Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00081
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: October 21, 1973
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00081

Full Text

Vol. 3 No. 42

is? E4ST -1 SIE~ J
tM% -I.Qra 21, b6 rt
NOy '73
irrs. Indrea Talbutt,
Pesech -fnst4tiute for
1S y of'Hj1
162, a t 78th treet ,
IJJ I' 39!r e 621,
Ph. ;gh 5-l

January 26 February 23 February 23 February 23

'In an exchange of fire'

February 23 September 13 September 13 October 18

a *


GUY HAREWOOD died last Thurs-
day as the latest of a list of persons
who have fallen in what the police
and the media are calling "an ex-
change of fire".
The so-called Public Enemy
Number One became Victim Num-
ber Eight of "shootouts" this year,
none of which so far has been
brought before a public inquiry.
And if this last killing is to go
unquestioned, it will finally establish
the surpemely dangerous tendency
for people to be killed by police with
no judicial inquests held.
No inquest has been held into the
death of Allan Caton, killed by police in
January, even when another of the victims
involved in that "shoot-out" openly claim-
ed that the police had shot them down in
cold blood. In a cascade of praise for the
police by the Establishment's spokesmen
and .editorial writers, the killing of four
young men in a house in Laventille in
February has been justified by implication.
No inquest.
Beverley Jones, Kenneth Tenia and
now Guy Harewood. Will the last word
on these deaths, which are no less grievous
than those of men in police uniforms, be
simply "killed in an exchange of fire"?
TAPIA says no. We are not satisfied,
norshouldwe be satisfied, with the accounts
given in the newspapers and the media of

how all these incidents have taken place.
Just as "trial by newspaper" is condemned
as an abuse of freedom of the press
which is punishable by law, so too we now
condemn this tendency for inquest by
Dead men indeed tell no tales. And
we cannot accept the stories fed to the
media by the police who manage in the
situation to be not only the aggrieved
party but the sole eye-witnesses as well.
The public will see that this is
monstrously unfair, an abomination of all
the principles of justice and a perversion of


For inthe absence of an open inquiry
in which the accounts of the police can be
challenged and some reasonable assessment
of the facts can be made in public, we are
invited to accept as factual the self-serving
explanations given by the police and to rest
content that no felony has been committed.
We reject that situation outright. We
cannot give police and soldiers licence to
carry out executions on people whom they
only suspect of having committed crimes.
The population does not trust the forces
of law and order enough to believe that
they would not bear false witness in an
attempt to pass off murder as justifiable
slaughter of man.


Immediate inquests were called into
the deaths of Constable Khan and Lt.
Oliver Walker. But the public understands
from the deaths of these eight persons
that anyone can be eliminated by
the forces of law and order with no ques-
tions being asked.
But the questions have to be asked.
For the media reporting of the killing of
Guy Harewood seems to call for public
acceptance of a number ofhighly implausible
and contradictory details. And while this
raises further questions about the credi-
bility of the media themselves and how
they go about reporting news, the overall
impression thatithe coverage seeks to give
is of a confused situation in which the
police somehow acquitted themselves
honourably with no casualties on their
This is much too pat an explanation
in these times when trust in all the public
institutions is manifestly lacking. The in-
quest into the Walker shooting left ques-
tions unanswered, and the "Santa Claus"
inquest provoked a call from the Law
Society for a reconsideration of the evi-
dence. After more than two months, and
a change of Attorney General, nothing has
been done about that.
It is because the courts appear to be
openly compromised on the side of the
police that they too have lost the confi-
dence of the people, so that young people
elect to live in the hills rather than to face


IN ORDER to come out
on time this week, we
have had to change our
plans in the course of pro-
duction and bring out an
eight-page paper.
This has been forced
on us by repeated power
cuts during the week.
As a result, the pages
inside are numbered as
for a 12-page paper. We
expect to get back to
normal next week.


TAPIA therefore puts be-
fore the country the cases of
these eight victims, who we
are asked to believe, died "in
an exchange of fire". We de-
mand clarification on the fol-
lowing issues left unsettled in
the press reports:
* What efforts did the po-
lice and soldiers make to use
the minimum force necessary
to bring Guy Harewood to
* Was Harewood shot in the
back or in the chest?
* Did he swim 50 yards
underwater with a gun to sur-
face in waist-high water?
* Did he then attempt to
fire, or did he fire in fact?
* Why were only two spent
rounds found in the shack if a
"volley" had been fired at the
approaching police, and they
had returned the fire?
* Why could not 20-odd
heavily armed police and sol-
diers who had secured all the
advantages of position not
bring in alive a single man
armed with a revolver?
* Why is it that in all the
"exchange of fire" it is the
men who have been trained
to shoot to maim who have shot
and killed, whereas desperate
"guerrillas" manage only to
wound the policemen when
they hit at all?


It was clear from the
alacrity with which the police
claimed Kenneth Tenia to be
Harewood that the latter could
expect no quarter if even he
came to give himself up.
If there are reasonable
answers to these and other
questions that have been asked,
let us hear them. "Guerrillas",
even "Marxist" ones whose
aim, as the Express tenden-
tiously pointed out on Friday,
"is to bring down the Govern-
ment by violent means", have
constitutional rights too.
If the regime chooses to
call no public inquiry into
these things we will have to
call it ourselves, and pass
judgment for what could very
well be cold-blooded murder.

