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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00079
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: October 7, 1973
Frequency: completely irregular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00079

Full Text



SUNDAY OCTOBER 7, 197362 :,ST 7. STREET
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"TAPIA salutes the creative arts" is the theme of this exhibition currently running at the Central Library, Port of Spain.


RD


SILENCE


TAPIA HAS accused the Commissioner of Po-
lice Eustace Bernard of pursuing a reckless
course of action in trying to jeopardize a Tapia
political meeting due to be held on Friday,
October 5.
This is contained in a letter to the Com-
missioner dated October 3 and signed by Group
Secretary Lloyd Best, and it follows an incident
last Wednesday when the police ordered Tapia-
man Ruthven Baptiste to stop announcing the
meeting by loudspeaker in Tunapuna.
We have found out that the Tunapuna police were
acting on the instructions of Commissioner Bernard to
whom we have written the following letter.
At a time when Tapia is embarking on a heightened
campaign of meetings and other political activities, the
Commissioner by his actions has shown that he is
supporting the regime.
Up to press time last Thursday we could not tell
whether the fact that our loudspeaker announcements
have been forbidden means that the meeting has been
vetoed by the Commissioner.
Because no reply has yet been received from the
Commissioner about the meeting. We are going ahead
with the publication of the meeting, and we do not
intend to be deterred from our legitimate business by
any of the intimidations made possible under all the
government's restrictive laws.

OUR LETTER

-Sir,
WE refer to our letter to you dated 2nd October,
1973 advising you of our intention to hold a public
meeting in Tunapuna on the evening of 5th October,
1973 and of our intention to advertise the meeting by
loudspeaker, in and around the area, on the day of the
meeting on the two proceeding days.
This afternoon, our agent Ruthven Baptiste was
stopped by policemen on the Eastern Main Road,
Tunapuna, and threatened with seizure of the loud-
speaker and other equipment if he continued to
broadcast announcements of the meeting from his car.
The Administrative Secretary of the Group
subsequently spoke on the phone with Sergeant
Thomas of the Tunapuna Station, who informed him
that it was he who had stopped Baptiste, and that he
had been acting on instructions from yourself.


TRIES


TAPIA

regarding the Dinsley Village meeting of 21st Sep-
tember, 19/3 did not, arrive until 26th September,
and that your response to our notification of the
Trincity meeting of 25th September, did not arrive
until 3rd October, and did not provide any reasons
for your prohibition on the use of loudspeakers.
We are very well aware that the restrictive
legislation of 1971 was designed expressly to inhibit
freedom of speech and to prevent effective communi-
cation between the public and political organizations
in the opposition.
ANY MEANS NECESSARY

We want it to be clearly established whether the
policy of the Police in enforcing this restrictive
legislation is now to prohibit all advertisement of
meetings by loudspeaker. We cannot see any other
reason for your decision to stop the use of a loud-
speaker to advertise our Tunapuna meeting.
We sense in your approach to this matter, as in
so many Police.affairs at this moment, a quality of
recklessness against which we take this opportunity
to counsel you. Tapia is a political organization com-
prised of peaceful, law-abiding citizens committed to
the establishment and maintenance of a free and
participatory municipal republic.
We want it to be known that we intend to
guard our rights with all our zeal, and that if the
Police, or anyone else, attempt to invade them, we
stand prepared to defend them by any means
necessary.
As Commissioner of Police, you will doubtless
wish to calculate the meaning of the stance we are
here adopting; we can assure you that Tapia has
calculated it with the utmost deliberation and care.


We are at a loss to understand such action on
your part, since we regard it as an undue restraint on
citizens in a society with a proper regard for the
rights and freedoms of the individual, and since in any
event no attempt was made to communicate to us
your disapproval of our plan.
We are confident that if the relevant legislation
were tested in the Courts, it would be found to be in
contravention of inalienable rights. Even so we appre-
ciate that there must be circumstances where the best
interests of the citizens and the security of the State
require that the Police exercise their discretion in
permitting the use of loudspeakers.
We therefore think it entirely reasonable that
citizens and political organizations be required to
inform the nearest Police Station when and where
they intend to have public meetings and when and
where they intend to use loudspeakers.
The corresponding responsibility of the Police
must be to prohibit the use of loudspeakers only
where there are reasonable grounds for so doing.

ARBITRARY ACTION

What cannot be tolerated is the seemingly
arbitrary action contained in your letter dated 26th
September, 1973 barring Tapia from publicising by
loudspeaker its Trincity meeting planned for that day,
and repeated by the action of the Tunapuna Police
today. In neither case, did we discern any threat to.
the peace in our plan to advertise our meeting by
loudspeaker, and we are forced to conclude that your
action in this matter has been arbitrary and designed
to ensure the failure of the meetings.
Moreover, we regard it as finfortunate if not
irresponsible that your reply to our notification


It 1 j. .~


BER




TO I


The meeting Bernard wants to fail
Friday, October5 7p.m.
CORNER TUNAPUNA ROAD AND EASTERN MAIN ROAD, TUNAPUNA
Make your stand for freedom


_


Vol. 3 No. 40


15 Cents







SUNDAY OCTOBER 7, 1973


,-AGE 2 TAPIA


'No hope of walk-over victory'


IN THE light of the inten-
sified political offensive,
the Council of Represen-
tatives meeting last Monday
night decided to appoint a
Campaign Manager to have
full responsibility for pub-
lic meetings.
The man chosen was


Michael Harris, 25.
After being elected
Monday night, Harris
warned that whereas people
were looking at Tapia with
interest and hope, we could
not expect them to rush
enthusiastically into our
arms.


He was against any
campaign that de-empha-
sised the kind of hard-wuk
for which Tapia had be-
come knownand respected,
and he urged continuation
of strictly regular ground-
ings held to meet people on
a house-to-house basis.


Why hunters gave the OK


IT MIGHT be more than
fear of the "anti-guerrilla
campaigns" which has led
the hunters its six-month
run on October 1.
This was suggested by Peter


Bacon, a UWI biologist, at a
Tapia House meeting last Thurs-
day night.
Bacon revealed that there
has been concern by hunters
and conservationists about the


EXIT-THE ULTIMATE


MIMIC MAN...
TAPIA Secretary Lloyd Best gave the following statement on
Williams'decision not to seek re-election to PNM political
leadership to the press last weekend:
WHATEVER the meaning of Dr. Williams' testament of
despair, it amounts to a defeat for our struggling young
nation. The golden promise of the old national movement has
ended in futility. Having painted himself into a corner,
Dr. Williams will now exit from the stage of history as the
ultimate mimic man, impotent, unable to rescue either his
dignity or ours.
The manner of the exit is also incredibly irresponsible.
Not only does it heighten anxieties lest the resolution to the
crisis now comes through military means but, even more
fundamentally, it is accompanied by an interpretation of the
state of the nation which is incorrigibly ungenerous to the
party, the movement, the nation, and indeed, to the Caribbean
people as a whole.
It is of course possible that Dr. Williams' merciless
insistence on our traditional weaknesses is no more than a
desperate conspiracy to reinforce our dependence on messianic
deliverance. On past evidence, it is even probable. In Tapia,
however, such utter cynicism lies beyond our imagination.
Discerning citizens will be reluctant to revel in this absurd
theatre or to anticipate in it a walkover for the forces of
progress and change. Responsible people must know that what
we can do tomorrow depends in good part on what we have
inherited from yesterday.
It must be a sad limitation on our prospects that the old
national movement has not endowed the new with a tradition
of smooth and dignified transition. The manner of Dr. Williams'
exit cannot be a good thing for Trinidad and Tobago and the
West Indies.
When our leaders pass on, no matter what their party,
surely we must prefer to remember them with some reverance
and respect. Beside, our surest pledge of the sanity of any one
branch of the national leadership is an elevated status for the
men in the other branches. We of Tapia would be offering no
change if we did not acknowledge this important plank of
democracy.
Now, out of this Greek tragedy our new movement must
rise up and build afresh. The years of paralysing uncertainty
must speedily be brought to a close through effort on a scale so
far unattempted by this fledgling nation.
For my part, I do not doubt that amongst the various
groups in the new movement, there exist the ogranisation and
the discipline, the technical command, the moral strength and
the political imagination to provide direction and purpose to
that vision which our people have always had and which our
youth, in recent times, have been asserting with ever fiercer
idealism.



Council meets in South

THE COUNCIL of Representatives will meet in San Fer-
nando.
Last Monday night the Council decided to change its
normal fortnightly schedule and reconvene the following
week to consider a number of important proposals for the
intensified political campaign.
The decision to hold this meeting in San Fernando
accords with policy determined some time ago to move
important meetings of Tapia to different venues around
the country from time to time.


depletion of the game reserves
in the national forests.
Some had even gone to the
extent of breeding young agouti
and other game animals and
releasing them in the forests so
they could multiply and reple-
nish the stocks of their species.
The hunting season in this
country must be one of the
longest in the world, Bacon
felt, and because of the small-
ness of our forests and game
reserve, there is a real danger
that there soon would be no
animals to hunt. Hunting dog
packs were also being heed-
lessly licensed in great number.
The people whose liveli-
hood and interest lead
them to be worried about this
possibility would therefore
welcome a period allowing
forest animals to breed and
multiply without being preyed
upon at the same time.
Bacon doubted whether
thele 'was any particular reason
for reservingthe period October
1 to March 31 as the "Open
Season". He wondered whether
any studies had been made to
determine whether that was the
period most of the animals
were breeding.
On this point another per-
son in the meeting disclosed
that he had been told by the
Conservator of Forests that the
October-March period was
"administratively convenient".

