they take a reactionary or a
bouheywere serious people. They "There are real differences that it lacks the Freudian the old conditions with new revolutionary position depends
built cathedrals, organized the here but you cannot divide dimension. It lacks the sub- possibilities, a new conscious- on the issue but above all it
world. And you can't take a the country into working class lety of the psychology." ness is being formed, but it depends on the consciousness
man and give him an 11-plus and bourgeois in that way. According to the Tapia can go either way. It is a that you cultivate.

IN '70 the Williams regime
answered the legitimate
yearnings of large sections
of the population with
terror and repression. The
population on the other
hand resisted this in every
conceivable way the
guerrilla movement being
the most extreme expres-
sion of that.
Starting from nothing
mud and earth as it were the
movement developed to the
extent that it shouldered the
hopes of the country until
the tragic death of Guy Hare-'
wood, and Brian Jetfers.


AS expected, repression
grew, with more arbitrary
arrests, detentions, and frame-
ups and produced a hard core
of seasoned criminals .
hiding behind law and order,
This gang has been terrorising
Fyzabad over the last year.
Looking at the Police Ser-
vice as it exists in Fyzabad

Constantine Scott Alst
there exists one set of police-
men who handle normal civil
matters while another detach-
ment deals with political
repression. The latter fails
under the umbrella of the
G.D.R. and is headed by
Inspector Bobb, and includes
such men as Scott, Charles
and Samlal.
The gang of hard-core
criminals, hiding behind the
veil of law and order, exists
outside of this structure and
towers high over the Southern
A few examples would
show the methods of terror
used by the Police.
Kidnapping and brutalisa-
tion. That was the fate of
Christopher Joseph at the
hands of a police-army convoy
led by policeman Russel from
the G.D.R. just last September.
During the following month
the gang shot at the home of
Wright sisters.
In another event, PO 3804
(Randy's car) drove up slowly
towards two men who stood
on the pavement. A bottle
was flung from the car, and
shattered before the men. That
was the opportunity for Baksh,
Randy, iiHoge and Sn-aggs
jump from their vehicle point-
ing guns at the men, and
accusing them of bottle throw-
Constantine Scott, one of
the men, retaliated vociferously
a crowd gathered and the
police gang retreated. This was
towards the end of November
last year.
By Christmas they were on
the war-path again. Randy
Pierre sneaked into the home
of Miss Theodora Joseph,

on Grant Mickey Matthews
terrifying, by the manner of
his visit, the very life out of
her. He wished her compli-
ments of the season and there-
upon falsely announced that
her son had been killed by the
The same criminal brigade
began the New Year by arrest-
ing the Belgrave brothers,
charging them with unlawful
possession of marijuana, and
ammunition ... now a standard
frame-up charge. No bail was
granted to these men.


By far the most vicious
episode of this reign of terror
came on the night of January
Brothers Channa, Consy
(Scott), Camera (C. Joseph),
and Leo were rapping about
the Grenada crisis. Up came
PO 3804. The brothers were
all held, taken to Fyzabad
Police Station, beaten and
charged as usual with poses-
sion of marijuana and ammuni-
tion. Bail was fixed as high as
$7,000 for some of the
n a! the Fr!nE-~m; casc?
the charge involves ammnuni-
tion and marijuana; arms are
never mentioned even though
its inclusion would increase the
bail, and possible sentence.
The arms charge is ex-
cluded because, if a gun is
found on an accused, it would
have to be traced through its
serial number to its source.
This is usually the Police
Force itself. Thus it is not
likely to be included in a



