Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00073
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: August 26, 1973
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00073

Full Text

Vol 3 No 34

MEi YORK 21. Y.
*,,2...,UC 28 '73 I

Let the workers run Orange Grove SeePage8

IF Hunte and Tello do
not go, the wheels of
industry may cease to
grind at Orange Grove.
Until the assembly in-
dustry mushroomed along
the Churchill-Roosevelt High-
way by invitation of the IDC,
Orange Grove was the staple
breadwinner of that sprawling
restless township, hometown
of our Tapia, which occupies
the Ward of Tacarigua.

Orange Grove has a proud
past. It is there that many
generations of proud black
men first encountered and
then conquered the world of
industrial chemistry and
mechanised technology.
Orange Grove also has a
proud present because the
living legend credits it with
some of the finest yellow
crystals in the world, a pre-
mium sugar, boiled with care

and love by master artist-
Yalary, acknowledged
Dean of Boilers, is a name
worthy of a land that boasts
of !:. 0 ... J.,
of James and Padmore. Up by
the pans, beside him, stands a
row of jealous boilers, a
breed which shares with
Eddie Hart and Bernard
Warner that defiant indepen-
dent spirit which defines the
manhood of the East.





ARMED revolution was the theme of a Tapia meeting in
the south last Sunday. Some of the brothers who attended
insisted on the necessity of armed struggle as the only
solution at this stage of the all-embracing crisis in which for
the last five years this nation has been caught.
They demanded to know what was Tapia's position
on the "guerillas". How, they asked, would a Tapia govern-
ment regard such activities? And in what way was the
Tapia strategy for change superior to armed struggle?
The answers are that we do not know if our strategy for
change is "superior" to any other. It is simply ours and we have our
reasons for believing in it. Tapia has never ruled out the inevitability
of armed struggle which we feel the population will support once it is
qcnvinced that there is no other way, and once it feels the Movement
undertaking such struggle is committed to a concrete programme of
Later in the week, we received in the mail a release from the
National United Freedom Fighters which advocated that "the only
road to true liberation is through the production of superior
violence". It is not surprising to us to discover, as we go about the
country, that the alternative of revolution through force of arms is
the one which seems at the moment to be attracting much attention
not only of people in political circles, but of ordinary people as well
whose anxieties are every day being increased with the news of
ever-worsening economic conditions and the entry into the political
picture of the prospect of a military solution.
For, let us make no mistake, the national crisis can be re-
solved militarily either through the insurgent action of guerillas in
the hills and on the plains or through the resources of violence
with which the regime has reinforced itself which ever turns out

to be the superior.
And the question we must
ask is: when the last shot has
been fired, what kind of re-
gime will be put in place?
Will it be able to ensure us all
we have been struggling for?
And guns alone cannot de-
cide that issue.
Every man in every street,
.every commuter in every taxi,
every middle-income person in
a comfortable house like every
brother "scr citing" on the
block has arnt since 1970
that the emphasis has literally
been more on guns than on
butter, milk, meat, eggs, rice
or water.
Once again the "national
crisis" is regarded
as being so real that we all are
affected by it, touched by it,
overwhelmedby it into resigned

hopelessness or driven by it to
seek desperate solutions.
"All other means have
failed",said the National United
Freedom Fighters release,
flatly stating what has emerged
as the lesson of the continuing
struggle for change over these
recent years.
Yes indeed, colonial crowd
politics is dead. It is worse than
futile to harangue a protesting
crowd in the square because
that kind of huffing and puff-
ing- o6es not and cannot -
blow down the battlements set
up by these who would hold
on to power by any means
So it is not surprising that
the "armed propaganda" of an
emergent revolutionary force

7 -

An armed policeman oversees the sticking up of a "WANTED" poster a
few months ago. Just last week a young man was shot by police while
putting up a poster calling for Andrea Jacobs to be freed. Was that part of
the anti-guerilla campaign?

would have intrigued those of
us justifiably disenchanted with
the other means which have
been tried and found woefully
To quote from the National
United Freedom Fighters re-
lease again, "revolution does
not take root by mere copying
of revolutionary feats "
But there is one Caribbean
revolution which also has some
lessons for us in this stage of
our search for a nobler life.
The Movement in Cuba was
not simply a military one. Fidel
Castro was a candidate for
office in the election of 1951
and it was only when Batista
overthrew theConstitution that
theMovement resorted to arms.
Even so, the 1953 assault

on Moncada was important
mainly for the increase in po-
litical commitment which it
brought. Defending his action
in the speech "History Will
Absolve Me", Castro called for
a return to legitimate govern-
ment and he set out a clear
political and economic pro-
The point is that the vic-
tory in war was won only be-'
cause the Cuban people saw a
Movement willing and able to
reconstruct the nation in peace.
None of us knows how
things will turn out in Trinidad
and Tobago. Some people say
that Williams is going to win
an election and live on happily
ever after. Others are sure that
he will call an election and

lose it.
Still others say that armed
revolution will carry the day.
What is Tapia saying? We
think that none of these things
will make any sense unless we
have a Movement able to run this
country more wisely and more
humanely than any kind of
government we have had in
this country so far.
That Movement must have
the confidence of the country
so that it could ignore the
mock Parliament and the cor-
rupt government, call the peo-
ple together. It would then be
able to adopt a new constitu-
tion and new electoral arrange-
ments, elect a new government,
and declare a new order.


