Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00075
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: September 9, 1973
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00075

Full Text
Vol. 3 No. 36

NEW YOR" 21, N. -




A SPECIAL Assembly of
members has been called
for Sunday, September 23,
to decidewhat action Tapia
will take in the deteriorat-
ing political and military
situation in the country.
A lively, if not stormy,
session will no doubt take
place as we take a critical
look at the country and
our prospects for political
Among urgent ques-
tions to be raised before
the Assembly are the es-
calating military activities
and the pending report of
the Wooding Commission,
which could make the last
three months of 1973 a
decisive period in our na-
tion's future.
This Special Assembly
will therefore be a crucial
occasion in the life of the
Group, and arrangements
are being made to bring
out all Tapia people.
Proceedings start
promptly at 9 a.m. The
morning session will fea-
ture an address by Chair-
man Syl Lowhar on "The
State of The Nation", and
a review of Tapia's activi-
ties in recent months by
Community Relations
Secretary Ivan Laughlin.
Write or phone the
Administrative Secretary
at 82-84 St. Vincent Street,
Tunapuna (662-5126) to
confirm your attendance.
If you need transport or
you can offer help in this
area let us know as soon
as possible.


in POS
"grounding" will take
place in Port of Spain
on Saturday morning
(September 8). Mem-
bers and associates will
gather in Woodford
Square at 7.30 a.m.
from where we'll be
fanning out all over
the city, selling papers
and politics.
In the Square itself
will be a booth and
display of TAPIA back
numbers, and members
willbe wearing special-
ly printed jerseys avail-
able at $2.50 each from
the House.
The scene will shift,
to Diego Martin in the
afternoon, for more
sales, more politics,
more grounding.

Rockefeller... Castr



WITH what world forces
has the government of Trini-
dad and Tobago aligned this
In a week that saw the start
of the Non-Aligned Conference
in Algiers'and the stop-over visit
of Cuban Prime Minister Fidel
Castro, we can't depend on
images flashed in the media to
give us any clues as to where we
stand in the international line-up.
Michael Manley and Forbes
Burnham hitched a ride in the
CubanIluyshinjet to be able to
hold aloft their own banners
alongside the proud standards
of "non-aligned" Third World
countries. Last year's Non-
Aligned Conference was held in
Guyana, and last week Burnham
was showing off to his compare
from up north the nationalized
GUYBAU holdings.


Manley customarily mouths
platitudes about commitment of
himself and Jamaica to the Third
World, and about the need for
the "underdeveloped" to develop
consciousness and solidarity.And
when it's a question of standing
up to be counted with the bright-
est brass-face we know you can't
beat the Guyanese showman who
bared his chest in Lusaka and put
Guyanese money where his
mouth is -in support of African
liberation struggles.
Back home in Trinidad, our
scholar-Prime Minister has been
able to give the Third World
movement and the Caribbean
integration movement the bene-
fit of his erudition only by long
distance except when he
wangles one of the meetings of
heads to be held here.
But the warm abrazo lasi
Monday night when Fidel Castro
came in has deluded no one into
thinking that what was involved
was more than a "Caribbeanist"
or Third World shake-hand.
Williams once called the
Cuban Revolution "a belated
attempt to catch up with the
nationalist movement in the rest
of the Caribbean". And maybe
his view is that the Castro move-
ment has now drawn abreast of
us if not overtaking us.
Castro has gone ahead to
plant the Cuban flag amidst the
"non-aligned" fraternity in Al-
giers, but Trinidad's representa-
tion at that conference is limited
to three diplomatic officials -

o...McNamara... Third World?



A meeting of "middle-class misfits"?

Eustace Seignoret, John Donald-
son and J. O'Neil Lewis.
In other words, the con-
ference merits lower level re-
presentation than the Common-
wealth Prime Ministers' Confer-
ence in Canada last month when
Prevatt represented Williams.
And that is even though Williams
has called the Commonwealth a

AREA Representatives
and other members of the
Council of Representatives
are reminded of the regu-
lar fortnightly meeting of
the Council to be held at
the Tapia House on Mon-
day, September 10, at
8.00 p.m.

"hangover fromthe 19thcentury...
trying to adapt to a 20th century
situation with a lot of inde-
pendent states", and noted that
Britain's decision to join the
ECM "virtually meant the end of
the Commonwealth".
So that no amount of skin-
teeth amigo sentiment in an
airport could describe our posi-

tion in the international world.
This is Marlboro country too.
These Caribbean governments
feel they could manufacture a
foreign policy that would ring
eloquently when uttered in inter-
national conferences but which
sounds a different note from the
realities at home.
McNamara, former Defence
Secretary under the Johnsonand
Kennedy administrations, and
key prosecutor of the Viet Nam
war,was also feted here recently.
His new portfolio in the World
Bank defines a function by
another name but which still
means the same thing to a coun-
try like ours.


So that Williams and his
CARICOM brethren may feel
that their own Five Year De-
velopment Plans are being legiti-
mated by Cuban recognition,
but the Piarco abrazo will not
change the price of rice here -
indeed, not even the price of
sugar which we are now re-
portedly importing from Canada.
The prime objective of Cu-
ban foreign policy has been to
break out of the American
blockade which, until recently,
Williams has been aiding and
abetting by his own colonial
stance "on the Western side of
the Iron Curtain".
Castro's visit to this haven of
Texaco and Rockefeller there-
fore represents more than any-
thing a victory for the Cuban
The real proponents of the
Caribbean revolution know that
the course being steered by the
CARICOM partners in this part
of the "American lake" just
takes us round and round but no
place beyond the rocks of neo-

Indian house cont'd see Pages5 &s

13 Lelt~l

_j __



ment has placed the new
Workers Saving and Loan
Bank under the direction
of former New World man
in Washington, Paul Chen
Unlike his counterpart
in Port of Spain, Chen
Young begins with all the

capital and the facilities of
the Post Office Savings
Bank behind him: depo-
sits exceeding $21m.J, 255
branches and 250,000 ac-
tive savings accounts some
held by Jamaicans abroad.

Before going to the market
last July with one million Ordi-

nary Voting shares at $0.50
per share, the new bank had
already gotten an unsecured
Government loan of $J2.5m
and had raised share capital to
the amount of $J1.5m.,
$200,000 being holdings by
Trades Unions on both sides of
the political fence.
The policy of this Jamaican

Government in the field of
banking remains as highly con-
servative as it has been since
Adult Suffrage in 1944.
The metropolitan banks
are therefore stronger than ever
especially since they have
started to disguise their powers
behind a programme of fake
localisation. Still, the establish-

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ment of the Workers Bank does
representan important develop-
In a context where the
Governments are afraid to ex-
pel the metropolitan parasite
banks, national banking can
succeed only if it can win
widespread public support;
bring a large number of en-
tirely new accounts and shift
some old ones into the national
banking sector; and take the
opportunity to alter the whole
shape and style of banking
and revise the role of financial
advice in household budgeting
at the poorest grass-roots level.


The key ingredient here is
the loyalty and support of the
West Indian people. In Trini-
dad, unfortunately, the Work-
ers Bank has been forced to
share its fund of natural sup-
port with the Penny Bank, the
Post Office Savings Bank and
the National Commercial Bank.
The Government is too un-
popular to ask the country to
rally behind a single concerted
effort to save ourselves from
post-colonial doom.
In Jamaica the Manley Go-
vernment is better placed part-
ly because the country is still
in the phase of illusions but
more so because the Post Office
Savings Bank brings to the
Workers Bank a long tradition
of successful struggle and

.r ,.,




- --




Column 1

Lennox Grant

'I AM the kind of person who would want to kick myself because I hadn't thought of it
first. So I became anxious immediately when friend R. invited me to be what the
Americans call "fall guy" in a new wisecrack routine.
"Ask me," he said, "'you think Dr. Williams is a good Prime Minister?'"
I asked, as asked. And the reply came: "Deaf initely!"
Well, it's not very funny, is it? But, I suppose, it's one of those things that has its people.
Not that I feel there's anything necessarily improper about lampooning the physical disabilities
or pecularities of a ruling politician. It's done all over the world caricatures and satires inspired by
much greater diabolical malice of such things as the jowls of a Harold Wilson, the nose of a Golda Meir
or a Charles de Gaulle.
De Gaulle didn't always take it sitting down though. He did move at one point to prosecute an
enterprising commercial artist who thought to make a quick franc by selling a new brand of pot de
chambre appealingly decorated with a sketch of the Presidential profile.
And in the land of calypso journalism the head of government has been cartooned with his
pants down with the tongue of
an erstwhile colleague at the
ready. Which the Journalists
Association didn't find funny
either being moved on the LI
occasion to intone solemnly
against the "abuse of press
freedom" etc.
Suffice it to say at the
moment that our Prime Minis-
ter is an inveterate reader of c h ae
the international press where
that kind of portrayal of poli-
tical leaders is more common
than it is here. For all his
complaints about the calumny
of the international press who *
have nothing to fraid Karl
about, Williams obviously feels
he could get in those papers a
clearer picture of conditions in party handmaids to the jet- his knee is to throw the Guar-
Trinidad and Tobago. setting young executive turned dian sports editor into delirium
So he has made it plain Queen of the. Bands. ("yes, boy, Williams really care
that he feels the Trinidad press The Express front-paged about sport"); and holding on
and Trinidad journalists her first (and last?) public absent-mindedly to Wilham De-
run a poor second to their speech. Both papers vied with mas' hand has prime human
counterparts in the metropoli- each other to catch his other interest appeal. ("How you go
tan world, who, after all, pro- children in engagingly off-guard beat this man?!').
vide the world background positions. So the TV camera plays
against which food prices, I suspect that at least in longingly on the figure stand-
crime, or any of our ills shrink I suspect that at least longingly on the figure stand-
into comparative insignificance. part the explanation for this ing to attention in the Grand
i tendency of the press derives Stand as the anthem is played,