Tourist Bias


Carnival Spirit

Hamlet Joseph

IT is obvious to me now
that the Carnival Develop-
ment Committee lacks any
sense of organisation or
direction. For so many
years of trials and failures
the C.D.C. is yet to come
.up with a concrete plan of
organisation for Carnival.
The Committee's incom-
petence and total lack of
create is.ns is -ir linig the
spirit of the festival. In
fact it has transformed
Carnival into nothing but
a commercial venture
specially designed for
tourist consumption.
In my view Carnival is now
divided into two parts; a pre-
Carnival, which consists of the
Panorama shows (I do not
consider that queen shows etc.
are part of Carnival), on the
one hand, and, on the other,
the two days. Monday and
Tuesday. As' far as the first of
these is concerned, I believe
that there should be many
Panorama shows instead of the
two which exist at present in
P-O-S and San Fernando. And
I see no reason for the winners
in San Fernando, or any other
area for that matter, to com-
pete in Port-of-Spain. Not
only is it unnecessary, but it
also helps to perpetuate the
unfair judging which is already
so rampant in these competi-
Nor is there any need for
the winners of Tobago's
Panorama to come to Trinidad
to participate. This business
about which band is the best
beating band in the country is
pure nonsense. Not even the
Steelband festival with the
foolish concept of foreign
judges determines this. There
should be four or five areas
in which Panorama festivals
should be held.


I want to suggest that these
areas might include Tobago,
Port-of-Spain West, Port-of-
Spain East, San Fernando and
East and Central Trinidad.
These shows should be as
attractive as those in Port-of-
Spain by offering attractive

prizes. Efforts should be made
to ensure that judging is fair
and unbiased. It is time the
C.D.C. stops this nonsense
ot casting shadows on other


Secondly I want to deal
with the real Carnival. To begin
with I must say that Carnival
is not played in Port-of-Spain,
it is merely observed. Most of
the time bands spend hours in
getting to the Savannah and
still more time in getting to
Independence Square. There
are endless jam-sessions and
for hours bands would stand
in one spot hardly moving an
inch. In fact, Carnival is played-
going to the Savannah and
Independence Square. But by
the time you reach Indepen-
dence Square the day is over.
The C.D.C. cannot see that
there are too many bands in
the heart of Port-of-Spain and
that this is the main source of
confusion. Perhaps the best
solution might lie in some kind
of zoning of Carnival. There is
no reason why bands within
the area of Carenage to Wood-
orook cannot play their mas
within these areas. And those
from Laventille to Victoria
Ave. play theirs in central

This should not only ease
ap congestion but by so doing
make Carnival more enjoyable
to participate in and to view.
In addition to competition
centres in the Savannah and
Independence Square other
competition centres will
obviously have to be set up.
This would aid spectators by
giving them more seating
accommodation and by ensur-
ing that they see those bands
that they really want to see. It
would also provide the bands
with more time to devote
strictly to jumping up, and so
revive those days gone by when
people enjoyed themselves t(
the fullest at Carnival.
I want to make it clear that
the whole pattern of Carnival
in Trinidad is bad and that
there should be some serious
thought given to the re-
organisation of the festival in
the interest of the people.





Kanhai Gibbs benefit

-fy Wndball
CRICKET is once again in
the air, and this weekend
the first test between the
West Indies and England
will be well on its way.
The West Indian team beams
confidence while the English
team must be having a lot to
think about. Thrown into a
test match after only three
weeks here, and three first
class games (with quite some
play lost by rain)-they have
been further puzzled by the
spin of the Queen's Park wic-
But test cricket is test cric-
ket, and even though the West
Indies must start as favourites it
is bound to he a good battle.


There have been other inter-
esting developments as well.
Two highly successful Kanhai/
Gibbs one-day benefit matches
were played last weekend. The
response from the Trinidad
public was very good, and
inspite of detractors and scep-
tics a committee of virtual
unknowns in sport were able
to carry through two entertain-
ing and enjoyable matches.
Those who understand the
Trinidad sporting public had no
doubts that the occasion would
have been successful. The re-
actionary, narrow-minded sec-
tion of the public those who
keep talking about doing things
for non-Trinidadians (but who