15 Cents


_ _



Campaign manager warns:
TAPIA's political offensive
continued last week with
two public meetings in
Tunapuna onThursday and
Friday nights.
After the first of this
series on Friday, October
5 at the corner of Tuna-
puna Road and the Eastern
Main Road, the two meet-
ings last week completed .,
the circuit in northern
Last week saw the ap-
pearance for the first time Yet, though t
on Tapia platforms in this "every seat in Parlia
Campaign of Keith Smith, nothing in the count
Lloyd Taylor, Hamlet who had fattened t
Yaxee Joseph and Jerry in the 17 years had
Pierre. lose.
Campaign Manager Michael
Harris, of course, the man in
charge of the public meetings,
had made his debut as chair-
man on Friday, October 5.


And last Thursday and Fri-
day nights Michael Harris was
in the role of a dynamic speak-
ing chairman. Both in Maingot
Road and opposite the Texaco
gas station at El Dorado on the
Eastern Main Road, the Cam-
paign Manager "opened the
innings" with statements that
set the appropriate tone of
national urgency, introducing
the theme that the
people have to come out and
line up in the struggle for "a
world in which freedom has
Harris was more matter-of-
fact about the meaning of his
call. He drew a stark picture of
the alternatives: it was either
for us to act finally and
definitely or to be acted upon
by those who would keep us
in the position that we're in -
by the force of their guns.


He wished his audiences to
be free of the illusion that
things will somehow work out
in our favour.
His voice booming across
the stillness of the moonlit
night, Harris said: "Freedom is
not going to come to this
country. People have to get up
and work for it, fight for it".
Friday night he warned
against pinning hopes on an
election. 1970 had shown and
1971 had proven that the PNM
had no support in the country.
How much less support would
they have now!

hey had
ment and
ry," those
a lot to

More than that, "they
know where they stand with
the people".

And "'if they want to per-
petuate their good lives and

their good times and their cock-
tail party big cars and their
houses in Goodwood Park, they
know that they cannot come
to the people of this country
in a fair election or any election

Vhat changed

after the balisier?

THE "grand remonstrance"
has begun. Moved to hor-
ror by the signs all around
us of a worsening quality
of life, young people who
grew up under the PNM
regime have begun to stand
up, to ask questions, to
hand out blame for the
present predicament, and
to demand change.
One such is Tapiaman
Jerry Pierre, 24. For the
best part of two years a
field organiser, occasional
writer, and production
man for the TAPIA news-
paper, Jerry Pierre dis-
played some skill and a
whole lot of passion when
he took up the microphone
in Tunapuna last week.
Where did the hopes and
dreams of Independence vanish?
he wanted to know. And what
had changed after the balisier
had made its triumphant sweep
through this country?


For sure there had been
growth. "Organic growth" as
Jerry Pierre sarcastically des-
cribed the increase in inequality,
in crime, in the use of drugs,
in prostitution, in hunger and
in suffering.

It was to his mind the sure
sign of advancing decay of the
kind of system and society
under which young people like
himself have grown up.
He had a special word for
weed, however, which he con-
sidered "the biggest reason why
this government is still-in power.
Weed makes you contented.
And the government so stupid
they don't realise that. They
gone locking up people for


Pierre was scandalised by
what had been given by Basil
Pitt, onetime Minister of Na-
tional Security, as the reasons
for the increase in crime. Was
it simply a question, as Pitt
had said, of people not giving
information to the police?
That to Jerry Pierre was
absurd. As absurd as calling on
a generally suffering public to
rally to the support of the po-
lice when it was clear that the
police and the regime were
treating only the symptoms of
the disease.
He pointed to the prisons
where inhumane conditions and
enforced idleness were sim-
ply contributing to harden first-
time offenders into seasoned
To illustrate the hopeless-

ness of a policy of stiffening
repression and punishment to
deal with crime, Pierre ga: tae
example of a doctor treating a
patient for a cold by giving i,:m
a handkerchief to blow his nose.


He also attacked the notion
of "bad seed"; that some peo-
ple are just "born bad", so for
them there is no hope. Just as
it was possible, he asserted, to
rehabilitate offenders, so too
it was possible to rehabilitate
the society.
He believed with Tapia that
"we have the skill, the wit, the
strength, the intelligence, the
grace and the style to bring
our dreams to reality. All of us
who live in the country know
what we want for it".
He listed amenities needed
to enhance the employment
and enjoyment of the natural
resources of the country the
beaches, rivers, beauty spots,
Why hadn't these things
been provided? And Pierre put
it to the audience that if they
were asking that question and
they were prepared to work
for the fulfilment of those
dreams then they knew what
side they were on. It had to be
the side of Tapia.

Stop thqpn

before it's

too late

at all.
"When they start protecting
themselves it won't be through
elections by voting machines or
ballot boxes, it will be through
guns, through terror, repression
and oppression. It has started".
Teargas for children; SLRs
in your homes at dead of night.
We could see that the terror
had begun. Tapia had seen and
'that was why we have begun
these and many more public
meetings all over the country.
Time was short.


But Tapia has not just
jumped up like that onto the
public stage. For ourselves we
have no fear that the terror and
repression could destroy -;.

Why? Michael Harris ex-
plained: Tapia.has- been built
on strong foundations over a
period of five years. When they
come to face the pressure,
Harris predicted, some groups
will "crumble like dust". But
not Tapia.
We had done our home-
work. We knew what we wanted
to tell the people, what we
wanted to commit them to.
Which other parties or groups
could say that?
Then the Campaign Manag-
.er mentioned some of Tapia's
proposals for national recon-
struction settlement with
oil, sugar and banking.