In 1970 the foreign press
were not afraid to suggest open-
ly what local journalists could
only mutter in cocktail parties
about the comparative merits
of Serrette, Lassalle, and Shah.
And Williams had later to polish
up the Brigadier image by re-
futing the "denigration" Ser-
rette had suffered in the papers
Then he restarted press
conferences for journalists to
copy down his prepared ans-
wers to prepared questions,
and eventually did the profes-
sion the ultimate honour of
appointing as PRO a news-
paperman who had come out
of the tradition of the Guardian
(which he once symbolically
burnt) and the Mirror (which
he once effectively ostracized)
and the Express (which he
condemned in 1971 as the
worst thing ever to happen to
journalism here).
Yet the local press were
still never clear as to where
they stood with the Prime
Minister. They dutifully fol-
lowed his progress in the Carni-
val band campaign through
PNM youth "rallies" in 1970
to Woodstock and the Moruga
picnic of 1971, their loving
cameras and diligent notebooks
recording each change of cos-
tume and rhythm sport jac-
ket, cravat and beads; calypso,
pan and funk.
The Guardian reminded him
that it had been an affection-
ate witness to the growing up
of his daughter through the
PNM era from the pig-tailed
little darling in the arms of

from the British connection,
for in the British press Royalty
- as much as conventional
politics here always makes
news. So it's not simply a case
of Williams: Beverley Manley
too became an over-night
royalty here; and the Governor
General's children are going to
find it impossible to play at all
without attracting the squint-
ing eyes of press photographers.
But really, after all these
years the press never got over
Williams. This fascination with
the props and personal affecta-
tions that go to make up
"style" is at the bottom of the
ambivalence about Williams and
the "PNM regime". So Wil-
liams, they insist, knows his
people; like the press, he gives
them what they want; he as-
sumes: a character they find
To quote from a pop song
is to show evidence of rap; to
"picong" Gary Sobers about

head erect, hearing aid cord!
taut, unseen eyes staring im-
passively from behind dark
glasses, round chin facilitating
the determined upthrust of
bottom lip a hairless, patri-
cian visage, stark against a
shadowed background as the
strains of Pat Castagne's music
How many times have you
and I seen that picture decorat-
ing the front pages, illustrating
an article with the least refer-
ence to the Prime Minister? Yet
it's not merely the abject adula-
tion that has immortalized,
say, a Kamaluddin Mohammed.
It's not the worshipful obei-
sance of a Women's League or
a mealy-mouthed Hudson-Phil-
I feel it's a nationalist con-
sciousness frozen at the point
of 1962. So that 11 years after
to the day a Dalmatian named
Chip could bring out what the
Express called "an unexpected

streak of tenderness" in the
Prime Minister. ("You didn't
know he liked dogs,eh?")
The Guardian reported that
an unqualified "many" had
taken in the TV interview as a
"pleasant dessert ... the image
Dr. Williams projected was of
mellowness and urbanity".
Satisfied with its yearly pri-
vilege of an exclusive Inde-
pendence interview, the Guar-
dian doesn't miss the press

But Williams doesn't miss
the opportunity to rub their
faces in the dust, to remind the
Guardian that it had opposed
him on Chaguaramas and on
Independence. Last year he
exposed the obsequious begging
for an interview and the flattery
that an Independence Magazine
would not be complete with-
out his contribution.
Continued on Page 10



WITH THE militarization going apace, the daily newspapers
are frantically overreaching themselves to present the grim
details of "shootouts" in suitably dramatic terms.
The elusive prey of all those "manhunts", who have
now become the objects of all those "joint exercises", are
probably not interested in suing for defamation of character.
But how are ordinary readers to know whether to regard
them as "thugs" as "terrorists" as "guerrillas" or as "just
common criminals"?


"USE fOUR imagination!" So did "Crime iChief" Russell
Toppin once prescribe for a reporter suffering the effects of
double-think after he tried to swallow the police version of a
The Express last Monday must have taken an overdose of
Toppin's medicine: it brought up a story about a bomb attack
on the St. James Police Station, and it smeared a.headline in
shocking pink across the front page.
But the next day, after Commissioner Bernard deemed
the St. James story "entirely untrue" and "a figment of the
writer's imagination", the Express cooly shrugged off its
embarrassment and hid Bernard's comment in the dull gray
print of page three.


Meanwhile, as the forces
paraded for Independence,
no doubt with real bullets in their guns,
And our be-knighted Governor General denied the
historical function of knights and clung
instead to the top of a Land Rover,
Breadfruit was moving up too
in society and price ($3),
And the Government's Ministry of Food
was all a-flutter about protein-content of
chicken with or without heads stuffed in the belly,
And another fowl-brain felt we should hunt
man instead of gouti
in the bush this year,
as if we could eat mankind instead of saltkind
boil down with the breadfruit,
all of which gone up anyway,
together with pitchoil and gas (not the one
in we belly; that ent going no way),
And rice like peas was coming from a CARICOM
partner who stick we
for seven cents more,
And with all that a new restaurant
named Red Carpet opened in the hope
that Castro and them would come and eat
there, but Castro ent eating so nice
And he companeros ent eating no rice
in a little place in South
when they could get together round
Italian table in town,
But who say is the Mafia go integrate we?

New Dorina
"'- ,



soft, light

-and delicious.




Despite the objections

EVEN AS THE controversy seethes over the use of a motor barge in the Caroni Swamp,
"Shellpelican", the $500,000 vessel custom-built by Shell, has already begun making the
five to six-mile trip transporting Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) up the Blue River and
Channel No. 9.
At a press conference in their Salvatori Building offices last ;Saturday, Shell officials revealed that
the vessel had made the trip five times since August 13. And according to their operations schedule, the
barge will make three trips per week initially, taking each time 30,000 gallons of the product marketed
as "Shellane" to the plant in Cunupia.

Since its statement on June
8, the oil company had main-
tained an almost complete si-
lence on the issue, and a state-
ment read by Managing Direc-
tor P.R.G. Bates last Saturday
noted the "growing,opposition"
which had developed to the
Shell barge proposal.
It is now clear that the
company is going ahead re-
gardless, armed with its permis-
sion obtained from the govern-
ment since 1970, and undeterr-
ed by the threats of boycott
uttered by the increasingly
vocal conservationists' interest.


Dealing with the fears and
charges whichhave been levelled
by the groups, the Shell state-
ment hoped that the issue
could be "considered objec-
tively and separated from the
emotionalism and the extrava-
gant statements and accusa-
tions which have so far
characterized it".
The agitation. against the
Shell barge has so far been
joined by SCAPE, the Field
Naturalists Club, HATT, the
Cedros Fishermen's Co-opera-
tive, the South Hunters Group,
the Wildlife Society, the Cu-
repe Action Croup and the
Caroni Swamp Boat Operators.
Against these Shell has
deployed the resources of its
international public relations
machinery to pour oil on the
troubled waters of public sus-
Managing Director Bates
last Saturday read from a tele-
type brief to rebut suggestions
made by Dani Jeffrey in a
letter to last week's BOMB
that Shell had been caughtout
in sharp dealing in relation its
proposal some time ago to
build a single buoy mooring
oil terminal in Anglesey, Wales.


It seems that the Sunday
Times magazine story referred
to by Jeffrey was the subject of
a Parliamentary investigation
and the reason for a formal
complaint to the British Press
Council against the Sunday
Last Saturday the company
was able to marshal an array
of facts and figures to support
its assurances that the "Shell-
pelican" would not be a threat
to swamp ecology, to wild
life, to the livelihood of tour
operators, fishermen, crab and
oyster catchers etc.
Conceding that water trans-
port of LPG through the swamp
would "improve the efficiency
of our operations for our own
benefit". Shell who have a
40% share of the national LPG
market argued that it was more
than a question of keeping
down costs, as the price of the
product is controlled.
After 1969, Shell said, it
was found no longer feasible
to get supplies from the Pointe-
a-Pierre refinery; and the com-
pany saw the need to develop

its own refinery capacity at
Point Fortin.
But the longer haul from
there raised the cost of road
transport what with the dan-
gers from bad roads. So water
transport was considered, and
the possibility of using the
Caroni--River investigated. (The
tanker trucks, according to
Shell, carry only 3,000 gallons
each trip.)
A 4,000 foot sandbar at
the mouth, its shallow depths
at some points and its tight
bends disqualified the Caroni
in the minds of Shell investiga-
tors whose findings were con-
firmed by "independent
consultants" within the last
two months.
And it was a tour operator,
Shell claimed, who suggested
use of the Blue River and
Channel No. 9.
Company spokesmen also
pointed out that permission
did not have to be sought to
operate a vessel in that part of
the swamp, but Shell "out of
an abundance of caution" went
ahead and asked the permission
of the Ministry of Planning and
"A number of meetings
were held, a number of ques-
tions were asked and after
what was obviously careful
considerations of the matter,
permission was granted". So
the statement reports.
Asked whether he thought
consultation with the people
likely to be concerned or affect-
ed might have helped to clarify
the issue, Shell Marketing
Manager Ted Figuiera said: "If

these organizations had been
in existence at the time and
,their views had been sought,
their fears and questions could
have been answered".
That did not happen, and
what is now suspected is a


i s I WW

113I lEB


shady deal between Shell and
the Government, without re-
ference to or consultation with
any of the parties likely to be
interested. The Wildlife So-
ciety's negative opinion came
only after Shell had already
got the go-ahead.


