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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00077
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: September 23, 1973
Frequency: completely irregular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00077

Full Text


Vol. 3 No. 38


i EW A -" !NlST!TUTE
SUNDAY SEPTEMBER 23, 197?3 TAPINAA IVWRbSAK Y
:.,' 7' T 7 TR:.E-
NEP z , 'T'


BLOOD






HANDS



BALANCE

SHEET

DEAD: TOTAL: 15
1972 September: P.C. Borrell of Fyzabad, buried on September 10 -
died while undergoing treatment for a gunshot
wound to chest, received while on sentry duty. (T.G.)
1972 October: Kenneth Kirk, shot dead by police returning the fire
on Laventille Ext. Road, Morvant. (Oct. 21 T.G.)
Anthony Joseph, alias Santa Claus, shot dead by
police in a car in Belmont. (Oct. 29 T.G.)
1973 January: Allan Caton shot dead by police outside Hi-Lo,
St. Ann's. (Jan. 27 T.G.)
1973 February: Wiseman De Vignes shot dead by a police officer
following incident in Fyzabad district. (Feb. 21 -TG)
Four killed in shoot-out at Trou Macaque, Upper
Pashley Street, Laventille Nathaniel Jack, John
Bedau, Ulric Gransaul and Mervyn Andrews. (Feb.
23 Express)
1973 April Young Police recruit Pritchard shot to death
at Woodbrook. Apr. 18. (Express)
1973 July Army Lt. Walker shot to death at Chaguaramas.
July 24. (T.G.)
1973 September P.C. Sylvester Khan shot dead-mistaken for guerrilla.
Sept. 12. (T.G.)
1973 August P.C. Sankar shot dead in Diego Martin. Aug. 29
(Express)
Two shot dead in shoot-out in Caura and Lopinot
hills Beverly Jones and Kenneth Tenia. Sept. 14.
(Express)
WOUNDED TOTAL: 24
1972 December Carl Peters shot by police "when he allegedly at-
tacked a policeman with an ice-pick. Oct. 5..G.)
1972 December Two wounded in hold-up. (T.G.)
1973 January Four wounded in alleged hold-up outside Hi-Lo,
St. Ann's Jan. 27. (T.G.)
1973 March Wrong man shot in Tunapuna raid. Man's companion
also shot. Warrant for another person. (Express)
1973 June Guerrillas blast Textel Station Four policemen
wounded. Man hurt in Petit Valley shoot-out.
June 8 (T.G.)
1973 August Earl Lewis jnr. wounded by police on way home.
Aug. 8. (Express)
Raid on Matelot police station, one villager wounded
Aug. 9. (Express)
Serg. Dennis Richardson wounded in shootout in
Valencia hills. Aug. 28. (T.G.)
1973 September Fyzabad man wounded by police at South Quay.
Sept. 2. (Express)
Five shot at La Fortune Village, Woodland police
claim guerrillas involved. Sept. 11. (Express)
Siparia painter shot by gunman believed to be
guerrilla. Sept. 13. (T.G.)


ON


YOUR


WHO IS to blame for the death of Beverly Jones and Ken-
neth Tenia, killed during combined Army and Police
operations in the Northern Range last week? Who, or what,
is responsible for the bloodshed on both sides of the lines,
which has been a growing feature of our national life, as
documented by reports and statements in the daily Press
over the past year?
As the nation learnt of the death of Miss Jones,
still in her teens, and as the media kept up the guessing
game as to whether the missing body in the hills was
that of Guy Harewood, inevitably the question had to be
asked, how did we get to this?
The answers have not been slow in coming. Depending on
where we stand, it has been imperialism, Communism, the Cubans,
the C.I.A., you name it. Everything, in fAact, except outselves.
The straightjacket of colonial thought forces us to look for outside
interference to explain away all our problems.
We find it difficult to face up to the fact that it is we who are
ultimately responsible for our fate.In this perspective, the blood of


the past year is on the hands
It is what we have done,
and equally important, those
things we have failed to do,
which have brought us to this
sorry pass. Immediately, from
the left and from the right; and
from those who think they
occupy middle ground, will
arise cries of indignation-and
protest it is the intransigence
of the Government, it is the
brutality of the police, some
will say. Others will point to
the presence of activists and
agitators, to the cancerous
spread of inimical ideologies.
LEGACY
As if partial explanations,
real or imagined, could account
for the total breakdown, of
which the recent military de-
velopments are only the latest
and most dramatic symptom.
All of which is not to deny that
the legacy we drew from the
colonial past has been a diffi-
cult one.
But the challenge of Inde-
pendence, or at least of the
first years of our life as an
independent nation, was pre-
cisely to tackle those inter-
related problems of inequitable
economic structures, authori-
tarian political institutions and
twisted social and cultural va-
lues bequeathed to us by colo-
nialism.
This we have signally
failed to do. And this failure
has not simply been that of the
PNM Government, enormous
as their sins of omission must
be in this regard. The guilt is
much larger than that, for have
not many of us sought to
squeeze out of the new dis-
pensation the last ounce of
personal or sectional gain? Who


of each and every one of us.


Jennifer Jones, 19, branded a
guerrilla

among us has stopped to ask
the basic question what is
required for every creed and
race, every man jack, to find
an equal place here?
The belated cries now for
national dialogue, necessary as
that is, only serve to point up
the smug disregard for the com-
mon cause, that callous in-
difference to tensions brewing
beneath the surface, that was
shattered by 1970.
Neither from the Press nor
from the conventional oppo-
sition have we got those critical
and disinterested judgements


necessary to awaken the na-
tional consciousness. Instead,
the old-time politicians have
been content to manipulate
and manoeuvre, to pander to
traditional forces, while new
interests were coming onto the
stage, unattended and increas-
ingly restless.
Meanwhile the Press blithe-
ly contends that it is conven-
tional politics which make-i
news.

PRIVILEGE

Nor could the trinity of
Government, Business and La-
bour offer any radical solutions
to the ills that grew. apace;
secure in their privileges, these
oligarchs would brook no chal-
lenge to their Tri-partite king-
dom.
And so, when the Revolu-
tion of 1970 offered a chance
to begin anew, to open a funda-
mental inquiry into the kind of
society we wished to establish,
these entrenched interests, act-
ing in accord, resolutely closed
the door to change with their
State of Emergency.
Since that time the reaction
has grown steadily; the regime
has been immutably altered.
More and more they must rule
by guns. And it needs to be
said that our unconventional
movement which has come to
the fore since 1970 must share
the blame for this development.
Did we not seek to force
the change before we had es-
tablished solid foundations? Is
it not possible that the frustra-
tion with politics which drove
Beverly Jones into the hills,
came straight out of the dis-
appointed hopes of 1970?

NEW ORDER

If this is so, then all the
more is it true that the blame
for our present situation rests
on the shoulders of the entire
nation. None is guiltless, and
so all must share the costs and
sacrifices of seeking a more
just, humane and noble order.
We can only hope that those
who are calling for dialogue are
sincere. We can only trust that
those of us who have hitherto
blocked the path and side-
tracked our nation into the
ways of violence, would now
behold the blood on all our
hands.