Several persons in the meet-
ing were sure that people going
into the forests were afraid of
being attacked by the police
and army units conducting the
"anti-guerrilla" campaigns'
It was recalled that a nature-
studying trip by UWI students
in the Asa Wright reservation
had to be called off because of
fear that butter-fly-hunting
students would be accidentally
shot as "guerrillas".


TAKE UP T


TAKE UP THY


TAKE UP TD AN

TAKE UPe oD AND WALK
TAKE T-T C AND WALK TAKE UP THY
TAKE U1- tED AND WALK TAKE UP THY BED ANi
TAKE UP THY BED AND WALK TAKE UP THY BED AND WALK

THE MESSAGE with which TAPIA has been trying
to reach the people of this country for the last five
years is both simple and difficult. It is simple because
it can be easily stated "Take up thy bed and walk"
-and it can be readily understood by everyone.
Understanding, however, is but the first step to action
and we must readily admit that it is extremely, difficult to act
upon an injunction such as that. Particularly for the people of
Trinidad and Tobago.
The fact is that our entire history in this land has been
one mammoth conspiracy seemingly designed to convince us
of our unworthiness and our lack of ability. More than 300
years of history have seen us shackled by the chains of
slavery, legally enslaved by the shackles of indenture, psy-
chologically debased by the colonial experience and spirit-
ually emasculated by 17 horrifying years under the leadership
of the Number 1 Messiah.
Was it too heavy ? ? ?

*

Yes young man, I know all that stuff. But you must
understand that when we are told to take up our beds and
walk, well, you must forgive us if we do not respond too
readily to that offer. Oh, don't get me wrong, I for one don't
doubt that you are sincere and mean what you say; not at all.
It's just that; well, for example, what would happen if we
really tried it your way, you know, constituent assembly and
peoples' parliament, that sort of thing, and we failed. Shit, we
would be the laughing stock of the world. What do you mean,
again? Well if you want to take that tone!
I should hope that you are sorry! This is not a funny
matter at all. What? Yes, of course, I realise that the country
is badly off. But what can I do, I am only one man, I am
suffering as much as anybody else. My solution? I don't
know, I really don't know; but there must be SOMEBODY,
SOMEWHERE, who is capable of leading us out of this bloody
mess. Who? Stop asking me who I told you I don't know.
NO I DON'T WANT TO IMPORT A MESSIAH. You are trying
to be funny again. Oh, I see what you mean. Yes I suppose
Sinanan or Solomon would be all right, but to tell you the
truth, I really don't trust none of them.

*

What! Don't be a Jackass man! What the hell could
Butler do? Yes you have a point there, he really couldn't do
much worse. Is really a joke yes boy. And you have to laugh
otherwise you going to cry.
Yes man come again, It was nice talking to you. I
really wish you fellows luck. Look, why you don't go and talk
to Mr. Jones up the road, he interested in this kind of thing.
Mr. Jones? The message with which TAPIA has been
trying to reach the people of this country for the last five
years is very simple; "Take up thy bed and walk".


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SUNDAY OCTOBER 7, 1973


A VAN, a truck, a jitney,
a car even a vehicle of
some kind.
That is the help which
lim p: is urgently needed now to
save a brave effort in self-
employment from ending
in failure.
G uerriia, Eight young men who
are desperately struggling'
to keep their four-acre

lerfield, have found out
tht hartnmmerir farming


A POLICE search of the
home of the Permanent
Secretary of the Ministry
of Agriculture last Satur-
day reveals how the liberty
of the citizen is invaded
these days on the flimsiest
of pretexts.
The incident also shows
how the frame-ups, so ram-
pant these days, for charges
of having ammunition are
managed. Had Mr. Joseph
Herrera not been a man of
standing he could well have
been facing a trumped-up
charge for ammunition or
firearms.
About 5 a.m. on Saturday,
september 29, the police came
to search the San Juan home of
Mr. Joseph Herrera, Permanent
Secretary in the Ministry of
Agriculture, Lands- and
Fisheries.
Four days later, in the
Trinidad Guardian of October
3 a senior police officer was
reported as saying "although
Mr. Herrera's home was
searched, he was in no way
involved". The implication re-
mains that someone else in the
family was involved.
TAPIA has learnt, however,
that:
*.The name of the person
to whom the warrant to search
for arms and ammunition was
directed was Joseph Herrera,
not to any other member of
the family.
Mr. Herrera and his family
gave the police every assistance
in carrying out the search.No.
arms and ammunition were
found.
Some time later the very
Supt. Burroughs visited the
searched house and apologised
to Mr. Herrera, his family. He
also apologised to a young man
who drives a car in which was
seen someone whom the police
believed to be wounded, pre-
sumably a guerrilla.
Later on the Commissioner
of Police, Mr Eustace Bernard
apologised as well.
A few weeks ago one of
Mr. Herrera's daughters return-
ed home from Canada with
some friends in this particular
car. One of the friends walks
with a limp as a result of
surgery he underwent overseas.
TAPIA further understands
*that Mr. Herrera has expressed
his dissatisfaction with the
whole episode to Head of the
Civil Service Dodderidge
Alleyne.
Up to now, however, neither
, the Permanent Secretaries nor
.the Public Service Association
of which Mr. Herrera is a mem-
ber has made a statement on
the issue.
See Page 10


Super efficient "Shellpelican" whose props were fouled by mangrove
J


is impossible without
your own means of trans-
port.
And as chairman of the
"United Brothers 26" Brian
James wrote in a letter to
TAPIA "We will be most
grateful for any help you can
offer which will enable us to
acquire a vehicle".
When you consider where
the eight brothers came from
and what they have been
through already, you realise
that this is an experiment of
the kind that we cannot afford
to see fail.
The "United Brothers 26"
as they named their group
on November 26 last year
started with a dream, a will to
work and some plans from
among fellers limingg on the
block in Barataria.
On 34 lots of rented
Crown lands in out-of-the-way
Wallerfield they have been
planting vegetables. Luck has
been against them: $2,500
worth of sweetpeppers were
lost through flooding; toma-
toes, the other main crop,
are now being ravaged by
"bacterial wilt".
But the greatest hindrance-
of all has been the lack of
their own transport. It has
meant that they cannot collect
many vital materials which
they could get free.
They face having to do
without things like loads of
pen manure, cassava sticks and
sweetpotato slips; oil drums
for water; rejected slabs from
sawmills for use in building a
storage shed.
Because they haven't been
able to set up a storage shed,
,they must do weekly shopping


for food in Port of Spain,
and pay exorbitant taxi fares
to get the goods brought off
-the road into Waller field.
The worst fear is that-
through not having transport,
marketing arrangements fort
that vital December crop
would be frustrated. That
may well be a blow from
which the brothers will not be
able to recover, for they are
due to start repaying a $1,500
loan from the Agricultural
bank in December.
Brian James is the only
one of-the brothers who is
employed somewhere else as
well. They are all fully com-
mitted to the Wallerfield enter-
prise. As Brian says, "It is our'
firm conviction that the land
will eventually become a
source of steady, productive
employment and a launching
off point for our planned
agricultural and craft enter-
prises".
Another long-term plan
of the "United Brothers 26"
is to provide for its members
scholarship facilities in indus-
trial and agricultural fields.
But as things look, little
of this can be accomplished
without the indispensable
element of transport a
vehicle that is serviceable, if
even only just, because one
of the members of the group
is a first class mechanic, and
any repairs that can be done
without power tools would be
no problem.
So TAPIA makes this
appeal: can't you help a group
of brothers who have shown
every willingness to help them-
selves?


Taylor hails


workers c' ttee


TAPIA'S Lloyd Taylor and
Mr. Yalary, dean of boilers,
spoke at theMonday,Sept. 24
meeting at Dinsley Village,
Tacarigua. Taylor outlined the
history of the workers' struggle,
at Orange Grove.
He recalled that the issue
was in the air since 1972 but
the workers could take no more
by May this year and went on
strike for 13 days.
He said that the workers
must win because the cause is
just and because they have
shifted decision-making and
organisation from others to
themselves in the formation of
the Workers committees.
Mr. Yalary has worked with
Orange Grove for 38 years.
Tello, he said, doesn't like
people who know. He had


worked with all the Europeans
but Tello was the most erratic.
Yalary pointed out that his
father died a destitute after
working for 50-odd years at
the hands of the sugar devils.
"We must see that this doesn't
happen to us", he warned.

Tello had made a total
mess in the factory. Yalary
called for the training of local
people to" replace expatriates.
Calling for worker solidarity
on the issue, Yalary warned
the workers: "If you want to
build your country, yourself
or your family, then you have
to make sacrifices. If you go
and drink in the club every
night, then you have to go
back to ass-licking the next
morning".