Conservationists and others
now rankle at the fearsome
fait accompli of "Shellpelican"'
(97 feet long by 23 feet wide,
able to float in four feet of
water and to inch along at
four miles an hour in the
Those are Shell's claims.
But what about noise, oil spil-
lage, the possible ecological
disaster of a breakdown or a
wreck or a fire? What will
happen to the birds and the
fishes, oysters and crabs? Will.
dredging be disruptive?

Shell insists that there will
be no spillage of pollutants into
the water, the barge willfloat
along more silently than the
outboard motors of the tour
operators or the roar of 707
jets overhead; the wildlife sanc-
tuary is a mile away from the
course the barge will take; the
flat-bottomed Shellpelican will
make no waves; there will be a
Slot of room for everybody in
the Blue River which is 120
feet at its widest and 45 feet
at its narrowest points; and
"the possibility of breakdown
is extremely remote".


Nor, says Shell, is there
anything extraordinary about
their dredging of the North
Bank of Canal No. 9; the
government normally perform-
ed this maintenance operation
and had already done the South
batikbefore its equipment broke
And as to the fear that the

You always

]wanted her to

a j sew...


o makes it easy-
19 -V 11


an ideal

Gift too.




Two views of "Shell pelican", the noiseless, non-polluting barge
which, nevertheless, has poured no oil on troubled waters of
public opinion.
s"XiaaY Pij

Caroni would degenerate into
an industrial waterway with all
the frightening environmental
implication's, Shell spokesmen
said: "We have no intention of
using more than this one vessel
for this purpose at the present
The government has so far
been markedly non-committal
on the issue. It has indeed
promised formation of a Statu-
tory Authority to administer
public parks, and.its recently
published plan for Chaguaramas
delineates areas to be reserved
as prized national realproperty.
In metropolitan countries
like the USA large oil com-
panies are under pressure from
ecological and environmental-
ist interests. One result of this
has been the desire to set up
refinery "superports" outside
of America in the Caribbean.


It is clear that what we need
to guard against (and which
this issue shows clearly) is the
dominating centralism of go-
vernment here that allows for
deals of all kinds with large
foreign companies without our
being able to have adequate
say on them. At bottom what
the Caroni Swamp brings to
mind is the constitutional issue.
Where is the Senate in
which conservationist interest
could voice concern under par-
liamentary privilege? The Se-
nate which could open a
national inquiry into the whole
case and force Shell to submit
its claims to independent, re-
cognised assessment?
Where is the government
that is strong enough to con-
front Shell inan issuewhich has
been giving rise to considerable
anxiety, and which could force
them to ventilate all the rami-
fications to public satisfaction?
Those are the questions being
asked and the answers
will not be long in coming.

I : r


- .0



Development of Indian House Cont'd

The Modern Period

A wealthy home

Above: Curved eaves and simple white walls would indicate associations with
traditional values
Below: Note curved staircase

Brian Lewis
---- \

A NUMBER of combined
reasons explain the emer-
gence of a new "modern"
style for the domestic
building development of
the Indian in Trinidad.
This period dates back to
the end of the Second
World War and, to date, is
the final development of
domestic design for the
Indians in Trinidad.
First, the most important
factor is the Westernization of
the Indian over the period
between the Two World Wars.
The Indian had adopted every
western job available to him,
adjusted his religion, became
educated and skilled and there-
fore generally more prosperous.
It is difficult, today at any
rate, to look upon an Indian as
Indian for he is fully integrated
into the West Indian society of
Trinidad.Heis no longer limited
to the ajoupa as a home, a
situation which dates back to
the 1050's. His economic status
has improved considerably and
therefore it is logical that the
Indian home reflect this pros-
Added to this were the
changing attitudes about pos-
sessions, not only the home,
but also all belongings. The
West Indian culture is rather
self-conscious and prone to
stylistic expression, as is seen
in the attitude towards a home.
The effects of Colonial archi-
tecture were replaced by the
rather more affluent style of
the "California House".
The tendency of the Trini-

dadian towards stylistic ex-
pression is equalled by the
Indian. Although the move-
ment towards a "camp" archi-
tecture was initially borrowed
by the middle class West Indian,
the Indian soon followed with
a peculiar conglomeration pro-
ducing a sort of "pseudo camp-
Indian" style.
Thirdly, the increasing
amount of Indians working in
the construction industry (small
scale) led to a sub-culture mo-
tivated by the Indian crafts-
men. One of the most import-
ant developments of the skilled
craftsman was the increasing
Indian craft of wrought iron


This then is the sociological,
economic and stylistic back-
ground to the emergence of the
modern Indian house in the
1950's. The Modern House
can be subdivided into three
The first group of the
Modern Indian house emerged
in the early 1950's, although it
is still used today in the lower
income bracket. The house is
usually raised one floor above
ground and is very rarely a
bungalow type.
The ground floor some-
times has a concrete finish and
is usually entirely open, unless
the owner has added a small
shop or some rooms. The lay-
out of the houses is usually on
plots of about 5,000 square
feet along a road. The space
under the house has many
uses but often takes the form
of a garage, meeting hall or is

used for rice storage.
An outside kitchen can
sometimes be found though it
is more common to find the
conventional kitchen, along
with modern cooking facilities,
situated within the house on
the first floor.
A staircase, or sometimes
two, leads from the ground to
first floor levels. The staircase
and columns are normally con-
crete with a wrought iron hand-
rail for the staircase. On the
first floor the main house con-
sists of a number of bedrooms,
kitchen, dining room, sitting,
room with an open porch,
bathroom, toilets and possibly
a back porch.
All equipment for the toilet
and kitchen is usually modern
and the owners take great
pride in the newly acquired
pieces of western"furniture".
Sometimes the old ajoupa,
which often stands in the back-
yard, provides an outdoor
kitchen, and an ajoupa room
may be provided where prayers
and small meetings take place.
The construction of the
floor is either reinforced con-
crete slab or timber joist con-
struction. The walls, of the
early modern houses, were
invariably clay blocks with a
plastered rendering. The'walls
are quite often painted in a
combination of colours.


The roof is a veiy-shallow
pitched galvanized sheeting with
suitable eaves all around. Quite
often the corners of the eave
facias are moulded with an
intentional style, serving no
functional purpose.
While the majority of
houses are equipped with mo-
dern prefabricated steel win-
dow and door frames, in some
cases timber frames are used
for economy. Windows are
usually glass casement or glass
louvres which is an entirely
different fenestration technique
from those applied to the
Rows of ventilated blocks
can be seen over the window
head but its use requires illo-
gical structural beams both
below and above such rows of
blockwork. Although the over-
head ventilation serves the pur-
pose of increasing ventilation
(although at that level there is
little cooling effect) one sus-
pects that it is another form of
stylistic expression.
Sometimes the window-sill
is extended around the entire
window opening thus becoming
another added feature. On one
particular case a house con-
sisted entirely of red glass
windows; the colour red being
a traditional symbol often used
in religious ceremonies. Cur-
tains, now necessary because of
glass, are usually a very strong
colour and often red.
The hand rails to the porch,
staircase and other open areas
have become an extremely im-
portant element of stylistic
expression. Again here many of
the patterns have now become
fashionable but it is obvious
that the railing (wroughtiron)

is fast becoming a status sym-
bol among the Indians.
The Hand rail designer is
often one who was involved in
the jewellery business and has
diverted his skill to the work of
wrought iron. In fact there is a
certain similarity between je-
wellery and wrought iron de-
signs and there is no doubt that
the use of wrought iron on
houses has replaced, to a cer-
tain extent, the use of jewellery
amongst East Indians.
Another interesting stylis-
tic element popular among this
group of the modern house is
the combination use of a flat
and pitched roof in the front
of the house. The flat portion
usually covers the area over
the porch and the gable over-
laps it.


It is not clear why this
peculiar feature is adopted, for
it serves no functional purpose,
but it suggests another totally
decorative use.
It is fairly important to
understand that Indians have
very strong stylistic require-
ments for building such mo-
dern houses. Most Indians just
demand the use of certain ele-
ments to be built, having seen
them used in other parts of the
In some cases the house is
built over a period of years
and the different stylistic fa-
shions can be witnessed in one
house. The modern house re-
quires the use of more skilled
labour than any of its previous
developments and some Indians
are in tLi building industry and
survive entirely through work
from the Indian community.
But it is important to note
that it is the owner of the
house, and in some cases in-
experienced draftsmen, who de-
sign such new houses. The
following passage depicts a ty-
pical Indian approach to house

"He had thought deeply about his
house, and he knew exactly what
he wanted. He wanted, in the first
place, a real house, made with real
materials. He did not want mud for
walls, earth for floor, tree branches
for rafters, and grass for roof. He
wanted a galvanised iron roof and
wooden ceiling.
He would walk up concrete
steps into a small verandah, through
doors with coloured panes into a
small drawing room; from there
into a small bedroom, then another
small bedroom, then back into the
small verandah.
The house would stand on small
concrete pillars so that he would
get two floors instead of one, and
the way would be left open for
future development. The kitchen
would be a shed in the yard; a neat
shed, connected to the house by a
covered way. And his house would
be painted. The roof would be red,
and the outside walls ochre with
chocolate facings, and the windows
white". (A House for Mr. Biswas:
V.S. Naipaul)
Although this is not a des-
cription of a true modern
house it does indicate the ob-
session with style, with colour;
the individuality; the changing
attitude towards the ajoupa
There is also the following
description of the house during
"Every day Mr. Biswas went to the
site and examined the skeleton of
the house. The wooden pillars
(substituted for concrete for saving
in cost) were not as bad as he had
feared. From a distance they looked
straight and cylindrical, contrasting
with the clsuarcncss of lihe rest of
the frame, and he decided that this
was practically.a style.

