Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00076
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: September 16, 1973
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00076

Full Text

Vol. 3 No. 37

SEP ''0 '73



IN 1970 Robinson, in 1973
Hudson- Phillips. Whenever
things come to a boil, the
realities of power unfailingly
reveal themselves in all their
starkness both in the PNM
and in the country.
The great danger this time
is that many trusting citizens
will delude themselves with
the comforting thought that
the PNM is splitting up at last.
Nothing is further from the
To be able to split, .a party
must first have had cohesion. It
must have been forged in the heat
of political conflict out of a num-
ber of jealous elements each power-
ful in its own right, and constantly
adjusting their differences to pre-
sent a united front on major issues
of common concern.
What it certainly cannot afford,
to be is a mere coalition of aspiring
careers and individual hopes, a pres-
sure-group in fact, pinned expe-
diently to the fortunes of a Doctor
who has been deemed fit to assume
the mantle of the Colonial Secre-
tary of Imperial Governor.


In a genuine political alliance,
any major party figure, such as a
Minister, must by definition enjoy
real power or, at the very least,
political influence. It is one of the
major reasons for a person being a
minister in terms of practical
politics, it is probably a more fre-
quent reason for a ministerial ap-
pointment than technical compe-
Of course, if the political sup-:
port the person.in question com-
mands is in turn due to the
competence he has demonstrated
in his past political career, then the
system is a healthy one.
The PNM has never been such a
party and the circumstances of the
resignation of Hudson-Phillips only
emphasise this. His ambivalent letter
to his "dear Prime Minister" takes
care to leave the latter's position as
"undoubted political: leader" in-
By extolling Williams in this
way ("statesman of your undoubt-
ed calibre") Hudson; makes it clear
,that the PNM exists only through
Williams, and that his reason for
'resigning is to be fund not in the.

Karl Hudson-Phillips

differences for which Williams cri-
ticised him but is the criticism
itself. This is further emphasised
by Hudson-Phillips' protest that
his activities did not constitute a,
challenge but were designed "to,
refurbish your image".
In short, Hudson has given as
reasons for resigning from office
the very reasons which should have
impelled him, if he were more than
a political opportunist riding the
Williams band-waggon, to leave the
party or use his position to fight
for its leadership not its chair-
But the irony of the situation
is that Hudson-Phillips knows ,two
things very well first, that he
would get no support in the Party
in any conflict that did not recog-
nise Williams as supreme deity; and
secondly, that even if Williams were
to be challenged, he, Phillips, would
be the last man qualified in com-
petence, experience or vision to
make that challenge.


Hudson-Phillips is a proven
blunderer who as chief legal adviser'
embarrassed his Government time
after time with ,lis resounding legal
and political defeats the Court
Martial,thePtblic Order Bill, Aeneas
Wills, Kelshall...
What then aoes Hudson hope
to achieve by his theatrical resigna-
tion? He can only be hoping to
rally support within the limited
context of a Doctor Party, per-
manently dominated by Williams.
His one aim is to secure for himself
the coveted designation as the
Leader's chosen successor.








SWilliams has always reacted
violently to any suspicion of any of
his satellites claiming a position of
special favour, and when Robinson,
the last heir apparent, disappeared,
Hudson's hopes were dashed by the
appointment of the troika of depu-
Of course nothing could de-
monstrate more clearly that the
PNM is not a political party than
the importance it gives to the con-
cept of "deputy"' a hierarchical
civil service concept meaningless in
the context of party power.
When a leader disappears, he is
succeeded by the colleague who
can rally enough support at the
time the leadership falls vacant.


But for such as Hudson-Phillips
and Robinson. the headmaster's nod
is important. It is the same kind of
political illiteracy which believes
that you form a party in a press
conference, you select leaders by
creating images in the gutter press -
morning, evening and weekend,
that you build organisation by
speeches in the public square, and
resolve a revolution by waiting for
elections. This colonial idiocy *is
going to cost the conventional
politicians very dear.
In this league of conventional
politics, Hudson is just the latest in
'the long line of careerists and social
climbers who "entered politics" to
advance their reputations and their
social standing. For them politics
did not grow out of their life's
work which would then have auto-
matically endowed them with a
;solid and genuine political tbase..

The dress-designer will go, the:
the way of Richardson, Mahabir,
and Robinson. All three, like CLR'
James from the opposite ideological
pole, were destroyed because they
had.built no party political base.
All three failed to understand that
politics is not government or ad-
ministration and that political emi-
nence is not achieved by political
That is why the removal of each
removed nothing from the PNM and
left the structure intact. Even James
could take no fragment with him.
Robinson had the complete lack
of judgment to believe that he
could rally the 1970 Movement in
order, to recreate a PNM around
a bunch of cocktail-party jaycees
with himself in the Doctor role.
When that failed he tried the same
thing over again, with the DLP
for crowd support.
He hopes to be lucky the third
time round; but if he succeeds
with the DAC, that will most cer-
tainly be the most reactionary or-
ganisation to have come to the
fore a throw-back PNM. The
country instinctively knows this;
it has the chance of a snowball in
The option of a quick dedicated-
citizen party is closed to Hudson-.
Phillips because Robinson has al-
ready made off with it. He there-
fore has to stay in the party and
nurture his plans inside.


As a transition party, the PNM
has lived the Afro-Saxon culture
of worshipping educational qualifi-
cation and civilservice hierarchy.
To the dynamism of democratic
conflict it prefers the stability of
authoritarian method. Doctor Poli-
tics is the singular way it knows.
In this context, dissent simply
has no place, dissenters naturally
get the axe. The only people whose
dissent or misdemeanours repre-
sented a real threat to the party
were those whose presence spells
real if marginal political support.
Kamaluddin Mohammed has
survived because he is thought to
add the urban Muslims. Montano
and O'Halloran had to be shifted in
1970 but Williams did not dare to
ditch them completely without
sacrificing the Chamber and the
French Creole class.
The best example of all is that
of Patrick Solomon who was the
first political organiser of the pro-
fessional and technocrat class. Wil-
liams has carefully attempted to
downgrade Solomon as a mere
"constitutional architect" but Solo-
mon's political clout was enough
to bring him back into the Cabinet
causing Sparrow to come with a
fresh calypso. Hudson is Sparrow's
good friend but history has
little chance of repeating itself.

Look out f or September 23

THE NEXT really big event,
'in the Tapia calendar is the,
Special Assembly on Septem-
ber 23, and you're asked to
watch this date.
If you haven't got one
plieady, you'll be receiving in,

the mail circulars from the
Admmistrative Secretary,
containing the agenda for the
The meeting is expected
to produce an important
statement from Tapia on the

political situation in the coun-
try, indicating how we think
the crisis will be settled and
what we're going to do about
Call Allan Harris at
662-5126 to finalise details

about your attendance.
I* ****** *
AFTER the successful
Grounding in Port of Spain
last weekend, Tapia moves
to San Fernando this Satur-

day, September 15. The
agenda: selling papers pre-
sent and back issues politic-
almeetings.Place: High Street,
San Fernando. Time: 9 a.m.
Members 'n the north meet
at the Tapia House 7 a.m.

15 Cents


- --






Send us your cash
donations today
Set yourself a tar-
get sum you will raise
by your own efforts
selling bound vo-
lumes, solicitingdona-
tions, any means you
Join the drive to
increase subscriptions
to the paper at
home and abroad
* Encourage other
Tapia people to do
their part.

Now for now

politics in


THE appearance of election
parties and splinters is not
unusual in this country. It
seems to be prevalent in Vene-
zuela also where 14 presidential
candidates representing 20
parties have registered for the
December presidential and
legislative elections.
"We're running a three-ring
circus. This carnival of candi-
dates is a mockery of demo-
cracy. The rest of the world
must be laughing themselves
sick," protests former Admiral
Wolfgang Larrazabal, leader of
the People's Democratic Force,
and head of the junta which
ousted dictator Perez Jimenez
from power.
Jimenez is himself debarred
from running because of a con-
stitutional amendment but his
followers will be fielding five
There has already been some
controversy over the use of
voting machines. A $3.5
million dollar advance payment
was made to an American vot-
ing machine company for
10,000 machines which finally
were not bought after bribery
charges against government
Although there will be 14
presidential candidates, surveys
conducted by US and local
pollsters indicate a polarization
around two traditional parties.
Thirty-nine per cent of the
sample went to Lorenzo Fer-
nandez of the ruling COPEI
party. Fernandez is being
backed by the incumbent
President Rafael Caldera and
is a former Interior Minister.
The sample indicates that
35 per cent of the votes in the
December 9 elections could go
to Carlos Perez of Democratic
Action, the man who organised
the large-scale repression of the
opposition under the Betan-
court administration.
The main candidate for
the Left is JoseVicente Ran-
gel, who as a Socialist deputy
became noted for his sustained
fight against repression.