From Page 4
of access roads and marketing
The Association calls for
specialist Extension Officers
who know about Rice produc-'
tion, and the publication of a
monthly Rice Bulletin.
Mr. Simboonath Capildeo
produced a petition which a
number of farmers in the Care-
ni region had presented to the
Prime Minister following the
formation of the Caroni Rice.
The- Co-operative called for
loans and subsidies to co-opera-
tives farmers who would work
under the technical assistance
and direction of the officers
of the Ministry of Agriculture.
It made several proposals for
irrigation, drainage and govern-
ment purchase of all lands in
the swamp areas, owned by pri-
vate persons, and not cultivated.
The Caroni Rice-Co-opera-
tive identified many of the same
problems outlined by the Rice
Association and warned that
the cause of the failure of
previous rice schemes was the
fact that local rice planters
were not involved. Jobs were
given to those who had no
interest in growing rice. Further,
the projects had not been main-
tained because of negligence or
These problems were re-
peated by the many farmers
present who spoke of the prob-
lems in their areas whether it
be Oropouche, Caroni, etc.
The farmers' participation
emphasised the point often
disregarded by planners that it


themselves not do more than
pay lip support to Trinidadians),
is, fortunately for us, not
Those who know nothing
about the verb 'to do' are the
same ones lvho make the loudest
noise for the West Indies when
they are winning, never orice
pausing to note that Sobers, or
Kanhai or Fredericks are not
Trinidadians. A losing West
Indian team would only be
berated noisely from this very
The great bulk of the sport-
ing public understands these
loud-mouths, and,ias well, what
Gibbs and Kanhai have done
for West Indian cricket (and
thereby Trinidad cricket), as
well as world cricket.
SThere is no need to cite the
statistics to illustrate their per-
formances. The response of the
other international cricketing
bodies is evidence enough to
show the high esteem in which
these two great West Indian
cricketers are held wherever
the game is played.


For example, Pakistan im-
mediately released five of hei
best players, and that country's
International airline flew four
home based players from the
orient, free of charge.
The touring MCC party

is people whoimake the differ-
ence to the success or failure
of any venture.
Unfortunately, the Exten-
sion Officers present could not
be expected to rationalise go-
vernment planning. From the
newspapers we learnt that two
Ministry officials had gone to
South America in search of a
rice mill. The Seminar Discus-
sion showed the need for parti-
cipation in decision-making by
the people who the plans are
supposed to help.
In summing up the day's
proceedings, Dr.G eorge Sam-
my, lecturer in'the Faculty of
Engineering, ando ne of the
organizers, said that there
seemed to be no clean cut plan
for increased rice production
and rice farmers still seemdd
to be neglected. The newspaper
reports on the increased pro-
duction were sketchy while the
attempts by one or two Exten-
sion Officers to explain the
plan were vague.
The Rice Industry, accord-
ing to Dr. Sammy appears to
be in confusion and neglect.
There was a potential for in-
creased rice production but
only a clear cut government
policy will determine how far
we can go.
Dr. Sammy called on the
rice farmers to organise them-
selves into a strong organisation
which can serve as a pressure
group for its demands. He
warned the farmers against
allowing politicians to take
over any such organisation since
this would lead to the down fall
of the organisation.

sent an advance group of three
of their players to take part in
the games; and the Indian Cric-
ket Board released three of
their players only one, how-
ever, made the trip. Former
West Indian players Wes Hall,
Charlie Griffith and Seymour
Nurse were more than anxious,
and delighted to play.


There are many tine tri-
butes, too, in the brochure
that has been put out for the
Kanhai/Gibbs benefit. Swans-
ton, the MCC, Warwickshire
C.C. etc., have all joined in
praise and tribute to these two
outstanding players.
L.T. Deakins, Warwick-
shire's General Secretary con-
cluded his tribute thus: "If'
their true cricketing worth is
properly recognized, together
with their services to the game
on and off the field, then they
will be rich men indeed as a
result of the Benefit".
The benefit activities con-
tinue throughout the season
and the- public's response is
clearly going to get better and
better. On the first day of the
match here (Saturday) the West
Indian Cricket Board has given
permission for a collection to
be taken, up at the Queen's
Park Oval for these two great
Here again the cricketing
public will undoubtedly re-
spond in the way that these


In the meantime the special-
ly printed benefit jerseys and
the brochure are on sale
throughout the country, and
there are indications that small
groups all over are planning
functions of one kind or
another to pay their own tri-
bute to these two West Indians
of whom West Indians are
justifiably proud.
Tapia wholeheartedly en-
dorses these efforts, and is
pleased to know that by giving
a part of the proceeds to the
newly formed Players Asso-
ciation there is going to be
more such benefit matches
honouring other West Indian,
players whose names are in-
delibly written into the annals
of the game.



