Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00083
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: November 4, 1973
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00083

Full Text

Vol 3 No 44


POi THE sr"i.'. '.-
SUNDAY NOVEMBER 4, 1973 k62 EAST 7,?
fW YORK 21. L &1
NOV 26 '73

i'ss. Plndrea Talbutt,
Research Institute for
Study of i0f :
162, East 78tbreet,
Ph. Lehigh 5 84J48,
U. S.A

IS WILLIAMS going or staying? One Whitehall, the country has been forced
month has passed since the Political to recover its senses and, like the Party,
Leader of the PNM announced his de- to weigh the implications of the Prime
cision not to seek re-election and to re- Minister's Convention Address.
turn to private life.
To judge from the response it is In this issue of. TAPIA, Vernon
difficult to decide whether the country Cocking argues the case for that small
feels deserted or relieved, so stunning has minority which from the outset thought
been the impact o; the announcement. that "nothing is farther from Dr Williams'
As the machinery is put in gear to mind than returning to private life at
replace Williams in Bilisier House and this time".




IN Trinidad & Tobago we
tend to get our priorities
mixed up. Political atten-
tion today is focused on
Dr Williams' retirement as
Prime Minister and his re-
turn to private life when
the country should be more
concerned with the Con-
stitution Commission and
its Report.
I live remote from the
world of politics, of business,
and of social life where people
pick up information, get in-
sights into trends, and can
generally make educated
guesses as to how things will
turn out.
It must therefore seem
rash when I venture to sub-
scribe to what is now a very
small minority opinion namely
that nothing is farther from Dr
Williams' mind than returning
to private life at this time or
pt all unless, of course, ill-
health or failing health, neither
of which has even been suggest-
ed, is a factor.
If through ill-health or for
any similar reason Dr Williams'
decision must be irrevocable,

PNM Founder...

then the language of the Ad-
dress, which throughout is re-
strained and without passion,
must make the many serious
criticisms of the Party more
telling. It will put powerful
ammunition into the hands of
opponents, the more deadly
since the strictures come from
the Founder and undisputed
Thus the Party must con-
sider the Address prejudicial
to its future well being and
success, to be "the most un-
kindest cut of all," like"wrath
in death and envy afterwards".
The motives behind it
would not bear investigation.
In everyday language the Party
would be driven to say: "If
you are bent on going, why
deal us such heavy blows before
you go?"
This view of the matter,
however, I shall not be enter-
taining. Dr Williams will remain
in public life.
Dr Williams will remain in
public life but he will do so
only, 1 repeat only, if he gets
a mandate from the country.
The party alone will not be
enough. That mandate may



Foundation member
come; but if it does not, then
it certainly can be engineered
and it will for there are many
influential individuals and
groups, who, for differing rea-
sons, would rather that he re-
The mandate I have in
mind is not one that comes
from success in a General Elec-
tion. The PNM will claim for
Dr Williams or he will for
himself- that he needs no such
mandate since the Party has
already provided the duly
elected and lawfully consti-
tuted government of the coun-
The mandate will come
through the media in the form
of editorials, articles, reports
of petitions, memoranda, etc.
Dr Williams will be called upon
to stay at least to see the new
Constitution through.
It will be represented as
his moral duty to do so. He
will then bow to public de-
mand for this limited purpose
and sign the consent form.
Alternatively, the Conven-
tion will be postponed and
some accommodation arrived

Then we shall see.

'He Wrnts to gef mandate

from the entire count y'



IT CANNOT be long now before the political
vacuum is filled. The large majority among us fear
that Karl Hudson-Phillips and his American-backed
oligarchy cannot- now be prevented from moving
into the breach. Well, there is many a slip between cup
and lip.
We know that Hudson-Phillips' emergence as the dressed-
up figure-head of the Right-Wing, falls logically in the up-
heaval which has been in progress since 1970. like all
upheavals, the February Revolution not only unmasked the
PNM oppressor and quickened the hearts of our people but
also alerted the forces of Reaction.
It was Karl Phillips who then raised the reactionary
standard of law and order with his Public Order Bill. For a
while the General Council, representing the decent, old-world
Victorian, liberal and majority wing of the Party, helped the
rest of the country to hold this ruthless new oligarchy back.
Soft, ambivalent and sour, Williams was left stranded in
the middle. The oligarchy was his own creation but -the
disadvantaged majority he has always regarded as his political
He therefore formulated Perspectives for the New Society
but then declared another State of Emergency, re-introduced
the repressive laws piece by piece, and acquiesced in the reign
of blood and terror.

Since 1971 he has learnt the bitter lesson, that in a
Revolution there is just no middle road. Either you stand with
the new or you fall with the old. And just as the forces of
reaction have been getting ready, so too have the forces of
Once the necessary first phase of protest politics is over,
and the appetite of the country for change has been whetted,
the lining up of forces begins and signals the need for
organization,method and plan.
Issue by issue since 1970, the different community
interests have become articulate without even realising in what
they were involved. Cedros and Matelot; fishermen, wood-
cutters and garment workers: Concerned Clergy, journalists
and lawyers, pupils, students and intellectuals; doctors, aca-
demics and housewives; and the militant unionists have
refused to cross the floor.
In this period we have seen conventional politics fall by
the way. The 1971 election discredited those electoral parties
whose business was to present us with a change of faces but
who dared not resist the only sensible option of playing for
the fall of the whole regime. Now their only recourse is to
beg the Governor-General or to wail for a new Messiah.
In the meantime, history has moved inexorably on. The
vacuum must now be filled. It will be filled by the group
which commands superior political resources in men to run
the country and organisation around which the community
groups can build a revolutionary party when itht moment of
truth arrives.
Williams is a valid political personality set against the
background of his own generation. He senses the needs of the
age and is trying to cut himself free. Too late and too clumsily,
He is attempting to start afresh.
His Convention Address was a desperate gamble to
discredit and destroy the PNM oligarchy and to pre-empt
the Manifesto of the New World Movement
Williams needs the country now to help him escape
from the Party. The oligarchy needs the Party to help t -,
demolish Williams.
In the fighting which has already begun, they will only
destroy each other. And if they don't succeed, Tapia will do
it for them.

_ ~


,,,,B E ST


DR WILLIAMS knows that his image has become impa
and needs furbishing. After all he has been around fo
years and that is a long time.
Dr. Williams also knows that the Party has ceased to inspire
is propped up by, and part of, an oligarchy, materially grasping,
would rather have an African than an Indian political and bureau
tic core because the latter might occasion too many shifts in
power balance in too many areas of the national life.
With a mandate from the people the situation would be ent
different. Public confession of party failings and inadequacies
furnish a basis ofr a renewal of its life under a Leader who has fra
proclaimed these weaknesses but can now proceed, with full p'
and Party support, to revitalise and reform it in ways indicate
the Address and to forge a new instrument for guiding the cou
along the new paths opened
up by constitutional reform
and the proclamation of a Re-
This, in my opinion, is
what Dr. Williams is playing for
I find support for my views
in a study of his Address which
is certainly one of the outstand-
ing political speeches of his
long career.


However, apart from what
I consider the content and
meaning of the Address there
is what may be called the
psychology of the situation. I
particularly wish to underline
this aspect and deal with it first.
I make no allowance for ab-
normal psychology.
Dr Williams' closing remarks
lend support to the popular
and sentimental view that his
daughter has exerted consider-
able influence on his decision
to retire:
"I have decided, with the
full support of my daughter
(whose only complaint is
that it comes three years
too late) that I shall not
seek re-election as your
Political Leader ..."
I do not doubt that Dr
Williams loves his daughter
dearly, but he belongs to a
breed of men, found in all
fields of human endeavour,
who crave distinction not
unworthily, with whom
"significance" in the wider
world beyond the family is a
passion,and whom,nor mother,
nor lover, nor wife, nor child
can turn from the main bent of
their lives. Such men often
give love, give their material
possessions, but only ill-health,
old age or death can quench
the flame that gives life mean-
ing and direction. To see, there-
fore,in his daughter's influence
a decisive factor drawing him
away from public to private
life is psychologically unten-
able, psychologically all wrong.