15 Cents


This Sunday SepteniLr23 SPECIALTapiaHouse
ASSEMBLY Tapia House


I





SUNDAY SEPTEMBER 23, 1973 TAPIA ANNIVERSARY


WE USED to say it couldn't happen here. That this was
not Latin America or Cuba. "You think this is a republic,
where everybody have dey own gun?" many were saying,
not so many years or even months ago. Now people ask-
ing: "What this country coming to?"
People once argued that in Trinidad and Tobago there was
respect for the rule of law, on both sides of the fence; that a
violent revolution was only necessary in a situation like Batista's
Cuba where a regime has become so repressive that it is bumping
off its opponents, one by one. And no ore could ever conceive of
that happening here.
Yet, over the last year or so we have seen the emergence of
Texas-style shoot-outs and shoot-ins. But memories are short.
When death after death occurs we.soon become accustomed; we
tend to under-estimate the seriousness of the situation in terms of
Dead and wounded, of a Balance Sheet of Blood.
This is what we have
attempted to do to record
factually the number of persons
who have been killed or
wounded overthe last year B u t


or so in these armed
clashes. The decision to begin
at September, 1972 is not
accidental.

TO THE FINISH

It was at this time last year
that the Oval Riot occurred
when members of the Police
Service threw bottles and hurl-
ed tear gas canisters into a
crowd of thousands, gathered
not to riot or protest, but to
watch the Brazilian soccer
team, Santos, against a repre-
sentative national team.
This incident showed the
country, those in the Oval,
those listening to their radios
or watching television, and
those who saw thenewspapers
the following da\. the'reason
for the large-scale police re-
cruitment since 1970.

It is a fight to the finish,
said the Prime Minister, at the
time of the Transport Strike,
in May of 1969.Since the onset
of the February Revolution,
the Government has been pre-
paring for a war. One year later
came repressive legislation and
arming of the "guards at the
gate," with new and fearsome


weapons S.L.R.'s, S.M.G.'s
and God only knows what else.

Every three months, people
witnessed a new pass-out of
recruits. In the Legislature, the
Government failed in its at-
tempt to introduce draconian
measures in one sweep the
Public Order Act. Not to be
dissuaded, if introduced the
Public Order Act piece-meal:
the Summary Offences Act,
the Firearms Act and the Se-
dition Act.


TERROR


The police service was
beefed up for the coming
struggle, somewhere in the
bush, or on a block, or in


what


someone's home in the wee
hours of the morning. The Oval
could not have been intended
to be the grand occasion.
However, when you train a
dog to bite he will bite anyone,
anywhere. And so a police
service, trained not to handle a
crowd, but to manhandle citi-
- zens. ;ould only react brutally
to the situation ini the_ _O3al___
and the whole nation saw for
- the first time the face of the
coming terror. Whether it had
been the plan or not, a Police
State had arrived.
Some have lived and some
have died. Here we record
those who have died; both
policemen and other citizens
and those who have been
wounded. That, frankly, is
"what this country come to".


this country





come to ?


CHRONICLE



SEPTEMBER 1972
5 Prime Minister's Independence Message: "Our contribu-
tion in this field has been the attempt to humanise as far
as possible the inevitable response to lawlessness and
disorder. To put it another way, we have sought to
reconcile maximum security, both individual and collec-
tive, for the majority of our citizens, with minimum
interference with the dissident minority". (Express)
5 "44 Matclot villagers will lose a day's pay and spend
more than $200 to hire a bus to try to see Prime Minister
Dr Eric Williams tomorrow about the serious problems
in their district". (Express)
7 (Editorial) "Was it necessary for the police to
have retaliated to the bottle throwing by themselves
throwing bottles back at the crowd? Was it necessary
to use tear gas on people in a crowded stand? ... Was it
necessary to call out policemen armed with self-loading
rifles (SLRs)? Was it their intention to use them on the
crowd?" (T.G.)
9 (Editorial) "In order to emphasize the importance of his
post, the salary of the Prime Minister had to be increased
to what might be considered a phenomenal rise 120
per cent when one considers that in the private sector
a managing director receives a minimum salary of $3,000
per month, one sees the necessity for the adjustment".
10 (Letter signed by Koonge Beharry Singh of Diego Martin i
_I__ aiip .e _-. C,2 ic9..2.0. L .b.c_ biauiha- o". htJ~.-r...----
w\ho wouuld steal ouur iccduoll 1'uno us and l nslave u tlu
the tyrannical rule of Cuba and the Socialist Republics
under the guise of Power, Red, Black or whatever the
combination ... Police Stations have been bombed; on no
provocation police stations have been set on fire...
police have been machinegunned and shot with re-
volvers and pistols; on approaching huts in the forest they
have been shot at the Police have their sources and
means of knowing what to expect. And they have it ever
before their minds that the -Communist revolutionary
tactician will use any and every means to create terror,
tension, panic and public disorder. So that when a mild
bottle-throwing sudden tly becomesaheavy bottle-throwing,
anything could have followed, including attempts at
murder and a follow-up of rampaging mobs in the city ...
There is a war on in this Country; it is a war by revolu-
tionaries using arms and every means to gain control of
the country". (T.G.)



10 "Police Constable Kenneth Borrell, 26 of Fyzabad Police
Station, was buried on Friday afternoon died while
undergoing treatment for a gunshot wound to chest,
received while he was on sentry duty at the Station".
(T.G.)
12 (Opinion on Oval Riot) "The questions raised by the
behaviour of the police are too fundamental to be left to
leisurely examination behind closed doors "(Express)
14 (Quoting Dr. Williams in The Nation) "First is the politic-
al opposition, divided fragmented, a motley crowd, who
have not yet been able to rise above the politics of scandal
on the one hand, or the techniques of deliberate harass-
ment on the other".
16 (George Huggins, UWI) "Lack of training, inexperience
with big crowds fear and insecurity, all of this must have
been present in the minds of the police -on duty. But
there may well have been more deep-rooted problems.
Since the events of two years ago and the ensuing states
of emergency, there is a growing sensitivity to crowd
situations, and perhaps the infiltration into the minds of
officers and other ranks of a 'riot-phobia' Unless-
people can feel that the police are fulfilling their role,
there must of necessity be growing dissatisfaction with
the police, and eventually a situation where the people
will meet with them in a confrontation that will be a
major catastrophe". (Express).
28 (Editorial) "It does not make sense that Trinidad and
lobago, a nation dedicated to the fundamental rights and
and freedoms of the individual, should be saddled with an
Index of Forbidden Books". (Express)
29 "Police in Trinidad will take to the air soon in a move
aimed at traffic and crime control the new squad will
be used to assist in the traffic problems It is also
planned to use the helicopter service effectively in main-
taining supervision in guerrilla activities!" (T.G.)
29 "Constable Neil Salvary. who was seriously wounded in a
shoot out with "guerrillas" since July I Salvary was a
member of a party under Detective Insp. Calvin Trotman
sent out to intercept a party of guerrillas reportedly
headed for Arima from Blanchisseuse". (T.G.)
30 PNM brands NJAC as subversive. (T.G.)


I"


'K
















I~


KIRPALANI'S
NATIONWIDE AGENTS AND STOCKISTS
'**


_I _


_


PAGE 2 TAPIA





SUNDAY SEPTEMBER 23, 1973 TAPIA ANNIVERSARY


TAPIA PAGE 3


Thisis an extract from the booklet by Dr. Gocking
Democracy or Oligarchy, published by The Tapia
House Publishing Co Ltd on September 9, 1973,
and now on sale for 25 cents at bookstores through-
out the island.
The booklet examines the background to
constitutional reform and poses some choices open
to the Wooding Commission and the PNM Go-
vernment.