"The first act of recon-
struction is to give back the
industries and resources to the
people. We have to make it
clear that we intend to break
up the stranglehold of the huge
multinational corporations".
Williams had talked about
this stranglehold of the cor-
porations, but he had neglected
to say, as Harris reminded his
audience, that the PNM had
invited the corporations here.

It was deplorable that after
so many years we had built up
no expertise on oil. While the
Middle East countries were
strangling the imperialists, we
were getting the least amount
in the world, per barrel .
Would it be a new dispen-
sation when we would take our
destiny in our hands, or wil
we sit down and do nothing? It
was for us, the people to decide.
A time for us to choose.









AN EXERCISE which takes place at TAPIA offices
every week could have long-range significance for the
development of the Caribbean-wide new movement.
Every Thursday night or Wednesday night a team of
members goes to work on what we call "sending out the mails"
- the several hundred subscribers' copies which are manually
stamped and addressed to be posted to our readers overseas.
A large part of this readership is in those islands and
territories washed by the waters of the Caribbean Sea. From
the Bahamas and Cuba in the north, right through the archipe-
lago to Guyana in South America, West Indians are weekly
receiving TAPIA.
And if we add to these the many West Indian student
groups and individuals in North America and. Britain, we can
claim to be reaching and, hopefully, to be influencing import-
ant sections of that "decisive cohort" for the "next round" of
Caribbean liberation.
The contacts have been mutually fruitful; we have been
able to arrange exchanges with groups that produce their own
literature newspapers and pamphlets. And to see the differ-
ence in sophistication and scope of coverage between state-
supported PRENSA LATINA in Cuba and, say, Twavay, organ
of the Movement for a New Dominica, is itself an education
about the state of the struggle in the Caribbean today.
Between those two extremes however, we have managed
to develop and sustain, albeit haltingly at times, a Caribbean
coverage that is appropriately unconventional. Neither philoso-
phically nor financially is it among our options to employ the
services of the multinational news agencies which, despite the
fact that they are staffed largely by West Indians, evince in
their operations different kinds of priorities and emphases from
what is necessary to understand the real'forces at work in the
Caribbean today
The continuing appearance of "little papers" is not only
a testimony of the extent of resources available to produce
them, but also a recognition of an information vacuum left
unfilled by the operations both in range and quality of
the established media in the region.


What is more, these "little papers" have been offering a
different perspective on Caribbean realities, and it is not
surprising to find that they have invariably been produced by
the groups which find themselves in unconventional opposi-
tion to the old Caribbean regime.
Our contacts with these groups, maintained through cor-
respondence and (when possible) visits have no doubt served
to emphasise the kindred nature of our struggles, and to be a
source of mutual encouragement. We have printed material
supplied by our brothers and sisters in their publications, -or
directly to us.
At the moment discussions are taking place on the possi-
bility of reprinting material from TAPIA in at least one Eastern
Caribbean island, and we are hoping soon to regularize the
flow of reports submitted by our regional associates and
friends. One brother recently volunteered to be an agent,for
TAPIA in Montserrat.
Some time ago we produced a partial index of TAPIA
over the years 1969-72, and copies are available on request to
the Administrative Secretary. We look forward to the assist-
ance of our subscribers in universities abroad to secure'sub-
scriptions to the paper from their institutions. In fact, we are
now trying to get a list of universities which have Black
studies programmes.with a view to approaching them to take
A small, but continuing, mail circulation of back issues
indicates to us that the paper is being read and recommended
all over TAPIA's Caribbean.
The expressions of support through numerous readers'
letters, through contributions and suggestions, keep us going.
As/yet, everything is small; we are still one of the "little
papers" which came to life and flowered over the last five years.
But we can see something growing, efforts being brought to
It is not coincidental that our Fund-Raising Appeal to
build up our publishing facilities is accompanied by a drive for
national political support. And indeed we are encouraged to.
to expect a favourable response in both areas.


VIGOROUS commentary on
social issues; serious political
analysis; significant items of
A tidy package of all these
is offered in the 12 cyclostyled
pages of Twavay, organ of the
Movement for a new Dominica.
Informed reporting and
analysis is given on the issue of
the secondary students exclud-
ed from their schools last month
(see Page 6). The paper takes a
searching look at the situation
within the ruling Dominica
Labour Party (DLP), conclud-
ing from a DLP politician's
recent attack on civil servants
that he is making a bid for
party leadership.


Voting patterns and the
campaigning of a September
bye-election, are subjected to
detailed consideration, yielding
the interpretation that the con-
stituency if not all of Domi-
nica rejected both conven-
tional parties and the "myth
of Premier Le Blanc's charisma,
a quality, a mystique which
causes the people all over
Dominica..to believe in him".
"A discussion of the Castle
Bruce estate issue (reminiscent
in some ways of Orange Grove)
shows up the Dominica govern-
ment's opposition to workers'
plan to iun the estate co-
operatively after the proprie-
tors attempted a mass lay-off.


A prison conditions expose
reveals that official inhumanity

is the same in that LDC as it is in
this MDC.
There is the suggestion that
since the Daniel Caudeiron issue

/yes MY dear> rv,
rPI t4 v i L
LI VI 4&t I

VO t.IA 14

SY 0 Gv


i r

the Dominica government "are
obviously scared of intelligent
personnel (in the Radio Domi-
nica station). They prefer the
snails, jelly-fish and of course
the puppets whose strings they
can fully control".


The reporting of two inci-
dents provides evidence that
black consciousness is on the
rise: in one case a party of
Dominica river bathers forcibly
prevented a tourist from photo-
graphing them as exotic natives,
which led to a charge of racism
from a government minister.
The writing is spiced with
quotations and references in
Dominican patois. Sprinkled
here and there are "relevant"
,quotes from Frantz Fanon and
Chairman Mao.

depends on
sources. And
suggests that
well be patois
Well, is it?