Dr Williams has had his
retirement under consideration
for the past three years. Why
wait for Convention day to
announce it?
The announcement could
not have come as a surprise to
the top brass of the PNM un-
less the Political Leader is
indifferent to the survival of
his Party. The long delay, the
dramatic timing, the December
31 deadline can only be the
benefit of the country. Let the
fact of his going sink in, let the
reaction come. It is up to the
Producers to keep up the dra-
matic suspense and time the
unravelling of the plot for
some time around Christmas.
It is a good time. We know that
Messiah has already come. Can
it be that we are being pre-
pared for the second coming?
It is all very interesting al-
most fascinating.
Another point in the psy-
chology of the situation: To
what is Dr. Williams retiring?

r 17

re. It
i the

ed in

C.V. Gocking

- to a life of scholarship?
Though he has never quite
left the field, he has been
away from it for too long. He
has too much catching up to
do. His formation, moreover, is
that of another age.
As I see it, Dr Williams' re-
search has almost invariably
been with an eye to action, not

pure research

with a com-

continues from. age 1

pletely balanced presentati'ori c1~mige course now.
of subject and historical period,
but research slanted to prac- One small but 1
tical ends. men rdl not o I

Therefore when he choes
politics at the age of 44 and
put scholarship aside, he chose
well, History was kind to him:
it thrust the opportunity for
greatness upon him and he
deserved it. His was the task to
achieve greatness. He cannot

final point:
fraro,,ll in

long addresses using thousands
of words especially when the
drift of those addresses tends
to criticism of the present
order and suggestions how the
future should be shaped. I hope
my meaningwill become clearer
as I proceed.

5th Anniversary




Sunday Nov18,1973









Members and associates who need or can assist with transportation to and
from the Assembly, are asked to advise the Administrative Secretary, Allan
Harris (Tel. 662-5126) :;ot later than Wednesday, November, 14

82-84, St Vincent Street, Tunapuna (front)
91, Tunapuna Road, Tunapuna (back)






TOO CLOSE for com-
fort. I want to grunt some-
thing in apology and dress
last week was followed by
a Call by the Concerned
Clergy for "TRUTH".
Excuse me, I really beg
to differ from that plaint
of exasperation and frus-
tration which implores
"leaders" to "unblind" us
and to direct us to a
"TRUTH" that stands in-
violate in brilliant purity.
Our "leaders," as the Con-
;erned Clergy define personali-
ties like Sir Ellis Clarke, the
Archbishops and Sir Hugh
Wooding, have spoken. They
have pointed to truths which
stand self-evident in their minds.


And if you just listen and
remember you can learn where
they have been coming from
and where they are today. As I
understand it, the problem is
that none of these "leaders"
can get acceptance of their
authority the acceptance of
their capacity to lead in all or
even most sections of this bad-
ly divided country.
So there this crisis of
definitions. You never know
what innocently impartial
words can mean. Is it "re-
pres ion" or the unexception-
able enforcement of "law and
order". Do we have "bandits,"
"outlaws" (as the Prime Minis-
ter callsthem) in the hills, or
do we have "guerrillas" moti-
vated by high ideals.
The absence of a general
credibility corrodes and cor-
rupts the very form of com-
munication language. Some
time ago I was myself moved
to complain about the ten-
dency to overvalue and over-
state which seemed to
be subversive of good humour,
wit, and the tolerance which
makes it possible to tell a man
he's talking nonsense without
necessarily implying that he's
an ass.


The result, as it seems to
me, is hopeless polarization of
the kind described in that
-classic about "Straight and
Crooked Thinking": you speak
of the "spirit" of our men, but
the "mentality" of the men of
the other side, the enemy, that
is. Self-righteousness sustains a
crusading zeal in the interest
of a cause.
For myself, I would rather
believe that the people who
talk about Guy Harewood's
:death as "tragic wastage of
youth" and not as "planned
extermination" by the regime,
sincerely believe what they're
saying. I would talk about
"planned extermination" or
the like because those are the
terms suggested by a reality
before me.
But what about Chief Justice
Hyatali? In 1971 when Presi-
Ident of the Industrial Court,
;he made it clear how he saw
things. In that now historic
'address to Muslim \;''- he
described unspecific,' 'i-
lutionaries" as e
"fierce and ruthkl-
'qn) authority

Column 1

Lennox Grant

public and private sector".
He saw a "macabre plan of
operations" intended to
"create confusion and chaos in
these venerable institutions,
sow the seeds of disenchant-
ment, hate and discord in their
bosoms, sustain and promote
discontent and rebellion every-
where and when the State inter-
venes to protect the rights of
others from invasion or abuse,
or to restore order in the com-
munity, castigate it mercilessly.
for brutality and for perpetuat-
inginjustice in the name of law
and order".
Unlike Sir Ellis Clarke last
week, he did not say who
exactly he meant. And I could
see all my doings as a critic,
as a political writer, being

represented in those terms. Not'
that I would say that is what I
have been doing: I would see it
differently and use different
terms. But there you have it:
the polarization.
Or hear Hyatali again quot-
ing Williams Sloane Coffin.
"You cannot ask the govern-
ment to respect your right to
be revolutionary". But just two
weeks ago TAPIA was saying
" 'Guerrillas, even 'Marxist' ones
whose aim .... is 'to bring
down the government by vio-
lent means', have constitutional
rights too".
But people like Hyatali are
in a position to see to it that
"guerrillas" or suspected "guer-
rillas" don't get their consti-
tutional right to bail. Inquests

into deaths in an exchange of
fire"? The question does not
even arise.
And if you want to know
more about where Hyatali is
coming from, hear Hudson-
Phillips presenting the Sedition
Bill to Parliament, three weeks
before the judge's statement
"It is a well-known tech-
nique of revolutionary groups
who seek to destroy democratic
institutions they needle,
they goad and push the autho-
rities into inflexible attitudes
. having pushed a lawfully
constituted government to take
'legal steps, they then point to
that very legal step as evidence
of repression and use it as a
foul, excuse for perpetuating

TRUTH is true?



It's no secret that some Datsun 1200 owners
claim to be getting better than 40 miles to the
gallon and that's not all they' say it's easy
on tyres too and has an absolutely trouble-
free engine,
Doesn't surprise us For a car that has more
luxury options, than any comparable sedan
the Datsun 1200 is a most impressive combi-
nation of economy, big car per-
formance and comfort things
which most people
consider special -
just come naturally
with the DATSUN -
good reasons why
you should drive a

! I

further violence of action
speech and thought ..."
Less sophistication, more
directness. But the position is
*the same. He has a man in
So that the Governor Gene-
ral in reply to the Concerned
Clergy asserting that Cpl San-
kar's was "unnecessary", crimi,
nal and deserving of the ven-
geance of the law if not of God,
implied at the same time that
Harewood's was necessary.
Wasn't he "resisting law, order
and setting up a society which
he thought ought to be"? ,
Who knows? No such thing'
has been proved in the courts
by the law that eminent law-'
yers like Hudson-Phillips, Hy-
atali and Sir Ellis hold so
But the thing is they want
us to believe that "TRUTH".
They too are in the business of
sellingan idea and,if that is not
politics, I don't know. So
where are the leaders with a
transcendent moral authority
to speak out and be listened to?
If there is anyone who is
presiding over the "warring
factions" he must be a saint.
And saints have not in this
country chosen Governor's
Houses in which to live or
courthouses in which to work.