'Save our Swamp



meetings at the House


MEMBERS of the Blue River
Action Committee came to the
Tapia House last Thursday night
to bring us up to date on the
"Save Our Swamp" campaign
to which we have given our
support.
Associates at the House
that night took time off from
the folding of TAPIA to hear
J.S. Kenny and Peter Bacon,
prominent Blue River Com-
mitteemen, describe the pro-
gress of the campaign.
The Committee had been
meeting with the Minister of
Planning with a view to per-
suading the Government to
reconsider its decision to allow
the Shell barge to use the Blue
River of the Caroni Swamp.
It seemed, however, that
Mr. Prevatt was 'stoutly pro-
Shell. There was little chance
of the government reconsidering
its permission for the use of the
river by "Shellpelican".
To the Committee's urgings
about danger to the ecology,


Prevatt had been even more
impenetrable. The country, said
the minister, had to "choose
between ecology and develop-
ment".
Nor was there any sign that
the government was impressed
by the broad support the Blue
River Action Committee had
been able to mobilize on the
issue.
The Committee's team had
gone to see him two days after
the shooting of Beverley Jones
and Kenneth Tenia in Caura.
And to their assurance that
there were many groups backing
the campaign, PrevatTf"implied
that those were the same as the
"groups" in the hills, and he
noted that "we shot two of them
the other day".
The fact that "Shell-
pelican's" propellers had been
fouled by mangrove roots was a
sign that the vessel might not
be so perfectly adapted to the
swamp after all, the meeting
was told.


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TAPUA PAGE 3







SUNDAY OCTOBER 7,1973


The case for local banking


NOW that the, intended
connection with'the West
Indian Bank has been aban-
doned, the time, it is felt,
has arrived to call the at-
tention of the inhabitants
of Trinidad to the necessity
that exists for the estab-
lishment of a Bank of their
own, to be called "The
Trinidad Bank," or any
other rame by which they
may choose to distinguish it.
Of the many and superior
advantages to be derivedfrom
an Institution of this nature,
with the proprietors of its
stock, all residing in the Island,
and generally known to each
other, it is presumed that all
are sensible,.and it is therefore
deemed unnecessary to enlarge
upon them here.
The success of Local Banks


wherever they have been es-
tablished in the neighboring
Colonies, is known and ad-
mitted beyond doubt or cavil.
The Guiana Bank is in a most
prosperous condition, and it is
strictly a Local one. The Bank
of St. Thomas, also Local,
engrosses nearly the whole
business of that Island and
affords corresponding profits
to its Shareholders.
The secret of the great
prosperity of these Local Banks
is to be found in the fact that
they are local and Independent;
that their means are devoted
to the encouragement of the
trade and agriculture of the
respective Colonies in which
they are placed; that they are


free from all control and inter-
ference by those of their own
Directors menappointedby
the proprietors, selected from
their fellow citizens for their
discretion and prudence, and
whose integrityhas been proved
by experience.



Such advantages may very
reasonably be expected to ac-
crue to the Proprietors ard to
the Island at large from the
establishment of a Local Bank
in Trinidad. The Institution
would be under their own
eyes, subject at all times to
their investigation and super-


intendance; it would in short
be worked by themselves for
the general good; for all the
Shareholders or nearly all
would, it is probable be inhabi-
tants of Trinidad, every man
would feel an interest in its
character, its safety and pros-
perity.
Drawing its means and re-
sources principally from them-
selves, the benefits to be de-
rived from it, under careful
and prudent direction, would
be shared by all; its profits
would not find their way out
of the Island. Now, they would
remain here to increase the
means which had produced
them, adding to our wealth,
and to the comforts and con-


RBR


for~ea*a


As it was made in1840 in Trinidad


veniences of all.
In point,of security to the
Public, a Local Bank would be
above all doubt above all
suspicion. Its proprietors would
be all on the spot, and well
known;and the Directors to be
elected by those proprietors,
"would be a safe and constant
check upon every transaction,
and upon every Officer in the
Establishment".
It is scarcely necessary to
point out the difference which
is admitted to exist between a
Branch Bank, such as that
which the West India Bank
proposed to establish here, and
an independent Bank governed
altogether by its Proprietors in
the Island, "As a Branch Bank,"
says Gilbert, "is a mere colony,
the agents must be directed by
the commands they receive
from the seat of government.
And the Branch Bank may be
directed, in some cases, to
adopt measures more adapted
to promote the welfare of the
whole Establishment than to
advance the interest of that
individual Branch". And again,
"Every joint stock Bank having
more profitable ways of em-
ploying their capital at head-
quarters".




"Another possible incon-
venience to a Branch" it is
added,"arises from the circum-
stances that most cases of
importance are necessarily re-
ferred for the consideration of
the head office; not that these
cases are more difficult than
ordinary cases,but because they
are deviations from the usual
course of business, or they be-
long to a class of transactions
which is very properly reserved
for persons who have dealings
with the branch,may be obliged
to wait the return of the post,
or a still longer time, before
they can obtain answers to
important enquiries". "A
Branch Bank," he further says,
"seems best adapted for a small
town; and an independent
Joint-Stock Bank for a large
one".

The alternative is now fairly
placed before the inhabitants
of Trinidad, and it is for them
to determine whether they will
have a Branch Bank "with its
highest authority" as it is
called, of another Bank or a
Bank of their own with its
"highest authority in the island
its "highest authority" men
elected by themselves for that
important power.
If the inhabitants of Trini-
dad determine to have a Bank
of their own, a legislative en-
actment by the Council of
Government might be easily
obtained to legalize its exist-
ence, and bring it into opera-
tion without great delay. This
would be the speediest and
most economical mode.
Its capital, it is thought,
should consist, in the first
instance of 1500 shares of 100
dollars each, provision to be
made in the Act of Incorpora-
tion for increasing the Capital
if found to be necessary. The
terms on which the subscrip-


PAGE 4 TAPIA


I


r
B
O


CBERGERf








SUNDAY OCTOBER 7, 1973


ThOligarchy


FROM THE PAMPHLET
B Y DR. C V. COCKING


THE Constitution Commission has noted
the important social and political fact that
our society comprises, in the main, two
large racial groups African and Indians,
(Working Papers, Proportional Representa-
tion, page 36) but unless I have misread
its documents, it has not give the presence
of "oligarchy" the consideration and con-
sequence it deserves.
I have chosen to let the PNM's Perspectives
reveal and identify the presence of oligarchy
among us rather than attempt the task myself for
the simple reason that it will carry greater authority.
Oligarchy is defined in the Oxford Dictionary
as "Government, state governed, by the few",
naturally, chiefly in the interests of the few. I do
not think that many will dispute that we have
witnessed and continue to witness increased
prosperity for a relatively small group of people
(including workers fortunate enough to get well-
paid employment), accompanied by increasing
unemployment and the maldistribution of in-
come and wealth". (Page 25).
The Perspectives for the New World re-
gards this as the fruit of "liberal capitalism"
which it rejects as a basis for a full philosophy of
reconstruction. Significantly, however, it concedes
that this'is what has been happening in Trinidad
and Tobago and proposes correctives.
While interpreting reconstruction to mean,
inter alia, allowing "the West Indian masses ... to
acquire economic as well as political power"
and "to participate in both the political and eco-
nomic process" (p 9), it notes (Chapter 1,Intro-
duction, p. 8) "a certain degree of material pros-
perity among many sections of the Population".
Later it identifies this "privileged group" with
the "local whites" which it defines as "including
people of mixed blood, Chinese, Portugese and
..Syrians". (p 35).


PRIVILEGED STATUS.


Over against this "group" with its "privileged
status" the Perspectives places "two main cate-
gories the descendants of the African slaves
and the indentured workers brought in from what
are today India and Pakistan". (p. 7). )
The Perspectives apart from its main purpose,
namely to provide a philosophy of reconstruction,
is also a political document, and we must forgive
it if it forgets to include among the "privileged
group" the African and Indian "elites".,
But we cannot forget these"ehtes"in identi-
fying theoligarchy; for not only are they numerous
but they exercise preponderant political power,
the latter enjoys growing influence in business,
both are powerfulin the professions andjn educa-
tion and the former is preponderant in the civil
service bureaucracy.
Here then, adopting the racial classification
used by the Perspectives, but purging it somewhat
of its political purpose and so providing a fuller
and more accurate picture of the situation, we
have the oligarchy recognized and defined.
But the oligarchy may be defined, and
perhaps more significantly in terms of groupings
that have little to'do with race.
It comprises the leaders in politics, industry,
commerce, unionised labour (which has a wide
connotation as we shall see), the professions,
administration and those who surround them and
profit most by their activities.
These are the "naves". They wish to preserve the
status quo.
Once again the words of the Perspectives
apply: "the word' 'revolution' has always held
terrors for the privileged group in the Caribbean".
(p. 6). This great importance attached to oligarchy
cannot be stressed too strongly especially in view
of the Commission's recognition of race as a.
problem but omission of oligarchy. The Perspec-
tives does not underestimate the importance of
race but puts oligarchy first:

"Racism (in the sense of open confrontation -
between non-white of African descent and
non-white of Asian descent) should there-
fore not be a problem over the years ... What


The country has achieved

the ideal of a co- operative,

multi- racial society ,but

on a basis of oligarchy, not

democracy

cannot be tolerated is that they (the local
whites) should seek, as a group, to maintain
their privileged status by blocking economic
and social change and by denying equality
of opportunity on the basis of merit and
ability". (p. 35).