Paul of San Juan, has been
charged with possession of
subversive literature fol-
lowing a police raid on his
home on September 1. In
a recent search on the
homeof Dr.Michael Camps
police asked about copies
of TAPIA found in his
It is therefore clear that
what is actually "subversive
literature" is left to the dis-
cretion of the authorities who
in fact can arbitrarily declare
any publication subversive, or
an individual issue of any pub-
lication, for example, the copy
ofTAPIAyou are reading now.
The recent trend has been
to get warrants to search for
arms, marijuana and subver-
sive literature.
It seems that many people
are likely to have at least one
"subversive" publication in
their homes.
For instance, Kirkland Paul
was charged with the posses-
sion of several books including
"Conventional Politics or Re-
volution?" published by the
NJAC and "Revolution in the
Revolution", by Regis Debray,
which sells at several book-


stores around the country, and
"Modern Politics," a compila-
tion of a series of lectures de-
livered at the Public Library
by C.L.R. James, while a mem-
ber of PNM.
Over the last two weeks,
the homes of Geddes Granger
and several other members of
NJAC, andthe office and home
of Dr. Martin Sampath of the
DAC have been searched.


In the case of Drs. Camps
and Sampath, the police even
went through the medical re-
cords of their patients.
The frightening thing is
that government can declare
any publication "subversive".
Policeihen also appear unaware
of the actually banned publica-
tions and are left to use their
own initiative.
During the 1970 State of
Emergency, a- UWI student
spent four days in jail, received
an unasked haircut and a cut-ass,
because he was picked up in a
road-block with a book entitled
"The Sugar Revolution".
The search for "subversive
literature" also illustrates the
way in which the police service
have to follow the political

From the Supplement to the "Trinidad and Tobago Gazette"
Vol. 6, No. 91, 28th Sept., 1967





zig-zags of the government.
One day Williams and Cas-
tro are embracing and the next
day police men are expected to
search for "subversive litera-
ture" including a wide list of
Cuban publications. (see box.)
Hudson-Phillips at the time
of the 1971 Sedition Bill, re-
served for himself a large dis-
cretion on charges for posses-
sion of "subversive literature".
In a recent interview with

News from Cuba, alias Cuba
News, alias Weekly News
from Cuba

Cuba Socialists


Verde Olivo

Obra Revolucionairio

Servicio de Informacion

El Mundo Cientifico


the Guardian, Williams quoted
from publications which, if no
declared "subversive", are at
least considered "revolutionary"
enough to earn the ordinary
citizen a few hours cooling it in
some police cell.
Can we expect a search for
subversive literature at Williams'
house? "A search' like any
other search" to quote official
police description.
Dennis Pantin

Guards posted at Orange Grove:

Primus' Public Order Act?

Lloyd Taylor

riodic walkouts from the
factory house of Orange
Grove National Company
and other milder acts of
dissatisfaction now mark a
new phase in the struggle
by the sugar workers to
secure the efficient manage-
ment of the plant.
This show of open defiance
against the decision of the
authorities to re-install and to
re-impose Hunte and Tello,
has occurred each time the
latter set foot on the factory
And if one is to judge
from the growing frequency
of Tello's presence on the plant
site, it would seem that work-
ers are being provoked into
taking severer actions.
Only recently Bernard Pri-
mus, Chairman of the Board,
warned the sugar workers that
they would suffer the same

fate as the 500 garment workers
of Town and Country which
closed down last week.
Primus also heads the In-
dustrial Development Corpora-
tion which has a 40% share-
holding in both firms.
This Chairman's threat and
the company's determination
to force the workers to be
submissive have now beengiven
physical form in the presence
of baton-armed constables at

the factory. May be this is
Primus' symbolic forewarning
of things to come.
In the meantime workers
continue to wait for some form
of action from the Trade
Union Congress to which the
All Trinidad Union, their offi-
cial bargaining body, is affi-
This decision to Lu.ng the
workers' case before Congress
was taken after two meetings

held last month, and after al-
most four months of continuing
strife. Signs are that All Trini-
dad isboth unable and unwilling
to give active and open support.
Reports received from
workers indicate too that Con-
gress has so far been unable to
contact Primus.
If the workers' anticipa-
tions prove correct, then the
issue is certain to drag on un-
resolved, for some time to

,,ELVJ i"Ll dulilk
%uk.,E w;U 'A'E'RK

May 1973: Open defiance then, September '73, open defiance now


Cuba Distributed weekly
by Cuban Em-
do. The official Govern-
ment paper, Com-
munist and pro-
do. The theoretical organ
of the Revolution
do. Communist news-
do. Cuban Armed Forces
do. Produced by the In-
stitute of Sport,
Education and
do. A news service in
Spanish put out by
the offices "Casa de
las Americas".
do. The Spanish edition
of the World Federa-
tion of Scientific
Workers "Scientific
World" published by
the Associacion de
Trabajadores Cienti-
ficos de Cuba, Ces-
pedes 53, Santa Clara,
do. Organ of the Com-
munist Party of Cuba.


MAYBE there's nothing especially remarkable about the
release announcing the Journalists Association's annual general
meeting pointing out that drinks would .be served afterwards.
Maybe it's just a way of announcing that there'll be
the usual fete to follow the usual tra-la-la of an annual general
And maybe the drinks are not pointedly mentioned as
an incentive to get journalists to come out.
A READER could get the impression that the daily press are
more ardent in the hunt for "guerrillas" than the police
themselves. Last week the Express' news-gathering net brought
in a carful of "bearded men" with bags in their hands pre-
sumably out to bomb the St. James Police Station.
The Guardian and the Police Commissioner were
quick to point out that the Express had caught a red herring
in fact. The Guardian went further in a pharisaic editorial
which thanked the Lord it was not like the other papers and
so should not in all fairness suffer the blanket condemnation
of "the media".
But last Tuesday morning both newspapers caught
two '"guerrillas" at La Fortune Village, Woodland in the
South. The "gunmen" turned, out to be not on the police
"most wanted list", the official euphemism for "guerrillas".
Police investigation has also been unable to yield evidence
attesting to the possession of a sub-machine gun by one of
the "guerrillas", which the Guardian had reported.


COMMITMENT to the "constructive aspects" of Black
Power in Africa has led the Trinidad and Tobago Government
to offer scholarships to African liberation fighters in the
..understanding. that through_ armed struggle supported by
other states, the freedom fighters must inevitably take
the power.
Manley and Burnham are not thinking so far ahead.
They want the international applause now as they offer their
contribution in terms of volunteer troops.
But the T & T Government's decision to lend a hand in
the reconstruction process instead is perhaps a reflection of all
this country can offer at the moment. Aren't our own armed
forces engaged full-time in campaigns against our own "free-
dom fighters"?



NAME -- ------------


PHONE ------------------------
I enclose $ ........ as per rates listed below

T&T............... $12.00 TT
CARIFTA........... 18.00 WI
CARIBBEAN. ....... 12.50 US
US/CANADA........ 15.00 US
UK............... L 8.00 UK
W. EUROPE ....... 10.00 UK
WEST AFRICA.......L2.00 UK
INDIA............12.00 UK
AUSTRALIA........ 12.00 UK
EAST AFRICA...... 15.00 UK
FAR EAST........... 15.50 UK
All overseas deliveries airmail.
Surface mail rates on request.

RETURN TO: Tapia House Publishing Co Ltd.,
91 Tunapuna Rd., Tunapuna, Phone: 662-5126
Trinidad and ,Tobago

THERE ARE those, may-
be, who can be consoled
that Trinidad and Tobago
is not Belfast, and that our
conditions are still to pro-
duce a pessimism as
gloomy as the Black Sep-
For once they could
take comfort from the evi-
dence that we're trailing
the world in terms of gross
national product of fear
and violence. Oh, we're
so agitated by our little
hurricane in a calabash!
Just a few months ago, a
reporter for the London
Sunday Times wrote home
pointing out "the ludi-
crously exaggerated im-
portance of a handful of
'guerrillas' in the hills".
Still innocent of the re-
finements of letter-bombs, we
open the mail inches away
from our faces. None of the
fellers liming on the Jumbie
Bridge the other night seemed
to notice as a jeepful of soldiers
bristling with arms quietly went


But I wonder how many like
me must be checking their rat-
ings in the books of those who
have it within their capacity to
direct the course things will take
here, in this sticky September of
fear and uncertainty. I can't
know how I rate, and I suppose'
there's no way of finding out -
or it's no use' finding out.
Being. a "marked man"
wouldn't flatter me particular-
ly. I imagine I must have
shared the fond hope of being
undistinguished in the anony-
mous mass of observers and
non-players in the game (4s
Michael Harris calls it), most-
of whom would survive what-
ever contest is being fought
out and settle for coming to
terms with the victor.
That seems to be an option
fast slipping from the grasp.
The no-man's-land which I and
others, even though uneasily,
have inhabited is now clearly
in the target zone. And the
chilling thing about it is that,
like all presumably demilita-
rized zones, the people in it
have by being there forsaken,
the option farming themselves.
What defences can I have
indeed? In my floor-level
apartment it's simply unlivable
with the windows shut. I've
thought about it: I cannot in
all seriousness try to get rid of
Mao's little red book, or to go
through the bookshelf trying
to figure out what is likely to
be "subversive".
A sense of the ridiculous is
a good thing if only because it
can save you from thoughtless