A MAN of Dr. Williams' calibre and attain-
ments must have his eye on history and his
place in it. Few men have the wherewithal
to warrant entertaining such an aspiration.
I have always thought him one.
THE FIRST duty of a government is to
create, as far as possible, a just society, but
this is what I now have in mind. I am think-
ing of tasks he seemed particularly fitted to
accomplish and has not done so far.
I can see the political advantage, perhaps
necessity, to inveigh against colonialism but I had
expected him to give high priority to a decolonising
process through education. He probably had, as I
just said, to play politics with the evils of colon-
ialism but at the same time he could have inspired
and assembled the best minds in the country to
examine and work out a philosophy of education
and practical measures to implement it. This
could have had an entire English-speaking Carib-
bean reference.
There has been also a long-felt need "to
develop a body of thought which must be relevant
and indigneous" (Perspectives For The New So-
ciety p. 32). No one claims that this should be so
"dominant a preoccupation "as to be "an expensive
luxury" but there is, and has been a dire need for
such a body of thought to inform our educational
institutions and society generally. This would have
been part of an intellectual revolution with far-
reaching social consequencesA for the emancipation
and development of the West Indian mind.

RESPONSIBILITY

TM."" a W r~..e 'estrietedl-basis-,,as early as 19-58,
the Secretary of State for the Colonies and the
Cambridge Syndicate were inviting West Indians to
take responsibility for their own secondary school
examinations as the West African and other ex-
colonial territories had done. Fifteen years have
gone by and I doubt whether there is a "relevant
body of indigenous thought" to inspire the work
which we are at last haltingly undertaking.
To govern a country is a formidable and
demanding task but Dr. Williams has written a
sufficient number of books in the last sixteen
/ years to encourage his friends and well-wishers
to believe that he could have. been one of the fathers
of a School- of West Indian History. The English-
speaking Caribbean, though part ot the sociological
entity we call the Caribbean, has had a distinctive
history of its own, deserving its own descriptive
and interpretive studies.
The Perspectives speaks on page- 31 of the
"despairing destructive forms of Black Power
from the United States of America". It is a tragic
irony that Black Power which basically and in-
trinsically aims at the emancipation and regenera-
tion of the African mind in the New World after
the traumatic experience of slavery and colonialism
should carry the taint of the subversive under a
regime presided over by a man who produced the
classic of Capitalism and Slavery and pioneered
so much research in negro history.
A vibrant department of housing and pro-
tection for our Archives, the sponsoring of a full
history of Trinidad and Tobago and co-operation
in the production of a history of English-speaking
West Indies which the UWI is now sponsoring and
producing, the inclusion of Portuguese among the
subjects to be studied at the St. Augustine Cam-
pus because of the considerable African element
and influence in the history of Brazil I recom-
mended this in 1962 when the UWI was establish-
ing its branch in Trinidad these are some of the
things I had looked to him to inspire and sponsor.
I still do. But in cultural matters the Party, lags
behind the country and the youth. The Per-
spectives recognizes this:
"Culturally, the reconstruction effort has
already been started by the youth".(p.40 )


What has




Dr Williams




achieved?


"LITTLE NOBLE IN INDE-
PENDENCE .-A MAD RUSH
FOR WEALTH AND POWER"


And it could have added all those individuals and
groups promoting the theatre, drama, the dance,
art sculpture, literature, music folklore, historical
research.
It is not enough to stimulate local culture
through Best Village competitions.
The National Cultural Council, in its work
on the national cultural heritage, will of necessity
become interested in cultural aTfinites with peoples
who have shared .with us a common origin and a
common history. People of African and related
race, for example, must look not oply inwards but
outwards.
They belong to the Atlantic world bordering
on the Atlantic ocean which has hitherto been
little else than a North-West European and North
American lake. Their outlook, their thought, their
interests, their insights, their creativity must assume
a hemispheric, a New World, an Atlantic dimen-
sion. So far we look in vain for indications of that
scale, that spaciousness of outlook.

HISTORIAN

Dr. Williams has not projected the image of
being racialist. He has taken as keen an interest in
Indian immigration and its place in southern Carib-
bean history as in negro history. Nor has he, as an
historian, been unaware of the Caribbean as a
theatre in which three continents have met -
Europe as well as Africa and Asia. May 1, in this
respect, draw the attention to a passage in the
Perspectives:
"What is required in Trinidad and Tobago in
the essentially transitional period of the next
two decades is a certain amount of cultural
and psychological "Space" for each of the
two principal ethnic groups within the larger
confines of a wider and commonly shared
national identity" (p. 34).
"Socially, the idea of solidarity between the
two dispossessed groups Negroes and
Indians must be pervading. There can be
no future for the country without such
solidarity. We should strive to eliminate pre-
judice against local minority groups".(p. 40)

There is one other thing: the failure of the
English speaking Caribbean to achieve West Indian
nationhood. It is fashionable to attribute this
failure to the fact of British initiative. Much of
this is stuff and nonsense. The failure was a West
Indian failure. We muffed one of the great mo-
ments of our history.
Mr. Ramphal was right when he conceived of


the ultimate point in regional unity as being
political. This is what he said at the 38th American
Assembly Meeting in New York in October, 1970:

"Many of us have a vision of a Caribbean of
the future in which all its many peoples the
Dutch, French, Spanish and English-speaking
will have devised out of their social, econo-
mic and political diversity a unity that re-
sponds to the necessities of our joint survival.
I question, however, whether we shall make
any progress towards this goal unless those
of us who start with a common identity in
these parts first take our unity to its ultimate
point".

Mr. Ramphal's message was clear: he con-
ceived of that ultimate point in regional unity as
being political.
Dr. Williams will be 62 in September. He is
not old; but he is not young. He cannot leave the
the political scene with his mathematical discovery
of one from ten leaves naught. He cannot leave
West Indian nation-building to Demas, Best, Burn-
ham and Ramphal. I hopefully conclude that this
passage from the Perspectives provide a clue:
"This analysis helps to elucidate the paradox
that the countries of the Caribbean region
can enhance the sum total of their peoples'
effective sovereignty only by pooling their
separate State sovereignties with those of
other Caribbean States". (p. 38).
I attach particular significance, in this context, to
Dr. Williams' taking over the Ministries of External
Affairs and of West Indian Affairs.
I sometimes wonder what role our oil dis-
coveries may play.

HOLD THE STAGE

I am expecting that Dr. Williams will en-
deavour to hold the stage in the second decade of
Independence and crown his career with continued
emphasis on the economic goals set out in para-
graph 2, section V, page 38 of the Perspectives for
the NewSociety, with a restatement of "confidence
in the people", rejection of change thatwould
involve "the emergence of a totalitarian society",
pursuit of change "within the framework of the
democratic structure and organization we are trying
to develop" and with an attempt to capture' or
recapture the young and the forward-looking
with advocacy of goals and frontiers, all indicated
above and all within his competence but never
quite pursued. /
This can be accomplished, but only with
dialogue, the best use of the media of information,
a broad participation of the people on a scale
never before pihctised or contemplated, and with
a new constitution, with the necessary checks and
balances, to facilitate these ends.
There are many who will say that this is all
moonshine, that'The Doctor has lost credibility.
If this be true, then he would have been a meteor
whom many had taken for a star.
There is such a thing as historical process and
certain things are possible at certain times, but not
possible at others.
For example, the School of West Indian
History of which I spoke, was much more difficult
to come by before 1956 and even a couple of
years after. Dr.Williams, though as a scholar bound
to write history objectively, nevertheless had every
right and even an obligation to write on subjects
that highlighted the evils of colonialism.
Thereafterwards, however, the need became
increasingly one for a full assessment not only of
colonialism but of the colonial period. There is a
valid and important distinction here.
We must remember that by 1960 the British
Empire was already in ruins. British power was on
the retreat and there was a vacuum into which West
Indian leadership could move.
There was no colonial regime, no establish-
ment backed by external power with which we
had to contend. Our creative and constructive
period could have begun, and the tasks I postu-
lated for Dr. Williams were possible.
Unfortunately, there was little noble in
Independence. There was a mad rush and scramble
for wealth and power and the blandishments of
material life. Oligarchy has been the result.