Twavay clearly
Dominican re-
one Tapiaman
Twavay might
for "hardwuk".


r ~ _I __

1% -- -







CUBA HAS shown that
television can be a valuable
educational instrument.
One-third of Cuban TV
transmissions are in the
direct service of the coun-
try's secondary education
system, not including the
indirect educational pro-
grainmes for general audi-
ences, on literature, science,
arts, folklore, stamp col-
lecting, etc.
Tests have shown that the
senses of taste, touch, smell
and hearing account for 16%
of man's means of learning,
sight accounts for 83%.
It has also been demon-
strated that after three days of
oral learning, the brain retains
10% of the material studied,
anid the percentage of residual
memory is 65 when oral and
visual methods of study are


Because of these advant-
ages, many countries in the
world have already adopted
educational TV, each with its
own concepts and tendencies.
Fourteen Latin American coun-
tries are using this method
However, the "Cuban ex-
perience has been the most
profound and coherent of all
the projects in use today in
Central and South America",
said the Latin American Insti-
tute of Educational Commu-
nication (ILCE) of UNESCO,
in the book "Educational TV
for Latin America," published
in 1970.

This is not a casual achieve-
ment, nor one having a purely
technical or organizational base.
Cuba has shown that radical
political, economic and social
changes, are necessary in order
for educational TV, as an ideo-
logical vehicle, to fulfill its
function fully.


A country which in a few
years opened up education to
the masses with the eradication
of illiteracy and the enrolment
of more than two million stu-
dents, a country which has
trained 100,000 teachers and
has a quarter of a million state-
supported boarding school
students, must resort to TV
not only because of the tran-
sitional shortage of resources
and teachers, but also as a per-
manent instrument to increase
the quality of education.
The image, essentially dy-
namic, is a source ofinterest;
it commands the student's at-
tention, permits almost direct
_observation of phenomena tak-
ing place at a distance, and
Offers the possibility of using
interviews, live programmes
and films for teaching.
Cuba's first application of
this instrument took place in
the school year 1967-68 when
special classes were given in
each of the courses for second-
ary students to the students in
the School to the Countryside
plan (productive work in agri-
culture for a 45-day period).
: Results obtained were good,
S.:- so the following year the .sys-

Success story

of TV


for all
Kite, group
Now hawk, wind's jockey's sitting
then prancing nectar addict
to darting ash of black bir

turn climb claim again the bird-rite
bug, caught majesty:
for all it might
fixed to cord;
linked liberty:
as day frees night.
now, corbeaus' scare, hanging loose
victim of crossing lines, no line;
all night; all day;
mangy, mateless, Rob
mute. (St. L

Cuba has found that TV complements, not eliminates the teacher

Sculpture by Surinamese Johan P

Girl student tries her hand for pupil viewers to see

tem was expanded, not. only to
consolidate knowledge, but al-
so to develop official pro-
grammes in science, English
and teacher-training.
Every televised class, 25
minutes long, was complement-
ed by an equal amount of
time of instruction from indi-
vidual teachers.
In 1970-71 changes were
introduced which gave educa-
tional TV more articulation,
based on the opinions of stu-
dents, teachers and experts
from the Ministry of Educa-
tion's Department of Psycho-
logy, Planning and Statistics.
Videotapes were used, provid-
ing superior technical quality
and the possibility of repeating
classes as needed.


-One TV channel is exclu-
sively devoted to classwork and
there is a close coordination
between the Ministry of Educa-
tion and the Cuban Radio and
TV Institute which supplies,
special equipment and trained
Televised classes are given
from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. the after-
noon to secondary and pie
university students. Teachers
also receive televised classes in
the psychology of, adolescent

In literature, for example,
before a particular author is
studied, the student receives a
televised introduction to the
historical period in which he
lived and a dramatization or
film' related to his work. Simi-
lar methods are used in history,
physics, chemistry and other
In February 1972, for ex-
ample,84,076 students received
TV classes all over the country,
and up to the 1.971-72 school
year a total number of 9,412
TV classes had been given,

THE Movement for a New
Dominica has come to the
assistance of scores of stu-
dents who have been de-
barred from continuing
their education at Roseau's
four secondary schools.
A recent issue of Twavay,
organ of the MND, reports
that the Movement has been
organising university graduates
and competent teachers to pro-

with an average duration of
25 minutes each.
In May of this year, Cuba
will celebrate its first Educa.
tional TV Forum to define pre.
sent 'and future objectives, pro-
pose solutions to problems and
analyze the work done.
Cuba's opinion contrary
to that of some other coun-
tries is that this form of
education will never replace
the teacher who is in direct
contact .with the student, but
that it is undeniably useful as a
complement to modern educa-

vide O and A Level classes in
English, History, General Paper,
Economics, Mathematics, Bo-
tany, Zoology, Chemistry,
Physics, French and Spanish.


The Dominica High School,
Convent High School; Wesley
High School and St Mary's
Academy all refused at the

Write no wo,

-write no words
write grenades
to eradicate poverty
write no sentences
write guns
to stop injustice
write words to poems
guns and grenades
for the independence of our pe
our land.