In the film "The Harder
They Come" the point was
justly made that West Indians
eventually live out the fantasy
hero-types that they have
iden tifiedwithfrom the Holly-
wood Film which are their
main formative, cultural
agents, wefindit very frighten-i
ing that the execution of Guy
Harewood by our society is
being demonically shifted on
to the realm of fantasy, non-
real existence, by the mass
media, thus allowing Trini-
dadianr especially the upper
and middle class to feel that
they had no part of what is
going on and are not directly
responsible for the extermina-
tion campaign that is simply
snow -balling before our eyes.
At the end of that film we
could all get up and walk out
of the cinema with the hero-
riddled bullets.
Do we think that by print-
ing a large size picture of
Guy Harewood (hugh bullet
wound), a la Django film) and
writing an editorial about the
YOUTH", we can now walk
out from the REALITY, the
TRUTH, which our revolu-
tionary groups have been
forcing us to face?
The real tragedy is that
some people want to hide
behind impersonal terms like
"wastage" instead of personal
terms like "planned exter-
mination". As these bodies
fall harder and harder, are
we coming to believe that
someone is going to say, "cut,
enough for today! ".
Do we believe that there
is some "Director" who is
going to stop this film? are
we going to face the TRUTH
that our society is engaged in
CIVIL WAR, or are we going
to hide behind Superin tenden t
Randolph Burroughs and Mr.
Who are the real "Direc-
tors'" using us as pawns in the
drama? Are they from the
capitalist and communist

From last weekend's state-
ment by Concerned Clergy
"The Truth will set you Free"

M'ichael Harris




And the singer crooned her melancholy tune:
The Party 's over
Its time to call it a day.
And among the whispering voices in the caver-
nous darkness outside the question was asked,
"Which Party. the PNM?"
Yes that too, After all, it was created in his own image
and likeness. Created by him to love, honour and serve him in
this world and to be happy with him in the next. Well, they
loved, honoured, and served him and were richly rewarded for
it; but I don't think they are too overjoyed about being with
him in the next. So like a ship without a captain, worshippers
without a God, their days are numbered. That paradise which
they have lost shall never be regained. Yes that Party too is
over. But there is another Party, the Grand Ball, the Fete Cele-
bre, or as somebody who has seen better days put it, the mad
scramble at the Public Trough.
This other Party, this greater madness, this rapacious
joie de vivre that we have been forced to witness through this
long and oppressive night now mounts to its frenetic climax.
For with the dawn of a new day the revellers know that they
must depart and so as the night enters into that darkest hour
before the dawn, the halls of revelry reverberate with the
sounds of thousands of petty Neros fiddling, fiddling, fiddling.
It's time to wind up the masquerade
So make your mind up,
The Piper must be paid.
Their tables groan under laden plates, famine left with
those outside, their stomachs bulge, and the cups run over with
the finest wine while the elbows bend with greater and greater
urgency as if desperately trying to drain the last bitter dregs or
perhaps forced, by some invisible /conductor, to keep time to
the angry pulsebeats of a nation.


And the eyes, the eyes; so many of them, windows look-
ing in on barren wastelands that in some distant past were
called souls. And they dance their last Tangos locked in the
arms of fear. The fear that before the\ set is over the first faint
slivers of a painful dawn would rent the fabric of their com-
fort, their cover of darkness. And above all they fear the
whispering voices outside and the faces in the windows, gaunt,
and cold and waiting.

Who are they, where did they come from? Where did
you come from I say?
We were here all the time lady.
But we didn't see you.
We know.
But who are you? What do you want from us?
From you lady? Nothing, we are the children of the
dawn and we
have come to claim our own.
Then it is time?
Yes lady, it is time and Cinderella left a while ago,
pumpkin and all.
Did she say anything?
Only that she won'tbe back this way again.
And the singer crooned her revolutionary tune:
The Party's over
It's all over
My Friend!



Dear Editor:
IT HAS become extreme-
ly necessary, for we who are
facing the brunt of criticism
and attacks from members of
the Public. Press and other ill
informed Organisations, to see
it fit to bring to the attention
of the masses, very frustrating
and heart-breaking conditions,
we Prison Officers are faced
Firstly, the Public Service
Regulations under which we
are governed, had stipulated
that promotion in the Sub-
ordinate ranks will be on exam-
ination. This examination was
held in the year 1971.
Results of this examination
were had the same year, with a
comprehensive list of Officers
who were successful. A list of
Promotions was then made
from this list numbering 42
Officers who were promoted to
the higher grade.
It is appalling to note, that
Officers who can hardly spell
their names passed this exami-
nation and were promoted.
I must state further, that a
list prior to the one which was
published with the promotions
were sent to the Prison Autho-
rities, but this was rejected by
the said Authorities, stating
that Officers on that list were
too young for promotion. (Is
7 yrs. and over to young for a
man to be promoted in a job?)
They did their own thing
for in order to promote their
A Seniority List has since
been published in order to
merit on the examination. It is


now rumoured, that Officers
who actually clamoured for
examination, ownig to the fact,
that they felt that their chances
of promotion without exami-
nation were like a Snow Ball in
hell, and did write the exami-
nation and their names are low
on this list, are now asking that
this list be revoked and promo-
tion be made by experience and
Why? because their names
are low down! Just imagine in
this era, where we must be
geared to meet prisoners of
high intelligence, they are
against Officers whose names
are featuring high on this list,
and this is getting support of
the So Called Big Pappies.
I can assure you, that if
this request is entertained, it
will be a very sad state of this
Service, for some of the frus-
trated Officers are quite pre-
pared to down arms for their
These so-called Big Pappies
must realise that after they
have promoted their friends, if
they go ahead with this plan to
suit the whims and fancies of
other officers, the already frus-
trated lot will leave no stone
unturn to fight this cause. (And
will fight it under any condi-
Please note, if the Prison
Service Association which is
the bargaining body for the
workers after, recommending
examination, turn back on their
stand, Lhcy too will be creating
a situation similar tothatofthe
Soldiers in 1970.

Now on
and continuing

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110 Eastern Main Road,Tunapuna

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Relief to


PEOPLE with just a sur-
face knowledge of Panama
might find it strange to
speak of an "Indian prob-
lem" ih a country known
to the world as the site of
the Canal.
Nonetlheles, official figures'
indicate the presence of more
than 73,000 Native Americans,
5.1 percent of all Panamanians.
Decimated since colonial
conquest by slavery and dis-
ease, these people numbered
about one million when the
Spaniards came.
Later, colonial lords and
creole latifundists completed
the criminal task of forcing the
former owners of the land to
take refuge in the most remote
mountain regions.
The best lands were occu-
pied first by the creoles and
later by the oligarchy of the
republican period. The native
Panamanians continued to lose
ground to what in conqueror
terminology goes by the name
of "civilization".
After being forgotten for
years, the Panamanian Indians
have in recent times been mak-
ing their problems known. They
have found much encourage-
ment in the frequent visits to
their communities of govern-
ment chief General Omar Tor-


Torrijos himself told a press
conference how he had been
Received with distrust at first
y by the communities of Cho-
coes, Guaymies and Kunas;
urban people rarely approach
tlhe Indians with good inten-
A recent meeting called by
Torrijos in Chiriqui, in western
Panama about 500 kilometres
from the capital, made it clear
that the ice has been broken.
From hours the "caciques"
(chiefs) of the different com-
munities spoke with Torrijos,
in exchange that included
numerous protests.
Schools, lands, medical
care, technical cooperation are
the key issues posed by the
community representatives.
Torrijos offered some con-
crete solutions:
A live-in school for at least
500 Indian students at all levels
will bp built in the Soli region
of Chiriqui. Precisely one of
the basic problems arises from
thescattered settlement pattern
of the communities.
"We'll put up health centres
in central spots added Torri-
jos -t since it just isn't possible
to place medical staff in each
and every settlement where
just a handful of people live".
In addition to education
and health, Government plans
include the application of the
agrarian reform in the area.
Agricultural technicians will be
posted to the communities,
although Torrijos expressed the
view that "the best thing would .
be to train people from the
communities themselves as'

THE torture and cold-blooded killing of Chilean revolu-
tionaries have marked the style of repression of the fascist
military chiefs who overthrew President Salvador'Allende.
The official decrees is issued by the Armed Forces
and Carabineers, headed by General Aygusto Pinochet,
warn publicly that "there will be no quarter given to any-
one offers the slightesr resistance".
The initial harassment from snipers and the formation
later of nuclei of popular resistance in several parts of the
country, but especially in Santiago, led the military to put
their "Plan Jakarta" into operation.
Many members-of the Popular Unity Government, men and
women who fell into the hands of the Military Intelligence Service,
were killed in exemplary'fashion, with some detainees being thrown
out of helicopters.
The repression pays no
respect to national differences.
Ever y foreigner is an S T R I
"extremist", and, according to
the military edicts,'must're- Tacna Regiment here, reveal
port at once to the Defence only a part of the suffering
Ministry. which detainees are undergoing.
Two Cuban doctors' ac- Doctors Gonzalo Curras,
counts of the beatings to which and Rolando Puente, studying
they were subjected by the here under World Health Or-
ganization scholarships, were
00 O O arrested a few yards from the
Cuban Embassy for which they
O O P were heading.
0 Many of the troops, it is
1- understood, were forced by
0 00 their superiors, to kick and mis-