TAPIA SUPPORTS THE Save Our wam CAMPAIGN BY TEBLUERIVER
S W V K J A ACTION COMMITTEE









Lawrence Carrington asks whether our educational system prepares us for challenge and chang


THE term "National Dialogue" has only
recently come into vogue and has been used
by politicians to indicate their desire to
involve the community in the solution of its
own problems.
Within the last couple years or so, a number
of conferences and conventions have attempted
to widen the scope of participation in dis-
cussion of issues of national importance by
including groups and individuals who have
hitherto not been recognized as worthy of
consultation.
Perhaps one of the best examples of this kind of
broader consultative base was the work of the Con-
stitution Commission. Depending upon one's politics,
this kind of development can be viewed either as pure
tokenism on the part of a government that has
suddenly realized that its contact with real people is
tenuous, or as a giant step forward in the democrat-
isation of decision making processes.
1 do not propose to commitimyself to one or the
other of these quite plausible views, largely
because I do not think that it is necessary to do so
here. What I feel we have to examine is whether our
pattern of education has been such as would allow the
notion of national dialogue on any matter to be a
realizable and profitable goal. If it has we have no
problem, but if it has not how do we proceed
towards changing it.
As a preface to my statement of position let me
recognize that teachers must be quite fed-up with
being knocked for all the ills of the society, and can
justifiably retort to criticism that they themselves are
products of the society for which they are so often
responsible. But there is a point in time when the
circularity of the hen and egg type argument must be
abandoned.
Dialogue, in my opinion, presupposes the existence
of the following:-
a) Community articulateness;
b) Willingness and ability to listen critically
and to respond accordingly;
c) Reading ability;
S d) Confidence in one's ability to contribute to
the community;
- .-e) Selflessness in participation.
f) Willingness to challenge and be challenged.
Does the system of education in Trinidad and
Tobago foster the development of each of the above
prerequisites, to dialogue? If not,:why not? At this
point I must interject that I consider education to be,
a process in which the school is only one of the
participants the institutionalized participant. I
propose to deal mainly with the school's contribution
but for school you could read family,, Church or any
established institution.
ARTICULATENESS

Let us look at my first prerequisite community
articulateness. Dialogue can be a reality at a national
level only if a large number of persons at different
levels, in different occupations and having a variety of
responsibilities in the community share the common
facility of expressing themselves fully in speech and in
writing with a common set of reference points.
The question then is, does schooling in Trinidad
and Tobago promote the development of articulate-
ness of the individual on a large enough scale to
provide for my first prerequisite? In my view it does
not. The reasons for this are multiple. But among
them may be counted the following:-
1. The language which the school system con-
siders desirable is not the same as the one
which the majority of children speak or
hear on any continuous basis in their im-
mediate community;
2. The school system does not take note of
this difference by adopting any special
procedures to teach the language which it
considers desirable;
3. Within the classroom the opportunities for
becoming articulate in either language, or
form of speech, are few and in fact a
premium is placed on silence rather than
articulateness.
When Keenan reported on education in Trinidad
and Tobago in 1869, he noted that children whose
only language was French, (by which he must have
meant French Creole) or Spanish, were being made to
learn the English alphabet and to read English words
without any reference to the language they already
knew. He considered this to be nonsense and went on
to state that a language could not be infused into the
human brain by the power of a battering ram. He
pleaded for more rational measures and recommended
that such children, if taught to read in their own
language, would more readily thereafter acquire
English.


No notice was taken of this recommendation and
it was not because people did not know that a large
part of-the population was non-English speaking.
Indeed at the same period the government had on its
payroll for purposes of the courts, official interpreters
of French Creole, French, Spanish, Hindi and even
German, this latter being probably a relative of
someone who needed a job or an income.
Some fifty (50) years later Marriot and Mayhew
in 1933 made very adverse comments on the way in
which English was being taught in schools of this.
country. Now, forty .(40) years later, the same
criticism can be and has been made with equal
accuracy. The fault is simply this, that the English
language syllabus has been since Keenan's time
falsely based on the assumption that the population
is English-speaking and has had as its purpose the
development of appreciation for what are called the
beauties of the language and the ironing oht of
frequent errors.
To consider that the speech of a Trinidadian or


Tobagonian is English with errors, is as bad as
looking at a Cortina and saying that it is really an
Austin but with some mistakes in manufacture.

The truth of the matter is that the speech of the
average citizen is systematically different in structure
from English and is only confused with English
because the majority of its vocabulary is transparently
related where it is not identical. If the syllabus made
this its starting point and proceeded to teach English
in a manner that took account of these differences, it
would be able to restate its aims and achieve them,
with a consequent gain in the articulateness of the
school leaver.

Instead, what it does is to rob the child of his own
vernacular, by forcing him to see it as having a place
in his life that cannot be for the expression of real
thought,and hence cannot be used for serious expression,
without providing the child with an alternative
system of communication that can complement his
vernacular. The result in most cases is a linguistically
insecure adult who retreats the moment he feels that
a particular issue requires a variety of language in
which he is deficient. Withdrawal inevitably means
no dialogue,,and hence someone else must dictate to
him what he must feel or do in a particular situation.
f
Nor does the atmosphere of the classroom provide
any opportunity for the development of such articu-
lateness as can be salvaged from the syllabus.
Authoritarian repression of, the child's right and
ability to speak is the hostile attitude of the classroom.
It is the teacher who speaks. When the pupil is asked
to speak he must reply by restating to the teacher
what the teacher has already said either in part or in
whole. No originality or genuine self-expression or
development is possible. No dialogue is taking place.

How can a person who has passed through such an
experience be expected to suddenly begin participa-
tion in dialogue when his only contact with authori-
tarian figures has been hearing them speak and
repeating what they have said?
Furthermore, if what the child says when he is
asked to speak, is not something that has already
been proposed by the teacher or something of which
.he approves, the child is wrong he has not given the
answer to the question. In the school, then, as in the
community, to say anything that has not been already


said or approved by the authority figure, is to be
wrong.
LISTENING
THIS moves us fairly smoothly to our second
prerequisite of dialogue willingness and ability to
listen critically and to respond accordingly. By
listening I do not mean polite silence when someone
else speaks. What I mean is deliberate attention with
a fully alert brain to what people.say and feel. I do
not feel that true listening, as I have described it, is
fostered or even takes place more than rarely in our
classrooms.
Listening must be a reciprocal process. Silent
mouths before a teacher and eyes turned in his
general direction or that of the blackboard, are too
frequently mistaken for listening. Even approved
answers, so frequently called correct answers, to
questions may be interpreted to mean that children
have been listening when in fact all that has happened
is that they have heard. What reasonscan be adduced
for this?