( Suri

S .

start of the new school year in
September to takeback students
who had failed or got fewer
than five passes in the last GCE
Twavaynotesthat the stu-
dents have been "thrown out
on the unemployment market"
and it condemns "what seems
to be a new education policy
which is causing chaos and
frustration among the high
school youth in the state,

L I_




LESS THAN five months away, in February 1974, the flag of
nary national independence will rise in our northern neighbour island of
Grenada. But to some Grenadians that event, with all the hoopla and
fanfare that will no doubt accompany it, will be neither here nor
Not that the people are cool or indifferent to the idea of
Independence. In fact, the issue generated much protest and political
activity in May this year while Premier Eric Gairy was in Britain
holding independence talks.
In this period of protest and agitation, when it seemed that
S Grenada was ready to dispense with Gairy for good, the New Jewel
Movement emerged as the foremost organisation, appearing as an
unconventional group distinct from the established opposition party



THE New Jewel Movement
of Grenada is a political
organisation with one aim
- the seizure of state
power. Maurice Bishop, one
of the group's two Coor-
dinating Secretaries stress-
ed this in a recent inter-
According to Bishop,
Gairy will not hold elec-
tions and even if he does,
they will be fraudulent.
The New Jewel Movement
is in fact only seven months old,
formed in March this year by
the merger of two groups. The
first was the Jewel Movement
formed about April last year in
response to the results of the
1972 elections.
One of its members, Unison
Whiteman (a Coordinating
Secretary of the new organisa-
tion), had contested the elec-
tions. With Teddy Victor, Se-
bastian iThomas and other resi-
dents of St. David's, Jewel
was formed with the objects of
putting out a weekly news-
paper, engaging in cooperative
farming and organising social
and cultural activities.
Jewel stands for "Joint
Endeavour for Welfare, Educa-
tion and Liberation".
The political orientation of
this group was unclear at that
point; the first issue of the
paper declared: "Directly we
are not a political group.Butwe
will not hesitate one moment
toK criticize or to comrrient on
anything political".
In October last year another
organisation was formed, with
a more avowedly direct political
purpose. It was called MAP
Movement for Assemblies of
the People consisting of young
professionals and teachers like
Bishop, Radix and Kenneth
According to Bishop, MAP
was political from the start and
based on proposals to replace
the House and Senate by assem-
blies of the people at local,
village, and regional levels.
In March this year, at an
internal MAP convention, to

- the Grenada National Party headed by Opposition leader Herbert
Formed only in March this year, NJM had in fact been cata-
pulted into the spotlight, and Gairy on his return unleashed his
political police and vowed to "cinderise the Movement.

NJM has, however, survived the particularly brutal campaign
of political repression, and has been actively attempting to mobilize
popular support for its key proposal "A ssemblies of the People".
In the following article, based on a recent interview with top
members of NJM, Tapiaman DENNIS PANTIN gives an outline of
their history and a description of their aims within the context of

Members are going about the
island in an attempt to organism
'the assemblies.
I got the impression from
Maurice Bishop that the organ-
isation was learning that public
meetings and demonstrations
cannot stand up to government
repression unless they are
,backed up by organisation in
the communities.
He admitted that ideas for
solutions were then being for-
mulated for the many problems
facing Grenada.
When you remember that
New Jewel had been founded
only in March this year you can
understand why this work is
only now taking place. It was
unfortunate that shortly after
its formation, the NJM found
itself in a position of leadership
in the Independence protest.
There is a realdanger in
any political organisation find-
ing itself before it has been

turned down an offer df col-
laboration from the Grenada
National Party, the convention-
al opposition force in the soon
to be independent Associated
The GNP, headed by Oppo-
sition Leader Herbert Blaize,
wanted New Jewel to take part

able to prepare to deal with the
kind of situation which is
tailor-made for spur-of-the-mo-
ment decisions.
The NJM sees three miin
reasons for changing the go-
vernment. The first is the need
to revolutionise the political
process. Democracy, the NJM
points out, is not five minutes
in the polling booth once every
five years.
Party Politics has only in-
troduced division and hatred:
Parliament should therefore be
replaced by assemblies based
on the idea of organising peo-
ple in their communities and
places of work.
There is also the need for
revolutionising the State ap-
paratus, meaning the Civil Ser-
vice, Police Service and Ju-
diciary. These three arms of the
state have been open to rank
victimisation and favouritism
in the past and they need to be


in the "formulation and pro-
mulgation of a People's Charter
as a matter of urgency".

To this end it invited NJM
in June this year to preliminary
discussions, and urged their

put on an independent footing.
For instance, there has not
been a Grenadian Police Com-
missioner in years, and recent
reports are that the Government
is looking for a Trinidad police
officer to head the Grenada
Police Service.
Finally, the economy must
be revolutionised to achieve
workers' control, more self-
reliance, and economic plan-
ning to look at the economy as
an integrated whole. NJM sees
agriculture as the basis of pro-
posals for economic transform-
ation to bring back\ under-
utilised lands to achieve self-
sufficiency in food and fishing.
It also calls for a new approach
to tourism, away from empha-
sis on luxury hotels.


To NJM Independence is
in fact a non-issue. Not that the
group is against Independence
but it sees Independence com-
ing after Grenada achieves the
above aims and gets rid of the
yoke of the Gairy regime.

The problem with all poli-
tical organizations is how to
achieve the change. The prob-
lem is particularly difficult
with unconventional political
organizations who wish tc
achieve the change without
The task which faces the
New Jewel Movement is ob-
viously to consolidate itself in
terms of men, organisation,
mass appeal and ideological

How does the Movement
intend to seize state power?
NJM officials were very cau-
tious in reply. They argue that
three forces are involved the
government; external forces
Britain, the US and nearby
states like Trinidad and Tobago,
Barb.dos and Guyana; and
people's power.
To the NJM it is a question
of who does what when. In the
final analysis, the New Jewel
Movement sees the most crucial
power as that of the people.

commitment to a programme of
mobilizing public support for
the Charter.
In a release to TAPIA last
week, NJM makes it clear that
they took no part in the dis-
cussions after learning the talks
were to be held behind closed
doors. They denounce the do-
Cont'd on Page 8

e e cill ao th st

especially among the students
of poor families".