I have noted with alarm the
popularity of the barred win-
dows house-owners making
a vain effort with patterned
wrought iron to make ner-
vousness about "security" look
"Crime Week" and other
police prevention campaigns
have produced that kind of,
effect over time. The "crime
diarists" will have to tell me
how effective such precautions
have been against the felonious
entry of common burglars.
SBut what kind of defence is
possible against the brazen en-
try through the front door,
gained by the ticket of a
search warrant? I mean, how
do-you respond to the clamo-
rous fo'-day morning knock on
the door?
Rubbing your eyes, you
quickly realise it's not a dream.
The dramatic world of the
morning paper headlines has
extended its frontier to your
doorstep, and you must soon
accommodate yourself to the
traumatic violation of people
you've never before seen tramp-
ing through your room, open-
ing cupboards and drawers,
bags, boxes and bundles, in-
specting the bookcase, the
suitcase under the bed, pum-
melling the mattress and the
cushions for signs of slid
And in a flash you under-
stand that a new and fearsome
reality has come over the
world, your world; that pri-
vacy must be a kind of value
that went out with the age of


Or did it? The shock effect
of seeing alien hands on the
files, the notebooks, the diaries
that people you. live with
won't dare to go near, would
be sure to draw from you
some sharp response in protest
or disbelief.
On what grounds the pro-
test? Where are the arguments?
To argue at all to any effect
assumes some responsiveness
on the part of the person you're
talking to. There must be some
mutually held premisses about
the issues you want to raise.
But if there aren't? If it is
that you've been roused pre-
maturely to stare into the cool
faces of men so assured of their
ethical-legal position that they
don't wait for you to extend
hospitality, what then.
So you stare in dumb hor-
ror as men proceed to take
notes from your notebooks and
diaries, and to read (oh no -
not that!) your private cor-
respondence to ask questions
which the day before you
would have considered into-
lerably impertinent.
But today is a new day.

You hear the unconsoling ex-
planation from Mr. Ramdwar
that the "exercise" is being
carried out, in many other
So that the invasion of an'
ivy-draped privacy in a smart
neighbourhood for all its
shocking effects on Dr. Camps
and his family is only the tip
of the iceberg.
It's big news not because
another house has been search-
ed, but because a doctor's
house has,been searched.
Keeping a diary is "a very
dangerous thing", a lawyer
advised me last week. But since
when? Keeping a diary is my
business, my way of life as an
incurable scribbler, a perpetual
taker of notes, a maker, of
sketches, a hoarder of jottings.


Why do they keep speculat-
-ing about a State of Emer-
gency going to be declared?
What more do we need?
Of course the fetes go.on,
there is no curfew, and most
people seem to go about un-
troubled by the campaigns in
the bush, the "search-and-des-
troy" missions in the bush and
the search-and-terrorize mis-
sions in the drawing rooms.
But my feelings, in the face
of all that's going on, have
been catapulted into an en-
tirely new orbit. The actual
explosions have dynamited a
long cherished sense of the fit-
ness of things
I have this fear that all
those tiny practices, presumably
of no significance to anyone
but myself; those little oddities
of personal choice (like grow-
ing one's hair or nor growing
one's hair) that I have succeed-
ed in abstracting from public
commerce; the ultimate line of
personal defence, the artifacts
of an individuality all of
these that I've taken for granted
it's my right to enjoy without
fear of interference' or intru-
sion I fear that I'm threaten-
ed with defending their ration-
ality as if before a court of law
with hard-to-convince attorneys
asking questions probing mo-
And then I hear it's simply
a question of the fearsome
,repressive power of the modern
state now extending its long
arm internationally against the
threat of terrorism. And that
it's a joke here; that in any
international airport you can
be dragged out of the line and
searched pore by pore; and
that most people will under-
stand that these exercises are
for the protection of the law-
abiding etc. etc. etc.
And then I sit down and
think: which is really the great-
er evil "cops" or "guerrillas"?


and Footnotes

-a weekly digest

Column 1

Lennox Grant

Nowhere to hide

Mao's little red book




-- -- -- -

; i


proof of

a love for art

A VISITOR to the quiet
secluded settlement of New
Village, Point Fortin. can-
not'but stop and look in
at the village open-air road-
side art gallery.
You must pause to ad-
mire and ask questions
about the striking true to
life sculptures of Butler of
the 1930's, Williams, Do-
naldson, Nkrumah, Ken-
nedy Worrell; of Africaii
limbo dancers and Indian
tassa drummers.
This is the work of the
self-taught, unsung and virtual-
ly unknown Samuel Waldrop.
The statue of the revolu-
tionary 'Buzz" Butler that
watches over the Fyzabad
Junction from the OWTU's

Hall of Revolution is also the
Work of Samuel Waldron.
,Samuel Wldron started his
"mission" in earl boy hood. He
saw pictures of great sculptures
and "fell in love". Being poor.
he hd'no tutor He l:.irnt fr-mn,
his own mistakes and dis-
His first medium was local
clay. The artist's love grew'
with the years and when he
started to work he was able to
experiment with other materi-
als. Today he works almost
exclusively in concrete.


"But why", you ask, "is
the sculptor's work almost
completely hidden in this far
away village? Why have we
never heard of Samuel Wal-

dron? In fact, why is his art in
the rain? Why does he not seek
wider exposure?"
The -artist replies with
Heavy heart. For many years
his and the work of other
.rl : I I i a f.Ji lywideaudi-
ence at the annual Trade Fair.
But exposure through this
medium ended in 1958. The
St. patrick Association of Vil-
lage Councils and the Com-
munity Development Annual
Art and Craft exhinitions filled
the gap until they too Went
out of existence.
% Since then artist and crafts-
men of the'area have had to
seek booths at the Agricultural
and Farm shows. But, says'
Waldron, "an Agricultural and
Farm show is not the place for
art display This is no
audience at all".
But something had to be

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done. "Art is not something
to hide under a cover. If the
mountain couldn't come, to
Mahomet. Mahomet had to go
to the mountain". Waldron
soirte, l i .-nrq rtrd ,iffi rt to
put displays of his work on the
road, but this led to some of
his greatest frustrations.


"I wasted plenty, plenty
time paying visits to the
Museum, the Division of Cul-
ture. I left! messages, I was
never able 'to see one single
officer in any responsible posi-
He approached -the San
Fernando BoroughCouncil. For
several months his pieces de-
picting national culture Papa
Bois, stick fighters etc. -

pment Co., Lt
Phone: 62-34452 & 35340.


graced the Town Hall front.
But again he had to lament:
"Those fellers in the Borough
Council is something else".
S His display originally
scheduled for 21 days on the
requestof the Council stretched
into months. The Council first
sought an extension to cover
the 1971 Christmas holidays.
There was a further extension
while the Council considered
purchasing the pieces.
At last, after 21 months,
came a letter stating that funds
were not available and request-
ing the artist to consider "early
removal" of the pieces. The
Council offered to bear the
cost of transport.


Waldron thoughtfully says:
"The climate for this kind of
art is very poor in Trinidad,
arnd the papers,.TV and radio
are doing nothing to help".
A visit and long interviews
at the San Fernando offices of
the Express and Guardian
brought a three-to-four-inch
article "somewhere in the mid-
dle of the Express". Nothing in
the Guardian. If he had gone
and married a 14 year old girl
he wouldL probably have got
front page.
What about sales? Some
items have been sold; some
have reached as far as Nigeria.
His most (financially) reward-
ing work so far has been the
statue of Butler commissioned
by the OWTU. But sales have
not been good or even encourag-
But Samuel Waldron is a
slave to his art. This is the
driving force. Sale or no sale,
display or no display, his work
goes on and he would keep
adding to his roadside open air
gallery "to ease the eye of'the
weary visitor and add some
touch of beauty to this little
known village"..

- ~-~~- 4-11-~11 -I-VYYI



Prison reform:

'problem people'

can be part of

the solution

THE Prime Minister in his
Independence "message"
mentioned a proposal to
build a $6m "maximum:
security" prison.
The following report,
based on a recent UNESCO
bulletin, leads one to ask
the question whether the
emphasis on investment
could not be more pro-
fitably applied to the ie-
habilitation of prison in-
In 1965, Larry Dye was
released from San Quentin
Prison in the United States
and described as almost illi-
terate. Dye was diagnosed a
"schizoid" personality while
iri youth confinement. Today
he has a PhD. in education and
is on the staff of the University
of Massachusetts.
Dye has benefited from a
novel approach in the United
States and Britain known as
"New Careers", which puts the
emphasis on identifying and

mobilizing the neglected abili-
ties of society's "problem
In Trinidad and Tobago we
have recently seen a spate of
prison protest and the presen-
tation of the interim report of
Prisons Commission of Enquiry
and there still survives the view
that prison should be just a
place where people are punished
for crime.