Guatemala THE

polls '74

no change ANY KIN

SIX political parties back-
ing three candidates, all
of whom proclaim their
"anti-communism", cha-
racterize the Guatemalan
election picture.
The call to the polls for
March 1, 1974 to elect a suc-
cessor to General Carlos Arana
Osorio is meant to look legal,
though Arana himself acknow- /
leged that he will use all the
force at his command to back
General Kjeil Eugenio, Lau-
'The political pot is boil-
ing here, with parties and
groups for all (rightwing)
tastes", wrote a reporter from
the Costa Rican conservative
daily "La Nacion".
The left movements all
agree that the six parties taking
part in the elections "can be
described as reactionary or ul-


Army and police repression
and control in the most popu-
lated rural areas will very likely
guarantee the election of Arana's
handpicked successor.
Both Arana and Laugeraud
are US trained counterinsur.
agency specialists. I
Laugeraud's running mate
is congressional chairman Mario
Sandoval Alarcon, pointed to
as the supervisor of the official ... ..
terror conducted by the ...
"White Hand" and other para-
military bands.
Arana's aids during the
Zacapa peasant massacre in the
late 60's, Laugeraud proudly
proclaims the incumbent as
his "political teacher and in-
spiration". -
Like Arana, he says openly
that "if the country has to be

Cont'd oq Pagec 8





trent th dtaines h. n latpr later.

were taken to other units.
Nothing more is known of their
In the agricultural province
of Cautin Army and Air Force
troops rounded up a score of
Mapuche (Araucano Indian)
peasants and brutally tortured
them on the pretext of the
supposed existence of a "school
for guerrillas".
Two of the peasants died

In this operation, which
came a few weeks before the
coup,the peasants were whipp-
ed, then hung from helicopters
which flew over the town of
Tumeco for several hours.
The fascist officers, in their
build-up to Tuesday's coup,
meted out similar treatment
to workers in the country's
major cities during several
raids on factories.





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not on every door

Opportunity does not knock on every door. This year

many of us will get the chance to invest in Public

Business. Should the opportunity come your way, what

would be your position? A Savings Account means

that you not only have money in the Bank but also

credit-worthiness, money-worth, borrow-ability, the

chance to open your door to a brighter future.
Saving its an investment.

Live a Better Life
The National Commercial

Bank of Trinidad & Tobag

i Bank in Your Bank
go.60 Independence Square.

** .1




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IT bread, call it and members have been ties if even it means los-
chin call it paisa, call going about collecting do- ing the use of most of the
... nations by means. of Tapia House to the print-
he pictures on this authorized lists. ing press room, dark
were taken last week In addition we have rooms, store rooms, tables
y night at the Fund- been selling Tapia-printed for folding and cutting etc.
g fete held in aid of jerseys as the ad on the
fapia Fund at the opposite page indicates,. But we will, too 'have
of Sheilah and Dehis and we have been pushing saved the time, expense
non at St Augustine. sales of bound volumes. and hassle of driving 10
big crowd of friends miles to Port of Spain
supporters responded everyday to have negatives
e invitation from the .CAMERA and plates made, and some-
nons and John and times two and three times
la Cropper who or- per day.
ad the fete. Of course, printing, So the money is being
ete-giving for fund- publishing and editing jobs raised through the efforts
g, This is not the only are being sought as well. of members. Last year
n which we are going What progress? Well, JerryPierreandPatDownes
Sgettiig the money to the plate-maker has been organised a cultural show
lete our printing delivered and will be in- at the Tapia House in aid
and put our publish- stalled within the next of the fund.
enterprise on a sound week..The camera has ar- More fund-raising ven-
g. e Administrative rived in Trinidad from the tures are being organised
ary has noted a con- manufacturers. by members, and informa-
tary has noted a con-
I flow of new sub- Soon, we expect to tion will be supplied in due
-.... M ...... n have m nih needed facili- course.



Clico a company of
West Indians, formed for the
economic upliftment of PEOPLE.
Growing from humble beginnings to one
of the largest financial institutions indigenous to
the Caribbean. Assets for the security of our
policy holders now total over


The Growth is UP

. ) 7




rHrn'I:, WORII



REUTER Caribbean last
week reported that the
UWI Extra Mural Depart-
ment in Montserrat. had
withdrawn itsaccount from
the local branch of Chase
Manhattan Bank.
The following article,
sent to TAPIA by a Mont-
serrat correspondent, gives
some background.

opened its operations in Mont-
serrat with a gaudy feast in
April 1972. The pretentious
display was but a foretaste of
the cold and heartless North
American business style, yet
unknown to Montserratians.
Their budget for advertising
was phenomenal, unmatched
by the other banks- Barclays
and Royal which had been
in Montserrat for as many as
eight and 56 years respectively.

The advent of the big
American money-men hit the
island like a thunderbolt.
It caused panic among the
other banks, and an angry ex-
change of views on the theme
of morality in advertising and
in banking procedure; it tricked
the hapless citizens into schemes
bringing eventual financial re-
turns only to the bank and its
close legal and journalistic


0 c

s -,a

a -.C ean .,,

PRESIDENT Jean-Claude Du-
valier's far-reaching regime
purge the biggest Haiti has
seen in 25 years has been
seen by some analysts as a
possible. "overture to Europe"
following alleged disappoint-
ment with the United States.
Other observers point to
the recent blazes which hit first
the Presidential Palace, thdn a
baseball equipment factory
whose products are exported
to the United States. There is
reason to believe that the blazes
could have been started by
political rivals of Duvalier,
with members of the Presiden-
tial Guard being involved.


The purge affects several
ministries, the army and the
diplomaticmission.In tourism,
one of Haiti's major sources of
income, state director Andre
Theardand his assistant, Ramah
Theodore,have both been fired.
The tactic of "remove, put
elsewhere the finally eliminate"
was applied very effectively
by the late Francois "Papa
Doc" Duvalier, who used to
get rid of old colleagues when-
ever he noted political am-
bitions in them.
His son and successor,
Jean-Claude, is applying' his
/father's methods with advice
from his mother. The intrigues
of Jean-Claude's ambitious sis-
ter Maria-Denise may also have
influenced his decisions.
Two ministers, previously
rated pillars of the Duvalier
regime, have been sent to dip-
lornatic posts far from Haiti.
Fritz Cineas, Minister for In-
formation and Coordination,
goes to the Rome Embassy,
while Edouard Francisque,
Minister of the Economy, has
been appointed to Paris.
Both had been close to the

young dictator. Cineas was his
public relations manager and
Francisque was responsible for
foreign investments. The minis-
ters of health and public works
have also been dismissed.
But perhaps the most spec-
tacular purges came in the
Army high.command. Claude
Raumond, chiefof general staff,
is now to be Haitian ambassa-
dor in Madrid.
The Navy and police have
both got new leaders; Com-
mander Claude Dorsainville
and Colonel Deslandes Duper-
val respectively.
Fritz Romulas, an officer
who managed to overcome the
devastating Presidential palace
fire has been named security
chief for the international air-
Colonel Gabriel Brunet, the
former airport security chief,
was dismissed, apparently for
his links with Luckner Canm-
bronne, the now exiled former

Minister of Defense and the
Recently another six high-
ranking Army officers were
removed from their posts. Jean-
Claude Duvalier also ordered,
big diplomatic shake-up which
affects the Haitian embassies in
Washington,the United Nations,
Paris, Rome, Bonn, Lima, Cara-
cas and Panama City.
Rene Chalmers, the veteran
Washington ambassador, was
pensioned off. Provisionally,
the Washington embassy is to
be under Philipeau Joseph, as
charge d'affaires.
The Unites States has been
represented in Haiti by a dip-
lomat with the same rank,
since Ambassador Clinton KOnx
left Port au Prince in April
following his kidnapping by a
group of revolutionaries who
swapped him for 12 political
prisoners., Official com-
muniques have given no ex-
planation for the changes.

Guatemala polls

From Page 5

turned into a cemetery in order
to pacify it, I won't hesitate
to, do so".
Laugeraud is also a close
friend of General Anastasio
Somoza thus providing a gua-
rantee for US plans for a
"Guatemala- Nicaragua- Salva-
dor" axis in Central America.
Backing the government
slate are the National Libera-
tion Movement, National
Liberation Party, National Ac-
tion Centre and Democratic
Institutional Party.
The tolerated opposition
is only slightly different. The
Christian Democrats and the
Revolutionary Party are Runn
ing General Efrain Rios Montt
and Carlos Sagstume Perez re-

Three coalitions, the Demo-
cratic Revolutionary United
Front (DFUUR), the National
Reconstruction Action (FARN)
and the Guatemalan Democra-
tic Front (FEG) have still not
been recognized by the elec-
tion authorities.
The Christian Democrats
and the Revolutionary Party
are holding talks on the possi-
bility of backing a candidate
supported by other opposition
Such a 'candidate could be
retired General Enrique Peralta
Azuridia, 65, who was president
from 1963 to 1966.
Leftwing sectors express
the view that little change can
be expected as a result of the
1974 election. [P.L.]'