One evening in another town
a little before Carnival -
a funny man with flies around
him crashed into a bar.

"Beauty-queen an' sagaboy, he said,
"dey posin', but dey ain 'fool me:
de one sure t 'ing is all-yuh dead
dis time nex' century:

"yuh looking' vague an'sad like when
yuh ain 'know what to-duh.
Look alive! before ah sen'
de side fo' yuh!"

Reminded of the loyal flies
buzzing round his face,
the people quickened into life -
jumped up and shook the place.

On what it was that made us jump,
injecting life into the fete,
the pundits waver or are dumb.
Was it the fear of flies or death?

Mervyn Morris


REMEMBER the 'Baby Doll'? She was the pretty character
in the doll-like dress of multi-coloured crepe paper that
grandma would remember seeing on Carnival. With bonnet
string tied under her chin, basket in hand she would hawk
sugar-cakes and fudges in a high falsetto.
And remember the long-nosed sailor? With god-like
it dried. Then with gazette-paper, paint and a old merino
there was life in the terrible long-nosed faces that drew
childish screams that were muffled in the back of your
mother's skirts.
Aria the firemen? Corduroy and swans-down. Iron
strokers that scraped the road and threaded legs. Weaving
with drunken intricacy across the road heel, toe, heel

Sounds like an old woman reminiscing about "the
good old days', doesn't it? Actually I'm looking forward to
the Carnival Review to be staged by the Jean Coggins Dance
Company at the Queen's Hall on the 8th,, 9th., and 10th of
February at 8.30 p.m. each night.
Some of-you may remember 'Erzulie' the African
love-drama which had successful showings at Queen's Hall in
1972 and 'Devil's Woodyard' which was staged at the pool-
side of the Trinidad Hilton in 1973.
Apart from resurrecting these fantastic characters of
old-time Carnival, 'Wy, Wy, Sofiah'will be spiced with the
picong of John Agitation. Singing Francine heads a long list
of guest artistes to appear on the show. Tickets go on sale
Soon.at a venue tn be announced.
Esther le Gendre







JAMIhS Millette's Cuba since 1959 is essentially what one has to
call a supporting document. It's assumption, which cannot be
refuted, is that the average Trinidadian/Tobagonian has not been
exposed by the daily media to the most basic overview of the
cirnumstances of the Cuban Revolution. It is also a work of propa-
ganda on behalf of the view that what the Caribbean needs is social-
ism and that the ach'evecment of a socialist state is the undoubted
revolUtionary project of out time.
However, the impression one is left with is a simplified perspec-
tive on what has been the actual course of the Cuban state since
1 ').1. All that is necessary, according to this perspective, is to break
!h ,hiacklecs of capitaist exploitation, capture ownership of your
cituiii ''s sources and, as it were, all things else shall be given unto
Iyi. What ihas happened in Cuba has surely been much imulc dilficu1lt
ati complicated than that.
As Miilette rightly stresses, LLOYD KNG
those 'bho are interested in revolutionary leadership for
the achievement of local the achievement of national
control of the economy must independence and a just
take a serious look at the society are examined in the
(': ixp:1 cep-ince and in an light of their results. in other
iinportmnt sense this is what words what one looks for and
hi:; pumphe!t has not quite misses in Millette's work is
m i:iicd to do. some discussion of the inner


It i:, clear that Castro hlad
tc brcak the grip of U.S.
cipilalist interests as part of
iny strategy for the national
development of Cuba in tlhe
best interests of all Cubans.
This applies to banking.
Equally his social legislation
was of profound significance
since it attacked the vested
interests of the selfish local
and foreign business groups.
The latter's resistance, their
attempts to sabotage the 26th
July Moveniiit led Castro into
the sociai:s"_aLma 1. .,.. .........