S The "New Careers" pro-
grammed shows up the fallacy
of such thinking. Dye was one
of 18 young adult prisoners,
some virtually illiterate and
with long records of delin-
quency, in many cases involving
assault, who were selected to'
participate in an experimental
educational and developmental
programme while serving thd
last four months of their terms.
Some had been involved in
therapeutic community pro-
gramme while confined. Eight

years later, one former pri-
soner has his PhD in education,
two others have enrolled in
full-time PhD. programmes in
graduate schools. Another has
just received Master's degree.
Six more are directors,
senior staff, or in charge of
training programmes in com-
munity and job development
projects, earning between
$10,000 and $20,000 annually,
Another six have returned to
semi-skilled jobs.
Only one of the 18 is
currently in prison. When the
group was originally chosen,
experienced prison staff pre-
dicted that 90 per cent would
be back in prison within a year.
Larry Dye has introduced
correctional training pro-
grammes for young offenders
in Massachusetts state which,
since 1969, has reduced the
number of youths in prison
from 1,400 to 105.,
Douglas Grant, psycholo-
gist-director of the project and
a prime mover of this concept

,,,,.2f- A -
A call for "New Careers at Attica state penitentiary

A call for "New Careers "at Attica state penitentiary?

into areas other than delin-
quency, has pointed out that
the achievements of these offen
ders is so great that it demands
a hard look at some established
ideas on the treatment of pri-
He points out that 18, pri-
soners involved in the project
in 1965 were all labelled psy-

chopathic personalities. Most
had been imprisoned at least
twice; there were violent offen-
ders, convicted on charges of
assault, armed robbery, and
The emphasis is on getting
these "problem people" to
help others who find themselves
in similar positions.

SFirst to Stephens then

backto school

: '. -. .. K- : -"- ": "'
"'. ', 4^. -- ^ ; .. ...: .. .. -. *. j





ONE FEATURE of the world
energy shortage is the inability to
expand petroleum refining facili-
ties in the United States and Cana-
da. Since 1968 most North Ameri-
can refineries have been operating
at close to 100 per cent capacity
and no new facilities have been
built. Ecology groups have suc-
ceeded in blocking or stalling
several major projects, including
proposed offshore artificial super-
ports in Delaware and New Jersey.
No one wants to live next to a
stinky, dirty oil refinery.
As a result of the inability to con-
struct new or expand old facilities in
the US, the major oil companies are
scouring the Caribbean, looking for
superports. Some would come with
petroleum refineries and petro-chemical
complexes, others would be nothing
more than storage depots for refined oil
brought in by 250-500,000 ton super-
tankers and collected by the less than
100,000 vessels which at present are the
sole means of delivery to the US.
While the oil industry scouts Carib-
bean ports it also is gearing up to take
advantage of rising prices and gas short-
ages to defeat the US ecology interest
groups. At a minimum, Exxon and
other companies expect to win permis-
sion for vast expansion of existing US
states like Texas where oil has sub-
stantial political clout.
The economics and ecology of su-
perports and petroleum refineries are
straightforward. Capital-intensive invest-
involving several hundred million dol-
lars. They provide usually less than a
thousand permanent jobs, and at best
several thousand jobs during the con-
struction period (3-4 years for a port
and refinery). While an oilspill can
occur anywhere, a relatively safe super-
port entails totally calm waters and as
close to a full breakwater as can be
Since the market for the refined
product is in the US, seldom do super-

port and refinery investments elsewhere
lead to substantial local "downstream"
production of sophisticated byproducts.
The largest petrochemical complex in the
Caribbean, the $500 million CORCO
(Commonwealth Oil Refining Corpora-
tion) plant in Puerto Rico, originally
justified as a "downstream" investment,
has remained a largely refining opera-
tion as hate other installations in Aruba,
Curacao, Trinidad and the Bahamas.
The money-making trick for the oil
companies is to bring North or West
Africa or Venezuelan, Colombian or
Ecuadorean crude oil (preferably with a
low-sulphur content) into the Caribbean
in supertankers for refining and re-
export. Lose economic but conceivably
profitable if oil prices continue to
zoom upwards is the device of bringing
refined Iranian, Saudi Arabian or other
Middle Eastern oil around the Cape and
into the Caribbean for re-export.
The longer the tax holiday and the
greater the tax exemption available
from Caribbean governments the more
profitable becomes the long haul from
the Middle East. The one whichis new tax
laws, proposed in 1973 by the Nixon
administration but not yet approved by
Congress, that would make US invest-
ments abroad subject to US taxes if
and when they were exempted from
local taxes.


Caribbean governments and econo-
mies stand to benefit primarily from
the taxes they impose on the oil com-
panies for the right to dirty their waters
and skies. The fiscal effects of a petro-
leum investment are significantly more
important than any amount of direct
jobs they will create or foreign exchange
generated, most of which will be spent
to import the oil.
Hence the more a government has to
give away in tax concessions to invite
the companies in, the less it stands to
benefit, if at all, from the investment.
Not to mention the real ecological





US oil





o -

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11 i .1 1 Ii I II


You always

wanted her to


makes it easy -

and an ideal

Gift too.



risks, and the consequences for tourism
and other service industries.
Why then are so many Caribbean
governments so eagerly competing with
one another to offer tax breaks to lure
superporters? The primary reason is the
persistence of mass unemployment and
underemployment throughout the re-
gion (15-25 per cent of labour forces
almost everywhere), the lack of emigra-
tion outlets for unskilled young men,
stagnant agriculture and the fears creat-
ed among politicians by the prospect of
too many urban people looking for too
few jobs in crowded islands with too
few resources.


The talk of multi-million dollar
investment is heady stuff for politicians
#nd civil servants used to scrambling
for a $1 or $2 million baseball or cricket
bat factory. In spite of the evidence
from Puerto Rico and elsewhere, they
find it hard to believe that someone
can spend $300-500 million (US) and
create less than 1,000 permanent jobs,
And then what is wrong with 1,000
new jobs, when there are so few other
viable employment-generating schemes
So who's got the superport has be-
come the latest Caribbean game. The
players include Puerto Rico, Jamaica,
the newly independent Bahamas, Haiti,
the tiny Turks and Caicos Islands (total
population 12,000 and still a British
dependency), and Guadeloupe in the

French Antilles.
Other prospect
dropped out, either
a suitable port or ha
and Winward Islan(
only port available
ships and a tourist
be decimated by pi
and Martinique). A
Trinidad and the D
with little space for
and insufficient p(
tempt the frayed r
tives whose nights ha
the likes of Colone
Currently discus
Caribbean include a
Oil Superport and
Rico, a $400 millic
refinery for the Tur
cently agreed $350:
finery investment i
Italian Moratti grol
Expansion by New
as a new storage facil
ed in the Bahamas
At far more pri
study are superpor
.facilities near Port
Haiti (being consider
and Electric, a maj
public utilities co!
Franco-American jo
port for Guadeloupe
All the propose
depend on certain c
The first is that stea
of crude or refined ,
preferably from Nor

..i- ,';"

... not to mention th

I I ,_L


k I

~- -* ~vpr



EMBER 16, 1973



Owl emL1JWat W

* i'r .

e players have
cause they lacked
)ur (the Leewards
i, or because the
depends on cruise
ide which would
oleum (Barbados
non-players are
herlands Antilles
litional refineries
:ical stability to
ves of oil execu-
been sleepless by
addafi in Libya.
I projects in the
600 million Gulf
inery for Puerto
Exxon port and
and Caicos, a re-
[lion port and re-
Jamaica by the
and a refinery
gland Oil as well
'to be construct-
/ the Burma Oil

ninary stages of
but no refining
erte in Northern
I by Pacific Gas
West Coast US
!ration), and a
ly owned super-

Caribbean deals
cal assumptions.
reliablee sources
will be available,
Africa or North-

ern South America.
Only Gulf with its.West African and
Ecuadorean investments. New England
with its contract with Sonatrach, 'the
Algerian State Corporation, and Exxon
with its diversified.sources including
West Africa, look safe.
The Moratti group, which operates
refineries in Sardinia and Sicily, is
gambling that it can buy other people's
oil, and or rent its proposed refinery to
those who have oil. It has no oil of its
own, no experience marketing oil, in the
US, and no forward contracts for oil
with major US producers.


But then no one can confidently
predict what oil will cost in 1977
(when presently proposed refineries
would go onstream) or who will control
the world's oil. All that is certain is that
whoever has the oil and can get it to the
US is going to make lots of money.
Since the US lifted its quotas and other
restrictions in oil imports in 1972,
access to the US.market is no longer a
political problem.
The second assumption is that tax
concessions and other agreements nego-
tiated with Caribbean governments will
be honoured. Threatened elsewhere with
nationalization, with or without com-
pensation, oil companies are, loathe to
put up their own money in the face of
possible political risks.
:, backing capital, Caribbean govern-
ments seek to counter political fears by
raising tax concessions, thus reducing
whatever benefits might accrue to them.
The Bahamas still rates as politically
reliable and fiscally magnanimous, Puer-
to Rico uses the US dollar and flies the
American flag, but Jamaica has had to
offer a total tax write-off for an invest-
ment which is probably largely going to
be financed by Italian government ex-
port credits to Italian construction
firms. The only quid for this hefty
Jamaican quo is a commitment by
Moratti to sell refined oil to the Jamaican
government at a special discount price
which some Jamaican government offi-:
cials believe. might make economically
feasible the construction of an alumi-
num smelter for Jamaican bauxite. (The
idea of a Jamaican smelter using nu-
clear energy has been apparently re-
jected as far too expensive in terms of
power costs).