The schools complain about
lack of space and they claim
that the work and conduct of
the debarred students have been
But MND points to "chaos"
in the education system. They

argue that "secondary educa-
tion is becoming elitist". And
they charge that the exclusion
of students is in fact "punitive".
Noting that fourth form
students aged 15 to 17 were
also refused readmission in
September, Twavay sees the
policy as "a concerted attempt
to weed out the more socially
conscious students who are
prepared, when necessary, to

protest as they did last year,
against backward, irrelevant or
racist school policies".


If the students have been
"underachieving" as the school
authorities claim, then the
paper says the question to be
asked is why.
"Are the youth a problem,
or are they a symptom toa

problem 'in the society?"
Twavay asks.
The paper also gives figures
indicating that school princi-
pals have seen mass expulsions
as the way to deal with the
student unrest which is only a
symptom of social ailments.
And it comments on the
education system: "As long as
the obtaining of an education
depends upon the amount of
bread our parents have and our

ability to compete for a place
in school as though education
is a commodity like sugar; and
not upon our capacity to learn
necessary skills, we will not
only be depriving the majority
of our people of acquiring the
knowledge and skills to develop
themselves, but more so we
will be short-changing Dorminica
and messing up the future of
our country as is being done

New Jewel


in Grenada

which Jewel members were
invited, a decision was taken to
merge as The New Jewel Move-
The organisation began
with a Congress of cells from
different areas of Grenada, a
Coordinating Council of dele-
gates and "Bureau" at the top
with Coordinating Secretaries
Bishop and Whiteman, Organ-
ising Secretary Sebastian Tho-
mas, Teddy Victor,Publications
Secretary and Esther Alexander
Fund-Raising Secretary.


After that the NJM held a
series of public and private
meetings, culminating in the
demonstrations and protests of
May when at one point it
looked as if the people of
Grenada had organised them-
selves to get rid of the Gairy
The regime struck back,
however, using several hundred
Police Aides (popularly known
as "Tonton Macoutes") when
Gairy returned from the Inde-
pendence talks in London.
A series of beatings, shoot-
ings and searches was carried
out against all persons who
seemed to oppose the govern-
Since then the NJM has
organised few public meetings.

:le and

New'Charter', but old

__ __



From Page 7
cument as "irrelevant (it)
provides no guidelines to the
burning questions of the day",
and refuse to help promulgate

The four-page release lists
and discusses what NJM con-
sider to be the shortcomings of
the GNP Charter, and recalls
that New Jewel "have already
formulated a new form of Go-
vernment based on the experi-
ences and social life of our
One of the criticisms is that
the constitutional ideas of GNP

included in their charter rein-
forces executive domination of
the agencies of government,
including the Elections Com-
mission. NJM also deplores the
fact that the Charter "contains
not a single word on the
The new form of govern-
ment which NJM has been pro-
posing is Assemblies of the

People. This, it affirms, "is the
only basis upon which the
people can have political power
and control of both local and
national government. The As-
semblies must elect all govern-
ment representatives and the
Assemblies must have the power
of recall.
"Most important, the As-
semblies must be a permanent

institution, not simply as an
election body, but as the in-
strument of the people for
political, economic and social
emancipation from poverty,
misery, exploitation, suffering
and dependence."
The release also promises
New Jewel's own "Manifesto
for Power to the People".


lOO% Polyester

The weekender shirt suit smart sports wear, comes in slacks and shirt outfit, or the shirt on
its own. HABIB'S for the best Baggies and platform shoes in town or Pantcity San Fernando.

oit IB'S.

-I 1







for jobs

never give up until her
people get their fair share
from the oil and gas on the
South-East fields. This is
what the President of the
Unemployed Youth Organ-
isation, Mr Hugh Marcano,
told TAPIA in an inter-
view last Saturday night,
October 13.
Mr. Marcano and Commit-
tee Member Charles Lett re-
ported that in spite of the
meeting they had with AMOCO
on September 6, and the con-
tinued agitation by UYO, the
unemployed youth are still be
ing given the run-around.
Contractors are still recruit-
ing nearly all labour from far
afield, leaving the local popula-
tion without employment. At a
meeting called by UYO to dis-
cuss the matter with contractors
on Sunday September 7, only
Forbes, the foreman from
Motilal Moonan, turned up.


Victor Campbell, the Par-
liamentary Representative for
the area and Minister of Works,
turned up with a letter from
AMOCO claiming that people
from Mayaro and Guaya do not
seek employment on the con-
"It is a blatant lie,"said
Marcano, "we go from day to
day to seek employment from
these various contractors and
they turn us back every time".
"We only know about six
men from this district working
on the shifts out there, added
Lett, "and there must be over
a hundred men employed on
every barge".
Following the abortive meet-
ing, new letters have been sent
toCactus,Skinner,Alves, Camp-
bell, Hanif Mohammed, White-
man, Sanders & Foster and
Moonan. "If they turn up, said
Marcano, we will propose the
radius-rule. First priority for
jobs must be given to people
within a certain radius to be
agreed upon".
"If they don't turn up, we
will insist that AMOCO call
them in. Then Victor Campbell
and John Warwick, the County
Councillor and Union man, will
have to say something at last".
The UYO spokesmen said
that they were ready for direct
action but Victor Campbell had
advised them to try the con-
tractors again. Lett and Fields,
the UYO Secretary, had then
visited Oceanic in Port of Spain.
They had seen Hardy the des-
patcher, on Monday October 8.
The battle for the localisa-
tion of business control and for
genuine local government con-
tinues in another corner on
Trinidad. Guaya, Matelot,
Cedros ... Orange Grove,...