"He had to get floor boards; he
wanted pitch pine for that, not the
five inch width, which he thought
common, but the two and a half
inch, which he had seen in some
ceilings. He had to get boards for
the walls; broad boards, with tongue
and groove. And he had to get
corrugated iron for the roof, with
blue triangles stamped on the silver,
so that they looked like sheets of
expensive stone rather than iron.
At the end of the month he set
aside fifteen of his twenty five
dollars for the house. This was
extravagant; he was eventually left
with ten".

A mixture of Indian and Western elements swimming pool and wrought iron

Closer up



TO UNDERSTAND why unemployment has
persisted in spite of massive investment or to
propose alternative employment strategies, we
must first have a clear understanding of the
investment and employment policy of the go-
vernment and the circumstances to which it
has given rise.
When Williams and the PNM came to
power in 1956, the government sought not
only to expand the dimensions ofitsown poli-
tical power but also to devise a policy or a set
of policies designed to accelerate the process of
economic development in the country. A ne-
cessary companion to such an acceleration was
a reduction in the level of unemployment.
In the three development programmes that have
subsequently been undertaken, the unemployment
problem was clearly identified and the process of job
creation was inextricably linked with what the econo-
mists call "structural transformation" changing the
base or structure on which the economy is founded.
Time and again, unemployment is identified as a
serious problem and a solution was going to be found
only through a transformation of.the economy, inter-
preted by the government to mean the creation of a
manufacturing sector, apparently at all costs, and the
reduction of the economy's excessive dependence on the
petroleum and sugar industries. Even in the Third Plan
where development and structural transformation are
more sensibly defined, the actual policies are no
different from those of the two earlier plans.


To generate this "structural transformation" and
thus solve the unemployment problem, the government
engaged the services of "fhe two most eminent con-
temporary authorities on the development of under-
developed areas", Professor Arthur Lewis and
Teodoro Moscoso of the Puerto Rican Economic
Development Administration.
The strategy proposed by these two has come
to be known as "industrialization by invitation", the
process whereby the local community lures foreigners
to establish industries here, offering in return many
fiscal and other incentives with the hope that at some
time in the future, locals will somehow learn the
"tricks of the trade".
Some time earlier, Professor Lewis himself, guided
by Puerto Rico's own "development" efforts, had

To get them (foreign capitalists) to come, as pioneers,
and to put up with the inconveniences of being
pioneers, you may have to offer them considerable
incentives such as temporary monopoly rights or sub-
sidies, or a tax holiday or tariff protection. In the end
S... this policy may pay and (may) yield economic
results greatly exceeding the original sacrifice.

So,, from the time that the Williams' Government
set in motion its policy of industrial invitations as the
answer to the unemployment problem, the emphasis
of the strategy was on the provision of industrial incen-
tives a la Arthur Lewis in the form of tax holidays,
accelerated depreciation, tariff protection, overvalua-
tion of the exchange rate, monopoly rights etc., all in
the name of job creation.


And, when the going got tough, as in April 1970,
political protection was also willingly provided. For
example, in a luncheon address in October 1972 to
members of the Canadian business community in
Toronto, Mr. Bernard Primus, Chairman of the IDC, in
dismissing political turmoil in the country, sought to
allay the fears of potential investors with the soothing
We have like all modern communities the vocal
and truculent minority who oppose the establish-
ment, that is, the government, big business, both
local and foreign .. and all that is regarded by
the radical university student everywhere as the
establishment. They are, fortunately for us, a
very small minority which now are on the run.
(Winnipeg Free Press, October 4, 1972).
Given this preoccupation with investment in
physical capital, it is not surprising that over the past
15 years there has been an unprecedented outlay of

IT IS NOT as if the government in
the last 14 years since it began to
"industrialize" in earnest has tried
nothing to solve unemployment.
In spite of such frenzy, writers
ANSELM LONDON, the problem per-
sists and its social and political con-
sequences continue to multiply." In
this article, London, i shows why ,
unemployment has continued. He sees
this persistence as a result "of the type .
of economic activity encouraged by
the government and the IDC" the
encouragement of "branch plant" type
of foreign investment. The failure also i
had to do, he argues, with the way the
PNM conceived of development: the
population had to be developed by
others rather than be the agents of
our own development.
With this analysis of the reasons
for the failure, London suggests how
a new government could,"swing out of
the unemployment trap". It is simply 17.
foolhardy, he notes, to urge, as has
been done in the 1973 Budget, the
invited industries to get more of their
supplies locally. What is needed is an
entirely new idea of what "develop-
ment" means and an increased em-
phasis on housing andfood production.

Screw driver indust


physical capital.
Between February 1959 when the IDC came
into being, and June 30th, 1972, investment under-
taken by pioneer and non-pio.neer assisted industries
stood at $203.4m and $49.8m respectively. Government
invested in infrastructure deemed necessary for indus-
trial expansion totalled $425.5m for the three five-
year development programmes.
In other words, more than $600 million can be
directly associated with the programme of indus-


And what of the matter of job creation? The
IDC estimates that the pioneer industries created
7,343 jobs and the non-pioneer 7,139, and then goes
on to make the ambitious assumption that every job
directly created by investment leads to the indirect
creation of another job. Even on this basis, private
investment undertaken via the incentive scheme has
then created only 28,964 jobs.
In the meantime, with a labour force rising
steadily, even in spite of a net outflow of over 50,000
migrants, the unemployment rate has stood rigidly at an
official 15%. What is more, this estimate excludes an
equally large percentage of underemployed and those
chronically unemployed who have long ceased looking
for work but who would, in the event that such oppor-
tunities are believed to exist.


The reasons for our failure to create the required
jobs are quite straightforward. Most of our invited
industries are of the assembly or screw-driver type,
engaged in highly capital-intensive finishing-touch ac-
tivity. The materials used in production process are
largely imported and the output is mainly for final
consumption. What this means is that there are a few
links with industries producing raw materials locally,
and thus with the rest of the economy. The industries
are technically isolated from the rest of the economy.
In other words, the Datsuns, Sylvanias,Cortinas,
Dunlops etc. have greater technical links with the
supplies lines of their lead offices abroad than with
Trinidad and Tobago. But it is only when these
technical links are exploited through labour-intensive
activity that employment opportunities can be
Moreover, the fiscal and other incentives offered
to these industries have meant a substantial loss of
government revenue. The net result of the government's
effort has really been to increase rather than to de-
crease our dependence on the traditional sectors,
petroleum and sugar. Unemployment, meanwhile, re-
mains chronic.

Ifyouire thinking
So.0t expanding your us ss,
take tii two minute tour of
Trnidad and Tobago
r -, priority.
S- -... nTrinidad andTobagowel-
comes newforeign investment
j'T C < which brings in expertise, new
;4 a.. .. '_'!-' ',"- technology, and access to ex,
<- \ portmarketsand weoffercon-
S, cessions to qualifyingindus-
S ............i -- .... ... ,
Trinidad andTobago is a ingandbusiness. Canadian companies and finan-
1,980-square-milenation with a Our annual per-capit a in- cl institutions are already
populationofover onmillion. come is the highest inh here. Maybeyou shouldbe,too
Close to the geographic cen- Caribbean, and the third high- For our free brochure, with-
treo the Weste Hemispher, estinSouthandCentral (....1 .., 1..-. L
Trinidad andTobago has easy America. -' L : ,r
access to markets in Canada, We're theleading industrial DirectorinToronto at 416)
the United States, Central and county in the Caribbean Free 863-0133.
South America, the United Trade Association (CARIFTA) Or complete and mil in the
Kingdom, Etrope and Africa, a protected market of over oupon. Or attach your bi-
We have our own national 5 million consumers. In ess card to it.
aulin.e. 1972,ourexports to CARIFTA
We provideone of thelarg- were ovrT $100 million. ------
cst and busiestjet-ports in the We manufacture for dom-
Car;'buan. estic and/or export markets.
Shippinglines linkuswith We operateone ofthe largest ---'
all content and with our oil refineriesin the Common- I
Caribbean neighbours, wealth. Ourrefinery tlirough- i n--t-,,-
Containerized cargo service put in 1972 was over 145 million __
is available. barrels.
Recentdiscoveriee ofoil I, -, I
S .. andnaturalgas haveincreased .
the o id's highest. the prospects ofc stabhshlg in
Tczrmica'l schools and a uni- energy-intensive industries i'c
ernity nr ide trainingin such and theexpansionofourpetro- a ..-
ftiisas n',iculture,engineer- chemicalindustries is a top I--_

Tirnidad anid Tcoao
VWhere branchplants -ro.,
Trinidd &TobagoIndustrial Development Coro.r- cn
IDCAd in Toronto Globe & Mail

Yet even in the face of these facts, openly ad-
mitted by the government (3rd Five Year Plan, P. 13),
the widely discredited industrialization by invitation
policy and its attendant circumstances continue to
form the basis of our overall employment strategy.
Despite substantial evidence of the inherent weaknesses
of this strategy, the IDC continues to extend the
invitations, glorifying in our dependent posture as it
did in its recent advertisement in the Toronto Globe &
Mail which proudly proclaimed Trinidad and Tobago as
the place "where branch plants grow".