They employed an alien
manager, assistant manager,
manager's secretary and ad-
vertising agent, and then roped
in a few local girls on whom
they set out to display their
arrogance and petty prejudices.
.In the short space of 16
months they have had more
crisis and conflicts than any
other foreign institution on the
They started out with prob-
lems in their own ranks. Two
of their high-ranking staff mem-
bers who had come to help to
launch their man-of-war on the
local scene could probably

Cuba: 44,000

houses in

six months
CLOSE TO 44,000 housing,
units costing $192 million were
completed or under construc-
tion in Cuba in the first half
of'this year.
The housing problem was
.chaotic when the Revolution-
ary Government took over in
1959. After 13 years of effort,
Cuba was able to undertake
massive building with the crea-
^tion of "microbrigades" as the
solution to the labour shortage.
In 1971 before- the micro-
brigades were created, 2,475
units were built, while last
year the total was 15,513.
Before 1959, 80 per cent of
of the rural population lived in
very poor. housing. The total
number of dwelling units then
was 1,225,000, 63 per cent
urban and 37 per cent rural.
Demand rose by 28,000 a
year, but only 10,200 a year
were built with acceptable
levels. Thus, the demand in
1959 was 700,000.
The Revolutionary Govern-
ment, which inherited this
situation, increased the num-
ber of units by 560,000 up to
1972. The gradual introduction
of prefab system has per-
mitted the construction of
housing projects of four-story
apartment buildings through-
out the country, by the micro-
brigades made up of people
from all walks of life who
temporarily leave\their jobs to
work in construction.


have been charged by the local
police for serious damage to
local people's property, if not
In true Montserratian style,
the two were forgiven by the
local authorities for their first
offence and shipped out imme-
Chase has so far:-
dismissed one girl without
any warning and without any
dismissed a clerk for not
having a work permit when she
was in fact the daughter of a
dismissed a third because
they had employed her for
several weeks before they
realizedd" that they had really
wanted someone else with the
same surname;
dismissed a fourth because
she had become a member of a
new Trade Union;
accused Chief Minister
Bramble of irresponsibility and
forced him to say in a press
"The Chase Manhattan Bank
should withdraw the false and
erroneous information passed
on to its employees. It is a
shame that senior officials of
an organization with the Chase's
reputation should have to resort
to falsehoods and misrepresen-
tations to save the Bank's face.
"This conduct clearly in-
dicates that they cannot justify
their .unjust conduct to their
employees and are therefore
seeking a scapegoat".
forced the Chief Minister
to demand the removal of the
expatriate manager;
threatened the Chief
Minister with total withdrawal
from Montserrat if the manager
had to go;
refused to pay full sick
benefits to an employee who
had a nervous breakdown on
the job because of manage-
ment's harassment.


The experience has been a
real nightmare for peaceful
Montserrat. The situation is
explosive. The Montserrat
Allied Workers Union and the
Government of Chief Minister
Austin Bramble, as'well as the
mass of the people, are deeply
concerned with the new busi-
ness style introduced by Chase.
The big question here is,
"How long will this ghost con-
tinue to haunt the people of


Help Tapia fund raising
drive- anything you can make -
send donations to the Treasurer ,
Tapia house 82 84 St Vincent
SStreet Tunapuna





mlmam imimm aa




IN AN article appearing in "Caribbean Quar-
terly" Volume 18 No. 4 December 1972,
Errol Hill points out that.
"For many years the only companies of per-
formance in the West Indies were run either by
expatriates or native born residents who were
not interested in encouraging an indigenous
In the article ("The emergence of a national
drama in the West Indies") which was the text
of a paper delivered at the Conference of the
Association for Commonwealth Studies held
at the UWI Mona in January 1971, he went on
to say:
"All but one of these theatre groups have
disappeared as their existence became ana-
chronistic with the emergence of nationalist
sentiment in the West Indies. The Green Room
Theatre Club in Barbados, that stronghold of
upper-crust white exclusively, suddenly in 1966
found a black actress to play Antigone and
subsequently has produced two short West
Indian plays".

One wonders how Mr. Hill would view the recent
further foray of the Green Room Theatre Club into
Barbadian theatre with its production of Gilbert &
Sullivan's Mikado, done in conjunction with the
Barbados Festival Choir, of Bimshire fame. Also one
wonders what he would have to say about recent
efforts of NIFCA (National Festival of Creative Arts )
to have groups around the country "perform," for
independence, the plays of Chekhov, Anouilh, Ion-
esco; the music of Mendellsohn; and "Who (in the
hell) killed Cock Robin!"
The experts of Barbadian conservatism and
Barbadian "no-culture" would have a field day. But
regardless of what these may say, we have among us
in Barbados, a group of quiet, unobtrusive, talented,
young people working to produce something worthy
of a rational and West Indian drama. This group is the
Writers Workshop of Barbados.
Gordon Rohlehr, writing a review in TAPIA of
that now famous Jamaican effort at film making said
in passing about the poetry of Louise Bennet, the
famous Jamaican folk-poet and story teller: "part of
the process of self-acceptance was acceptance of one's
most intimate language".
Enter Bruce St. John. To my mind the best
"dialect" poet in the West Indies today since Louise
Bennet. But listen to the comments of someone more
eminently capable of doing justice to Bruce St. John
than I. A.N. (Freddy) Forde, writing in the Advocate-
News of Wednesday September 12, 1973 made these
on St. John's presentation at Yoruba House during the
week-end of the Bussa awards.

"Bruce St. John's ... performance came singing
out of the roots of the Barbadian ethos.
"He ransacked the Bajan Persona with a relish
and point that were close to instinct .
"(His) material springs unashamedly from the
Bajan situation. His poems came from the guts
of life.
"And most important there is a 'pride of
place' in what he does and says".


Which brings me directly to the Writers Workshop of
Barbados. Because all of A.N. Forde's comments on
Bruce St. John could be applied firmly and definitely
to the work of this unique group of people working in
Barbados today.
St. John and the Workshop had been working
separately for a long time before they became aware
of one another. (This last for those "experts" who
will start shouting about influence and imitation.)
They made contact only relatively recently. St.
John, an older and wiser man has found admiration.
ard deep respect from the young people of the*
Workshop, and they have found experience and
guild from that wisdom and knowledge.
I keep stressing the uniqueness of the Writers
Workshop, Because I know of nowhere else in the
West Indies of the existence today of a group of
talented writers, young, working together beginning
with poetry and prose and finally, as all true poets
must, turning to the drama; and not only writirig,
but acting in and producing their own work!
Lamming Brathwaite, Clarke, all the others never ever
had that!
Look at their record over the past two years.
l Last year they produced the most unique (that

Bajan Litany

(Fast) Follow pattern kill Cadogan.
American got black power?
We got black power
Wuh sweeten goat mout
bun 'e tail
Bermuda got tourism?
We got too.
De higher monkey go, de
more he show 'e tail.
Jamaica got industry?
We got industry
Jamaica got bauxite?
(Louder) Jamaica got bauxite?
Choke 'e collar, hang 'e tie,
trip"e up trousers, T'row
'e down boots.
Trinidad got army?
(Louder) Trinidad got army?
We got too
Stop friggin' spiders fuh
twice de increase.

England got family planning?
We got too.
Wuh eh ketch yuh en pass
Follow pattern kill Cadogan.
Lord, Lord,
Lookah we tho' nuh,
We heading fuh trouble!
0 Lord!


Yes, Lord.
0 Lord
Yes, Lord.

0 Lord
Yes, Lord.
0 Lord

Yes, Lord.
O Lord
Yes, Lord.
Yes, Lord.

0 Lord.
O Lord
Yes, Lord

0 Lord.

Yes, Lord
O Lord?