-rj--r-r is precisely--a-irms-
point, the point at which
Castro becomes more radical,
commits himself fully to
socialism that a new discussion
must be initiated. The Cuban
Revolution can only be a lesson
to a socialist if the actual
options chosen by the

tensions of the Revolution and
of its activity in international
I will attempt to list some
matters worth discussing. First
and foremost is Cuba's choice
of as total an association with
Russia as prevailed before with
the United States. Are we to
accept that this is inevitably
implied in any movement in
the Caribbean to control one's
own economy?
Is Millette happy, for
example, to see Castro support
the crushing of Czechoslavakia
by Russian imperialist troops,
or does he feel lhati in spite
of the pressures of U.S. State

there are socialist options
which can avoid this rather
sad need, as was shown at the
last non-aligned Conference in
North Africa, to project a
Soviet image?
Next, one would have
wished to know what UNIP



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RETURN TO1: Tapia House Plhl;.li:, Co. Ltd.,
91 Tunapuna Rd. Tunapuna, Phone: 662-5126.
Trinidad and Tobago.

Che and Fidel Moral or Material incentives?

socialists feel about that most
important debate which took
place in Cuba about the need
for material incentives, or a
strict reliance on moral incen-
tives as was advocated
by Che Guevara ? A
discussion of this issue would
have implied some survey of
production patterns and prob-
lems in the socialist context
because that is the only way
that a commonsense view of
Economic Development can be
advocated. This would also
lead right back to a fundamen-
tal issue that West Indians
ought to discuss.
In the light of hindsight,
was Fidel right to decide on the
total assumption of all property
rights by the State and to re-
ject even the small man's
interest in retaining his business
or plot of agricultural enter-
nrise? Would Dr. Millette

man against nationalization?
The truth is that socialism is
not only about economic

development, it also has to do
with political options and tasks
of social engineering.
And indeed what about
democracy? Is it compatible
with the dictatorship of the
proletariat, of 'workers and
farmers? What does Millette
feel about the acknowledged
total power of. decision
making, the centralization of
power concentrated in the
hands of Castro, far more total
than any power now in Eric
Williams' hands as Prime
It would equally have been
useful and stimulating had
Millette instead of simply
naming the Russian and
Chinese Revolutions, dis-
tinguished between them or
compared them to the Cuban
in a more substantial way. It is
known for exadmplie iliaL, li
--"Rectndl rev0ilirion diirnen the
Bolshevikdays, was an uprising
of the Communist Party under
Lenin and Trotsky against

those socialists who wished to
achieve a genuine communal
democracy, and that this
choice led to Stalin, the
dictatorship of a State
bureaucracy and the
notorious purges.


Has the Cuban Revolution
been more liberal, as I am
quite sure it has, and is it
making any attempts to
achieve that communal
democracy which must be the
authentic impulse behind any
Utopian, revolutionary project?
What we are asking Millette
and others who declare them-
selves socialist or Marxist, or
what have you, is to -reveal in
.serious terms what kind of
socialists they are. Those of uw
',nlO. aic il. crCccJd ill a just
sociiey demand to be told
what professional proponents
of a new order are really
asking of us.

Power to the People
Tapia's New World
T A P I A Back Numbers
Tapia Constitution
Democracy or Oligarchy?
Reform of The Public Service

Foreign Investment in T. and T

Central Banking

Non-Bank Financial Institutions
Foreign Capital in Jamaica

Post War Economic Development
of Jamaica

New World Quarterly (Back Numbers)

Underdevelopment and
Persistent Poverty

Readings in The Political Economy
of The Caribbean

Political Economy of the English
Speaking Caribbean

The Dynamics ofW. 1. Economic

The Adjustment of Displaced
Workers In A Labour Surmulns

C.V. Gocking
Denis Solomon

Mc Intyre & Watson

C.Y. Thomas

M. Odle
- Norman Girvan



- (ed Norman Girvan)
- George Beckford

N. Girvan & O. Jefferson

W. Demas

- Brewster & Thomas

- Roy Thomas


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At the Tapia House, 82-84 St. Vincent St. Tunapuna, Trinidad & Tobago.
Phone: 662-5126.