Two dominant characteristics of this strategy of
industrial invitations are to be noted. The view of de-
velopment embodied in-Lewis' plan places particular
emphasis on the lack of physical capital and relegates
the human dimensions of development to an irksome
afterthought. In keeping with the disregard for human
capital, the strategy as proposed is in fact an attempt
to perpetuate an imperial relationship that requires the
local community to react to foreign moves rather
than being agents in the process of economic de-
Consequently, it has been easy to rationalize the
establishment of highly capital-intensive industries



ER 9, 1973





3. S
A -

heavily dependent .on foreign sources of supply.
Similarly we have learned t: explain away our pre-
occupation with foreign ways, of doing things -
foreign technology, foreign capital, foreign management,
and foreign taste patterns.
Clearly, when a government conceives of de-
velopment only in terms of the creation of a branch-
plant economy, it should not be surprising when that
government's efforts to solve serious economic prob-
lems such as unemployment are continuously frustrated.
Indeed, the experiences of countries such as Canada,
Chile or our own neighbour Jamaica provide excellent
examples of the difficulties in which branch-plant
economies do find themselves;
It would therefore be fool-hardy to conclude that
all that is required to correct the strategy's obvious
malfunctioning is simply pontification by the Prime
Minister urging that the invited industries be required
to develop greater domestic supply lines or that tax and
other concessions be reduced. Indeed, important as
these considerations undoubtedly re, the problem of
devising a successful employment strategy cannot be
seen simply in terms of prime-ministerial edict.
On the contrary, to generate the type of econo-
mic activity that will guarantee a reduction in the
level of unemployment requires, first and foremost, a
total 'rethinking of what economic development is all
If we are to swing out of the unemployment
trap, it is necessary to create the particular gocio-
political universe in which the spirit of domestic
innovation and enterprise can flourish. Development
redefined, will therefore demand devising policies
geared towards "changing, organizations and habits,
attitudes and institutions, religious beliefs and social
What this means in terms of our unemployment
problem is that new and different kinds of questions

wil begin to be asked.
What thiie are some of the questions that one
can expect to emerge from this new climate of
change? We would then be mCTe prepared to question
whether or not we should continue'to import saltfish
when there is shark; whether or not we can displace
imported rugs, mats and carpets with substitutes made
1rom' toconut fib es: w\vh.I or lnot is llore pio-
fitable to divert agri-iiure irom sugar to food produc-
tion for the domestic market; whether or not we need;
as in 1972, sixteen different typcs :f assembled vehicles
incorporating 35 different models; whether or not it is
possible to develop a-highly efficient cottage handi-
craft industry; whether or not we should continue to
import toys and tourist artifacts from Japan and -Hoin.
King; whether or not we should introduce selective
credit controls directing expenditures away from the
assembly-type products io l ose locally manufactured;
and so on.
The fact is we cannot begir o ask these and
similar questions as long as our approach to develop-
ment remains grounded in a branch-plant view of the
Cynics will argue that even if such changes were
possible, the creation of the required institutions and
the change in attitudes remains essentially a "long-run"
proposition. Indeed it is, and for this no apology is
necessary, for as the record of the past 15 years has
clearly demonstrated, it is the easy now-for-now solu-
Jions for which we have opted, that are responsible for
the type of economic malaise with which we find our-
selves afflicted.
But even in the "short-run", there are many areas
in which new investment would have a substantial
effect in reducing unemployment. The two most ob-
vious are housing construction and food production.
The construction industry has far greater scope
for absorbing excess labour than the present screw-

driver industries. Investment in housing would mean an
immediate increase in the demand for bricks, blocks,
cement and plastics and fpr the services of bricklayers,
painters, pipefitters, joiners,.truck drivers etc.
Foreign exchange -saved by curtailing import-
replacement activity could be more profitably used to
purchase inputs, such as steel, for which there are no
domestic substitutes.
A whole new domestic furnishings industry can
be developed specializing in furniture, woodwork,
drapery, rugs, carpets, decorations, etc. all capable
of being produced locally. But, perhaps most im-
portantlyinvestment in housing would move to correct
one of our gravest social ills bad housing conditions.
Equally important is investment in agriculture -
from the field to the cannery. We can devise a whole
new approach to the fishing industry to guarantee that
higher incomes accrue to locals. Given the existence of
a large West Indian market abroad and also the real
possibility ofbecoming a supplier to foreign consumers,
fishing can indeed become an earner of foreign exchange.
A new approach to domestic agriculture based on
the development of domestic rather than foreign
supply sources would undoubtedly increase available
supply and lower or stabilize prices.
Indeed, these are only two areas in which econo-
mic activity can be stimulated. They ar, both capable
of providing long-term employment and ofsaving
foreign exchange. The costs of such investment are
much lower than those associated with our present
employment efforts. Moreover, in keeping with the
new view of development they provide the opportunity
to devise alternative ways of doing things.
We cannot therefore accept, as some fatalists
have done, that high unemployment is a fact of life,
common to less developed countries. Indeed, we argue
that such pessimism derives form an antiquated view of
Consequently we argue, to get a real handle on
the unemployment problem and its relation to econo-
mic development, it is necessary to alter our branch-
plant development programme and work towards'
creating the framework within which domestic ini-
tiative and enterprise are encouraged M


r IS ONE of the dis-
races of the day that in
ie face of a rapidly dete-
orating political and eco-
omicsituation there could
e such a scandalous exhi-
ition of wealth, in the
ice of want, as the recent
r racing at Waller Field.
SIt is an added absurdity
at a newspaper which terms
;elfthe "National Newspaper"
iuld be co-sponsor of such an
n The Express newspaper
kn devoted its editorial page,

on the day following a "shoot-
out" in the Valencia forests, to
call for "better facilities for
motor racing". For more than
a century writers have been
recording with amazement the
way in which privileged Trini-
dad continues to live a mun-
dane existence in the face of
social, political and economic
revolution. The daily news-
paper continued to report the
fashion shows and cocktail
parties of the privileged right
through the 1970 revolution.
And so we now know that
"motor car racing has returned

to stay". It seems that the
nation which the Express refers
to is,that of the power-boat
ownersand their "Great Races"
and the racing drivers of the
Boos and O'Halloran clan..

A call is made for the Go-
vernment and the National
Sport Council to establish sport-
ing facilities so that an idle
public can view the idle rich at
Meanwhile, makeshift bas-

ketball courts continue to ap-
pear on the blocks, playing
fields remain unattended and
run-down, and players of all
major sports cry out for lack
of sporting equipment.
One would expect spon-
sorship for games in whichthe
mass of the population can
participate like football, cric-
:ket, basketball, netball.

The presence of reported
20,000 people at Waller Field
only reflects the Alack of other

entertainment like sporting and
cultural fiestas on week-ends,
or in general.

Caught up in a vicious cir-
cle of unemployment, repres-
sion, rising cost of living, lack
of popular participation, the
mass of the people can only
note that the idle rich are also
driving around in racing circles.
When we break one, we
are surely going to break the
Dennis Pantin



Modern Indian house

From Page 5
This description indicates
the feeling for materials which
the Indian clearly expresses in
the new modern style. One
objective would appear to be
the setting of some new stylistic
feature which the Indian had
thought about for some time.

Dominica group presses

Dennis Pantin

prison conditions is draw-
ing protest in Dominica.
The Movement for New
Dominica (MND) has put
forward certain proposals
to resolve the situation.
The Dominica Government
recently appointed a Com-
mission of Enquiry into
Prison Reform.
The Movement for a New
Dominica have made several
proposals for prison reform.
Among them is a suggestion
that a reform school for youth
be established, separately from
the present prison complex.
There should be more em-
phasis on education of prison-
ers and remuneration for work
done while in prison. Also
suggested are re-training of pri-
son officers, aid to prisoners'
families, a library and the sett-
ing-up of medical facilities.
The MND has been inthe
news recently with the declara-
tion of a State of Emergency
in Dominica. Premier Le Blanc
moved a resolution in the
House recently accusing the
group of "revolutionary vio-
Two members of the MND,
Gordon Moreau and Julian
Johnson have been refused en-
try to sittings of the House. In
reply to a letter of protest by
Julian, the Speaker, Eustace
Francis declared that a decision
had been taken to exclude
"rabble rousers" from the pub-
lic benches of the House of
Gordon Moreau has called
for radio time to reply to the
accusations of the governemnt.
He outlines the work of the
group as "identification of and
seeking solutions to our crying
problems with a view to involv-
ing the Dominican people in

their own development".
The political climate reached
fever pitch recently with the
declaration of a State of Emer-
gency. This followed public
demonstration and a civil ser-
vice strike over the transfer of
a Radio Dominica disc jockey,
Daniel Caudeiron to a civil
service post.
Premier Le Blanc charged
in the House that hitherto un-

related groups in the country
had come together for the sole
purpose of overthrowing his
The unstable political situa-
tion continues. The Dominica
Government has fired two top
officials of the Civil Service
Association in retaliation for
calling the strike, and civil
servants have threatened re-
newed strike action in response.
The root causes of black
dispossession, lack of political
participation and official re-
pression can be expected to
keep the pot boiling.

Christians must

back Allende,

says RC p HMist

CHILEAN priest and theolo-
gian Renato Poblete caused a
major stir in Brazil recently by
saying that Christians should
work with the government of
Salvador Allende.
Poblete was taking part in
Rio de Janeiro, along with the
Archbishop of Santiago, Car-
dinal Raul Silva Henriquez, in
the 8th Interamerican Bishops
Renato Poblete, professor
of Sociology at the Catholic
University of Chile, in Santiago,
believes that indifference is not
the best position for a Christian
to adopt in the face of historic
changes: a Christian who is
hostile or cold to a Socialist
government is doing nothing
to be faithful to Christ, he
The Christian should re-
main open to dialogue with
any doctrine, which does not
mean the underrating of his

own faith.
Poblete spoke of the dilem-
ma of the Church: either it
joins the oppressed or the
powerful, If it does the former,
it will lose the backing of the
more fortunate, but the more
fortunate are the ones who are
making the break.
The theologian also made
observations on the relation-
ship between Marxists and
Christians. Assuming that
Marxists respect Christians, he
said, it is logical that the
Church should also respect
Marxists, even though they do
not uphold the Christian faith.
Speaking at a press con-
ference Fr. Poblete said a
Christian committed to trea-
chery to the Church by helping
an atheist who aims to work
for more justice and equality
among men, because these vir-
tues are also taught by Christ.