Yes, Lord.
O Lord
Yes, Lord.
0 Lord?
Yes, Lord!
0 Lord!

word again!) item at Guyana's Carifesta "Un-
chained". Which was a dramatisation of their own
poetry, written in the language and idiom of their
native ground. Perfectly satisfying the demands of
the Carifesta idea. Which is more, much more than
can be said for other representative groups from the
same native ground.
Early in 1973 they presented a similar drama-
tisation on Barbados Television entitled "Black-Hood".
At the end of July they presented to packed houses
at the Arts Lecture Theatre of the Cave Hill Campus,
UWI Revelation. Which they will present in a return
visit to Guyana at the end of September.


Revelation introduces us to the work of Bar-
bados' foremost playwright, Anthony Hinkson. It
consists mainly of two of his plays, "Forgive Us Our
Debts" and "Round The Bend". Read again A.N.
Forde's comments on Bruce St. John and you will
know that Hinkson's two plays are totally and un-
ashamedly Barbadian when I tell you that those com-
ments could have been made on the plays.
In "Forgive Us Our Depts" we meet Jo-Jo- and
Pablo played respectively by Victor Clifford and
Earl Warner, two of the writers of the Wrokshop. We
see our own Anancy at work (to other islanders, he is
the smart Bajan man) in the person of Jo-Jo,
through bare talk, spinning his web with the hallowed
Barbadian "rites" of education and religion, makes
Pablo forget what he is owed and sells him troubles


into the bargain. Within this very humorous frame-
work of debt-dodging, the Anancy-like playwright
has himself also weaved serious themes. The whole
question of "educating the natives" arises,
In Pablo, education produces "T-E-A-C-H-A-I-R",
but bare common sense provides Jo-Jo with the
means of survival in a world where "god turn water
into honey". Anancy quotes scripture irreverently
and wrongly to suit his own survival ends.
Here the adaptation of religious morality by
the colonised (as with education) is shown in opera-
tion. This is something we see around us in every
island every day, and the playwright, in making some-
thing significant of an accepted occurence, shows up
a unique feature of his people that is for the most part,
as with so much else, taken for granted. Maturely, he
merely spotlights, and does not attempt to moralise
on the every day means of survival of his characters.


And the language used is the language that every
Barbadian knows but so often denies; the language
that we still hear today being described by the so-
called intellectuals as unfit for anything more than
joking or wasting time. Here one is again reminded of
a comment on the poetry of Bruce St. John, whose
work is has been pointed out is so similar to that of
the Workshop. This time, the comment is by Gordon

"(It is) an explosion against the abstract language
of the academic. At the same time it illustrates
how the Creole sensibility handles abstraction
and perhaps, provides a hint about the method-
logy which West Indian teachers need to grasp
if they are to bridge the gap between text book
abstraction and the language of the people".
This statement becomes increasingly significant if one
remember$ that both St. John and Hinkson are
teachers in their nation's schools.
And if the die-hard critics will see nothing but
light humour in "Forgive Us Our Debts", and go on to
claim that Hinkson is capable of nothing "serious",
there is "Round The Bend". This second play deals
withthe middle-class single minded striving after the
material that leads in the play to its inevitable terri-
fying conclusion silence as the husband, played
by the experienced Milton McCollin, who also directs,
refuses to see the destruction that his single-minded
materialism is causing in his wife (played by Charmaine
Cromwell). Or perhaps for him, it is too late. We see in
Jack Wood, "cool, reliable joiner" (Earl Warner again)
that lower class aspiration after the middle class way
of life that has within it its own seeds of destruction.


This play is a serious comment on that ever
increasing middle class of the West Indies that perpe-
tuates the colonised mentality as it reaches continu-
ally out to the materialistic metropole,whose centre
has' changed in this part of the century from London
to New York and Toronto. And still too the self
rejection continues as standards and values are copied
wholesale and unquestioningly from North America.
This comes out in the middle-class yearnings of Jack.
Language and the whole problem of self-
acceptance is seen as he switches from Bajan to
American to suit the company or occasion. Again,
the playwright refrains from moralising, but, in a very
tightly controlled form, spotlights the situation. It is
this "poetic", stripped form that makes it seem at
times like something out of the Absurd Theatre.
(Increasingly now, I am beginning to find the laughter
evoked by the Absurd Theatre, at the absurdity of so
much of life, similar to the laughter evoked by West
Indian Theatre, in its usually humorous exposition of
people surviving in a tragic situation. Hinkson's two
plays evoke much laughter).
Throughout, the actors in these two plays were
totally confident and comfortable, a result of using
their own language. (As was seen in "The Harder They
Come".) How many generations of talent have already
gone down the drain of time because the opportunity
to express themselves artistically in their own language
was never given them. This will no longer be the case
because the writers of film scripts like "The Harder
They Come" and the Bruce St. Johns, have started
that important Revolution back to Self. The Writers
Workshop have done it with "Revelation".
Along with Anthony Hinkson's two "spotlight-
on-society" plays, as they indeed are in many ways,
subtly and overtly, the Workshop on its programme
presents readings by its writers. Among them, Hinkson

Cont'd on Page 10 )

5 ~1- ~ ~I

L __ __ Z ____ __



Convention address shows:

Williams making

plans to return

A tactic,

a calculated risk
DR WILLIAMS' Convention Address, we
must note, is severely practical. Let us not
give undue consequence to the note of senti-
ment at the end, though even here, his refer-
ence to the Women's League is not without
gracious calculation.
Dr Williams has indicated three major factors
which he took into account in reaching his decision
to return to private life. They are:
* The certainty that Caribbean integration
through a Caribbean Economic Community em-
bracing 27,000,000 people will not be achieved in the
foreseeable future.
* The situation in Trinidad & Tobago.
* the Party and its objectives.
In the course of dealing with these three
factors Dr Williams achieved the following results:
* He was able to jettison the Party's policy
towards a Caribbean Economic Commuhity, a policy
which he had recommended as "official" for the PNM
"when the Federation was on the verge of collapse".
A careful study of other statements in the Address
will probably give us clues as to what he proposes to
substitute for this now abandoned policy.
* He was able to chide the Community and the
Party for their shortcomings. The latter's are well
known and openly admitted. Mr. Hudson-Phillips'
interest in the Chairmanship was with a view to
breathing new life into it.
* He was able further, to anticipate the findings
of the Constitution Commission by advocating con-
stitutional changes and provisionsbeyond those already
outlined in the "Perspectives for the New Society"
(1970). I had predicted this in my pamphlet "De-
mocracy or Oligarchy" (p. 6):
"Political strategy .. requires the party in
power, especially the Leader, to anticipate and
forestall the main recommendations of the
Commission so that, even before it reports,
much of what it will have to say will be out-
dated and obsolete".
He has informed the country that he has been
working "very quietly" for some time on the vital
question of morality in public affairs in so far as it
may be secured through a declaration of assets and
liabilities by public figures in the service of the coun-

"I have been working very quietly on this subject for
some time paying attention not only to the Tanzania
Law but also to developments in Canada in
Britain ... in the United States...
... There is the further question of the extension of
some form of responsibility for public declarations
not only to Members of Parliament but also to
members of the Statutory Boards and senior public
servants including those in statutory agencies on the
ground that they might be involved in companies
transacting business with the Government or Statu-
tory agency involved.
The result of my studies and deliberations has been
incorporated into a policy document of legislation in
this field which I have communicated to the General
Secretary for discussion in the first instance, at party
level prior to action by the Party's Government".
(Address, p. 23)

He has been able to take position on the subject
of"crossing the floor" and other party matters: "Here
again I have passed on my views to the General
SSecretary for action by the General Council if and
when it so wishes". Does this look like the work of a
man returning to private life and his study, with his
pipe and Iis slippers and the "tools of his trade"?
I suggest that here we have a tactic which of
course, involves a calculated risk. Dr Williams is
planning the rejuvenation and the restructuring of his
party. The methods and the dc\e .. to be used are
there in the Address for all "' deduce.