mlii -u


"AT LAST, Oh God, the
glorious morning come. A
new day is a-dawning!"
That was Keith Smith.
He had come, he said, to
"testify", to proclaim to
the world and to his hear-
ers in Tunapuna in
particular, that he had got
the message.
Against the prevailing
pessimism, the pervasive
sense of failure and the
general mood of recrimina-
tion, Keith Smith wanted
to proclaim a message of
hope, to infect his hearers
with a sense of survival,
triumph and self-assurance.
Where is the inspiration for
hope? What about the last 17
years justifies any feeling of


Smith's answer: Look
around you, and listen. See the
beauty of tadjahs and hear the
sound of the steelband. Re-
member the sacrifice we have
made over these last 100 years.
Consider the many talented
people we have produced not
merely those who gained de-
grees but those who went
away to find that the USA is
not a paradise and who were
still able to overcome their dis-
illusion and to triumph.
Not that the failure of last
17 years could be wished away,
But Keith Smith urged that
we emphasise instead the posi-
tive side of our existence as a
He reminded the audience
that this was a country which
had produced leaders of the
stature of Carmichael and Pad-
"We have", he continued,
a new dimension of cultural
experience to declare. We're in
a position to show Western
Civilization a model: we can
work together to prove we're
not the Third World's Third
World, but that we're foremost
in the struggle that's been
shaking the world".
In Tapia he found people
who shared this positive out-
look on our society.
Smith described a progres-
sive orientation towards Tapia,
from the days in 1968 when he
first got the message from
seeing "friends growing old on

s~ _N


the corners," or going away.
Then there was the Vigi-
lante phase with which he was
associated in Laventille.
From him too "Power to
the people" had called forth a
response in 1970, and he be-
came caught up in the move-
ment, accepting its doctrines
even the unflattering ones about
And that phase taught
Smith something: "in the
search for an organisation in
which to involve ourselves we
have to make our own assess-
ments?. *
So when he started to make
his own assessment of Tapia he
got his "first lesson in political
participation" from reading in
TAPIA that this society breeds
arrogant men; that it did not
matter so much whether X or
Y was arrogant so long as sys-
tems were devised to curtail
their tendencies.


In Tapia's National Recon-
struction plan he had been
excited by the stress on com-
munity self-organisation and
by the expectation that lead-
ers would arise from the com-
He appreciated the import-
ance attached to the provision
of playing fields, and he under-
stood that Tapia contained
people who realized the
struggle our people had made
to survive "men with real
roots, not bookworms; men
who saw hope in the blocks
and in the homes of this coun-
When he had seen all that,
"1 knew I had come home. I
knew 1 had found an organisa-

Keith Smith


tion which would translate the
hopes and aspirations of the
people of Trinidad and Tobago
into greatness".
And last week he was re-
commending Tapia in Tuna-
puna by his own personal tes-
timonial. But he did not expect
immediate acceptance.
"A new movement and a
new hope is on the horizon,
"Smith declared. "But why
should you fall in love again?"
If events of the past 17
years had led people to expect
similar betrayal from whoever
they put this time, then this
was understandable.
"Tapia realizes this, and we
urge people to see that system
must be put in place. We must
be able to control small body
of men who govern. We must
have watchdogs over those who
make the day to day decisions."
Keith Smith pressed his

audience to see the importance
of the Tapia-proposed Con-
ference of Citizens in this re-
spect. There was .no doubt that
a permanent Conference of
600 was possible, and he re-
ferred to the contempt shown
by "so-called revolutionaries"
who decried the idea on the
grounds that 600 suitable per-
sons could not be found.
He was sure that the people
of Tunapuna could produce a
score or more of competent
representatives when required
to speak for them in the Con-
ference of Citizens.
He had come to Tapia to
find this kind of confidence in
the ability of our people, a
confidence that was justified
by the fact of our survival over
450 years of tribulations.
And now, "in these dread
but thrilling times," Smith was
inviting the people of Tuna-
puna to make the journey he
had taken and which led to
Tapia, to stand up and tell the
regime "move over so that real
men can take over".

Help Tapia fund raising
drive- anything you can make -
send donations to the Treasurer ,
Tapia House ,
82-84 St Vincent Street Tunapuna

New Dorina



soft, light

and delicious.



"WILL TAPIA go the way of all flesh? Will we in Tapia a few years from now
founder on the rocks just like the old national movement?"
The questions were put to a public meeting on Friday, October 12 in Tunapuna by
Lloyd Taylor, Tapia Assistant Secretary and Advertising Manager for the TAPIA news-
Taylor in a 40-minute speech surveyed all the factors which contributed to "pres-
sure all around". He gave figures to show the extent of unemployment, underemployment
and inequality as this affected people by race, age, and sector.
He referred to shortages of food and water and to the lack of public amenities. And
he suggested that this meant a substantial failure of all the attempts so far to rescue the
population "from the degradation of slavery and indenture and from living like non-
The earliest attempts to do something to alleviate the conditions and to enhance
the prospects had been in 'churching and schooling". With political independence some
had, through political patronage, been able to get benefits for themselves.
Failure had been seen in the political initiatives to bring about change over the last

50 years. Cipriani, Butler
and Williams, though
they had all made con-
tributions, had not
brought the change.
Now many of the
under-34 generation be-
low 73% of the popu-
lation have come to
despise politics, politi-
cians and politicalparties.
All they have known is
greed and selfishness.
They have sensed,
too, how difficult it is to
mobilize people for
serious work.
Encouraged by po-
lice brutality, some of
this generation had taken
to the hills. Others have
just become apathetic,
justifying perhaps what
the cynics and the pessi-
mists have claimed.