That is what we think is
going to happen. It is what we
are working for. We do not
know what will bring it about.
It could be a public meeting, a
non-political demonstration
outside Whitehall, industrial
action by a militant union, the
breakdown of a Constitutional
Convention or an armed con-
frontation in the Northern
Range. Any number can play.
You never know what will
change a persistent crisis into
an epoch-making revolution.
And that is why the Pussonal
Nonarch saw the need for Pub-
lic Order legislation and for
the IRA.
But he also knows the risk
of trying to disperse one of
those unauthorized pubh:,
meetings outside WVhreii', **
of trying to enforce the 1R
Any thing like that could bri:--
a Bastille Day.
Yet even after we h-ave
stormed the walls of a3-,hyon,
the only assurance ag?-i: .t 'etl.
ing the enemy in ag-,' c.m-
mitment to a revi',ujutljr:i;y
programme and a revolutionary
organisation capable of imple-
menting it after the smoke
has cleared.

15 Cents

-- '" II I I I I

: L Il~lsl,, L




Mr Khan's

'Master key'


IN MY "post-mortem" of
the Walker Inquest" last
week I argued that Cor-
poral Randolph Bastien of
the Carenage Police Station
was the one whose evidence
supported Mrs. Walker's
version, and contradicted
Asst. Supt. Murray's.
Through an oversight
the quotes to which I re-
ferred were omitted, and
only perhaps vague refer-
ences were published. We
reproduce them now be-
cause we believe them to
be important.
According to a report in
the Trinidad Guardian of July
Cpl. Bastien said the driver got
out of the car, facing him, and he
saw that the man had a pistol stuck
on the left side of his waist.
The man walked towards the
Police booth, both armsswinging,
and walking at a "medium pace".
When about 16 to 18 feet from
the post, he saw themangothrough
a motion; an arm moving to the
left side of his waist, where he had
seen the pistol.
The man continued for a few
more steps and from where he
(Cpl. Bastien) was, he could see
that the man's arms were not swing-
ing any more.
"His right arm was tucked into
the front of his waist. He said
something which I didn't hear.
Just then, Const. Crichlow came
out of the front door of the booth
and I saw the gentleman stop, and
then there was a pause, and then
I heard the shot of a rifle," Cpl.
Bastien said.
For a moment, he thought that
Const. Crichlow had been shot, but
for a second he could not tell what
had happened.
"Then I saw the man's hand
went up as he fell".
Examined by Mr. Wharton, Cpl.
Bastien said he had got the impres-
sion that Constable Crichlow had
been shot because he assumed the
man had had the revolver in his
hand, and had pulled the trigger
when the constable appeared in
front of him.
The woman who had arrived in
the car with the man began bawling
and he (Cpl. Bastien) tried to re-
strain her, verbally, from going to
the spot. The woman insisted, how-
ever, and went down on the body.
CORONER: Did the woman say
anything when she was crying. .?
CPL. BASTIEN: She said why
they have to shoot him and kill
him: Why didn't they shoot him in
the leg. I turned and told her why
he had to go there with the revolver.
She said he is an officer, and he
was entitled to carry one.
Mr. Murray took up the pistol
from the ground. It was opened by
the Commanding Officer of the
Regiment Col. Christopher.
I have shown how Cpl.
Bastien's estimate of the distance
from the post where the army
officer was shot corresponds
with the 5 feet attested to by
Mrs. Walker.