see oqw

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.- I






probably the most unlikely
site for a fascinating sport-
ing event especially when
that churchyard is St.
Charles R.C. of Tunapuna.
Only a few years ago Fr.
Fennessy, the former
Parish Priest, had for-
bidden all after-school
sports on the church
compound. Even during
school recess or lunch-
time, games enlisting large
numbers, as did "Partisan"
or "Schooche", were for-
Things have changed con-
siderably since that time. The
incumbent Parish Priest Fr.
Ross is far more generous than
his predecessor. His generosity
has been welcomed by the
brothers on the surrounding
block because the scrunt is on
in Tunapuna for recreational


The compound is presently
shared between footballers,
windball cricketers, school-
children and the Freeling St.
Jets who are setting up a
basketball court there. Police
raids on their practice have
forced the Jets to seek an
alternative site to their road
court on Freeling St. Only last
week Ralph "Capone" Joseph
and Richard Leigh were
arrested for obstructing the
free passage of Freeling St.
Only the police know why
they have chosen to turn the
heat on the Jets. Residents are
surprised that the police are
not happy that the youth on
that block have added basket-
ball to their pursuits.
Basketball has done more
than just kept the brothers fit,
In organising their basketball
they have discovered organisa-
tion, teamwork and teamspirit,
values which an irrelevant
educational system do not
develop. Whether it is organis-
ing a cook, a Block-o-rama or
negotiating: with Fr. Ross for
setting up a basketball court in
the churchyard, the teamwork
and spirit is there.
The only inconvenience is
that when the Jets begin to use
the churchyard more fully the
opportunity of seeing a wind-'
ball match of the kind seen
last Sunday 27, will be mini-
mised. Sunday gone two wind-
ball teams with no names met
in a fascinating encounter in
which the home team having to
follow on turned apparent
defeat into a resounding vic-
The playing surface is pitch
.paved, bordered by the church

on the south west, the Boys'
and Girls' Primary School to
the South and Western border
respectively, a Presbytery to
the north and a road on the
Eastern side. On the playing
area itself a wire fence running
from North to South portions
off a section for the Boys'
and Girls' schools. Another
fence running East to West
borders'the Presbytery on the
northern side.


Fielding a cover drive often
meant running an obstacle
course, dodging uprights and
scaling fences. For purposes of
convenience the home team
will be called hosts and the
away team guests. The guests
are a team from San Juan
invited to Tunapuna by the
captain of the hosts, Winston
"Boe" Bynoe.
Boe is a massive man and
powerful hitter of the ball. On
the football field he is the
hit a matchwinnng wmdial
century" (30 runs) in his
team's second innings.
The game started with the
hosts sending in the guests to
bat on a wet surface. Franklyn
"Baba" James opened the
bowling for the home team
with a hostile maiden over.
Wicketkeeper Arnold Sabino
had a hard time getting his
hand to Baba's scorchers.
Hamel, bowling orthodoxly
in contrast to Baba's gauging,
started the damage in his first
over, taking two wickets for no
In the first ball of his
second over Baba had another
batsman caught behind. Three
wickets,no runs.


The lower order batsmen
put on a grim struggle to push
the total to twenty. Two
"voup" over midwicket
brought 8 runs. A back drive
brought three more runs and
a runout when the batsmen
attempted a fourth. A chest
provoker edged over leg slip
went into the Presbytery for
two runs. Seven more singles
were scraped up and the guests
were all out for twenty.
The home team, confident
ot overhauling the guests'
total, fared much worse and
could only muster seven runs
with Boe and Godfrey Harris,
a selectee- on the Trinidad
football team for the Central
American Games, topscoring
with three runs each.
The hosts then made the
strategic error that was to cost
them the match. Ramaeen,cao-
taining the guests, sent the
home team to follow on.
Although the home team did

not make many runs, they
stayed at the wicket long
enough to tire the bowlers.
They sent in two plodding
batsmen to further aggravate
the bowlers tiredness.
They succeeded in their
task and when it was Boe's
turn to bat he slaughtered the
bowling. Most of his runs
came from boundaries. Three

lofted drives over the Boys'
School brought 18 runs, a hook
into Watson St. brought up
four and by this time the
spectators were laughing and
jumping merrily. His remain-
ing runs came from sharp
singles not even Clive Lloyd
would have dared to take. In
comparison to his thirty the
rest of his team could only add