Only in Puerto Rico has a Caribbean
superport proposal been hit by the
ecological pressure in the US, Canada,
and Western Europe. Although supported
by newly elected Puerto Rican Gover-
nor. Rafael Hernandez Colon, the pro-
ject has triggered strong hostility within
his own party as well as from his con-
servative and radical opponents. Faced
with a booming economy, persistent un-
employment, a power shortage aggra-
vated by the existing petroleum com-
plexes,anda growing ecology movement,
the Puerto Rican governemnt hesitates
to go ahead.

Its technical experts have been ex-
amining allegedly clean and ecologically
safe refineries,looking for uninhabitated
parts of the island to locate the super
port, and fending off a steady barrage
of sophisticated economic and ecological
arguments. Puerto Rico is sufficiently
rich and prosperous that it can affordto
say no, and even if the government goes

ahead with Gulf, the political in-fighting
promises to delay construction for
several years.
The two new Bahamian projects
are going ahead, pumping capital into.
Grand Bahama Island and Freeport
whose economy has been hurt by the
curb on the previous speculative build-
ing boom. IIndependent on July 10,
1973, dependent on tourism for 80%
of its GDP and even more of its
government revenue, Prime Minister
Pindling's government is anxious for
economic diversification and new rev-'
nue sources.
Jobs are less of a .problem with
more than 20 per cent of the labour
force composed of skilled North Ameri-
can and European expatriates and un-
skilled West Indians and Haitians. A
crackdown on labour permits for fo-
reigners and pressure on the oil com-
panies to hire locals should guarantee,
that the few well-paying new oil-jobs
will go to Bahamians. Ecology is not a
worry since the new refinery and storage
depot will be located in a non-tourist
zone near the present facilities.


The Jamaican deal looks the most
risky on economic and ecological grounds
Relying on a natural harbour on the
calm southwest coast, the project lacks
adequate artificial breakwaters and other
ecological safeguards. (An anchored
supertanker which is discharging through '
a:a pipeline to on-shore facilities needs to
be secure against rolling, tides and
other movements).
The Moratti group has yet to re-
veal where it hopes to obtain oil. If
and when US companies succeed in
expanding their US refineries (a real
possibility given changing US attitudes
towards ecological versus energy pri-
orities) then it is likely that they will
refine their own oil in their own facilities.
Prime Minister Michael Manley's
government welcomed the project as a
source of investment and employment.
Reserving for itself a possible later minor
equity position in the project, it has
seen fit to take the Moratti group at its
word that it could obtain the oil.
At the worst the refinery would
either be built and remain idle or else
be abandoned before or during con-
struction. The risk is a political setback
for Manley but one in which no Jamai-
can government money would be in-
The other Caribbean projects are
much less likely starters. Exxon has
postponed the Turks and Caicos deal,
waiting for a Clarification of new US
tax proposals, and counting on expand-
ing its Texas refineries. Tourist interests
are opposed to a Guadeloupe superport
and negotiations in Paris seem to have
come to a halt.
While Haiti possesses a magnificent
unused natural harbour and is free of
ecological pressure-groups, the seamy
reputation of its government, the total
lack of infrastructure in the region, and
other considerations retard its chances.
The chances are that several super-
ports will be constructed in the Carib-
bean during the next few years, and
perhaps $1 billion (US) invested. Yet,
unless and until, Caribbean governments
substantially increase their tax-cut from
these investments and revenues, the
economic benefits are likely to be mini-
mal. And the ecological risks are consi-


I _






MAJOR Delfont Yoto Mathiey
- Kerekou, a 43-year old infrantry
officer, and a graduate of the
,Revolutionary Council of the Re-
public of Dahomey made up of
15 military men since October
26, 1972.
On that date a group of young
Army officers decided to with-
draw their support from the tri-
umvirate which had been ruling
the country since March 1970:
Migan Apithy, Hubert Mago and
Justin Ahomadegbe.
The three men had agreed to suc-
ceed each other in power every two
years for a total period of six years,
after each had failed to obtain a winn-
ing number of votes in the elections of
March 1970.
"Each had his own ministers, his
own functionaries, his own ideas", said
Major Kerekou. He described the tribal
,functions, the political chaos and the
economic bankruptcy which had led the
nation to accept the corrupting tri-
umvirate rule of those conventional


On a tribal level, Apithy, Maga and'
Ahomadegbe represent different mino-
rity groups whom they favoured in the
persons of carefully chosen representa-
At the same time they fomented
dissension and hatred among the main
tribes (Fon and Adjas in the south,
'Yorubas in the centre, Zombas Dendis
and, Baribas in the north) who inhabit
this West African country and among
Sthe nearly 50 subgrouhds, products of
intermarriage with the main five groups.
Ahomadegbe, a Fon, comes from
Abomey; Apithy, an Ogoun (mixture
of Fon and Adjas) from Porto Novo;
and Maga, whose mother is from Upper
Volta, comes from the North.
The emphasis on tribal differences
and on the so-called virtues or distinc-
tions of members of a particular clan,
fomented by the members of the Tri-
partite Council, had its repercussions in
the political sphere and obstructed
genuine national integration.
SThe truth is, however, that inde-
pendently of their origins; all these
groups and subgroups have'been suffer-
ing from mercantile exploitation and
racial discrimination since the end of
the 16th century when the first Europ-
eari (Portuguese) landed on the coasts
of Dahomey off the Gulf of Benin.


The natives who discovered their
caravels anchored off the beach called
the Portuguese by the name of Zo-
diague (gods come from the Sun),
without imagining that these "gods"
had descended from the "heavens" to
exploit and enslave them.
From the Portuguese, English,
Dutch and French colonies established
in the coastal region of Ouidah (Ajuda
in Portuguese and Glejue, or House of
the TilledFields, in Fon language) came
the bulk of the black slaves who during
the next three centuries would be
shipped to the sugar plantation of
Hawaii and Cuba and to the coffee
plantations of Bahia in Brazil.
National unity has been given pri-
ority in the programme drawn up by the
Revolutionary Council on November
30, 1972, a month after taking power.
In his frequent speeches to the
people, Kerekou emphasizes the need
for national unity so that the country
may be able to confront the exploitation
of foreign capital and promote its own'
economic development.
Thltis unity policy is beginning to

Hllaire Badjovnme Minister
of Education.

70 yea.rst'rug l

goes on

yield fruits in several spheres, in spite of
the fact that the majority of the popula-
tion still lives on, a subsistence level,
alienated from all social responsibility.
Youth, students and women's associa-
tions from the urban regions of Cotpnou,
Porto Novo, Ouidah and Abomey 'are
on their way to forming truly national
The General Workers Union of Da-
homey controls 45 of the 55 trade-
unions with a membership of 100,000,
and supports the Revolutionary Coun-
cil. The 10 remaining unions are dis-
tributed among the Dahomey Work
Confederation, the General Trade Unions
of Dahomey and the National Confede-
ration of Free Trade Unions.
The trade union sector, too, has
been affected by the division intro-
duced by the interests, mainly French,
which still control harvesting, industrial
processing and marketing of palm oil,
copra and cotton.
This has obstructed the unity of
the country's embryonic working class,
just as the encouragement of tribalism
by the traditional political forces has
for years conspired against national
In the economic sphere Dahomey is
regarded by the French press as "the
sick man of Africa". With only 112,000
kilometres (670 from north to south
and 125 of coastal areas) and a popula-
tion of some three million, 90% of the
country's income comes from exports of
oil-bearing palm (100,000 bunches in
1971, which represent 67% of total
exports) and cotton (30,000 tons).
This primitive plantation economy
makes the country even more dependent
on the French in terms of balancing an
inexorably deficit budget.
When this group of young officers
took power, most of them with uni-

versity of technical training, they imme-
diately saw that this backward agri-
cultural economy of harvesting and
exporting for a single market would
never allow the country to emerge from
Economic dependence was coupled
with cultural backwardness. In recent
declarations, the Minister of Education,
Hilaire Badjounme, emphasized this
when he said: "Nearly 80 percent of the
population is illiterate.
"Of more than half a million school-
age children, only 100,000 attend
school (one out of every five), accord-
ing to the statistics for 1970".
But in order to erase illiteracy, the
Council first proposes the recovery of
the nation's resources so that they may
later be used to give more attention to
On February 3, 1973 the military
government decreed that "all the indus-
trial and commercial enterprises in-
stalled in Dahomey take up residence
in the country, as well as do their
accounting in the country".
With this the government is trying
to obtain obsolute control over foriegn
capital and foreign administration and
to obtain exact knowledge of their
earnings in order to draw up effective
tax laws and to stop, once and for all,
tax evasion and the undue repatriation
of foreign exchange.
The foreign colony resident in Da-
homey is composed of some 6,000
people, mostly French. The commercial
sector depends to a large extent on
Lebanese and Arabian citizens.
As a result of these nationalist
measures and the government campaign
tending to raise the political level of the
population the foreign colony has under-
taken a symptomatic exodus, thus re-
vealing its concern over a later period of
radicalization when possibly their goods
and properties will be confiscated.
Before using the pressure of "with.
.drawing" together with their capital,
they resorted to the freezing of their

stocks of merchandise, medicines and
foodstuffs with the object of fomenting
speculation and turning the population
against the government and its measures
of control which temporarily led to the
shortage of prime-necessity consumer
goods, all of which are imported.
From these measures of coercion
these sectors soon began to plot coups
in alliance with some pro-French niili-
tary officers which the recently in-
stalled Kerekou government had ap-
pointed to civil posts, for lack of
confidence in them, because of their
ties with the foreign bourgeoisie and
the French government.
On February 27, 1973 a plot was
discovered. It was led by former Colonel
Alphonse Amadou Alley, an old con-
spirator of the ex-metropolis; his asso-
ciates were retired Major Ibrahim Chabi,
and former member of the chief of
staff, Jean Baptiste Hacheme.:


The plot, according to the local
newspaper "Daho-Express", originated
in neighboring Lome, capital of Togo,
between Jean Foccard, subscretary of
the African Affairs for France, and
former president Emile Zinsou (July
1968-December 1969).
The. newspaper revealed that "Foc-
card suggested to Zinsou the.possibility
of a coup, the names of trustworthy
high functionaries and officers, the way,
the coup would be carried out, and gave
him the money necessary to carry out
the plot".
The population of Cotonou, when
informed of these events, took to the :
streets in irate mood and demanded the
heads of the traitors. In their just
Indignation they stoned the conspira-
tor's mansions and burned' their cars,
the mansions built and the cars bought
with State funds.
On May 20, 1973- the Minister of
information of Dahomey, Pierre Koffi,
declared that the three "brain" behind
the February plot "could be condemned
to death for crimes against State secu-
rity". They finally received a 20-year
prison term each.
The Minister of Foreign Relations
of Dahomey, Michel Alladaye, 33
years old, who commanded in Cotonou
the-troops of the country's north,
established the foreign policy of the
Revolutionary Council, defining it "as
an ample aperture marked by the sign
of equality and reciprocity in inter-
national relations".


Previous governments, since the
formal proclamation of independence
on August 1, 1960, had always shown
an eminently pro-West bent. The Coun-
cil, however, has established diplomatic
relations with China, the Laotian Patri-
otic Front, North Korea and the Revo-
lutionary Government of South Vietnam.
On a regional scale, Alladaye de-
clared that the Council would support
"African liberation movements in their
struggle against colonialism in the re-
gions of the Continent still under that
Dahomey, located between the
Equator, and the Tropic of Cancer
with its beaches full of coconut groves,
its sacred serpents and lake villages,
has a history of struggle for liberty.
At the end of the 19th century, the
monarch Behanzin waged a bloody
resistance against French colonialists.
In the second half of the 20th
century, Major Kerekou is waging a more
subtle but no less dangerous battle:
"liberate the country from foreign do-
mination, the common struggle of all
underdeveloped peoples of the world".
The very risks of the challenge under-
taken by the Council brings to mind a
Fon proverb which Kerekou and his
cabinet of young officers seem tod be
imbued with: "In spite of the fire, the
pincers penetrate it and take hold of
what is hidden in its bowels".

Area: 112,622 square kilometres
Population: 3 million inhabitants. Sixty percent of
the population lives in 15 percent of
national territory in the South. This
ma makes Dahomey the country with
the largest relative population density
in West Africa.
Tribes: Fon, Yorubas, Dendis, Adjas and
Principal rivers: 'Oueme, 450 square kilometres
Mono, 350 square kilometres
Capital: Cotonou
Principal crops: oil-bearing palm, cotton and copra
Agriculture occupies 80 percent of the active popula-
tion and these industrial crops represent 90p percent of
the economy.
Proclaimed a Republic by France on December 4, 1958
Proclaimed independent on August 1, 1960.



I ,

Blackgold and Tapia members outside Whiteland Community Centre, July 29 last

Blackgold battles with

Village Council

tinues between the de-
termined members of the
Blackgold Co-operative of
Corosaland the non-func-
tioning Village Council
over the use of the Com-
munity Centre.
At the end of July the
President of the Village
Council caused an uproar
when he attempted to
stop a meeting between
Tapia and Blackgold at
the Centre.
The latest incident
tookplace on Wednesday,
September 5, and young

"Chairperson" of Black-
gold Marilyn Atwell sent
this report for TAPIA.
Fixed the table tennis board
and were playing on it in the
Centre, when, about 7.30 p.m.,
the Secretary of the now de-
funct Village Council walked
into the building and took off
the lights.


He said there was no
money to pay light bills.
A quarrel began and he
wanted to lash one of the
brothers because the brothers

had his foot on a chair.
What the brothers and
sisters of Blackgold would
like to know is, if these
people cannot run the Village
Council, whydon't they stand
aside and ;give the young
brothers and sisters a chance?
If they have no intention
of doing this, then light or
no light, we are going to use
the Community Centre.
If we cannot use it at
night then we will use it
during the day. And no so-
called Secretary of no so-
called Village Council is going
to stop us.
Blackgold is togetherness
and togetherness is Power.

could say about Trinidad
is that this is a country
where the people really
like they sports. Man it
could have hurricane, ty-
phoon, flood, all kind a
bacchanal, but the games
must go on.
It have games for
every time of the year. If
it ain't cricket, is football,
if it ain't hockey is net-
ball, if it ain't horserace is
car race. But now at last
the sporting public have
a game that could last all
through the year, a game
for all seasons, "Police
and Guerrillas".
For those few people who
don't know how this game is
played let me say right now
that it very much like the
children's games of cops and
robbers and cowboys and
Indians, but they have a few
important differences.
For example, you know
when you hear "bang" and
you get shot by a member of
the opposing team and you
suppose to fall down dead,
well in this game you usually
remain that way for good.
Because unfortunately this
game is played with true true


Apart from this there is
the fact that when you playing
this game you on your own.
And there is no way you can
stop playing. You can't run
to mammy and daddy when,
it get dark, so they can clean
you off and put you to bed
because in this game you can
get shot in bed.
But with the exception of
these few differences the
game of Police and Guerrillas
is very much like the child-
ren's game.Only it have much

more excitement, the odds
are always changing, and the
daily papers are usually
prompt in reporting the re-
sults of the day's play (even
though they complain that
none of the teams wants to
tell them their game plans).
Furthermore in this game
there are really no spectators.
For the fact that is anybody
can play. In fact sometimes
you in the game, right in the
middle of it, and you don't
even know.


For example, when Earl
Lewis get shot he father start
to cry that the teams wasn't
playing fair. But he had to be
joking, because everybody
know that in this game the
rules are made up as you
shoot along.
I mean to say, in this
game sometimes you don't
even know which side you on.
Like the Police Surgeon very
recently who thought he was
on one side and then he find
out that he own side thought
he was on the other side. If
you think this confusing ask
the poor doctor, about con-
In fact this question of
which side you on is a very
important one. Because the
stakes in this game are very,
very big. And is no sense try-
ing to play it down the
middle, because is in the
middle that the bullets does
No, in fact like it or not,
the whole damn population
playing this game, there is
no such thing as "no man's
land", or sidelines, no referee,
no linesman,just players play-
ing in this great great game,
wondering where it all going
to end, wondering whose
number going to be called
next in our National Lottery.
Funandgames, fun and games!

It is estimated that construction and installation at the plant-site could employ about 2,000 people for a
period of three years or so surprisingly, these areas are more uptight at this moment than'practically
anywhere else you can think about. (TAPIA Sunday October 22, 1972)

Jobless get together

in Guayaguayare

A SPOKESMAN for the Un-
employed Youth Organisation
of Guayaguayare told TAPIA
that people from Guaya,are not
enjoying the benefits of all the
oil on the East Coast.
"Last Thursday (Septem-
ber 6) four delegates went to a
meeting with AMOCO to tell
them what we thinking".
Present at the meetingwas.

Victor Campbell, Minister bf
Works and Parliamentary Re-
presentative for the South-East.


The YUO delegates told
AMOCO that too many work-
ers were being recruited out of
the district, some from as far

afield as Port of Spain. "The
contractors don't care bout
Guaya and they paying starva-
tion wages too".
The rate at Raymond Inter-
national is $2.45 and at Texaco
1.84 but contractors are offer-
ing only 1.45 1.50. In one
case, men are drawing only
$7 per day.
"That is a criminal act!"

exclaimed one brother, rue-
fully knocking back a white
rum. "And we don't know what
Campbell intend to do, he
living right here and sometime
for a whole month nobody
don't see him".
AMOCO is reported to
have said that they will now
police the contractors to check
out the wages they are paying.
The UYO is waiting to see if
they will get satisfaction.
Meanwhile they are pushing
the organisation. Enrollment is
now at 40. The target is 200.