By C. V Gocking

New policy on

WI unity

DR WILLIAMS devotes 13 of the 36 pages of his
Address to the Caribbean Economic Community,
why the policy failed, and why it is unlikely to
succeed in the foreseeable future.
We must bear in mind, always, in dealing with
the irrevocability or otherwise of Dr Williams' deci-
sion to retire, that we are dealing with a highly
political question.
My own view is that the policy of Caribbean
integration as a substitute for West Indian Federation
was a political ploy deemed necessary at the time. A
void had been created in West Indian hearts and minds
when Federation failed and the concept and reality
of West Indian nationhood faded with it. That void
needed to be filled.
Dr Williams' association with the Federal failure
had also, characteristically, to 'be covered by his
providirnga concept even grander than the Federation,
namely a Caribbean Economic Community leading to
Caribbean integration. This was particularly necessary
since Trindad & Tobago would be following Jamaica
into independence and would be rejecting Sir Arthur
Lewis' efforts to save, under Dr Williams' leadership,
what remained of the Federation after Jamaica had
But the concept was not grand; it was only

With the years, and now that he is jettisoning it,
Dr Williams has put additional touches of the grand
or the grandiose, depending on- the way you see
him as prophet or seer or politician.
"I have seen the integration movement, going beyond
its potential for trade and production, as a reversal of
the many centuries of colonialism with its metropoli-
tan control of Caribbean economy, political organi-
zation, cultural identity, and the resultant fragmen-
tation among the various metropolitan powers.
I have also advocated as a matter of particular im-
portance co-operation among Caribbean Universities
with the principal aim of developing a curriculum at
all levels of the education system relevant to the
peoples of the area and making a contribution to
international university development by a synthesis of
the culture and experiences of the various ethnic
groups who have contributed to Caribbean identity".
Brave words indeed, especially when we take
cognisance of the fact of how very little has been done
towards these very ends by the Universities of the
West Indiec and Guyana in collaboration with the
state systems of education at secondary and primary
levels in tie English-speaking territories over the last
fifteen-years. It was in 1958 that the Secretary of
State and the Cambridge Examinations Syndicate
invited us to begin this great work ,aiLlook how far
we have got.-And in these matters, we are in com-
plete control of our own territories!
The policy of Caribbean Economic Community
and Caribbean integration was never viable: a first-
year-sixth-form boy could tell us that. Hlow could the
governing party in an island of 1.000.000 provide a
base for such a concept? Was there any indication of
pre-disposing historical trend or movement in this

area of 27,000,000 and differing cultures to encourage
any hope of success? In the absence of such sdppott,
the concept as a practical proposition could best be
described not as visionary but as picturesque.
Dr. Williams has traced for us, in the course of
his Address, the drift towards Caribbean disintegra-
tion; but every cause and symptom of thisdisintegra,
tion was foreseen or known for an already existing
fact or tendency in 1962 when the PNM adopted
Caribbean Economic Community and Caribbean
integration as its policy. It is important to remember


Let me illustrate: Dr Williams quotes the
London Times of August 28. That newspaper, he
points out, has drawn attention to
"the prospect of the emergence of a series of
mini-Haitis, with so may Papa-Does in real control...
a scatter of weak, importunate, amoral, one-man-
ruled mini-states which "could threaten everyone".
This is precisely what Sir Arthur Lewis foresaw
whenhe was negotiating with Dr Williahs and the other
island leaders to save something of the Federation of
1962. The following quotations are taken from The
Agony of The Eight where Sir Arthur argued that
"nine would make a nice federation without Jamaica".
"the maintenance of good government requires a
federal structure. In a small island of 50,000 or
100,000 people, dominated by a single political
party, it is very difficult to prevent political abuse.
Everybody depends on the Government for some-
thing The Civil Servants live in fear; the police
avoid unpleasantness; the trades unions are tied to
the party; the newspaper depends on government
advertisements; and so on".
And finally in very bold type, all the words"in
capital letters:
"The fundamental reason for federating these islands
is that it is the only way that good government can
be assured to their peoples".
There is a second point by way of illustration.
Dr. Williams himself says: Cuba has always regarded
itself as a Latin American rather than a Caribbean
country. This has been. so before Castro, and is
perhaps even more pronounced with Castro".
For a third point, Dr Williams quotes from the
London Times again:
"One state seeking to fill the vacuum is Venezuela".
But this is nothing new. Professor W.L. Burn, well-
known author of Emancipation and the Apprentice-
ship System, described by Dr Williams in the biblio-
graphy ot his Capitalism and Slavery (1944) as "a
scholarly analysis of the apprenticeship system",
writes in his The British West Indies (1951) as
"At the Conference of the American States at Bogota
in 1948 Latin American nationalism was highly
vociferous, the Venezuelan representative going so
far as to claim the Guianas, Trinidad, Curacao,
Aruba and Boraire for his country". (p.183)

For a fourth point by way of further illustration,
there is another old story. Dr Williams once more in
his Address:
"It would seem as if the American-Venezuelan
understanding excludes, as Americans have tradi-
tionally excluded, what is called the Hispanic Carib-
bean, the Caribbean territories formerly associated
with Spain, with which they would include Haiti".
Finally, there is one place in his whole address
where Dr Williams betrays strong resentment and
traces of bitterness. And they are not directed to-
wards his audience or the country. They underline
his long. continuing knowledge of just where we,
"black colonials," stand and have always stood in
the thinking of Anglo-American and Latin American
-worlds and demonstrate beyond all possibility ol
doubt that all talk of Caribbean Economic Commuin-
ity and Caribbean integration was. has always been.
and still is political poppy-cock.
Co't-inued on Par e 12





From Page 9

himself, Robert Morris, Ben Craigg, Earl Warner,
Another unique aspect of the Workshop is the serious
involvement of young Barbadian sisters, who also
read on the programme. Among them, Margaret Gill
and Elizabeth Clarke.
Errol Hill believes strongly that theatre in the
West Indies could be an economically viable product.
In the article quoted above he proposes this and goes

"It would take time to achieve this. At the
beginning the theatre must go to the people; it
must travel to outlying areas in towns and
villages and involves the masses in its produc-
tions by inviting them to perform as part of
the programme. Continuous interaction with
the mass culture is indispensable for a national
drama and will prevent the theatre from once
more becoming the plaything of a social or
educated coterie".

The Writers Workshop have already recognized this
absolute necessity for the involvement of the very
people out of whose heart comes the whole spirit and
feel of their writing. Long before they had moved
directly to the stage, they had taken their poetry,
which exploits firmly the oral traditions inherited
from Africa, to schools and social centres.
Exploring the language of their people (them-
selves), its capacity for dramatisationn", they were
well received. On their return from Guyana in early


October, they were to embark immeidately in further
community work, bringing to the people the plays
they toured with and also their new poetry that has
found depths with maturity.
It is very difficult to survive in this Twilight
Theatre-world of Barbados drama. For anyone in-
volved in the theatre, activities start at the "twilight".
after seven in the evening, when people have come
home tired from work. The casualties in Barbadian
(and West Indian) theatre are many and frequent.
Despite the existence of enthusiasm and talent,
attitudes to theatre in the society are still such that
one is faced inevitably with choosing between what is
seen as recreation (not, ironically, as re-creation!) and
the serious business of making a living. Society in
general still does not appreciate that the sensitivity
involved in participation in theatre, whether as actor or
audience, is invaluable to the everyday business of


The role of art in all its forms still has to be
clearly defined and pointed out to our West Indian
societies. Barbados is definitely no exception. In fact,
the amount of criticism Barbadians have always re-
ceived for their "lack of culture" is a good indication
of the state of affairs.
But as tih:! people become more and more aware



of the value of their own cultural heritage, one is
faced with the new danger of the self-styled intellec-
tuals and political propagandists, who see it as their
right to demand of the artist that he shape his
creation to their temporary needs. Most of the time,
these new saviours, now in the same skin and
colour of the people, have no conception of the
creative process, and most times have no interest in it.
There is, as always, the hard fact of finance.
Money is needed to finance projects, to 'rent halls
since still, in independent Barbados, no hall for the
performing arts exists. Far-seeing and conscious busi-
nessmen like Mr. Frank Da Silva of Cavalier Garment
factory are few and very far between. The situation
becomes even more stark and depressing when one
realises that Mr. Da Silva is not a Barbadian, but a
Guyanese who has made his home here. More self-
rejection again, this time at the business community
There is the danger that lies from within too. A
group like the Workshop, especially because of its
youth, is prey to swollen heads and an easy com-
placency, because of the success it has had. Unless
the group can keep in mind that what it is working at
is bigge- than its individuals or its Self, it will not be
able to continue setting the pace in theatrical activity
in the country and perhaps, in the West Indies.
In conclusion. Anyone trying to find out the
true state of Barbadian dramatic theatre today can
look only in one direction. Towards the Writers