The wider range, the larger numbers, the
qualitatively different character I have given to the
oligarchy by underlining the presence of its
African and Indian elements and correcting the
view that it is simply a case of "local whites"
versus non-whites, African and Indian, only make
the oligarchy more deadly because of the oppor-
tunity afforded to use racial leverage to further
what are really not racial interests but the interests
of a privileged group drawn from every race and
class.
Perhaps a word on "organized" labour is in
order; it may help to explain the inclusion of such
an element in the oligarchy. There was a time
when such bodies as public servants and teachers
considered themselves professionals. They still
do; but they have found it necessary to organise
themselves in trade unions, along with other
groups more traditionally associated with labour.
What does the Perspectives have to say -about
Trade unions?
"Trade Unions represent the nuclei of
popular power both over the economy and
the political process The difficulty with
the traditional European and North Ameri-
can conception of Trade Unions when ap-
plied without modification to the Caribbean
is that trade unions in privileged sectors
(such as oil, bauxite, and Government) can
share in the productivity gains of their em-
ploying enterprises often at the cost of
other groups among the masses such as
the rural agricultural population, the un-
employed and the under-employed, and the
less privileged establishments. In other words,
trade unionism can add to the distor-
tions and irrationalities of the inherited
economic and social system rather than
eliminate them". (p. 26).
The Perspectives, therefore, lines up "trade
unions in privileged sectors" such as oil and
Government, with other privileged groups in the
pursuit of ends "at the cost of other groups among
the masses". This places them among the oligarchy.
I now turn to the third member in the
oligarchy triumvirate, namely political party. I
leave aside the opposition groups many of which,


though not all, are mainly pressure groups seeking
group and individual advantage.
The ruling party is part of the oligarchy. Its
leadership and membership have exercised state
power over the last seventeen years. It has pene-
trated and brought under its influence every state
institution and corporation, old and new.
It maintains constant and continuous con-
trol not so much through its reliance' on race as
upon the power conferred on the Prime Minister
by the Constitution over appointments tomem-
bership of the Service Commissions and every
senior post in the public service.
Control over senior appointments has natural-
ly over the years meant developing control over
posts of lesser magnitude down to the humblest.
Then there are the statutory bodies and
recent incursions into the private sector. Every-
where there is considerable party influence and
control over the patronage: power and influence
over men's jobs, promotions, prospects, careers,
lives. These are- powers that no party in power
anywhere will lightly let hold of.
But now comes the supreme irony; the
beneficiaries whose numbers extend beyond the
Party Membership have assumed a corporate exist-
ence of their own and have become masters of
their benefactor, the party, and, ipso facto, the
Government.
The beneficiaries are organized into powerful
unions which can dictate without having'the poli-
tical responsibility. The Party and the Party
leadership are left to bear that.
Though there is considerable overlapping of
beneficiaries andparty members, the loyalty is to
pressure groups within and the umbrella of the
Party rather than to the Party itself. Individualism
and group advantage rule the day.
Mr. Karl Hudson-Phillips in his recent address
to the PNM's Youth League's Annual Conference
lamented the fact that "there was not even one
trade union rt ilu Irn c, -t-thaPrty 'ro'a-great-
extent the truth is the other way round; the
Party is, de facto, largely affiliated to the labour
movement chiefly represented by the Labour Con-
gress.


POWER OF LABOUR

And it should not be necessary to reiterate
the wide connotation attached to the term
"labour". It comprises the tens of thousands of
those who draw salaries as well as those who draw
wages in the public sector alone there are
81,000 or about'24% of all those employed.
The power of labour so defined was never so
well exemplified as by Dr. Williams himself in his
Address to the 13th .Annual Convention of the
PNM some time after the 1970 State of Emer-
gency. These are Dr. Williams' words and they
provide considerable food for thought.
"The first concerns the declaration of the
State of Emergency last year. On the morn-
ing of Monday, April 20th, I received an
urgent telephone call from the President of
the Labour Congress. He asked me to re-
ceive a delegation from the.Congress as a
matter of the utmost urgency and national
importance.
"I agreed to do so, and summoned to the
meeting the Minister of Labour, the Attor-
ney-General, the Minister of Hoine Affaiis.
the Minister of State in the Ministry of
Finance, Mr. Prevatt, and Mr. Chambers the
Parliamentary Secretary.
."The President of Congress and his delega-
tion complained about the turbulence and
subversive elements in the Labour Movement
which had expressed itself over the preced-
ing weekend in negotiations with the Water
and Sewerage Authority where the workers
removed, in one case physically, the accre-
dited Union Representative and set up
worker's committees with black power ele-
ments prominent in the leadership.
"The President of the Congress issued an
ultimatum (his word) to the Prime Minister:

Cont'd on Page 8


I I' -II 1~L,, Illd


I I I I I I ~'llr--l L I)]


TAPIA PAGE 5








E 6 TAPIA


THE SEEDS of the present
situation involving "shootouts"
with the police and "guerrillas"
in the hills were sown'with the
passage of those laws which first
appeared in the Public Order Bill.
Driving home this point to the
Special Assembly of Sunday, 23rd
September, Tapia Chairman Syl
Lowhar quoted figures to show
"the balance sheet of blood" -
15 dead and 24 wounded over the
last year.
"Ask yourself," he told the Assembly,
"if we have not begun to reap the
whirlwind."
Lowhar identified the Firearms Act,
the Sedition Amendment Act and the
Summary Offences Ordinance Amend-
ment Act as the laws which "were
forcing young people to seek refuge in
the forest".
Referring to TAPIA'S chronicle of
dead and wounded in action involving
the police, Lowhar noted that "the list
is becoming longer and longer.

JAIL TERMS

"We have to condemn this govern-
ment for making criminals of innocent
people by passing such repressive legis-
lation."
He recalled his own warning in 1970
that the effect of repressive laws would
be to drive the movement underground,
and he considered that the August 9
attack on the Matelot Police Station
had marked "a new stage of revolutionary
and political dimensions". They could
not be considered "bandits", as the
Commissioner of Police would have the
country believe.
It was the severe jail terms imposed
under the Firearms Act which had led
young people like Beverley Jones "a
daughter of the revolution" to jump
bail and opt out of civil society. What
was more, there was no confidence in
the courts.
Lowhar noted that Kenneth Tenia,
who was killed by police, had been on a
charge, as are Allan Harewood to whom
bail had been denied initially, and
Guy Harewood.

"Guy Harewood, now branded Enemy
Number One by the police, was first
charged for shooting a policeman. He'
has never appeared in court. The police
have never produced any evidence to
prove that he was responsible for the
shooting, yet they have procedeed on
the assumption that he is guilty.


FRAME-UPS

'But supposing they are wrong, as
wrong as they were when they said that
it was Blanchfield who had shot Guierra,
as wrong as they were when they said
that the body of the dead guerrilla was
that of Harewood. We cannot trust the
police in the light of the series of
frame-ups for which they have become
responsible.
"Remember Toppin had said that
they had recovered most of the $128,000
from the Barclays robbery. Afterwards
he said something different. The police
have become notorious for their lies."
The Chairman reminded the Assem-
bly of Earle Lewis who had been shot
in the leg by Inspector Prime on August
8, while he was running, and he saw this
as typical of a number of other cases'.
"This tactic of causing the victim to
run was reported in the shooting of
Allan Caton in St. Ann's. And in the
magistrate court recently, an ex-soldier
stated that Burroughs had ordered him
to run so that he could be shot.
"According to press reports, the
police followed Lewis at home and
demanded the bag he was carrying at
the time when he was shot. Heaven
knows what they would have 'found'
in that bag had^they laid their hands on
it," Lowhar said.


i -


The police, he continued; were no
longer concentrating on marijuana but
on ammunition. "They are shooting to
kill. You can never colie out with your
hands up. So once you are on the run
you have to arm yourself if you want to
stay alive This is how the vicious circle
begins. This is how Ahootouts begin."
If the police plant one cartridge on
his person or in his hom, 'a man would
be liable for a long jail term, Lowhar'
noted.
"Many of the victims know that
they do not stand a chance in the
courts. I understand that in cases of
political importance, magistrates are
called in and briefed. They arc told
what verdict they should arrive at, and
they are told that their jobs depend on
it.
"Such is the mockery that passes
for justice in our courts. More and
more the police and the maigstracy are
committing themselves in support of
this PNM government. The consequences
of this partiality may be very disastrous."

Daily, the Chairman continued, police
paranoia and bungling were being dem-
onstrated, and the public was being
bamboozled at every turn. -He gave
some reported examples: well-armed
police repelled by a volley of stones;
the shooting at a group of young
farmers in Petit Valley; two policemen
injured while fleeing from a clash with
guerrillas in Valencia; the accidental
shooting of P.C. Khan in Manzanilla;
and the fact that none of the 200
policemen deployed in the Caura exer-
cise had been brave enough to remain
guarding the body of a dead guerrilla.
"We have reverted to a state of


nature in which the only law is the law
of the jungle," Lowhar said, declaring
that Karl Hudson-Phillips would be
forever identified with the issue of the
"General Warrant" which had put the
country in chains.
The warrants with which police have
been "barging into homes" to search for
ammunition, marijuana and subversive
literature are so general as to be "no
warrants at all," the Chairman said.


GENERAL WARRANTS


"A warrant must be specific in its
citation; it must state what is it after,
where and from whom it came. It
cannot be a blanket cover for official
crimes. It is unlawful to issue a warrant
to gain entry into a house.
"Every time the police awaken the
young from slumber and shock parents
into a recognition of their brutality, a
revolutionary is born, someone who
will be prepared to take up the fallen
weapon."
He quoted from Chief Justice-Isaac
Hytali's report in the Clarke Conm-
mission of Inqiury to show that reason-
able grounds must be advanced before
the issue of a search warrant for fire-
arms, and he noted that in most of the
searches nothing had been found .
"It Is obvious that the police in their
pandemonium are moving from place to
place to see what they can find. If thly
pick up a book on Mao they say that is
justification for their entry. It cannot
work in this way."
However, the Chairman warned, "a
guiltier and bloodier hand is yet to be
uncovered."