IAL DIA


Firstly, the child is viewed, and knows that he is
viewed, as a brain into which information has to be
put. He is objectified and passivized, and listening,
instead of being an active process ends at hearing.
Even when an individual does listen, the nature of the
response requested of him by way of questions is so
low-levelled that he can cut back his attention to a
little more than hearing and succeed in the school
system.
\What about the teacher? Does the teacher ever
listen? In my view he does not. All he listens to is
himself repeated by the pupil. The voice is different.
The words may be a little different bit the ideas are
the same. New ideas do not have the stamp of
approval because they are generated from the wrong
source, namely the pupil.
A growing number of teachers are becoming con-
scious of this shortcoming and some do attempt to
overcome it. However, my experience has been that
even when this is so, their success in translating their
beliefs into action is marginal.
Among the reasons for pupil failure in school
system terms, must be:-
1. that the pupil is too intelligent to allow
himself to be subjected to the ping-pong
game of batting the idea back to the teacher;
and,
2. that he is not sufficiently smart to recognize
that the key to success in the school is
compliance.
The kind of education in which one is only
permitted to speak approved ideas in an approved
language and the rest of the time to remain silent or
be punished for failure to do so cannot promote
dialogue.
You will remember also that listening included
paying attention to what other people feel. In other
words, to their non-articulated communication, to
the real message of their actions. The boy who
suddenly begins to steal may be saying quite simply
could you please pay a little more attention to my
individuality. The system can only listen if those who
operate it listen.
One of the most disastrous results of the failure of
school to listen to its pupils is that by the time the
pupil becomes an adult, he does not expect to be
listened to. So he grumbles in quarters where nothing
can be done about his complaint, but when put in
the situation where his complaint can in fact be heard,


SUNDAY SEPTEMBER 2


PAGE 4 TAPIA





1973 TAPIA ANNIVERSARY


he reverts to school-type and mouths the approved
words.

READING

MY third prerequisite was the existence of reading
ability in the community. Dialogue in the extended
community must presuppose a high degree of reading
ability within the community. Reading must be
understood to be primarily intelligent interpretation
of the visually printed word.
Even by the yardstick of the school system the
majority of school leavers are unsatisfactory in
reading. Clearly not in vocalising words on a page, but
in the higher level skills of interpreting the meaning of
printed sentences, of grasping the implications of
those sentences and of allowing themselves to react to
those sentences. When these skills do exist, they are
counterbalanced in their potential for generating
dialogue by the low motivation to read.







L.OGUE


The problems of reading are closely related to that
of language which I discussed in dealing with the
failure of the school system to develop articulate
adults. But equally important is this, that the material
presented for reading in schools is more often than
not alien to the experience of the child. The process
of reading becomes identified with alienness and
irrelevance, and reading does not become a habit, it
becomes a task. Like listening deteriorating into
hearing, reading deteriorates into seeing.
CONFIDENCE in one's ability to contribute to
the community fades in the face of the obstacles to
its recognition. The unchangingness of school, the
fact that it does not listen, that it does not allow
the development of self, that it squashes one into a
flat glass mirror for the teacher to look at himself,
can hardly be an incentive to development of this
confidence.
If dialogue is to take place at a national level, the
community must, through its institutions, assist
people to know themselves and to identify their area
of contribution to the community. Only in this way
can there ever be sufficient people willing to venture
into the kinds of areas of thought and self expression
that will promote change.


SELFLESSNESS

In this context of community service, the virtue of
selflessness is fundamental to dialogue. If I am not
i


selfless, then I cannot listen to anything other than
what I believe, therefore I cannot have dialogue with
people who differ from me nor can I act in any other
interests than my own.
If one is to be affected by the views of other
persons in the community then the common cause
must be accepted as a more important force than the
individual goal. But the narrow limits within which
success is permitted in school and the pressure
exerted by the school system on children to pass
through the restricted channel to wider horizons, has
the effect of early development of dog-eat-dog atti
tudes.

If I have the answer to a sum, the first thing 1 do is
slam my book shut so that my neighbour cannot cog.
Cheating can only exist if there is a rule that says
"Thou shalt not help thy neighbour". Such a rule
must be inimical to selflessness.
The school system makes little provision for
participation in learning. The value placed on indivi-
dual success, of managing to get ahead of the next
man rather than on helping the next man move ahead
with you, the extreme of competitiveness within the
school system assures the continued existence of a
cruelly exploiting society with far too many pecking
orders for anything resembling the common good.

CHALLENGE


IF dialogue is to take place, the participants must
be willing to challenge each other and to be challenged
by each other. The willingness to challenge is a desire
to initiate change and willingness to be challenged is
a desire to permit change. If national dialogue does
not have the possibility of change as one of its end
products, then it is no more than national chatter.
Where do we educate people:-


(a) to want to achieve, change (or in other
words to challenge);

or (b) to be willing to make changes (or in other
words to be challenged?)

Not in school. No child has ever been allowed to feel
for more than a short while that he can change the
school system.
The system swiftly represses any such trouble-
maker. Pupils, one of the two participants supposedly
.in the process of education, may not challenge
the school system in this country. No opportunity
exists for this. If the system changes, it is because it
suits the system to change, not because it has
listened to the challenge of the pupil.


CONCLUSION

IN this personal viewpoint of education for
national dialogue, I have stated six prerequisites to
dialogue and the deficiencies of the school system in
developing the prerequisites. I am of the opinion
that the school system produces people who are ill
prepared for dialogue, but instead a majority who
are well prepared for subservient roles in a society
that is autocratic, and a minority whoareequally
well prepared to be the autocrats.
I have attempted to be articulate and have opened
the dialogue by a statement of my position on this
matter. I hope that you have listened (given my
definition of listening,) that you have listened to
what I have said AND to what I have not said, and
that you are now ready to challenge both me and
the education system. I am ready to listen. It is now
your turn to make my teacher's monologue a
dialogue.


CHRONICLE

OCTOBER 1972

October 4 (Letter) from "Concerned Citizen" notes that
whereas over 200 policemen of various ranks had been
promoted in the previous year, that only four members of
the "specially trained", 359 strong Special Services
Section had got promotion. (Express)
5 Carl Peters, 24, shot by police "when he allegedly at-
tacked a"police with an ice-pick. It was at; that stage,
Police said, a shot was fired". (T.G.)
7 (Editorial on police involvement in tear gas incident in
Oval) .. "We would only hope that because of the
stupidity of a handful of policemen, the name of the
entire Force would not be tarnished for all time". (T.G.)
13 "DR RIVIERE GETS ARMED FAREWELL' es-
corted to plane by armed police squad including Sgt.
Prime (now Inspector) (Express).
14 (Opinion) "Since Trinidad and Tobago is supposed to be
a peace-loving democratic country, where indi-
vidual freedoms and not police state practices are under-
stood to be paramount, the sight of a plainclothes police-
men toting (9m submachine guns) frankly frightens us".
(Express)
17 Six policemen chosen for helicopter squad .. "The
helicopter fleet is to play an effective role in maintaining.
supervision over guerilla activities and car stealing". (T.G.)
17 (Letter from Errol Rosemin, Woodbrook) "I think our
Police Force are doing all that can be done to keep law and
order. They are going all out in helping the public ..
(T.G.)
17 (Letter from L.E. Audain, Gonzales) "I am really sorry
for us. But after tear gas and bottles, what can we
expect?" (T.G.)
21 Kenneth Kirk, 32, shot dead by police returning the fire
on Laventille Extension Road, Morvant. (T.G.)
27 Ag. Asst. Commissioner Toppin says that from January 1
to October 25, 1972, 5,419 "serious crimes" had been
committed 881 more than for the corresponding period
of the previous year. (T.G.)
October 28, Report of Carr Commission into Oval teargas
riot: ". .. in the circumstances, the use of tear gas on this
occasion, while being unauthorized and extremely danger-
ous, may have been a blessing in disguise". (Express)
29 (Opinion) "Mr. Carr's reports has made the point.we
expect will be driven home: the police need better
training and more effective command'. (Express)
29 Anthony Joseph (Santa Claus), 22, shot dead-by police in
car at Belmont (Express)