Cuba bans double citizenship

CUBANS who take part in
counterrevolutionary and con-
spiratorial activities on foreign'
soil against the people of Cuba
and their socialist and revolu-
tionary institutions will lose
their Cuban citizenship, accord-
ing to a constitutional reform
passed by the Council of Minis-
The measure modifies arti-
cle 15 of the Constitution,
which now stipulates loss of
citizenship in these cases:

Those who acquire foreign

Those who, without per-
mission from the Council of
Ministers, enter the military
service of another nation or the
carrying out of functions that
involve similar authority or

Those who on foreign
soil enter or belong to counter-
revolutionary organizations or

who in any other way conspire
or act against the people of
Cuba and their revolutionary

Naturalized Cubans who
live three years in a row in
their country of birth unless
they express their desire every
three years to retain Cuban
Naturalized Cubans who
adopt double citizenship.

for prison reform

The imitation stone in gal-
vanised iron is an interesting
observation by Naipaul for the
Indian has traditionally built
with stone in India which sug-
gests that, in Trinidad, the
Indian modern house uses west-
ern materials in an Indian
Such a curious anomaly
seems to satisfy both accept-
ance of western stylistic ideals
(i.e western materials) and also
the persistence of a form of
Indian identity.
The second development
of the modern house is really
one of material. Owners of this
period of house are usually
more affluent than the previous
modern house owner for there
is increased expenditure due to
the introduction of new ma-
terials. It is a much more
westernized style than any of
its predecessors.


The new development owes
its emergence to the introduc-
tion of decorative concrete
blocks as well as the develop-
ment of the modem use of
materials. Concrete block walls
of many colours form a new
feature together with the ex-
tensive use of patterned venti-
lated blockwork walls.
In one house as many pat-
terns, styles and motifs as
desired are used, as a conse-
quence of which the house has
now become such a confused
mass of colour and material
that it has totally lost the utter
simplicity of the ajoupa.
Wrought iron burglar proofing
has been introduced over the
glass louvered windows and the
design of such panels is often
complicately ornate.
The projected sill has de-
veloped into an added feature
producing a more checkered
effect mainly for stylistic pur-
poses. Rubble stone walls with
articulated joints are also used
in some cases.


Even the graphic advertise-
ments, which appear on the
Indian shops, have been trans-
formed into the typical Ameri-
can snack bar lettering. How-
ever,lettering, which has always
been a stylistic expression for
the Indian, is still supplemented
by the drawings of items on
sale. The use of aluminium has
also increased,especially among
the shop owners.
However no matter how
many western materials the
Indian uses on his house its
total effect is still associated
with the Indian. In other words
although the Indian adopts
Western styles he intuitively
uses western materials in an
Indian manner.
The third and final cate-
gory of the modern house is
characterized by the obvious
wealth of its occupants. The
affluent Indian, who over the
period of years has improved
his financial status often seeks
something a little different
from his fellow Indians in the
lower income brackets. In ex-
treme cases an architect will be

S.-tu.:, o lArIA

employed to design the house,
but in most cases such Indians
will design the house them-
The upper class Indian is
usually well educated and often
holds a foreign University de-
gree. However there are those
Indians who have been success-
ful in business but may not
have had much formal educa-


The former case consists of
Indians who are totally west-
ernized through their education
but,on occasion, identify them-
selves with the persistence of a
westernized Indian cultural ex-

Such Indians may own a
house which clearly reflects
the trend of this social cate-
gory. These houses, while gran-
diose in scale, present the
simple image somewhat similar
to the ajoupa. Walls are white
and the use of different ma-
terials has been minimised in
contrast to the contemporary
lower income group use of
material. The house, while
western in design, will present
a very cool image with over-
tones of subtle Indian designs.


The curved eave is one of
these subtle, but very definite,
Indian' elements of expression
which has been introduced.

Secondly the use of mosaics
on the floor finishes and venti-
lation block design. Windows,
doors, columns have all been
reduced in simplicity and the
overall effect is a contrasting
cool balance of materials.

On the other hand the
affluent Indian can choose to
express his success in another
form. This category, usually
consisting of the self-educated
businessman, expresses a con-
tinuity with the use of colour,
materials and bold Indian forms
of symbolism. Quite often this
category of Indian will build,
or buy a house in the Colonial
or other period and decorate it
to his taste. An extreme exam-
ple is illustrated where the
owner made extensive decora-
tive additions to the house.


In the front lawn, facing a
main road, there is a large
swimming pool which because
of its location becomes a very
public and prominent state-
ment. However the pool does
not have any significance from
a distance so a series of struc-
tures somewhat resembling
gateways have been built. The
structures can be used as a
tent when canvas tarpaulins are
hung but otherwise serve main-
ly as vertical decorative ele-
ments. Other houses use similar
methods of attaining recogni-
tion which often creates the
fashion for the lower income

L PIP --~ L ~----p --C~---.CBC~BP4~Ps --~L~P~a~ 3~ 1 ,, I L II


Four poems

Derek Walcott

The Federalist

You should crawl into rocks away from Non Servia m
the gaze of the fisherman.
You, yes, you.
Don't you remember the platform by the beach, I listen all night to the rain
by the sulphurous lanterns? I write all night but I mean
really a part of the night
And the faces, you lies and I catch in it neither my own
in the throat of the sea? pain nor that of my race or history
Cedros, Matelot, Negril, Gros Ilet, L'anse Paradis? but a calm, heavy rain falling;
Crab. Octopus. Dogfish. there are voices behind the rain
You should get your arse baked and your back back of its curtain who'll read
these white lines against the black
like an old map of blisters, or black lines against the white
and your lips crack, and say I've wasted my calling
if it isn't without hatred,
like the soil of the water you promised torrential rage, or their pity
there, on the dais with the sound system claiming the moans of the dead
and the sisters chanting to Jesus, or as sons or ancestors
and come back with a sieve for your heart, but no, not even my race
and your brain like a rusted can, can keep me from what I must write
and the bilge reeking, or the rain from falling.
turn your head, I am speaking,
I have not spoken enough, I am speaking
do what you can, man,
and when the first roar came you were astounded
it was sweeping your heart like a hurricane,
but what are you now, a grounded

and ribbed and hollow vessel
that the children play through. You, man, yes you,
you must come with me there again,
you must watch the rain, coming from far,
like the voices,
like the votes, like the ocean, like the wind
in the canes, like an overwhelming majority,
who serve your people a dungcake with maggots,
see the rain that tries to extinguish
the processional flares of the poui,
the flamboyant, and feel with me
you bastard papa,
how that rain seeps through the pores,
and loads the sponge of the heart,
and laugh at my crying, laugh at my rage,
buzzard in a conference coat,
bishop in crimson surplice,
crows circling with their shadows
darkening this page,
presidents who preside
over the dying coal
of a people.
Ministers administering
their last rites,
cabinets crowded with skeletons,
here's a swinging convocation of bishops
on the beach.
Buzzards, and nobody with a flashbulb.

You spit on the people
the people applaud.
Their former oppressors
laurel you.
The thorns bite into your forehead.
It is contempt
disguised as concern
that is the horrible blasphemy.
It has all the solicitude
of the pained back-stabber.
In the finical gut
the bowels of compassion
petrify to a gallstone,
and the ink deliquesces
and ages into bile,
in your aryan eye
the child is born crippled
every endeavour
is that of the baboon,
do you hear now the achievement
of this chimpanzee typing,
but we have finished with that pastoral
of palm-splashed zebras
soundlessly circling
nostalgic veldts,
or the caved-in balafongs
and snapped strings
of savannah grasses,

The Volcano

Joyce was afraid of thunder,
but lions roared at his funeral
from the Zurich zoo.
Was it Zurich or Trieste.
What matter? These are legends, as much
as the death of Joyce is a legend,
or the strong rumour that Conrad
has died, and that VICTORY is ironic.
On the edge of the night horizon
from the beach
house on the edge of the rocks
there are now all night,
two glares from the gasflares of miles-out
at sea derricks, they are like
the glow of the cigar,
and the glow of the volcano
at victory's end.
One could give up writing,
and the slow-burning, ruminative ambition
of the great, for being, instead
the ideal reader, ruminative, voracious,

At Last

and the fur-shrouded horsemen
melt under the snowstorm
and the page is again
blank, and under the snowdrift
of the page, all is buried,
generations, generations,
the snows are hardened,
I'll tell you
this page is cold,
it is glazed and ground over
their snow-lashed eyes
and the freaked parted mouths
of their frozen cry,
as the dice of skulls rolled
under the tilting sea-floor,
they did not cross
for us to abhor them,
nor need they forgive
those, their children who tear
at the scabs of their names,
frost-bitten, or locked
under the sea-bed,
what a long, long fever
of all those voices
still talks to itself

the bells of the anopheles
ringing in the ears over the rice-fields,
over the sea-canes,
a morning sunlight
the colour of malaria,
and the night sea tepid
with weeds, like a bushbath,
we lie in a cold sweat
of remembering those
generations, generations,
but you, you who have risen
from the sweated out capra
of the tangled night-bed,
or the folded snowdrifts
of the mist-vagued horsemen
could have sat down and written
that this sun is not ill
an orange infested with ants
that the landscape is neither
unforgiven or forgiving,
that the pelican beats
to the rocks of Soledad
to a metre which is neither
poetry nor prose,
and the crab grips the sea-rock

making the love of masterpieces
a superior ar. to atterntingh
to repeat or outdo them,
to be the greatest reader in the world,
at least it comprises respect,
which is a lost art in our time,
so many people have seen everything,
so many people can predict,
so many refuse to enter the silence
of victory, the indolence
that burns out the core of the soul
of the brain, like the slow coal
of the cigar,
so many take thunder for granted,
how common is the lightning
how lost the leviathans
we no longer look for.
They were giants in those days,
in those days they made good cigars,
I must read very carefully.

again, as always.
I have sweated it out
generations, generations,
I have grown hoarse
from repeating the praise
of the ape and the ass
the enslaved, the indentured,
they are nothing. Grass,-then
Dung. Paths for the slipshod
to walk over. Men.