ARMED REVOLUTION, consti-
tution reform, elections.
Chairman, Lowhar considered
these three "solutions" to the
national crisis, and in the case
of the first two identified who were
the people espousing them, why
they were espousing them, and the
basic similarity of the aims.
"Those of us who advocate
constitutional reform had had our
consciousness disturbed by t.ae
movement of'56which cuhninated
in the disillusionment of Chagua-
ramas. Because we understood how
states were set up with constitu-
tions being the rules by which we
were governed, we placed greater
emphasis on constitutional reform
and unconventional politics", Low-
har said.
This category included the "leaders
of the Rodney March, the Transport
Strike and the Michener blockade whose
agitation culminated in the 1970
February Revolution".
For these the Constituent Assembly
was the start of the "reconstructive
phase of the revolution", and "spon-
taneous rebellion and uprising" was only
the beginning of consciousness.
Armed revolution seemed, however,
to be more attractive to those who had
been turned on by the February Revo-
lution and its antecedents, and who
placed more emphasis on rebellion and
violence as a vehicle of social and poli-
tical change.
Different strategies, yes, but same
struggle. As Lowhar put it: "You would
say 'rap'; we would say 'rapport'.but
we are all in the same struggle".
Lowhar aimed at getting across an
understanding of the position 'of the
guerrilla in relation to constitutional
change.
The guerrilla had chosen a life with-
out government, a life which was "mise-
rable, nasty, brutish and short", but it
was the only choice open to a man
whose life had been threatened by the
state.
What the guerrilla led, according to
Lowhar, was "a lonely life. Very often
his gun is his only companion". The
Chairman suggested that the guerrilla
was the "noble savage of whom Rous-
seau spoke".
The guerrilla was "full of prudence,


Who we go put?


A lot of

stupidness

WHO WE GO PUT? The Tapia Chair-
man dealt with that question which has
been provoked over the years by dis-
satisfaction with the PNM government.
"Stupidness" is what he called the
current complaint about a lack of leaders
capable of bringing about change.
"There may be no 'Political Leader',
he asserted, "but there is leadership and
organisation. Organisation of the kind
that we have in Orange Grove where the
workers are seizing control of the factory
and are overthrowing the yoke of
bureaucracy."'
Lowhar also made this confident
prediction:
"Soon, if not before, our leadership
and organization will knock the tyrant
from his throne."


~'' '

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.' tX
~P 5.:
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TOBER 7, 1973


A quality of




mercy need.`


idealism, practical wisdom,perhaps poli-
tically naive, but very honest, He has an
instinct for freedom and distrusts the
constitutional conventions based on
learned reasoning. He has to express
himself in what ways he can, since
there are no representative institutions
through which his voice may be heard.
Such a man I owhar declared "'was
not afraid of death because for him
there can be no life without oppression.
Well can he say with Christ 'let the
dead bury the dead'",
For elections to be a means of
change, the constitution, the system of
government had first to be settled.
When, however, "the system itself is the
subject of civil strife. Whenthe under-
lying principles of liberty morality and
justice are in question, then it is time
not only to change the government, but
to change the constitution itself; elec-
tions aloneI will not suffice".

WHOLE BREAD

The Chairman compared the popular
slogans of the movement of '70 with
the proposals Tapia has been making on
the issues of constitutional reform,
economic change, etc.
"Some say they want the whole
bread. We say we want ownership and
control of the resources. The sentiment
is the same. Some say power to the
people. We say power to that. But we
say that these people are really clamour-
ing for direct democracy since they
distrust representative systems. We say
that the way to give the people power is
to allow a wide range of ordinary people
of all walks of life to speak for them-
selves in a big maco upper house which
will be the guardian of the new consti-
tution, the embodiment of power to the
people".
The denial of media time to the


opposition, the inadequacy of the daily
newspapers and the restrictions imposed
by the Summary Offences Ordinance
on meetings and marches have effec-
tively killed democracy, the Chairman
asserted.

CIVIL WAR

"By clamping down on legitimate
political activity, the government is
forcing people to resort to methods
which it has branded as subversive. It is
pushing the country to the verge of civil
war. We have to move to avert this
military crisis, this rising cost in human
life".
Lowhar urged amnesty and the
cessation of inhumane treatment to
prisoners like Andrea Jacobs. In his
view the situation called for"a quality of
mercy which this government is probably
not capable of".
But it was preferable that some
blood go unavenged than that rivers of
blood flow.
He noted that in its final spasms the
regime was clawing widly about, and
that daily the repressive net was en-
circling new victims. The chairman was
certain that Tapia too would be hit
eventually, but he reminded the As-
sembly:
"We command more moral authority
in this nation than the government
from whom the vast majority of citizens
have withdrawn their consent. We have
been associated with peaceful consti-
tutional procedures. We have called for
the unclenching of the fist and the
waving of the palm of peace.
"I trust most sincerely that the time
will never come when we will have to
call upon this nation to arm itself
against those who have been invading
our freedom".


Concern marks the faces at Tapias Special Assemb Sunday September 23.
Concern marks the faces at Tapia's Special Assembly, Sunday September 23.


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SUNDAY OCTOBER, 7 1973


I1h e Ir


* From Page 5
if immediate action was not taken by the
Government to bring the whole situation
under control (he specifically indicated by
That he meant,a State of Emergency), then
the Labour Congress, which controlled what
he called the responsible Unions, would
bring the whole community to a standstill by
calling out the workers in the Port, the
Airport, external and internal communica-
tions, the Civil Service, and the daily paid
workers.
"It was clear to the Ministers present and
particularly to the Prime Minister that the
time had come for decisive action An
Emergency Cabinet meeting was therefore
summoned for three hours later at which the
decision was taken that a State of Emergency
should be declared at such time as the Prime
Minister in his judgement, after consulting
with authorities responsible for law and
order, considered this should be done".

Need we add the evidence of our experience with
the ISA and the IRA?
The Perspectives sees the trade unions as
presenting Government with a dilemma: their
proper role is "popular participation in the eco-
nomy": this is the second way out.


"The first is through Jhe imposition by
Government fiat of a more rational wage
and salary structure in both the Public and
Private Sectors. This invites totalitarianism.
It must therefore be categorically rejected".
(p.;27)

Totalitarianism knows ultimately one answer
for those who resist or obstruct: repression an
armed force the end of democratic government
Once democratic structures are demolished it
would be exceedingly difficult to rebuild them

RURAL POPULATION OUT

The oligarchy must therefore be seen as
being sustained by a network of cross-relationships
between its constituent elements and those who
comprise them. Those outside comprise "the
rural agricultural population, the unemployed and
the underemployed, and the less privileged workers
in the less privileged establishments". (p 26)
The oligarchy is not static: it grows and has
method. One such is to observe the growing
points in the society and the culture the steel-
band, the calypso and folklore furnish examples.
When these movements reach a certain point
in development one or other element in the


oligarchy moves in, adopts them, and more often
than not supersedes the pioneer leadership and
substitutes its own. It has the resources to patro-
nise and so swing adherents its way.
We should note that the oligarchy is multi-
racial. Economics is more important than race. Its
membership is drawn from all races, all religious
groups, and often from all social strata and social
classes.The country is aiso rich enough to make the
membership numerically substantial.
Its composite racial, religious and social
nature and substantial numbers both combine to
give it its strength. The country has achieved the
ideal of a co-operative multi-racial society but on
a basis of oligarchy not democracy.
In dealing with oligarchy and its prospects I
have kept things simpler than they are. I have
omitted all mention of such factors as multi-
national corporations and international power
politics.
I have also ignored military and para-
military force as a political factor which many see
looming on the horizon.
Political parties, in the course of time, may
come and go, their ebb and flow depending on the
changing strengths of such national constituents
as race and economic power. Oligarchy, however,
like Tennyson's 'Brook', has a good chance of
going on forever.


Great helicopter mystery: Coast Guard to the rescue


IN ONE of his well re-
hearsed roles the Queen's Ca-
nary pontificated some time
ago on .the law, and insisted
that it is no respecter of per-
sons etc. Of course, after the,
crude bungling with which this
"Honourable" gentleman "dis-


tinguished" his office, it was
only a matter of time before
his master, a greater non-re-
specter of persons, put him to
flight.
But today the entire edifice
of law, order etc. is rotten,
and the choices open to the
sawdust Doctor seem to be
either the Queen's Canary or a
Cesspitt.