NOVEMBER 1972
21 Opening of Parliaiment. Throne Speech calls for "strongest
measures to combat crime".
26 Sunday Express Editorial: "The police have never been
better armed; but the crime rate is climbing not going
down".
"We accept the fact that to call again, for the guns to be
put away is not enough now. Guns are in the hands of law
breakers and they are being used". "Other factorssuch as
economic imbalances and political instability contribute
to crime in society. The way to deal with it therefore is
not simply to get tough".
26 Guardian Editorial reports Govt's intention, mentioned in
G.G.'s speech, to use strongest possible measures to com-
batthe rising tide of violent crime."In attempting to explain
the reasons for this crime Mr. Pitt listed five factors but
failed to mention what is probably the most important.
Some people hold that punishment for crime to be effec-
tive must be sharp and swift,but it appears that our sys-
tem is not designed to work that way".

DECEMBER 1972

1 SRP recruits jailed on robbery, charge (T.G.)
1 Police describe promotion exam for Sergeants and inspec-
tors as farcical (T.G.)
1 More police protection for Valsayn (T.G.)
4 Policemen angry over backpay delay (T.G.)
6 SSS Constable and former SRP Const. charged with
armed robbery. (T.G.)
8 Flour price to go up in '73 (T.G.)
10 Police Supt of Traffic Branch charged with driving
without due care
12 Rice shortage (T.G.)
20 Young men with a get-rich-quick attitude prolifera-
tion of arms. Save others from "this evil course".
(Editorial, T.G.)
23 Fyzie's robbed of $13,000 (T.G.)
25 PM's Xmas message: rising rate of crime influenced by
outside world. It has become "fashionable" to make
malicious attacks on the police force and seek to dis-
credit it.
22 Noel Ilendrikson ambushed by 4 men in Petit Bourg.
Men turn out to be police. (I\Epress)
29 System for granting bail questioned. Call for public-
police-judiciary to attack crime (Editorial. T.G.)
Two wounded in hold-up on 22.12 involving $4,500


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TAPIA PAGE 5





SUNDAY SEPTEMBER 23, 1973 TAPIA ANNIVERSARY


THERE IS undoubtedly a rising demand in the country today for fresh elections. With
the hardships caused by unemployment, inflation, food shortages and the almost total
breakdown of the public services in health, water, transport and telephones, the ordinary
citizen dreams daily of a change of government to bring relief,
Now that we have unmistakably reached the stage where governments, politics and
violence are inextricably intertwined, our most insistent cry is that the time of change
has come. And the honest question which we must ask ourselves is whether an election
now stands any chance of bringing change.


We in Tapia, frankly, do
not know the answer. But some
things are very clear to us. The
first is that an election would
be meaningful only if it en-
dows the winning party with
the moral authority to tackle
the fundamental causes of the
crisis and in so doing to alter
the traditional structure of
power by letting little people
in.
We cannot conceive that
any of the 3 or 4 electoral
parties could win that autho-
rity. The PNM, the DLP and
the DAC are essentially parties
compromised by the failures of
the 1956 regime, unable to
inspire the youth by any ele-
vated promise.
And over 70% of the popu-
lation is 35 years and under.
The irrefutable evidence here
is the low registration of po-
tential electors which presages
an effective poll so low as to
perpetuate hopelessly unrepre-
sentative government beyond
the new election.

PICK AND CHOOSE

The second thing we are
sure about is that the country
insists on a reform of the
rules before it would trust
another poll. A free and fair
election demands equal access
to the media, comprehensive
registration of all over 18,
machines or ballot boxes be-
yond official rigging and for
many, some modification of
the traditional first-past-the
post system.
How are we going to agree
on these changes except as
part of a full constitutional
reform? Or are we going to
allow the PNM Government
to pick and choose? And if
we fought the election on their
terms and lost, would we then
give them authority to govern
as radically as the crisis de-
mands? Hardly likely.
But suppose we held out
for a full constitutional reform,
would we be satisfied to let
Dr. Williams take the Wooding
Report to the current illegiti-
mate Parliament and do with
it what he wills? Would that
not be tantamount to PNM
picking and choosing to suit
itself and then we are back in
the same boat again?
The answer, you may say,
is to let Sir Hugh decide by
insisting that Parliament should
simply ratify the Commission's
Report. The danger of this is
that many political interests
would feel in no way bound by
Wooding because the popular
response to the Constitution
Commission was so markedly
cool.
It is the problem of moral
authority again the problem
of reform officially programm-
ed from on high without the
political intervention of the


Will elections



solve the crisis?

"To call an election now is jumping
from the flying pan into the frying
pan". (TAPIA No. 1, September 28,
1969)


people.
The solution here would
be to politicise the Wooding
Report by making it the elec-
tion issue but we have already
seen that elections would have
to be preceded by electoral
and constitutional reform if
they are to be fair and to be
trusted by the unconventional
generation.
The validity of Wooding's
proposals can only be tested
in an election but the validity
of the election depends on the
acceptance of Wooding's pro-
posals. This is nothing but
going around in circles.
An increasing number of
people now see this trap.
Some of them then delude
themselves that the way out is
to exterminate the shadowy
figures up in the hills, heap
abuse on the advocates of un-
conventional politics and pro-
ceed with the elections as if
this segment of the citizenry
did not exist. Humanity apart,
the balance of numbers alone
defines this as an utterly fool-
hardy tactic.
The guerrilla movement is
not a marginal gangster move-
ment but the logical extreme
of a frustrated overworld of
ordinary people. It' is driven
bya bitter brew of disappointed
dreams; they see themselves
as dedicated to the task "of
firmly establishing righteous-
ness".
Any one who reads between
the lines of editorials knows
full well that we all agree on
that. It follows that until we
resolve the basic social crisis
the guerrilla movement will
never die; it will only change
its form.
Very likely, if there were to
be an election which failed to


get the youth involved, the
campaign might be just the
thing to breed mutations in
guerrilla warefaie.
Moreover, the necessarily
inflammatory character of
rhetoric in such a situation
would bring even conservative
opposition and guerrilla cadres
closer together.
The police would then have
to exercise the most discrimi-
nating decisions and any errors
that they make, real or
imagined, would have a dis-
proportionate bearing on re-
sults. It does not take too
much imagination to forecast
what could happen, given the
negligible trust the police ser-
vice now enjoys.

S Oddly enough, these fore-
bodings of annelection- cam-
paign are for some the basis of
Their hope. They bank on a
climate of hostiltiy to cement
political alliances between the
fragments and provide a will
to radical change.

Perhaps they are right but
this is where we can't be cer-
tain. And it seems an awful risk
to take when, for those who
would put nation above, sec-
tion, another option still re-
mains.
The other option is an old
old story. It poses an organisa-
tional problem because it is
political and nothing else. It
simply begins by placing all
groups at equal risk. In an
important sense, it assumes a
.state of nature, a total break-
down of the constitution.
This option is a constituent
assembly of the people. How
it works and what results it
produces, will depend on who
is present and how they con-
duct themselves. The Govern-
ment still have a chance to call
it. For,.ow much longer we
don't know.