Now it has all come to fruit,
it has come into fruit,
it has flowered
it broke from the bitter root
and the earth that soured,
and those unused to the taste
of its citric acidity,
lemon, lime, and the tart
salt of the handful of sea
the flower bursts out of the heart
the cleft in the rock, at last,
flowers, the heartbroken past
unforgiven and unforgiving
the barren net that was cast
flashing with living
silver, at last, at last.





From Page 3
And how do the news-
papers respond? They wince in
silence or they yelp in chas-
tened pain, and then at the
first sound of the Master's
Voice they wag their tails like
Chip and run ahead announcing
that he has once again arrived
to lead this young nation.
I know they're going to say
I'm just chewing on sour grapes.
That if it was my choice of
leader I wouldn't mind.
But Williams for me as
he is for them in a different
way is not so much a person
as he is the embodiment of a

The price of rice

kind of style I've never trusted,
a phenomenon I knew well
before I recognized it in Wil-
And for what it's worth
I'm not afraid to say he never
excited me. Nation's future in
my schoolbag? I was there that
day, too far away to see him
but I heard and remembered it.
For my generation had long
given up schoolbags for the
more debonair style of holding
books in one hand, as we


bicycled to school.
I don't think Williams feels
there's hope for this country.
I'm tired of hearing messages
like last week's, messages that
are just concerned to labour
the point that we can't help
this, and we can't do anything
about that and we're too small
and too poor to do anything
for ourselves, and that we can
only continue bumbling along
the way that we're going in a
world where we are so insigni-

ficant that nothing matters but
we should be glad that we're
not doing too bad when we
look at other "developing"
countries, so what are you
complaining about? Look how
many cars we have!
The only dream Williams
had as far as I know is
the one he mentioned in 1970
about young people building
a new city in the Northern
Range. 1 need to sense that
kind of creative vision that
defies all the so-called hard
facts about money and re-
sources and the Carnival men-
tality and individualism and

foreign interference allofwhich
simply re-emphasise that noth-
ing can be done.
I refuse to be numbed by a
metallic monotone now tinged
with a truculent defensiveness
or insolence even, or to be
thrilled when he throws up
clay pigeons about Marxism
and the Black Panthers and
Frantz Fanon and shoots them
down firing from the hip.
Let me find out instead
that cowshit and mud are
natural resources that we're
none the poorer for having -
and that they don't smell so bad
after the sun hit them a little bit.



i i

do you brush your teeth

every day?

Most people do, its a habit rom childhood. SAVING
money should be that way 'oo. A little money saved
is a little money earned. L; only takes a dollar to

open a Savings Account,ano like all
soon experience the benefit,. SAVE

Live a Better Life
The National Commercial

good habits you'll
-It's an investment.

I R2 mrd, n VrY.r R3in1



Bank of Trinidad & Tobago. 60 Independence Square.

- -





SHELL and the Caroni Swamp

Statement by the Managing Director of
Shell Trinidad Limited

Within recent months there has been considerable criticism by certain
groups and individuals, of the use by Shell Trinidad Limited of the Blue River &
No. 9 Canal for water-borne transport of liquefied petroleum gas to its filling
plant at Cunupia. So far, we have refrained from entering a public controversy
on the issue and have sought only to present the facts and allay the fears of the
people who have expressed concern mainly by direct replies to them. However,
in the light of the more recent statements in the news media, and the implied
posture of arrogance which one such statement suggests that Shell has taken in
the matter, I feel it necessary to make this public statement in order that the
true position is more widely known and the whole issue put into its correct
First of all, I wish to deal with the reasons for the use of this waterway
as a means of transportation of liquefied gas. The price to the consumer of
liquid gas in cylinders has not changed in twelve years, except for an increase in
excise duty in 1968. The price has been controlled at its present level since that
time. During these twelve years wages have almost doubled, the cost of the
cylinders and other equipment has increased by fifty percent, the cost of
motor vehicles has increased at least by the same amount, traffic conditions
have grown worse and the ex-refinery cost of the product itself has increased by
over four hundred percent. Moreover, Shell had always been supplied with this
product from the Pointe-a-Pierre refinery, but it became obvious in 1969 that
this refinery would be unable to meet the total market demand in another two
or three years. If we were to continue, therefore, to offer this product to the
public we would have to provide refinery capacity at Point Fortin to satisfy our
own share of the market. The cost of transporting by road from the Pointe-a-
Pierre refinery was already high, but to undertake road transport from Point
Fortin would be prohibitive because of the longer haul and consequent lower
utilisation of vehicles as well as the inadequacy and unsafe conditions of the
roads and bridges.
We therefore investigated the possibility of moving gas to our plant by
water-borne transport. The Caroni River was the first considered and a survey
was done with the assistance of one of the leading tour operators, now deceased.
The Caroni was found to be not navigable mainly because of a four thousand
foot wide silt bar at the mouth, its shallow depth at several points and tight
bends which precluded movement of a vessel of the size required. Furthermore,
as is well known, the Caroni is subject to seasonal flooding. We then investigated
the possible use of the Blue River and after several surveys this route was estab-
lished as feasible. It is worth noting that within the last two months a study
conducted by independent consultants has confirmed our original findings about
the Caroni River.
We then sought permission from Government to use this waterway. A
number of meetings were held, and after lengthy consideration of the matter,
permission was granted.
Shell then commissioned an entirely new vessel, designed by a reputable
firm of naval architects to suit the physical conditions of the Blue River and
Canal No 9. As will be seen later, we were at paints to ensure that the vessel had
the type of protective devices to make its use on the river'totally compatible
with the environmental considerations which are now being advanced by our
critics totally enclosed engines, effectively silenced and cooled by a closed
system that makes no discharge of any kind into the River.
I wish now to deal with the specific criticisms which have been made.
It was initially suggested that :-
a. the noise of the vessel in which the gas would be transported would have
ill effects on the bird life in the Swamp particularly the Scarlet Ibis.
b. the vessel would pollute the waters of the Swamp and the Blue River.
c. that in order to accommodate this vessel it was necessary to carry out
widespread dredging of the Blue River, Canal No. 9 and the silt bar at the
seaward entrance to the Blue River.
The facts are as follows:-

The Shell vessel has totally self-contained engines which are effectively
silenced. It operates at minimum speed on the River and this requiresminimum
engine power. This has reduced noise level to the point where it is certainly no
greater than that of the boats that now ply the Swamp and are powered by out-
board engines.


There is no question of pollution by the use of this vessel. The vessel
has special keel coolers which are completely self enclosed. This means there is
no discharge of cooling water.
The vessel will not be transporting oil but liquefied petroleum gas which
cannot pollute the Swamp.
The exhaust from the engines is not discharged into the water.


When fully laden the vessel draws four feet of water. The Blue River is
30 feet deep and 100 feet wide near the mouth, and maintains a depth of over
20 feet for most of its length. At its shallowest point where it joins the north,
south drainage canal the River is ten feet deep and provides more than adequate
water for the movement of the vessel.
The vessel was specially built to suit the physical conditionsof the River
and crosses the bar at the entrance only around high tide. There has been no
question of altering the Blue River in any way and no dredging of the Blue
River or of the bar has been done or will be done.
It was subsequently suggested further that :-
d. Shell has destroyed and will continue to destroy the oyster being
mangrove in the Swamp.
e. commercial fishing in the area will be adversely affected.
f. the "little" people will be deprived of their livelihood.
g. the tourist trade along the River will be adversely affected in that the
boats of the tour operators will be unable to pass the Shell vessel.
The facts are as follow:-

We have not cut away any oyster bearing mangrove. We have cut over-
hanging mangrove branches in one short section and have cleared the north bank
of drainage Canal No. 9 in the same way that Government cleared the south
bank some time ago and would have to do from time to time in order to keep
this drainage canal open.
As we have shown, the use of the vessel will not alter any present charac-
teristic of the Blue River or No. 9 Canal by pollution or in any other way. There
is therefore no question of adversely affecting the fish population in the area.
There is no reason why the crab catchers,the oystermen, the fishermen,
the woodcutters should lose their livelihood. The vessel will not interfere with
their activities, nor will its use result in destruction of the resources of the
We have already dealt with the question of the possible effect on the
Scarlet Ibis.
As far as obstruction of the tour boats is concerned, it is worth noting
that during the past month the Shell vessel was passed by tourist boats without
any problem. The master of the Shell vessel has specific instruction to pull aside
and stop to allow any other boat to pass.
Next, and in our view perhaps most importantly, our critics have stated
i. while the present vessel may be everything Shell says it is, there is no
assurance that additional vessels will not be added in the future.
j. once Shell begins to use the River and the Canal for the transport of gas,
there is likely to be escalation of industrial activity.
k. the use by Shell of the Blue River and the Canal is incompatible with the
long term objective of having the area declared a National Park.
The facts are as follows:-