We have seen over the
months and years how the
Ministry of National Security
has put the entire nation into
such a state of insecurity that
even young girls are forced to
flee to the hills and face death
rather than the courts.
'Now let us ask: does the
promise of Morality in Public
Affairs, made throughout the


length and breadth of this
country in the heady days of
1955 and 1966, still hold good
in 1973?
Recently this Government
bought two helicopters under
circumstances which have
caused the Companion of Ho-
nour to order an immediate
probe, and I have been hearing


that some things about the
helicopter deal appear to be
distinctly fishy.
My understanding is that
certain files relating with this
purchase cannot be found in
,the Ministry of National Secu-
rity, and that recourse had to
be had to the records of the
Coast Guard.
Nor have my sources been
able to explain the mystery of
why Trinidad and Tobago tax-
payers actually paid $700,000
apiece for helicopters which
cost only $425,000 each-

'CHOPPER'

Another curious aspect of
this helicopter episode con-
cerns the engineer who is now
attempting to modify the one
still serviceable "chopper" and
who reportedly receives only
$3,000 of the $5,000 per
month of taxpayers' money
provided to pay him. How
could $2,000 just disappear
into thin air every month end?
I ask.
A final interesting note is
that with the cessation of mili-
tary involvement in Vietnam,
the US Government offered,
free of charge, to the Govern-
ments of Guyana, Jamaica and
Trinidad and Tobago "well
proven" surplus helicopters.
Our two CARICOM partners
have reportedly accepted the
offer.
Here, the Companion of
Honour will doubtlessly accept
the findings of the probe into
the Helicopter Affair a re-
port which will be most inter-
esting and revealing.
As a betting man, however,
I am sure that the odds against
the report being published in
the lifetime of the present
Government are at least 100
to 1.
FREDERICK STREET
Port of Spain


-LIIAhi


N.C.B

Trust Building. TRU T
2.0 Abercromby St. cOAMIKL NK
TRUST COMPANY
VTRIVIDAD & TOBAGO)
UNITED


Check with the

N.C.B Trust. Very corn-


petuifve rates of interest


paild on all fixed Deposits.


Call 32576-7 -8 Today.


I r I ~,


I


mm


IZ AGE 8 TAIA





SUNDAY OCTOBER 7, 1973


TAPIA FUND RAISING APPEAL
Send us your cash donations today He r e's what y u can do *join the drive to increase subscriptions
*Set yourself a target sum you will to the paper at home and abroad
raise by your own efforts sellingEncourae other TApia people to
volumes soliciting donations may Encourage other TApia people to
by any means you devise do their part
U B - I-- ~


do you brush your teeth

every day?


Most people do, its a habit from childhood. SAVING
money should be that way too. A little money saved
is a little money earned. It only takes a dollar to
open a Savings Account,and like all good habits you'll
soon experience the benefits. SAVE-It's an investment.


Live a Better Life


Bank in Your Bank


The National Commercial Bank of Trinidad & Tobago. 60 Independence Square.


I I I I -- I


TAPIA PAGE 9








SUNDAY OCTOBER 7, 1973


These'town police' causing the trouble


RUSSELL ANDALCIO
looked on with some inter-
est as a policeman whom
the others called "Bob"
emptied a bag belonging
to his wife then began to
pack the contents back in.
"Bob" wore corporal
stripes on his arm. Only two or
three of the 50-man police
search party which descended
on the Andalcio's home in
Arima after midnight last week
Tuesday wore uniforms.
But Supt. Burroughs who
directed the operation was well
enough known to "Slim"
Andalcio. And as the "danger
man" tramped through the
house, ordering that this and
that be turned over and opened
up and cleared out, he reminded


SPOONS, plastic cups and
plates. These are about the
only new things put in the
Royal Gaol to alleviate the
Harsh conditions which po-
litical detainees met in
1970.
This is the conclusion of
Russell "Slim" Andalcio, for-
mer political detainee who is
still on 5,000 bail pending sedi-
tion charges on which he was
placed in 1970. He was speak-
ing to TAPIA when he came
out on bail again after being
charged for possession of am-
munition last week.
Food in the jail is not any
better and accommodation is
just as bad. And even the mini-
mal changes that have been
introduced were the result of
the series of spectacular pro-
tests some of the prisoners
had staged within recent
months. The atmosphere is
,tense.
"The price paid for the
plastic cups and plates is broken
legs," Andalcio said referring
to the prisoners who jumped
off the walls in protest some
weeks ago and injured them-
selves.
What has changed, however,
is the attitude of the prisoners
in whom a new militancy can
be noticed. They have "a new
kind of pride. They are more
manly. You hear fellers telling
the warders 'talk to me but
don't touch me'. Prisoners
stand up for their rights now".
And for their part the
warders are more jumpy, more
on the defensive and so anxious
to forestall anything that looks
like the start of an uprising,
that they would take measures
which actually, lead to an up-
rising. An example waslast


Slim of the last time they had
met in somewhat similar cir-
cumstances. It was in 1970, in
the heights of Guanapo where,
with Carl Blackwood, Andalcio
had been hiding out from arrest
and political detention.
As he stormed about like a
man deranged, Burroughs said
he should have shot the 25-
year old Andalcio then and
saved himself the trouble of
having to arrest him last week.
And Burroughs found a reason
to make the arrest.
Picking up the bag which
Corporal "Bob" had just re-
packed, he emptied it himself.
and pounced on a little film
container. He opened it and
poured ,the contents into his
hand 20 rounds of .22
ammunition.


weekend when the blue-clad,
convicted prisoners heard on
the radio news about Williams'
refusal to seek re-election to the
PNM political leadership.
There was immediate jubi-
lation among the prisoners,
some of them shouting "Oh
God, we free!". But the warders
took off the radio, which
brought an uproar from the
prisoners. Prison authorities
took scare at this sign of
"unrest", everyone remained
locked up for the next two
days, and a riot squad with
tear gas was brought in to
standby.

NO PAPERS

But the radio, available
only to some prisoners, is
turned on only for a few hours
a day. The rest of the time pri-
soners are cut off from the
outside society, deprived of
newspapers (which prison rules
allow), and of course they are
extremely anxious to get news
about what's happening in the
country.
It is this "sense of being
cut off" which Andalcio de-
plores most of all. He found
that there is a hunger for read-
ing matter. A copy of the book
"Seize The Time" was making
the rounds of the prison.
But in the absence of ade-
quate library facilities and with
little or no training given to
prisoners,all there is to learn is
new crime techniques.
"I applied for literature, and
I was told I had to see the
Commissioner, but I didn't get
a chance," said Andalcio who
spent a week in the Remand-
Yard. "They said National Se-
curity had to okay newspapers".


Andalcio had been tipped
off about the search.
' Last Tuesday the prelimi-
nary hearing into the charge
for possession of ammunition
without a Firearm's User
Licence was postponed to -
November 19. That- night Rus-
sell "Slim" Andalcio walked
out of the Royal Gaol, on
$20,000 bail, with a horrifying


Andalcio found skepticism
towards the moves like the
Commission of -Inquiry into
prison conditions and the con-
viction-that only action could
bring change.
In the Remand Yard where
he spent his time were over
300 prisoners, all of them wait-
ing trial. It is literally a yard
where they spend the day from
7 a.m. to 3.30 p.m. in the open
air.
Five toilets and eight show-
ers serve the toilet needs of
this number of prisoners. One
table tennis board serves for
recreation.
But they are packed seven
to a cell which measures about
10 feet square, equipped very
often with only .one bed, one
pot de chambre and a cup of
drinking water for 15 and a
half hours per day. Ventilation
is through a barred, wire-
netted window about eight feet
up the wall.
The heat forces a request
for the light to he taken off,
so that even if a prisoner got
literature he would not be able
to read during the long lock-up
hours.
But there is even worse


The


case


FROM PAGE 4
tion would be entered into, are
now known to all. There are
minor points which are not
adverted to here, because they
would depend altogether on the
proprietors of shares as the
number of Directors, etc.
If it be wished to preserve
Trinidad from subserviency to
any other colony in her mone-
tary affairs to give to her the
rank and iconsequence-which


(but now familiar) story to tell
about these "searches like any
other search", and about the
conditions in the Remand Yard
where he spent a week.
Speaking to TAPIA the
following morning the young
agriculturist who runs a 47-acre
estate in Nestor Village, four
miles from Sangre Grande, ex-
pressed surprise that he hadn't


accommodation. There' is the
"Bull-pen", a cell absolutely
bare of furniture of any kind
20 foot square, which would
contain anything like 20 new-
comers before they are per-
manently placed.
The Remand Yard has
lately taken on the aspect of a
detention camp, as Andalcio
sees it.
"This ammunition thing is
the new detention order," he
said referring to the fact that it
is increasingly difficult, when
not impossible, to get bail after
being charged'for having ammu-
nition."I was surprisedto getbail
at all. The practice is no bail. I
met 27 men remanded on am-
munition charges who have
been denied bail". He had got
$20,000 bail after application
of Justice Des Iles in chambers.
He explained how poverty
could impose an additional
hardship. Some men got bail,
but had no property to use for
security or any cash to pay the
professional bailor's 10%, so
they remain in the Yard, await-
ing, awaiting trial.
One man had got $2,000
bail nine months ago no
takers. Another could riot get


been charged for "subversive
literature" as well. The police
had taken away some of his
books (Mao and Che Guevera
are the only authors he can
remember;no receipt was given),
after Burroughs had read out
some passages on "revolution"
for the edification of his men.
"The police are definitely
doing their own thing", An-
dalcio said. 'That is, a particu-
lar set of policemen led by
Burroughs. From their attitude
you could see they feel they
have absolute authority over
life, making statements about
killing people whom they only
suspect of having committed
crimes".
It was clear to him that the
Arima police'to whose station
he was taken and where he
spent two days in the cells
resented the attitude of
these "town police". Some of
the Arima officers were saying
that the actions of Burroughs
and his "flying squad" would
get them in trouble with the
public.
But, Andalcio pointed out,
"policemen can no longer hide
behind the question of doing a
job. The corruption in the
Force is known to all of them,
and they have to take a stand
about it".