MAY 1973



1 Neville Clarke case put off. (T.G.)
1 Bernard calls for Caribbean Police College. (T.G.)
1 Minister bids for peace at Orange Grove. (T.G.)
1 "Going Local is not everything" a report by economist
Dr. Paul Chen Young on Private Investment in the
Caribbean, warns against transfer of ownership to pri-
vileged few. (T.G.)
2 A Probe into Meat Prices (Express headline).
2 West Indian Police Commissioners discuss Public Order.
(Express)
2 Diego Martin PTA in "last straw" stand in their fight to
secure Imore primary school places in the area. (T.G.)
3 An. ex-soldier, 2 other men and woman detained by the
police in connection with armed robberies and other
offences. (Express)
4 The U.S. Ambassador to Trinidad and Tobago. Anthopy
Marshall, was an observer at the conference of Comm.
Car. Police Comms. yesterday. (Express)
5 The Forres Park Sugar Company has been closed down,
throwing 147 people out of jobs. (T.G.)
7 Sugar Union elects Panday President.
8 Choko Saves Boss from being deported. (Express head-
line.)
8 "Stroke floored Kelshall in Detention Solicitor can't
work now". (Express headline).
8 A surprising turn of events took place yesterday in the
Fyzabad shooting inquest when a witness, Hyacith La
Fon, who testified two weeks ago, volunteered to give
additional evidence. Des Vignes did not attack P.C., she
says. (T.G.)
9 Ex-soldier on trial for shooting at manager.
9 Tapia wants Home Rule for Tobago Best urges more
Govt. Decentralisation. (Express headline)

10 Ex-soldier hangs self in the Jail. (Express headline)
10 Mitra Sinanan stages walk out at Const. Comm. National
Convention.
11 Criminals a product of free secondary education -
Crime Chief Russell Toppin at Chamber of Commerce
1 luncheon meeting. (Express)
11 Kelshall is at point of on return Dr. Bharath: He is
12 Price of Onions now Soars from 15 to 72 cents.per
pound. (Express)
13 Police Probing Rogue Cop Reports (Express headline)
14 Damaged to Bird Sanctuary feared Caroni Swamp in
Danger of ruin (Express)
14 The Police Association has accused govt. and the police
admin. of having a direct link with the Bomb newspaper.
The Assoc. stated its disappointment that the Bomb had
had always taken the role of the official organ of the
police service. (Express)
14 Express Editorial ... High Prices terrorise housewives.
15 A 17-year-old girl, Beverly Jones, of Gonzales, Belmont,
on bail for being in possession of marijuana, appeared in
court yestcrdayT, mo'nf a nrnnftion charge. (x'prssT'
15 A high ranking officer told a court yesterday he did not
know why he arrested one-time political detainee, solici-
tor, Jack Kelshall.
16 Lennox Kallian tells the Couva court how he,, and
Abraham Mehemood, were ordered out of a car by
at Fyzabad by Burroughs and told to kneel and pray
before they were killed. (Express)
16 Letter to Express Editor: "The Dick Tracy mentality


I I


_ _II


PAGE 6 TAPIA





SUNDAY bSIt;llvtlIK LZ, 19/3 IAPIA ANI'N VRKSAKY


Chronicle 1973


must be abandoned in favour of sane and sober police
methods. I see nothing whatsoever to congratulate any-
one about. Unless we are all 'loci' no one can be pleased
to the point of showering congratulations over the
bodies of 4 young citizens executed without trial".
Two policemen were yesterday sentenced to serve a
total of 27 months in jail for beating and robbing a
22-year old man of $20 after a gambling raid. (Express)
Burroughs leaves on a secret mission to London. (T.G.)
Two referres for Orange Grove inquiry.
The whereabouts of Collin Rosales, a prisoner who broke
out of the Royal Gaol on Frederick St. 2 days ago, remains
a mystery (Express)
It's not easy to be a Christian ) R.C. archbishop (T.G.)
Sugar Yield Drops Short Severe drought and cane
*""*f~L~ynm rfMHCTinn -fi-n ---- _-I---I- -. -- .


Cop on Murder Charge Coroner rules felony in the
Des Vignes Fyzabad shooting inquiry; arrest ordered.
(Express).
WASA tightens Water Curbs. (Express)
The Law Society calls for a new enquiry into the shoot-
ing to death by the Police on October 29 last of a
Belmont man, Anthony Joseph (Alias Santa Claus)
Comstock delivers a shocker 230 workers sacked
(Express)
Garment impasse worsens sanctions threat by Congress.
(T.G.)
Union blame ECA for labour situation.
Strike looming at UWI campus Non Academic Staff
want v'gc increase (Express)
P.M. Williams goes to AppealCourt to try and get his
one-:ime deputy P.M. A.N.R. Robinson to tell how he
got certain information concerning an alleged oil deal.
(Express)
"In attempting to explain the reason for this crime. Mr.
Pitt listed 5 factors but failed to mention what is pro-
bably the most important. Some people hold that
punishment for crime to be effective must be sharp and
swift, but it appears that our system is not designed to
work that way.

JUNE 1973


1 Chamber President Guy: Guns are no solution to the
problem; they would only lead to more guns. Some-
thing wrong with the society that created frustrations
among these young men Perhaps involved misguided
either in their early life or now. I personally do not know
what they want. "Perhaps some form of dialogue with
,them could help".
Asst. Commissioner Toppin: "A large percentage of
today's criminals is a product of free secondary education,
personable in appearance and socially acceptable". Mis-
guided men emboldened by success, they have des-
cended from the hills and committed a number of
robberies ostensibly for revolutionary purposes .
thefts in the guise of some kind of political blanket".
1 Guerrillas blast Textel Station. Four policemen shot.
(Express p 1.) Vandals blast Tcxtel Station.(Express
-p. 14)
1 Caretaker Moran paid $20 for food
1 Most of the men connected withhe the guerrilla-type
activity are under 30 and have had some form of second-
ary education. Express, Who are the Armed Guerrillas. pl9.
1 "So now we are faced with a situation which can be
remedied but cannot be challenged as just an ordinary
statement but one of fact, which has come about, not
as a result of what was taught in school but what was
not taught what the Police Dept. did not do. and the
same for the Board of Censors.( lumphrey Reefer. Letter
to the Express)
Recruit Pritchard killed at Woodbrook and Recruit Smiiri
wounded on April 17. 1973. Brinks Guard Callender
shot on Dec. 16 1972. died later. These incidents linked
with "armed guerrillas". (Express p 4)
2 Violence by so-called guerrillas won't solve anything.
Use protest, political pressure, criticism. "Clandestine
activists should lay down their arms and come and


talk to the people and convince them of the justice of
their grievances". Expre- Editorial.
2 "... the presence of guerrillas is fact and not a figment of
the Police imagination". Dealing with the guerrillas is a
special art, a task for the military though not on con-
ventional military lines. (T.G.)
2 "The business of those who govern is to provide adequate
education, means of employment and leisure, to institute
laws, codes, ethics and morals that help develop proper
attitudes.. ."
"The level of crime ... is an indication of the measure of
dissatisfaction people have with the ordering of the
society .. "
". men .. endeavour to break free by attacking those
whom they think are their oppressors". Eric Roach,
Crime & The Society. (T.G.)
5 NUFF claims responsibility for Textel. (Express)
8 Man hurt in Petit Valley shoot-out (T.G.)
8 "The social fabric ... is being eaten away at a pace and at
a rate that is most frightening". Hlarold Ramsingh, (T.G.)
8 Police Inspector deplores lack of co-operation by the
public. (Express)
18 The Government is "responsible for guerrillas being
guerrillas". Anybody who takes up cause of people termed
criminal. The Government fighting "phantom war".
21 Police Helicopter Unit gets off ground (T.G.)
21 Bunny Gransaul arrested in Guanapo Heights, and
charged. Alone and offered no resistance. No force
used. (Express)
23 "Vincy" shot in San Fernando Cemetery by Police on
Wednesday night 20th. (Express)
26 Andrea Jacob and Clive Pegus held at St Joseph June 25.
27 ". the school system leaves people ill-prepared for
dialogue and well prepared for subservience". Lawrence
Carrington. (Express, p 18)
29 Police and Regiment team up for manhunt (T.G.)