We have already given and we repeat the assurance that there will not be
any additional vessels introduced by Shell at any time in the future. As consumer
demand increases beyond the capacity of this one vessel, the additional demand
will be met by additional filling plants located elsewhere in the country.
It is our understanding that Government proposes to create an Authority
which will control and administer the use of this and other special areas and that
it will be the responsibility of this Aurhority to control any additional use of the
We have described the measures taken to ensure that the vessel does not
Cause any destruction of this valuable asset. We can only state the facts and
invite interested parties to see for themselves. We have done this and still hope
that they will find it possible to accept our invitation.
Finally, it is being suggested that there are alternative means open to
Shell for the transportation of Shellane to the Port of Spain area:-
A study by independent consultants has established that while it is
theoretically feasible to make the Caroni navigable other than when it is in
flood, the cost wouldbeprohibitive andthe effectiveness of theengineering works
cannot be predicted. Furthermore, the effect on the ecology by the various
steps necessary to make the Caroni navigable would also be unpredictable.
A Point Fortin to Cunupia pipeline for L.P.G. may be feasible from a
technical standpoint but it is certainly not practicable or economically viable.
The viability of a pipeline is directly related to the volume of product it carries,
the alternative costs and, of course, the price obtainable for the product from
the customer. In this context, the demand for L.P.G. could not currently or
perhaps ever, justify a pipeline to supply our plant.
We have already explained why this alternative is not viable from either
an economic or a safety point of view.
At a Press Conference on Saturday September 1, I emphasised that Shell
was not proceeding regardless of concern being expressed by people worried by
possible adverse consequences of this operation.
We have found that their worries had been largely due to misunder-
standings and lack of information. We have endeavoured to explain the facts to
them which we believe should have relieved their concern. We hope that this
presentation of the facts to the public will dispel the misgivings that may have
been generated by the publicity which has taken place.
I wish to make the point that Shell Trinidad Limited is fully aware and
conscious of its social responsibilities. The essence of that responsibility is the
identification of the social "needs" of the community and to ensure, to the
extent that it can, that the conduct of its business has a productive impact on
those needs.

September 5th., 1973 P.R.G.BATES
September 5th., 1973


ir's, Andrea Talbiutt,
Research Institute for
Study of isn,
162, Est 78th ,t"ore,
I.r YORK, y .Y. .1021,
Ph. Lehigh 5 848,
After WI rampage

"RUTHIE, ah never tell
yuh about the deer we
chase for two months?"
Carly asked me on our
way back to his home at
Fairley St. Tunapuna.
"No", I replied in bewilder-
"Boy, it was a big ram
deer. He had a eight inch
horn the biggest I ever
"How yuh know is the
same deer?"
"This fella like he was a
badjohn. There were no other
resting places close to his. We
saw him plenty times too, his
horns were unmistakable".
"Oh, ho".
"For two months we run
him in moonlight and daylight
and it make no difference.
We used to bar off all kind
ah how and he always used to
slip through".
"Wha made the differ-
"Well we decided to run
him in dark night. We felt
that he wouldn't see too well
that time and we go stand a
better chance".
"Uh, hmm".
"Bout three o'clock the
Sunday morning, Mr. Calvin
Foster, Baran, Gambee and a
pack of ten fox-hounds land
up by his resting place in the
Talparo Forest.About anhour
and a quarter later the dogs
raise him".
"How yuh-mean 'raise'?"
"When the dogs get close
to the quarry and the scent is
freshest, their barking changes
from a normal barking to ah
frenzied kind ah thing. That is
when the real chase between
the dog and the deer does
"This time we was strict
about anybody moving from
their bar off position".
"Bar off?"
"As ah told yuh.Thedeer
have a feeding track and a
homecoming track (to his
resting spot). The distance
between his outgoing and in-
coming track is about half
mile. Since we hunting him
for two months we knew his
habits and we position in a
way to catch him".
"Right, right".
"When the dogs raised
him he started to run in my
direction, but I was the only
man without a gun. Ah flash
meh torchlight in his eyes to


and kills

of a

deer hunt

Some of Carly's trophys

blind him. Then ah made a
loud noise to force him to
run by Foster, the best shot in
the group. But, the torchlight
blinded Foster as well and he
get away".
"All yuh give up?"
"Nah man, we waited.
About nine o'clock the dogs
raise him again. This time
Foster got in a shot and
break his right back leg, but,
that eh stop him".
"What about the dogs?"
"Man the deer was tying
them up and with the Talparo
river in the area he was losing
his scent, crossing water. Then
we heard another pack of dogs
join our pack. The new pack
belonged to Ace from St.
Joseph and we started to get
more "lay way".
"Lav way?"
"More barking man.
Another hour or so, Baran
shot him between hip and
shoulder. A half an hour later
Foster grazed him on the
nose. Then Gambee fired at
and missed him. Finally,
around midday Foster brought
him down with a bullet to
the neck. We skinned on the
banks of the Talparo river
self and gave half the deer to
Ace. Up to now ah still have
the tail as a souvenir".

Baldwin Mootoo

IN ADDITION to the con-
tribution of the senior play-
ers Kanhai, Sobers and
Gibbs,what of the perform-
ances of the other mem-
bers of the team? The
batting as a whole really
We have consistently since
the war been the most power-
ful batting side in the world
and we certainly emphasised it
this tour. Fredericks we saw in
a new role in the second test
when he played that great
crisis knock, but he batted
with relish in the final test
when he knocked Greig out of
the firing line early, and with
Kanhai set the tone for the
final mammoth score.
Kallicharan after his im-
portant role in the first test
never really got runs again,
but he is an established world
batsman who will reach the
heights of the W's, Kanhai AND
Lloyd -continues to plea-
santly confound me, and one
begins to wonder if he is not
just a good player but rather a
great player who transcends
the ordinary rules.
Once more the West Indian
batting line-up is difficult to
make. Imagine that there is no
place for Foster, and Rowe is
injured. The only place at the
moment is the opening position.
Fortunately in the West Indies
it is not technically as difficult
a position to fill as in England
so that Rowe or Foster may
have to be used there next
Among the bowlers, Boyce
was undoubtedly the success
of the tour. His advance over
the last year is nothing short of
phenomenal. His run up appa-
rently has become more fluent
and he seems to be yards faster
than he was during the Austra-
lian tour here this year. To col-
lect 19 wickets in a three-
match series must be a record
of some kind.
Julien was the young find
of this tour. He bowled and
fielded well. In fact only Gibbs
bowled more overs than Julien
in the three tests. Yet it was
his batting that really surprised.
He had always shown his ability
to hit the ball and hit it hard
and well, but his century in the



last test is evidence that he
really knows what he is about.
It cannot be long now before
he takes over the captaincy of
the Trinidad team. With this
tour and his two years with
Kent he must be as ready as he
can be for that role. He will
certainly make a more exciting
captain than the somewhat
retiring Murray.
Looking to the future, the
West Indian team is shaping
really well. For the coming
English visit the opening bat
position remains vacant, and we
need another spinner Inshan
remains a question mark, but
Jumadeen may yet get his
But at longer range, we
need at least one more top
class spinner, for the English
tour is. very likely Gibbs' last.
Padmore of Barbados and Im-
tiaz All of Trinidad may well
be ready by then. We need too,
at least one more bowler of
real pace, and the progress of
the young Jamaican Holding
must be carefully watched. The
batting continues to be a prob-
lem only in terms of whom to
omit. And in wicketkeeping
David Murray is already breath-
ing down Derek Murray's neck,
and is no mean performer with
the bat as well.


This tour has left English
cricket in a proper shambles.
Already they have delayed an-
nouncing the team to tour the
West Indies and the selectors
must be in a real quandary.
Illingworth, who in many ways,
was lucky to captainthe side
against the West Indies has
already been relieved and the
Kent captain Mike Denness who
was deputy to Tony Lewis in
India last year has been given
the job. The manager will now
be some one who is quite
familiar with West Indian con-
ditions, and the speculations
that Cowdrey may come as
manager/player seems to be
that closer to the truth.
The English batting is in
total disarray.The wayin which
their batsmen shied away from
the short pitched deliveries of
Boyce, Holder and even Julien
makes one wonder if they
would have dared face Hall and
Griffith. Poor Boycott suc-

cumbed in the end to the
continuous pressure of having
to carry all the batting on his
The one ray of hope has
been Fletcher's settling down
over this season. Hayes still has
a long way to go, but his
natural ability and youth will
get him into the touring party.
The inclusion of John
Jameson, David Lloyd and
Mike Smith to Play in the two
one-day Internationals against
the West Indies indicates that
the selectors have set about
their arduous task. One hopes
that Roope's commission does
not mean that he has been
Among the quick bowlers,
Arnold and Willis should come,
with Old and Hendrick compet-
ing for a third place. Snow has
been mentioned for the one
day Internationals, and it could
be an error not to bring him.
Greig's play is also in doubt,
but with Illingworth now out
of the picture he remains the
only all-rounder. In addition
there is the added problem of
picking the spin bowlers! It all
adds up to an uneviable task
for the English selectors and it
is easy to over-react to the over-
whelming defeat that has just
been handed out.
All West Indians are now
looking forward to the coming
series with great expectancy.
The calypso cricket image that
has been so well-fanned by the
press must now be put behind
us. We had shown in 1966
that we were cricketers for all
seasons and we re-emphasised it
on this tour. Sure we will re-
main a team of great stroke-
makers, but the naive imageof
a team that can play only
when on the attack must be
dispelled once and for all. Our
approach in the first and third
tests was as important then as
was that in the second and we
will continue to assess the
game and play as the occasion
We have never lacked fight,
but because our style of batting
is essentially to go for our
strokes (which I hope will re-
main that way) there will al-
ways be the odd days when
everything will go wrong and
an apparently inexplicable col-
lapse will take lace. But that
is not to be confused with lack
of fight.
The parallel in soccer is
with the great Brazilians. It is
claimed that they always went
into a match prepared to con-
cede two goals.
The administrators, how-
ever, must never again find
themselves at war with the
Players. It is they who exist
or the players and not the
other way around.



of the Caribbean

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