17 runs.
When the hosts were all out
for 47, the guests were left tc
make 35 runs for victory. They
were only able to make half
.the total. It was then Baba's
turn to star. In a career best
performance, he smashed the
guests in five ferocious overs,
taking seven wickets for nine
runs including a hattrick.



AOM% OPN OM% Aw% a 0 vwwf)


i-rs, .Adrea Talbutt,
Research Institute for
Study of tian,
162, East 78th Str1et,
IT'I YORpK, IT.Y, 1002i,
Ph. Lehigh 5 8448,



A ugustus Ramrekersingh

THE MCC encountered a
mediocre bowling attack
on a very easy paced wicket
and aided by some very
indifferent fielding their
batsmen made merry
against the President's XI
It certainly boosted their
ego especially the run ma-
chine Boycott. Last week,
writing at the time when
the first wicket fell at 234,
I argued that the batting
was in fact quite brittle.
It took the first innings of
the Trinidad game to make the
point. The MCC put all their
batsmen on parade on the eve
of the first test match. A
reasonable strategy to give them
practice, Battihg, therefore,
from Boycott at one of Birken-
shaw at nine. And they could
not even reach the modest
total of 300. The trouble
started when Boycott was bowl-
ed by Julien, once more show-
ing his weakness against a left
arm fast medium bowler bring-
ing the ball in with the arm.
Three batsmen made scores
of relative note in the innings
- Hayes, Greig and Birken-
shaw. Greig, the top scorer,
was the weakest of the lot. He
muddled his way to 70, having

at least three chances, not to
mention the numerous anxious
moments. Hayes in this game
as well as in the benefit game
last Friday showed a marked
dislike of back of the hand
spin. Imtiaz had him in all
sorts of trouble on both oc-
Otherwise, he showed
some competence especially
when hitting the short pitched
ball off the back foot. Birken-
shaw gave the distinct impres-
sion that he has a few clues
about batting. If eli did not
injure his finger while batting
he would have had a good
chance of making the team
for the first test in view of the
uncertain batting potential of
the MCC.

Of the others, Fletcher
seems out of touch still. A
pity. He batted well in his last
two series against New Zea-
land and the WI. I would not
rule him out though. Skipper
Mike Denness laboured to
thirty. Frankly, he has to do a
tremendous amount soon to
prove that he can make the
team in his own right as a
batsman. Otherwise we can
only conclude that he is a
"professional" captain whose
basis of selection is class
snobbery his elite University

and Kent background.
The burly Jameson I en-
joyed mno.'st iLioti gh it v'li, i)i :1
fleeting moment only. He has
the correct approach to batting.
He is not going to be picked
for the first test not because of
form but because his style is
out of joint with the defensive
policy of the MCC.
It they bat anything like
they did on Monday then the
MCC won't get many runs in
the coming test against Boyce,
Sobers, Julien and especially
Ali and Gibbs.
Finally, in our side, it is
good to see that Kanhai and
Sobers are again among the
Rowe and Kallicharan are
in form. Lloyd is striking the
ball magnificently and consist-
ently these days. Murray scored
a solid 148 on Wednesday. And
Boyce and Julien will simply
murder an attack already
battered by the frontline bats-

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Sc'- iimour Nurse(, (;arv Sob, 's(Captain)., Wcs Hall and

M CL'NTER: Gibbs in iacli0n.

.. BO7TTOM LEIT4: vicious lKainai( swinp.

1111~-1--- --1.



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