JULY 1973

1 Four young men abandon worldly life for Yoga existence
in Maraval hills. (Express)
Lawyer Lawrence refused permission to see Client
Andrea Jacob. Accused had to wait week for change of
clothes. (Express)
16 Lawyer Lawrence Andrea Jacob kept in cell 23 hours
a day.
18 Minister of National Security, Pitt: -"There are in our
midst organizations and individuals inspired, financed
_ _.. ...a- Lsgcctcd from abroad whose avowed aim is to keep
the cauldrons of social, industrial and political unrest
constantly at boiling point". (T.G.)
24 Army Lt. Walker shot to death'at Police Post, Chaguara-
mas. (T.G.)
25 Barclays Bank, La Brea robbed of $6,000 and one re-
volver. Hostage freed.
30 Hector Mc Clean, Minister of Labour lists among burning
issues "the alarming growth of crime and the sickening
hero worship of criminals whose activities are being
invested by many with an .a of revolutionary righteous-
ness". (T.G.)

AUGUST 1973


6 Guerrillas attack police Station at Tesoro, Santa Flora.
A pattern of robberies for arms and money' (Express)
9 Raid on Matelot Police Station Aug 7 and 13 shotguns
taken away. One villager wounded. "Regiment noticeably
absent". (T.G.)
10 Four men carry off 9 shotguns from Diptee's Hardware,
Fyzabad, 750 cartridges, 1 revolver, 5 rounds. No
money taken. (T.G.)
10 Earl Lewis jnr shot by Police Inspector Desmond Prime
on St. Clair Avenue.

10 The guerrillas pay villagers for supplies; they are com-
peting for the hearts and minds of people. The movement
is political not criminal. (T.G. Editorial)


10 "a handful of underworld characters who have chosen to
take the law into their own hands without any apparent
regard for the consequences". (Express)
10 The policeareinadequately equipped. A special amphibious
force needed. (Editorial, T.G.)
11 Army joins police in search. (Express)
11 Policeman "not entitled to use more force than is
necessary to subdue the person whom he is arresting or
to repel an attack. Indeed he is liable for any excess of
force which he may use". (Editorial, T.G.)
11 Commissioner Bernard: The Police deficient in public
relations. (T.G.)
13 ". .. there would be nation against nation in this country
unless the guns are taken away from the police".
(McInroyJ. Cyrus, Letter to the Express)
18 NUFF claims responsibility for Matelot and Diptee
Hardware, Fyzabad. (T.G.)
18 "The question now is when will the Trinidad guerrillas
strike at Whitehall.

"I am of the opinion that the blunders of the PNM ruling
for seventeen years, and the disenchantment of the
population with Voting Machines provide fodder for mora
support for the guerrillas in this country". L.A. Baksh,
Letter to the Express.
18 NUFF Bulletin sends messages to Police, Regiment an']
people. (Express)
18 Commissioner Bernard: Police under severe mental and
physical strain. (T.G.)
18 Frightening events "all due to man's inhumanity to .an;
to injustices and their attendant evils". Alloy Lequay,
(Express)
20 Two men raid Milner Hall, UWI. Two men raid PTSC,
West Gate. (T.G.)
22 Police step up drive to ferret out guerrillas. (Express)
23 ". what makes these shadowy people so special that
they believe they can resort to arms with impunity? "They
should present their answers to the people and ask for
voluntary (electoral) support. Editorial, Express.
28 Shoot-out in the Hills. Express headline P. 1
28 Sergeant Dennis Richardson shot in Valencia. One other
injured in fall. At least 2-3 women involved among
about 10 guerrillas. Joint regiment & police party
retrieve 6 shotguns from "hilly terrain haunt of wild
beasts and reptiles". (T.G.)
29 P.C. Sankar shot dead on patrol. (T.G.)
30 Valencia guns traced to Matelot. (T.G.)
30 ". people are not prepared to be rebellious without
a cause". Why are these people not settling down to raise
families? Kit Roxburgh, Express

31 Prime Minister Williams: ". .. increasing domestic malice
in some quarters towards our protective services".
31 ". .. it springs from the same feeling of powerlessness and
frustration". Editorial, Express.


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THE FIRST steps towards
a solution to our national crisis
should now be very clear. When
as now, the State falls down,
it cannot be put together again
by any one political party or
interest, least of all the govern-
ing one.
Reconstruction can come only
through an act of sovereignty by
the citizens whose consent is the
indispensable condition of legiti-
ite government.
In concrete terms, it has now
.co,. 'an historical imperative that
convene a political assembly of
i! communi' interestss There is no
otner way -.:tle on a workable
system of go. ment and politics,
no other road- iu the establishment
of legitimate civil government.
The breakdown of the 1962
regime is a warning against any
fresh attempt to build a system
from above. The voice of the people
will be heard because we are weary
of the continuing upheaval.
We ardcso desperate that if the
leadership does not promote a poli-
tical solution, there will be such a
clamour for stability that some un-
heralded prophet of peace would
make an entry which would be the
surest pledge of military escalation.
JUDGMENT
True, to call a political assembly
is not to guarantee the peace. Prece-
dentsuggeststhat constituent assem-
blies mostly come after civil war,
when migration and defeat or death
have made conflicting interests com-
patible and put an end to jarring
faction.
Yet, if Trinidad and Tobago
wills it, we have a chance to forge
a fresh tradition because there exists
no interest in this country which at
the moment fails to see the need
for dialogue. The problem has been
that those who have the power to
make this dream come true have
been afraid to put themselves at
risk.
We have had a plethora of sub-
stitutes in consultations and meet-
the-people charades. The People's
Parliaments and Gatherings have
also failed themselves to fill the gap.
Do we now have the humility
and wisdom to acknowledge error?
The value of the utopia on this page
lies in the standard which it sets for
judgment. Those whose acts could
make the difference will know
against what the citizenry will judge
them.


NO

ONE

UNDERSELLS


THE WAY OUT OF



THE CRISIS


1





2




3





4






5






6






7


Free political detainees and offer amnesty to

guerrillas



Repeal all restrictive legislation passed by the 1971
Parliament andopen up the broadcasting media



Dissolve Parliament and announce a date for
fresh elections



Call a Constituent Assembly of citizens and invite all
groups including NUFF



Appoint Sir Hugh Wooding to the chair,adopt
the Commission as Secretariat and accept their
report as the Working Papers



Charge the Constituent Assembly to elect
a Provisional Gov't



Charge the provisional Government to launch a
short- term programme for fuller employment,
national service and restoration of the public service


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