R .


Lloyd Taylor
Taylor then pressed
.home his point: "The
people who say we have
to put aside politics are
only saying half of what
is true. It is true that men
have beencorrupt,greedy,
venal and seeking their
own interests.
"But the other half
of the truth is that these
men started with good

intentions, with high
hopes. That is why we
backed them. The popu-
lation could not be all
While it was under-
standable for people to
be fed up,it was neces-
sary to see that the fail-
ure of the last 50 years
had been one of political
method, now-for-now
Said Taylor: "We cut
down men right, left and
centre, and we don't see
the failure has been with-
in ourselves"
The spirit indeed has
been willing, but the
fleshhas been weak. What,
therefore, makes us in
Tapia believe we can be
any different? What gua-




rantee is there?
Lloyd Taylor replied.
"I feel, brethren, therL
are very real guarantees.
These guarantees are that
we have not been organ-
ising simply to win elec-
tions. If we have learnt
anythg at all from 17
years, it is that the surest
way to failure is to whip
up people in the public
square, ask for their vote
and win an election.


"We have learnt that
nine lightning months or
six lightning weeks or 17
lightning years seen
against the background of
the 400 years we have

in this hole will not
pull us out.
"The only way out is
to organise a radical poli-
tical party. And that
means much more than
organising a party in nine
months, to win an elec-
tion. That means hard-
wuk, and that is why
Tapia has said Power to
the hardwuk"
Tapia was determined
"to put people in charge'
for the first time. People
must be able as never
before to "manipulate
the system of government
and politics and the sys-
tem of society and eco-
nomy to suit their own
interests and not the
other way around".

Local government is
one ot the devices Tapia
contemplated would a-
chieve this goal. Twenty-
five localities must be set
up with power of taxa-
tion, control over schools
and police, among other
For so long, under
crown colony government
and later independence,
the people in the local
communities were sub-
ordinated to centralised
government and have had
to be running to White-
hall to get things done.
In local government, Tay-
lor advocated a reversal
of that process "revo-
lutionarv reconstruction"
in fact.

"IF THERE'S any good to come out of the politics of the
country, you have to get up and get".
That is the advice given publicly to Tunapuna by
Tapiaman Hamlet "Yaxee" Joseph last week.
In two crisp and effective speeches, Yaxee showed
that the "get up and get" which he recommended was a
fundamental break with the normal tendency to depend
upon individuals. And he recalled that in 1919, 1937 and
1956 that was the mistake we had made.
The people of Laventille where he lived and worked knew that
by 1961 the PNM promises had vanished. An incident that year
rankles still in the memory of people in the district.
That was when, Yaxee said,
the PNM constituents selected
as their representative "a made the remark that he did
brother on the block",and they not want anyone who came
came to a PNM public meeting from the gutter to represent
with placards to push their the PNM in Parliament. And
choice. we learnt from there on that
"But Williams in his glory the PNM government was not
insulted us very gravely. He the government of our people

in Laventille, neither of the
people in Trinidad and Tobago",
Yaxee related.
It was in 1969 that Laven-
tille moved to do something
about the frustration and hard-
ship in which the people there

lived. That was when the Vigi-
lantes were formed one night
at Yaxee's home.
Once organised, the Vigi-
lantes started educational class-
es and Yaxee mentioned that
Tapia had given assistance in
The group also undertook
community clean-up work, in
an area traditionally neglected
by the County Council. And it
helped in the organisation of
But the PNM saw in the
Vigilantes only a new group
seeking power.
"It was nothing of the sort,
it was simply community work
done free by people who had
an interest in their community,"
Yaxee explained.
Nevertheless, the PNM tried
to mash up the initiative, call-
ing it Young Power and Com-

Vigilante officers had talk-
ed on NJAC platforms, and in
the course of all this the PNM
had been able to attack th(
Vigilantes more effectively.
After 1970 what remained of
the Vigilantes was divided along
political lines.
Dealing with the present
situation Yaxee noted that
there was a political crisis with-
in a food crisis. It was clear to
him that: "We don't have go-
vernment in this country again.
The PNM cannot control any-
thing. They cannot even con-
trol themselves in their own
But the PNM's failure was
one of organisation: they had
organised from above, and tht
poor people of the country who
had not been able to partici-
pate were left out of the poli-
"Any government organis-
ing in that way cannot hope to
do much for the people".
He described the Tapia way
of organisation, and stressed:
"It is important in any move-
ment that is about to take the
power in this country, you have
to organise men in the com-
munities, you have to give them
hope, you have to give them
a new vision. So that when the
time come to take the power
you have the men to handle it".

35 Charlotte Street, Port of Spain
Printed by Tapia House Printing Co. Ltd., for'rpia House Publishing Co. Ltd., 91 Tunapnao Rd. Phone: 662-5126



/ Stephens




Friday, October 26. 1973
At the home of Sheilah and Denis Solomon, St. Augus-
tine Circular Rd., (next to UWI)
[In aid of Tapia Fund]
$5.00 per couple