Oh God we

free! prisoners

shout
someone to stand $300 bail.
"What happens, is that a
man can sometimes spend more
time in the Remand Yard than
he spends while on sentence",
Andalcio saw 1970 as a
turning point for the conscious-
ness of prisoners in the jail.
The incarcerated soldiers and
political prisoners had demon-
strated the value of militancy
.and standing up for rights.
What is more, there had
been success in humanizing
some of the warders. He finds
now, though, that all of these
humanized officers have been
transferred from the Royal.
He talked of a "vicious
system, dehumanizing to pri-
soners and warders too".
Homosexuality is still rampant,
as far as he was able to learn,
and the punishment graded
from bread and water to "eat
already" and "sleep already"
(no food and no sleep, re-
spectively) still obtained.
But he is certain that
"prison is the outer society
with all its parts forced to-
gether. All the uneasiness on
the outside is magnified in the
prison".


for Local banks


her rising importance merits -
to encourage her trade and
agriculture by and through her
own means and resources if
a desire be entertained to assist
ourselves, and not to rely upon-
others not to depend upon
external aid for that of which a
sufficiency may be found with-
in the colony for all the pur-'
poses of the propoesd Institu-
tibn success will be deserved,
will be commanded, and will


crown the efforts of the pro-
prietors in "The Bank of Tri-
nidad".

The elements of its pros-
perity are in your own hands,
Inhabitants, of Trinidad; it is
for you to give them, and that
speedily, the necessary efficacy
and direction before, they are
usurped by strangers, to your
serious and lasting disadvantage
and detriment.


PAGE 10 TAPIA


all 'its Parts,.


agnified a ---sAnalci









SUNDAY OCTOBER 7, 1973


Chronicle 1973 Jan April





Cont'd from TAPIA, Sept 23, 1973


January
27 Allan Caton shot dead by police in alleged exchange of
fire following robbery attempt at Hi-Lo, St. Anns
Wounded: Francis Mascall, Allan Richardson, Alfred
Forde, Norbert Gaskin. (G.T.)
30 Asst Commissioner Toppin: "We are fighting crime with
our hands tied by the bail system." (Express)
30 Shoot-out in San Fernando between police and four incl.
Fook Wah Chin, escape from R. Jail. (Express)



February
1 Hatt members invade chamber of St. George County
Council pushing name plates off the table and turning
pictures of members to face the wall. This was triggered
off by the housewives' annoyance over the remarks
made by councillors about Mrs. Ilda Maundy. (Express)
1 Louis Jordan files writ against A.G. and four policemen
claiming damages for false imprisonment. His sister
alleges that officers pointed a revolver at her in a menacing
and threatening manner. (Express)
1 Express Editorial: "The prevalence of guns in Trinidad
and Tobago is one of the changing signs of the times that
returning residents always notice first".
1 Chief Magistrate, Mr. Winzey Bruno, expresses total
agreement with crime chief Russell Toppin's criticism on
the question of people charged with serious offences being
granted bail. (Express)
1 Tamana residents complain of chronic water shortage:
"We are tired of making representations to WASA, be-
cause we are yet to get tangible results". (T.G.)
3 Beresford Lewis and Prabudial Ramsahai are accused of
shooting at P.C. John Raeburn with intent to murder
him on Frederick Street, P-O-S on January 15. (T.G.)
6 A Guyanese citizen, Norbert Gaskin is accused of shooting
at Supt. Randolph Burroughs with intent to murder him.
(T.G.)
6 Raid on Curepe home ganja, books on Mao seized.
(Express)
7 A man involved in the shoot-out with police outside the
Famous Recipe Restaurant, St. Ann's is refused bail.
(Express)
8 Express page one headline: "Now Brace for a Water
Curfew".
10 (Letter to the Editor) "crime results from ills in the
society (Express)
11 Massive Cabinet Shake-up Williams takes over External
Affairs. (Express)
14 Food Prices leap in Tobago.
21 Wiseman De Vignes shot dead by a police officer follow-
ing an incident in the Fyzabad district. (T.G.)
21 Poultry Farmers drowning their chicks. (Express)
22 Defence Forces Commander Serrette returns home after
top-secret talks in Britain. (Express)
22 The all-items index of retail jumped by 4.1 points in
January a record monthly high. (Express)
23 $128,000 Barclays Bank Raid at Tragarete Rd. Four
killed in shoot-out at Trou Macaque, Upper Pashley St.
Laventille. The four are identified as Nathaniel Jack, John
Bedau, Ulric Gransaul and Mervyn Andrews.
23 A man describing himself as a freedom fighter is jailed
for 5 years for trying to set fire to a police station in
Tobago (Express)
24 Geddes Granger, Kenny Isles, Clyde Doman and Louisa
Crichlow are charged with possession of ammunition.
(T.G.)
24 Guardian headline: "Chicken Industry Crumbling".
24 DLPleader, Alloy Lequay congratulates the police for the
swift manner in which they solved the Barclays Bank
robbery.. (Express)
25 Sunday Guardian Editorial: "Violent crime must be put
down".
25 Roman Catholic Archbishop Pantin commenting on the
Laventille shoot-out suggests that "we must also abhor
other forms of violence which make people suffer
unjustly".
27 Granger's case sent to the Assizes.


March
3 Prime, Sergeant in Laventille Shootout, promoted to
Inspector. (Express)
13 Mother of LouisaCrichlow cries out over denial of bail to
daughter. (Express)
16 ". .. the magistrate and judge in Chambers could well
have exercised their discretion on the side of liberty
and the individual". Anxiety over bail understandable.
Greatly disturbed at apparent diminution of rights.
(Editorial, Express)
16 Delegation led by Mitra Sinanan to protest denial of bail
Isles, Granger, Crichlow, Doman. (Express)
17 Detained four granted bail. (Express)
Complaint to Express that police in Tunapuna raid had
shot wrong man. Man's companion also shot. Police
claim to have returned fire; occupants claim police
opened fire as occupants claim police men stepped outside
23 Gang of 40 armed guerrillas rob farmer of donkey and
water-bottle. Donkey recovered. Police in pursuit. (T.G.)
25 Police party of 70-odd exchange fire with armed gang in
Maracas hills. Police claim to have found subversive
literature, food, water, ammunition, cocaine plus part of
Barclays $128,000 haul. (Express)
25 A hail of bullets drive police back from cave. About 15
guerrillas, ammunition, money, drugs, literature. (T.G.)
26 Soldiers comb hills. No guerrillas. (T.G.)


26 Ledger with codename believed found. (Express)
27 Police: Maracas haul positively part of $128,000 Amount
not disclosed. (T.G.)
31 Warrant issued for Harewood, Thomas, Thornhill for
Maracas shooting on 27th.

April
1 "Don't shoot, Mr. Bernard, bring them in alive" -
Owen Baptiste commenting on the guerrilla hunt. (Express)
2 Williams at PNM Rally in San Fernando Proportional
Representation will create chaos and confusion. (T.G.)
2 Tight security at Royal Gaol- introduction of plan by
Traffic branch prohibiting parking of vehicles in the
vicinity of the prison. (T.G.)
4 Sticks of gelignite, ammunition and fuses reportedly found
at Golden Grove Prison. (Express)
4 PNM spokesmen at National .convention run into a
barrage of questions and heckling from other delegates
when they defend Williams' views on P.R. (Express)
5 Mr. Francis Alcindor, sitting as coroner in the inquiry
into the death of Anthony Joseph (Santa Claus) gives a
verdict of "no felony". (Express)
5 "A party of policemen swooped down on a house in
Woodbrook and seized 4 rifles. A man was detained for
questioning". (Express)
6 Governor-General Ellis Clarke away, so P.M. Williams to
miss Car. Com. Heads of Govts. Conf. in Guyana. (Express)
13 Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Jamaica, and Barbados
will mount a trade mission to Cuba. (Express)
14 WASA slaps a water curfew. (Express headline)
16 U.S. soldier held in Maracas hills. (Express)
16 P.S.A. calls for non political Civil Service. (Express)
16 Guardian Editorial on the Constitution Commission:
"Fear is the worst enemy of democracy but yet it has
pervaded the most vocal of the convention's delegates,
especially when the question has been the entrustment of
power. This is perhaps the consequence of the prolonged
experience of undemocratic government and the short
experience of representative institutions which has bred
despair in certain quarters of tasting the fruits of power".
17 The Spirit and Grocers Retailors Ass. calls on govt. to cut
profits, by the wholesale merchants, manufacturers and
commission agents on essential foods, to avert a Food
Crisis. (Express)
17 The head of the.Police Association, Insp. Rupert Arneaud
calls on policemen to keep within the boundaries of their~
official position and legal authority. (Express)