Lloyd Taylor

man of the Board, thrown
Orange Grove sugar work-
ers in the bamboo? Will
workers see the last of
Hunte and Tello come
January 1974? Or are they
to maintain a clenched fist
until their just demands
are met?
These questions are dis-
tressing for the men who are
now feverishly engaged in putt-
ing the OG factory house in
working order.
These trusting factory-
hands have not even wondered
whether or not Primus himself
would be still around crop
time 1974? And in the absence
of any written guarantees, they
have sought only to keep their
side of the bargain.
The Orange Grove workers
have been preparing the factory
for the '74 crop, redoubling
their efforts as the occasion
According to the agree-
ment, management must not
allow Hunte and Tello into the
factory while work is in pro-
gress. And by the time the
plant begins to grind cane Hunte
and Tello should no longer be
in the pay of the company.
Those are Primus' guaran-
tees to the workers, agreed
upon at a meeting held last
September in the presence of
Basdeo Panday, of all Trinidad
Kelvin Pierre, of the Labour
Congress, and eight workers
from the factory.
At the meeting Primus had
begged for time. So the dead-
line was set for January. His
hands were tied, he said, and he
needed sufficient time to
loosen them.
Primus had also asked the
workers to remain tight-lipped.
Secrecy was of the essence.
He knew how to handle
the issue, but he did not want
to wild Hunte and Tello.
Primus told the meeting
that if he had known about the
incompetence of the two men



-.B s:-d ... :-,,7" ,' ,-:- .*^ *^._ .... -- ..-, .

O'Grove workers wl n:

S__-LAST WEEK marked the
0 3 U end of the first round of
S, a five-month old struggle'
ll .---- between workers and
S" -management at the
Orange Grove National
T' 'Sugar Company. And the
,'14.L L0 5 'workers, convinced about
T fTLA'-7i i the righteousness of their
L cause, are pleased to re-
0 w" WUll. "W5R cord that come January
1974, Hunte and Tello
J'-;.would no longer be in
SI the pay of the company.
SThis is part of a com-
i'p r promise settlement

the situation would not have
become so messy. Hunte, he
said, was for all practical pur-
poses gone.
The OG Chairman had
begged for Tello. Nowhere
would he be able to get a job.
Panday stuck to his guns,
arguing tooth and nail against
keeping both men, citing
chapter and verse. And Primus
openly flattered him: "I know

youhave the backings of power-
ful friends".
So having secured secrecy
for his dubious promises, Pri-
mus would take the issue to
the Board of Directors for
approval. All Trinidad Union
and Congress would subse-
quently be informed, and the
issue would be sealed.
Now all of a Sudden the
tranquility with which work-

ers settled down on their jobs
has been broken.
Through leaks from the
Board of Directors, in the
guise of a statement from a
"Senior Company official," we
hear that there has been "no
deviation" from the position
of the Board of Management to
retain the services of Hunte and
Workers must also find it

perplexing to learn that Tello
has not been visiting the fac-
tory only because he has been
at work with cultivation.
Coming up in the froth too
is the bogus display that passes
for "working class" represen-
tation in sugar in particular.
For example, neither All
Trinidad nor Congress have
thought it fit to query publicly
the furtive company release.
Up to six days after the
release Panday had not turned
up at OG to give the workers
guidance on the issue, despite
their repeated calls.
Workers have had to make
do with the insipid explana-
tion by man-on-the-spot Dick-
son Emery that he had no
control over what the Press
Meanwhile, factory-hands
have continued to keep their
side of the bargain.
It is for the company to
decide whether theywant Hunte
and frello or Wh
and Tello or whether they want
Can the "Senior company
official" responsible for the
release say which way the issue
would go? Who can?
"Please, don't ask me!"


tory Manager at Orange
Grove National Company,
was unable to defend his
competence when Mr. See-
baran, the Chief Chemist,
put these questions to him.
1. When did you start to
work in the sugar industry, and
in what position?
2. Did you spend your time
at one company or more than

3. If you were in one conm-
pany, did you spend your time
in only one factory, and for
how long?
4. When were you promoted
to the position of Factory
Manager and how long did you
stay in that position?
5. Have you ever been in
charge of Cultivation, where,
and for how long?
6.. Have you ever been fami-

liar with sulphitation in a fac-
7. Do you oncsider yourself
a competent sugar boiler, and
if so, where were you trained?
8. Did you undergo any
recognized training as a Fac-
tory and Cultivation Manager
or were you groomed within
Bookers Sugar Estates in
Guyana to hold such positions?
Tello refused to answer
these questions. The occasion

was the sitting of the Commis-
sion of Enquiry held to probe
charges of incompetence and
of inefficiency brought by
workers against Hunte and

If you had a look at the
report on Tello, you'd see
there is no way of knowing
that this incident, like many
others, took place.
Don't you know why?






IT'S A burning shame
on all of us West Indians
that our cricketers are
more at home abroad
than in the West Indies.
The two series played by
the WI at home and in
England this year vividly
revealed the difference.
In most other coun-
tries the chances of re-
building a team would be
better at home. But not
here in the West Indies.
There are many rea-
sons for this but the bigg-
est single reason to my
mind is island chauvinism.
Jamaicans want a Jamai-
can WI team. With Bar-
bados, Guyana and Trini-
dad it is the same thing.
The infighting has mili-
tated successfully against
the building of team spirit
at home.
Since the assumption of
the captaincy by Frank Wor-
rell in 1960 chauvinism on the
field of play has been effec-
tively minimised but beyond
the boundary that hasn't been
the case.
Cricketers are not pam-
phleters or propangandists;
they can only indicate their
views in their cricket.
The role of the propagan-
dist should have been assumed
by the West Indian press.
Instead of fulfilling the role
of engghtening the WI public
by identifying what Worrell
was trying to do, the press
continued to wallow in the
chauvinist muck.
In his book "Chucked
Around" Charlie Griffith re-
called in reference to the

selection of the touring team
that went to England in 1963:
"When the team was se-
lected, West Indian sports-
writers highlighted the fact
that the team comprised six
Barbadians, four Guianese,
three Trinidadians and three
Jamaicans together with Wor-
"All along Worrell had
been trying to build up a
West Indian consciousness,
demolish precisely what Frank
was building".


Other WI players have
spoken words to the same
effect, but my choice of
Griffith is deliberate, because
he was hounded out of cricket
by the British Press.
1 am not suggesting to
the WI press that we should
reverse that process but we
should support our players
with everything we've got and
we should criticize those things
which adversely effect our


-' *- '.


The latest exponent of
narrow chauvinism has been
Trever Smith in the Bomb of
October 19. Referring to pri-
vate (Trihidadian) committee
which has been formed to
organise a benefit for Rohan
Kanhai and Lance Gibbs,
Smith says:
"In today's crowd I would
sooner put a dollar for Joey
Carew for what he has done
for Trinidad cricket than Ro-
han Kanhai and Lance Gibbs.
"Why the hell we should
pay benefits to -others while
we ourselves have scrunting
"Well the whole country
is scrunting, chronic unem-
ployment, food shortages,
and only radical social and
economic reforms can correct
I know for a fact that
members of the Kanhai and
Gibbs benefit committee are
engaged in the kind of work
that can realise those reforms.
Is Smith engaged in that
kind of work? If he were he
would not have allowed him-
selfsuch parochial outpourings
in the Bomb.





Willi ams


a comeback

From Page 10

The following quotation from Dr Williams'
Address is not today's truth only, but yesterday's
and tomorrow's.
"Behind all this scepticism, if not apathy on the
question of Caribbean integration is the whole
question of attitudes of foreign governments, and the
attitudes of foreign government to us. We have always
been regarded as black colonials, and the countries of
Spanish background have kept away from us and
incorporated into the Latin American sphere .
Venezuela has always regarded us as a bunch of
colonials in British crown colonies. Every now and
then the Argentine press makes the same comment.
Brazil, with its support of Portugese colonialism in
Africa, undoubtedly regards us in the same light".
What then is the their. significance of Dr
Williams' references to the failure of a Caribbean
Economic Community and Caribbean integration'!
The answer is that Dr Williams is not leaving
politics because Caribbean integrationhas failed. Its
failure must always have been foreseen. What Dr
Williams is doing is getting rid of an embarrassing
regional policy and making room for a new and
perhaps less ambitious and more practical one.






TUNAPUNA 662-5126


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