** * *

RESIDENTS in Guayaguayare
are up in arms. Same reasons

like the rest of the country.
Going for a whole month
now, water has been hard to
come by. "Some irregularity
down in the Texaco Fields.
either with the pump or some--
"We too far to get rice. A
ship come but after they take
out for the hospital, the jail and
the YODI, you think any go
reach behind God back?"
"Innoculation, what inno-
culation? the DMO down here
working for Texaco,he working
for AMOCO and he have a pri-
vate practice. Every time youl
go you have to spend a whole
day and you can't ever se6 no
doctor. Is a good thing we
don't get sick, down here".


Michael Harris finds a new game






J.S.Kenny reacts to the Shell ad last week

treated to a paid advertise-
ment in various newspapers
in which the managing
director of Shell makes a
series of statements from
which we can only con-
clude that Shell is abso-
lutely infallible.
Accepting all the points
which Shell makes in their
advertisement, can Shell
guarantee that there will
never be an accident in-
volving their barge in the
Blue River or No. 9 Canal?
On the subject of pollution,
assuming that the keel coolers
function effectively, can Shell
give us any assurance regarding
the dissipation of heat from
these coolers particularly in
the upper parts of No..9 Canal?
Perhaps, however, I should
not waste space on Shell's
omnipotence.The caseforkeep-
ing Shell out of Caroni is in my
view neither emotive nor irre-
SCAPE has cogently argued
the case for the national park.
Notwithstanding Shell's views
on the compatibility of their
barge and their gas operations
within a national park,SCAPE's
case is soundly based.


The physical presence of a
gas bottling plant at the entry
of a national park and game,
reserve is simply offensive. The:
Movement of a barge measuring
97 feet long by 23 feet wide:
Through No. 9 Canal is frankly
I wonder how the people of
.Trinidad would react to siting
of a gas bottling plant in, say,
the Queen's Park Savannah or
the Botanical Gardens? I won-
'der perhaps how our motorists
might react to Government
giving permission to lorries of
a width of 20 feet driving
along the Churclill-Roosevelt

I cannot of course speak
for SCAPE but it was clear
that their concern is to pre-
serve a part of the Caroni
Swamp for the use of the
people of this country prin-
cipally as an educational and
recreational public park.
Mr. Bates in his advertise-
ment talks about Shell's re-
sponsibility in relation to iden-
tification of the social needs
of the community.
My view is that this is
somewhat presumptuous in
view of the fact that Shell has
so far shown every intention
of proceeding with its proposal,
in spite of the strong feeling
which has been displayed dur-
ing the course of the past three
months by widely divergent
segments of the community.
Its only real point of justi-
fication is that it has had the
approval of Government. I will
return to this point later.
Some readers hopefully
will have seen the statement
put out by the Trinidad Field
Naturalists' Club. This group,
which has had the benefit of
adie scientific advice from
professionals, has stated an
even stronger case for keeping
Shell and other industrial con-
cerns out of this area of the
Caroni Swamp.
Their arguments suggest
that there is first of all need to
establish a programme for the
utilisation of the swamp, this

programme to be based on the
compatibility of activity with
the swamp itself. They suggest
among many things the utilisa-
tion of the swamp for fish
culture, shellfish culture, game
sanctuaries, national parks, etc.
As the club has suggested,
they are not opposed to use of
the Caroni Swamp. What they
are opposed tois irrational use
of this very valuable resource.
.Anyonb who has seen the
north end of the Caroni Swamp
will appreciate the level of
destruction of the resource.


The case made by the tour
operators also strikes me as
being perfectly valid. Apart.
from the possible adverse ef-
fects of a barge accident in-
volving either fire or spillage of
diesel oil (notwithstanding Mr.
Bates"" assurances, I wonder
what would happen to the fuel
of the barge if it sank?) there
is a very important question of
movement of the barge in No.
9 Canal. ,
The Shell advertisement
waffles on about the width and
depth of the Blue River. What
they have not t6ld us is the
dimensions of the barge and the
dimensions of No. 9 Canal.
We are again assured by
Shell that the captain of the
barge has been instructed to
move out of the way of other

users passing through No. 9
Canal. Do I or any other mem-
ber of this community have
any real rights in the centre of
the Canal?
For example, I happen to
own a small Mirror Dinghy
which is all of about 4 feet 6
inches in width. If I wish to
fish in the centre of No. 9
Canal where I will certainly not
interfere with any of the other
users of the canal will I have to
move for Shell?
Taking the swamp as a
whole one does not have to be
a firm of consulting engineers
to devise a rational plan for
utilisation. Logic would dictate
that the area from the Caroni
River north be lost to industry
and its attendant pollution.
The area to the south be-
tween the south bank of the
Caroni andthe Madam Espagnol
River and the Princess Margaret
Highway should remain free. of
industrial use, but used for the
various purposes listed earlier.
And now I return to the
central point of the whole issue
and this is Shell's justification
for utilising the Blue River and
No. 9 Canal. First of all, we
can dismiss the profitability
to Shell of this operation. This
is absolutely and totally irre-
levant to the overall question.
The only point in favour of
Shell continuing with this opera-
tion is the Government's ap-



Clico a company of
West Indians, formed for the
economic upliftment of PEOPLE.
Growing from humble beginnings to one
of the largest financial institutions indigenous to
the Caribbean. Assets for the security of our
policy holders now total over



The Growth is UP

proval. To the best of my
knowledge the Ministry re-
sponsible for giving approval
clearly did not use all the
advice or sources of informa-
tion available to it.
Who knows whether the -
Ministry's "approval" was one
of having no objection to the
operation? Perhaps Shell can
Snow show us a facsimile of
their proposal to Government
in which they specify the type
of barge and the dimensions
of the barge.
I cannot see how any Go-
vernment Ministry, however
muddled, could ever give ap-
proval for the monstrous
machine which is now moving
through.No 9 Canal. My inter-
pretation is that approval may
have been only on a question
of principle without any
thought for the consequences.


Secondly I 'would not be
surprised that all pertinent in-
formation may not have been
made available to the relevant
Clearly Government must
make a stand on this overall
problem. Some persons seem
to think that now that approval
has been given that it cannot
be cancelled.
Any liability on, the part
of the community for losses
to Shell could very easily be
met by enforcing existing anti-
pollution laws which apply in

The Shell advertisement!\
has focused on arguments
about the Caroni River as an
alternative site. The argument
is as usual clouded by suppres-
sion of other proposals which
have been made. Is there really
any reason why the Sea Lots
site might not be developed?





SIX MONTHS after one Carnival and five months before the next, you must wonder what
a show called "Calypso Caravan" must be all about. And especially when the Express
story last week indicated no calypsonians associated with it.
Curosity led me to seek out "Pa" Boothman, father of Michael and David
Boothman, and man of business of the band called The Family Tree.
The affable Mr. Boothman who has attended with unusual parental interest the

musical fortunes of his sons,
out to be. He knew that
Michael, leader/guitarist of
the band that once was
called The Rockefellas,
has been preoccupied with
the question of developing
his "own beat".
The boys, he told me, have
been working on something
over the last few months in
between performances with the
Trinidad Theatre Workshop's
"The Charlatan" which took
them to Jamaica.
The group had returned too
late to fulfil engagements for
Independence, and had decided
to give an exhibition of their
work in a show early in Sep-


So, with little advance pro-
motion, The Family Tree's
"Calypso Caravan" came to
the Port of Spain Town Hall
last Friday night (September 7)
There were not too many
finished items in the exhibition
which represented, rather, a
kind of still photograph of the
present stage of the experi-
What we got were early
-dressrehearsals for an LP which
could be called "Calypso Nos-
talgia", providing both a back-
ward glance at the past and a
squint at distant horizons of the
"Nostalgia", of course,
would reflect the yearning to
have the calypso rhythm es-
tablished in what is considered
its rightful place in the land of
its birth. The process entails
regarding the calypso as raw
material for experimentation,
instead of being an idiom
which has just reached as far
as it can go.
It is, quite frankly, a move-
ment aimed at popularizing the
calypso and, at the personal
level of the musicians, equipp-
ing them with the material and
confidence that would enhance
their ability to hold their own
in a situation of "free" com-
petition with imported, mainly
American, music.


It means exploring the
moods suggested by different
calypsoes both in lyric and
tune and interpreting them
musically. So musicians like
those in The Family Tree have
discovered that not all calyp-
soes can be expressed in terms
of "Jump if you jumping/Wine
if you wining ... "
Mastery of the calypso is
not necessarily the birthright
of Trinidad musicians, and the
people who have been making
this point most effectively have
been not foreigners still se-
duced by the promise of exo-
tica, but Trinidadians who re-
ceive calypso-sounding rhythms
from such foreign-based groups

was himself not too clear about what the show would turn

An LP called



as the Meters, Osibisa and San-
The area for research and
experiment as well as the need
for it have been long recognized,
and it was not surprising last
Friday to find in the front seat
of the Town Hall an interested
observer in the person of Clive
Alexander, a pioneer in this
kind of exploration.
In his own efforts Clive
Alexander has kept to the basic
minimum: drums,piano, some-

times a suitably liberated saxo-
phone blending with other per-
cussion and voices.
But The Family Tree launch-
ed into the attack with their
full complement of electronic
hardware Hammond organ,
electric guitar and bass and
multiple microphones to-
gether with congas, steelband
instruments and cowbells.
Which was one of the reasons
that the first 20 minutes or so
were an assault of undifferent-

iated sound, bespeaking more
enthusiasm than expertise.
These efforts, of course,
represent a liberation of con-
sciousness, and they can cause
an uncontrolled excitement to
be transmitted through high-
powered amplifiers. Perhaps it
was the realization of this which
led to an early intermission to
allow for adjustment of both
electronic and histrionic levels.
Anyway that first section
presented a medley of stick-
fight chants, a reappraisal of
one of the band's old hits
"The Blob", compositions by
the two Boothman brothers,
and "Zingay Ta La La".