17 "Organised,crime today is showing itself in many forms
and even under the guise of politics", says Comm. of
Police, Eustace Bernard, while announcing a one-week
seminar of Car. Police Commissioners in Trinidad.
(Express)
18 A young police recruit Pritchard is shot to death at
Pole Carew St. Woodbrook. (Express)
18 Mr. C.R. Ottley, member of the Prison Reform Com-
mission, tells the National Convention at Chag. that the
theRoyal Gaolis a place unfit for dogs. (T.G.)
19 A Guyanese prisoner awaiting deportation to his home-
land scales the wall of the Royal Gaol. (Express)
19 (Letter to Express Editor) "The method which
should be adopted in our present circumstances is to
press for the amelioration of the basic deficiencies of our
society, the deep cancers from which spring the surface
pains we feel".
20 A 19-year old electrician of St. James, David Mitchell, is
charged with the murder of police recruit Pritchard.
21 Ex-Sol holds a day of commemoration at UWI to mark
the 3rd anniversary of the Army mutiny at Teteron.
22 Police issue $50,000 Reward for 4 wanted men and a
girl Guy Harewood, Daniel Thomas, Brian Jeffers,
Norbert Allick and Andrea Jacob.
22 Police Commissioner Bernard says he is sticking to
regulations no guns for police on patrol. (T.G.)
23 Garbage Shocker in City P.O.S. faces a massive 4-day
garbage pile-up because of an over-time dispute between
.heo City Council and its scavengers. (Express)
25 City garbage chaos goes on scavengers halt work.
kExpress)
26 Armed police occupy the prison chapel. Tighter security
at jail. (Express)
28 A senior officer of the Prison Officers' Ass. says that over
crowding and sub-standard conditions in the country's
penal institutions are responsible for the spate of
escapes from them. (Express)
28 Mervyn Trumpet and Clyde Haynes committed to stand
trial at the Assizes. (T.G.)
29 Fifteen-hundred Orange Grove workers refuse to return
to work until personnel manager, Lennox Hunte, and
production manager, Clement Tello, are dismissed. (Express)
29 Caribbean Police chiefs arrive for regional conference.
(Express)
29 "A large quantity of combustible material including bottles
of gasoline, diesolene, crocus bags, fibre and candles are
reported to have been discovered at Carrera Island Prison".
(T.G.)
30 (Express Editorial ).. "Clearly the police conference
will have a great deal to talk about and there is no
reason why some good could not come out of it; if the
commissioners stick to the issue at hand regional
crime. They must be careful not to get distracted by
confusing real crime with political opposition.
30 Commissioner Bernard in opening Crime Prevention
Week "citizens may blame the government, the
police or the courts, all three for their plight. This is
easy to do, but the real blame rests on all of us here in
Trinidad and Tobago."


Why Tapia



supports



O' Grove



workers


THERE ARE plenty more
Tellos and Huntes where they
come from. They are only
smoke above a fire called
management.
So said Lloyd Best, Tapia
Secretary Monday last,
at Dinsley Village, Tacarigua,
meeting, called to discuss the
situation at Orange Grove Sugar
Factory.
Best pointed out that for
hundreds of years sugar workers
suffered at the hands of Eng-
lishmen. When the Government
bought out the Orange Grove
Company, they expected a dif-
ference. Yet State ownership
has not made a difference.
The workers are not calling
for better wages, or shorter
working hours; they are calling
for the efficient running of the
factory.
Tapia supports the workers
for two reasons. The first is
that the workers' cause is just.
The referees recognized the
poor human relations displayed
byTellobut did not recommend
dismissal. Management delayed
the release of the report until
Dead Season when the workers'
bargaining power was at its
,:weakest. The workers resumed
their protest when the report
came out and everytime Tello
or Hunte came in the bugle of
freedom would blow and the
workers would walk out.

NOT TELL

The second reason why
Tapia supports the workers is
that the situation at Orange
Grove raises wider issues of
Economic Reorganisation, Go-
vernment and Politics in the
country. The issue is not Tello
and Hunte but the management.
And this is what TAPIA
proposes for Orange Grove:
that it should be owned and
controlled by the workers, resi-
dents in the area, the Munici-
pality of Tacarigua-Tunapuna
and the Central Government,
in proportions to be worked
out.
Under Localisation, manage-
ment would not dare to be-
have as arrogantly as at present.
But man does not live by bread
alone.
The problem of Orange
Grove is only one of several
facing the 80,000 people in the
ward of Tacarigua. Others are
the constant traffic jams on
mornings and evenings, health
facilities, schools, sporting fa-
cilities etc.
The municipal government
which Tapia is advocating will
be responsible for all these
problems. Tapia is suggesting
25 such municipal governments
throughout the country to
bring full participation to our
people everywhere.
These interests would be
represented in the Senate -"a
big maco house" that Tapia
is proposing. Local bodies will
then have representation at
National level.


TAPIA PAGE 11












1,1- ~drea
&Rsesrch Thsti-tlut'e :Co
Stt2dY of j1iarl
162W a, 78th Str(Ie-
-TZ f y(:RlK, N -Y. '100219
Ph. Lebhgh 5 84)48,
U.S rc~-J\


K!rM uu r*TluoT*


Blackgold reaps Ochro harvest


FROM COROSAL
come the glad tidings
of a harvest in pro-
gress. The brothers
and sisters of the
Blackgold Co-opera-
tive have begun to
reap and market their
first crop of ochroes
from the land they
have been working.
It is a joyful occa-
sion for Blackgold,
and the following
message from the Pre-
sident of the Co-op
expresses this sense of
triumph over the
scrunt:


In the small district
of Corosal the brothers
and sisters of the Black-
gold Co-op have begun to
see their sweat bringing
rewards from the soil.
On September 12 we
began to sell ochroes
harvested from the land,
which I feel is another
step Blackgold have taken
towards the top.
To some people what
we were doing was just a
waste, but Blackgold is
part of the awakening
sweeping the country. We
know in our age group
30 out of 100 walk the


streets without work.
That's whywe have organ-
ised the Blackgold because
we want to break
the scrunt. We want to
find our manhood and


stand, you know, stand
tall on our feet.
We also feel that what
we are doing is not any-
thing to be ashamed of.
The fact is, we just don't


dig bossmen. There can
be no doubt the Black-
gold co-op is a living
example of what it means
to assert our independ-
ence and manhood.


O'Grove workers win: Hunte & Tello to go


LT LD f-


~ JU.J~UWOR
Topoa,


p


SATYAGRAHA resist-
ance through non-vio-
lence, and the pursuit of
truth.
This is the message
suggested by an exhibi-
tion dn the life of former
Indian Prime Minister
Jawarharlal Nehru in the
old Eastern Market in
Port of Spain.
At a press conference
in the old market last
Monday given by the
Indian High Commission-
er Syed Muzaffar Aga, it
was pointed out that
Jawarharlal could be just-
ly considered the father
of the non-alignment
movement.
The Non-Aligned Con-
ferences like the one held


LAST WEEK marked the
end of the first round of
a five-month old struggle
between workers and
management at the
Orange Grove National
Sugar Company. And the
workers, convinced about
the righteousness of their
cause, are pleased to re-
cord that come January
1974, Hunte and Tello
would no longer be in
the pay of the company.
This is part of a com-
p promise settlement


worked out at a meeting
of representatives of the
company, the Trades
Union Congress, All Trini-
dad Union, and the
Orange Grove workers
on September 1973.
In return workers
have agreed to prepare the
factory plant to grind
the 1974 crop which is
expected to begin just
when Hunte and Tello
leave.
Meanwhile the two
company officials who


have been .the. cause of
deep-seated resentment
among the workers have
instructions not to enter
the factory compound.
And workers have
warned that any failure
to adhere to this particu-
lar agreement could well
mean further work stop-
pages, and go-slows.
If all goes according
to plan Orange Grove is
expected to reap a rich
harvest next year.


Satyagraha, resistance


through non- violence


last month in Algiers are
really the product of his
policies.

POLICY

This policy of non-
alignment was an exten-
tion on the international
field of India's own inde-
pendence won after great
struggle marked by non-
violence.
Non-alignment came


into the news last week
when (a) Prime Minister
Dr. Williams mentioned
that he had something to
say which would have
broken up the last Non-
Alignment Conference,
and therefore he did not
attend; and (b) the PM
did not attend the Nehru
-exhibition which he was
due to open be-
cause of his present state
of non-alignment from
the party.


4-
/


Eddie Hart


victory

THE Eddie Hart League
scored a notable victory
last Saturday, September
29, when they defeat the
SFA 3-2 on the Orange
Grove Savannah, Taca-
rigua.
By half-time the
Eddie Hart boys led 2-0.
In the second half SFA
fought to equalize, and
the game hung in the
balance until just before
full time when the north-
ern league netted the
winning goal.
Some promising new
talent was exposed in that
encounter Raymond
Haynes, Samuel Phillip
and 15-year old Quito
Joseph.
S Meanwhile Baldwin
Mootoo has postponed
his session on cricket
organisation in Trinidad
to a date to be fixed.
Baldwin, TAPIA's
cricket comrhentator, has
been preparing a paper
on cricket organisation
and administration in Tri-
nidad to be presented to
an open meeting on a
Thursday night. Watch
for it.
Baldwin has also been
appointed Chairman of a
Tapia committee of three
set up to initiate and
promote action in con-
junction with other local
groups on the question of
sport in East St. George.
Other members of the
committee are: Earl Best
and Ruthven Baptiste.
Sport was one of the
topics discussed at Tapia's
last Special Assembly.
members from the
floor urged that Tapia do
something about the
"total breakdown of
sport" in the country.
It was noted that the
government lacked any
programme for sport or,
more widely, for physical
education.
The view was ex-
press that a solution to
the-problem of sport lay
in the reorganisation of
thelocal communities and
the establishment of ef-
fective local government.
A resolution was later
tabled calling for the re-
storation of the Honey-
moon ground in Tuna-
puna.


35 Charlotte Street, Port of Spain
Printed by Taoia House Printinc Co. Ltd.. for Tapia House Publishing Co. Ltd., 91 Tunapuna Rd. Phone: 662-5126


NO


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