An incessant roll and tum-
ble of background sounds from
an amplified drum-set, two con-
gas and bass continually dis-
tracted. "Massife, Massife",
their contest-winning tune, was
inadequately rehearsed, and the
voicings none too clear.
The second part of the
programme began with Wayne
"Birdie" Kirton replacing Da-
vid Boothman at the organ,
guitarist Fitzroy Coleman took
a seat on stage, and two
double-seconds and a tenor bass
from Phase Two steelband ap-
"Rainorama" in six eighths

tempo was charmingly quaint
with a joyful solo from Kirton
and a distinguished essay from
Coleman's guitar that brought
Clive Alexander to his feet in
applause. There followed frag-
ments and pieces of old calyp-
so choruses held together fancy
by stitches of solos.
"Old Lady Walk A Mile"
was wistful with Michael Booth-
man (back at his post) toying
with the melody, probing out a
blue note. I suppose you can
become blase about the Police
Band playing "Indrani" as a
march, but the idea of expres-
sing a calypso melody in some-
thing different from the con-
ventional "break-away" is un-
deniably a step in a fruitful
So the "Caravan" rolled on,
the going lightenedby attempts
to ad-lib little jokes.
"Just Yesterday" suggested
that steelband instruments
could be used to provide the
lush landscaping usually created
by strings to some kinds of
"mood" music.
After 90 minutes the show
degenerated into musicians
playing for themselves mu-
sings, personal, not very inter-
esting, reminisences, band-
room experimentation with
chords and bits and pieces of
ideas not many of them very
bright. [L.G.]

In 1890

one of her few

freedoms was

her bike.

Women nave

changed and

so have the

A young woman now has
more freedom and greater

responsibilities, to herself, her partner and eventually to her family.

The privilege to enjoy greater sexual freedom necessitates care against
unplanned pregnancy and social diseases.
The Family Planning Association of Trinidad and Tobago provides services

geared towards you-more responsible women. Contraception, on the advice of

one of our doctors, Pregnancy Tests and Pap-smear Tests for Cancer of the

cervix,Involuntary Sterility Test for people who want a child but can' t have
one. Because times have changed

The Family Planning Association is at your service.

" The first right of every child is to be wanted, to be
desired, to be planned with an intensity of love that
gives it its title to being."
Family Planning Pioneer.

The Family Planning Association of Trinidad & Tobago 143 Henry St.
Port-of-Spain, Call 62-35576 for further information


-< \ \ Y

irs. Lndrea TalbuL
Rsearch 7nsti tute
StIudy of 'lan,
162, East 78t r'h stret
ICTr YORK ITY.o I0021,
'Ph. Lehigh 5 8-48,

Jeff Charles reviews Youth Benson annd Hedges series




IF I interpret the thinking
behind the staging of the
Youth Benson & Hedges
Series correctly, the prin-
cipal purpose is to bring
to the fore the likely fu-
ture stars of the West In-
dies galaxy with the added
bonuses of the camarade-
rie and friendships de-
veloped, along the way,
and the bringing together
of the youth of the Carib-
In all its objectives as out-
lined above, the recently con-
cluded Benson and Hedges
series in St. Lucia from August
3rdto22nd was a major success.


Rain played a dominating
if not "dictatorial" part in the
series and seriously hampered
the chances of many teams,
allowing in the end, the Com-
bined Islands fortuitously to
regain their championship.
Barbados were the pace
setters almost to the end and
looked fairly certain winners al
one stage, but the rain thwarted
their vital encounter with Ja-
maica, not a ball being bowled,
and clearly a decision in that
match could have materially
altered the final placings and
the same can be said for the
abandoned Guyana vs Trinidad
Despite the serious setback
of the weather, there was
some splendid cricket and
many promising youngsters




showed their tremendous
talents with the competition
being keen until the very end.
In fact the Combined Is-
lands, making most of their
opportunities and benefits of
the weather, which was kinder
on their playing days, came
from behind, (led on first inn-
ings by everybody) to narrowly
beat Trinidad outright, but did
not know if they were undis-
puted holders of the trophy
until the last over of the Barba-
dos/Guyana affair with Barba-
dos hanging on for dear life to
stave off defeat.
The final standings were:
Combined Islands 18 pts, Bar-
bados 14 pts, Guyana 12 pts,
Jamaica 12 pts, Trinidad 4 pts.


Of the batsmen who im-
pressed and whose names should
be looked for in the future at
higher levels of our Caribbean
cricket, I rate Jeffrey Dujon of
Jamaica very highly. He is a
most fluent strokemaker and
has evidently seen Seymour
Nurse in action. I could sug-
gest Jeffrey Stollmeyer as well,
but he was too young. He is
sound in technique as well.
Bacchus of Guyana was
playing slightly below his level,
being in the Guyana senior
squad, but still showed a lot of
class. He was one of four
century makers.
Alvin Greenidge of Barba-
dos is both sound and pur-
poseful and is quite adaptable,
making good scores both in the
opening position and in the
middle order. He scored a
match saving century for Bar-
bados on the last day of the
Lockhart Sebastian, who
at 17 could boast that he
plays in the Shell Shield, for
the Presidents' Sixteen, made
a string of good scores and
was the best opener of the
A strokemaker of real po-
tential and one of the best on
display in the tournament was
Edghill of Trinidad who must
surely find his way into the
Trinidad Shell Side in the near

future. Maybe he is impetuous
at this stage, but this is part of
being young, and he will surely
mature. He hooks and cuts
Cummings of the Combined
Islands and Jackman of Guyana
both scored centuries too, and
are good players, who on their
day kept the flag flying but did
not appear to be quite in the
class ofthose of earlier mention.


Cummings was in every-
one's books the best wicket
keeper on show, athletic and
alert, he could reach the top.
It would have been hearten-
ing to report that some young,
strong, talented fast bowler had
stormed his way into recogni-
tion, but alas this was far from
being the case. Jamaica's Mike
Holding, who plays in bigger
company, impressed, but only
just, and lacks real control.
Daniel of Barbados and
Whittingham of Jamaica both
looked good in spells but are
no better than a lively medium
pace and did very little in the
air or off the wicket.
There was one off-spinner
of real note, 17 year old Clyde
Rathgan of Jamaica who turned

the ball and flighted cleverly,
but his action leaves much to
be desired, though he was never
As there was a dearth of
real fastmen, (significant of all
classes of cricket nowadays) in
straight contrast, there was a
surfeit of left arm orthodox
bowlers. The pick of the crop
was, for my money, Oliver of
Trinidad, whom I rated during
the commentaries as the out-
standing bowler of the series.
Oliver has superb control,
is intelligent, gives little away
and is a craftsman of quality
for his age. He works on a
batsman. On two occasions he
bowled over 3 5 overs unchanged
and enjoyed outstanding
figures. He also took perhaps
the most spectacular catch of
the tournament, off his own


Gabriel of Trinidad, Solo-
mon of Guyana,and Gordon of
Jamaica were other members
of the left arm brigade worthy
of note. Gabriel reminds me a
lot of Pascal Roberts. Knights
of Barbados, Murray of Trini-
dad and Eddy of the Com-
bined Islands were fighting all-
rounders, whose efforts lifted

their teams at many points.
No praise could be too high
for the St. Lucia organizers
who did a magnificent job in
hosting the tournament and the
only thing that let them down
was the weather which they
evidently couldn't control.
Perhaps the West Indies Board
can pay attention to the call by
many, to advance the tourna-
ment to the Easter Holidays.


This has its own brand of
problems it can interfere
seriously with a touring team's
fixtures, some domestic com-
petitions, and preparation foU
GCE exams, but since August
is such a rainy month, then
there is no alternative.

Having watched the com-
petition throughout, I remain
convinced that there is a tre-
mendous reservoir of cricketing
talent at the Under 19 level
which if nurtured properly
could come to fruition to the
lasting benefit of West Indies
cricket, and could help to
forge our new identity.

No rent for

Lever ground

MR. Gerald Montes de Oca,
Managing Director of Lever
Bros. West Indies Ltd, would
like to correct the impression
given by Earl Best in his article
"Whatever Happened to Our
Honeymoon?" (TAPIA August
Earl Best had written inter-
alia: ". local football leagues
must pay rental to Lever Bros.
on the occasions that they
decide to take gates, impossible
at Constantine Park".

Speaking for Lever Bros.
Mr. Montes De Oca points out
that his firm has never charged
rental for the use of their



of the Caribbean

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