But is it not noteworthy
that the Corporal, who per-
haps commanded the best
of what happened from the hut,
and who was closest to the
parked vehicle in which Mrs.
Walker was sitting, made no
mention of any drawn pistol
in the soldier's hand, nor of
any instigation from Mrs. Wal-
ker, urging her husband to shoot
the baldheadedd bitch"?
Before Murray claimed the
privilege not to answer further
questions lest he might incri-
minate himself, he said:
"When I got out of the Charge
Room door, I saw Mr. Walker lying
on the ground. I looked to see
what his condition was, and he
appeared to be dead.
"I was the first one to go to the
body. I really do not recall the
exact position in which I saw the
body lying. I did not alter in any
way the manner in which he was
"I remained at the post for
about 25 to 30 minutes after I saw
Mr. Walker on the ground. I went to
Police Headquarters.
"Before I left, I saw the wife
going near the body. I cannot re-
member seeing anyone else. I cannot
recollect how long the wife re-
mained there.
"I remember Cpl. Bastien telling
her sometime not to go to the
body. I took possession of the pis-
tol and put it into my pocket.
What the Coroner has not
yet shown us is how he was
able to accept the evidence of
all the policemen, and at the
same time resolve the conflict
existing between thatofBastien
and that of Murray. One of
them had to be lying.
Another witness who tend-
ed to corroborate the evidence
of Mrs. Walker was Dr. Goliah.
Looking at one of the photo-
graphs taken by the Police, the
doctor was of the impression
that the body was not in the
same position in which he had
seen it. Furthermore he drew
attention to a scratch or a
bruise under the soldier's arm:
Shown the first photograph by
the coroner, the witness said that it
was the correct view of the com-
pound, where he saw the body lying,
but he could not remember seeing
the body in the position it was in
the picture, when he saw it, ori-
The witness told the coroner
that when he saw the body on
Monday morning, it was more in
line with the door, but in the pic-
ture it was in line with the wire
Dr. Goliah said further that
when he saw the deceased, the shirt
was blood-stained, and so were
the upper and lower arms.
There was a circular scratch
under the arm, which was caused by
a blunt instrument a stone or
something providing these things
were under the body when it was

SEPTEMBER, Tapia's anniversary month,
is always a big time for us. This year
September marks a key stage in our
"political offensive", falling squarely in
the middle of what Ivan Laughlin has
called those crucial "coming 60 days".
From the busy diary of Tapia's
Community Relations Secretary come-
the following reminders for members:
Grounding and back issue sale
in Port of Spain, September 8;

Grounding and back issue sale
in High Street, San Fernando Septem-
her 15;
Congress of Tapia people,
Tapia House Sunday, September 23;
Every Thursday night, Septem-
ber and after, "The State of the Nation"
discussions. The nation is invited.
Watch this page for news about
where the movement is heading.


Express, August 21, 1973

San Teiasion of the that caved in.

all- Best: Why Tapia

e elusive won't form partyyet
eals plan-
in dis; TAPIA is not yet prepared to transform itself into a
Vege political party.
This is what the politically active group's general
secretary Lloyd Best told the organisation's council
of, representatives. .l
Mr. Best a Ritv economics lecturer, told h e
car ef*._

SLloyd Best November 7, 1968 (TAPIA Oct. 19, 1969)

Though we do not need or cannot afford,
a political party now, we do need to have
political associations of some kind. These
groups must be small enough to permit indivi-
dual participation and to enjoy a climate of
equality where genuine conversation and ex-
change is possible. Large Groups can only
function on the.basis of fairly rigid bureaucra-
tization. If at this stage we had a multiplicity
of small political clubs, it would help us to
experiment with a range of different strategies
and help the emergence of a whole class of
leaders besides. Too large an organisation is





THERE WAS a mistake in the
setting up of pages six and
seven in last week's TAPIA.
That centre spread contained
Victor Questel's review "Poets
Go Forth" of a volume of
poetry by Wayne Brown.
The quotations from
Brown's On The Coast are all
in the wrong places but you
can still follow if you remem-
ber two things:
1. The first two quotations
appearing on page six taken
from the poems "Song for a
Ship's Figurehead" and "Trip"
should follow the ninth para-
graph. They are the examples
Questel gave to show that
Brown "has culled the manner-
isms and vocabulary of Wal-
2. Read each other quota-
tion before that part of the
text of the review which it
immediately follows.
So, you can make some
order out of the disorder.
Sorry Vic.

bound to discriminate against the young, the
women, the less articulate, the less well educated,
the more diffident etc. The Quarterly, the
Monthly Review, the Co-operative Business and
the Rehabilitation Committees will all reinte-
grate potential Associates at other levels.
Ultimately, when this work has proceeded
systematically for some time, we will thrash
out broad areas of consensus, and we will have
an expanded number of confident and compe-
tent people willing to collaborate in a larger
political organisation for the purpose of dealing
in State power. At that point we will be ready
to found a political party.




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RETURN TO: Tapia House Publishing Co Ltd.,
91 Tunapuna Rd., Tunapuna, Phone: 662-5126
Trinidad and Tobago

iSeptember Diary .1


'' iYOU SEE" the, driver : .
said, ",for 30 cents they
.:get luxury they can't afford
to put'in their house".
:I had t.: agree. Sunk ...1
into the back seat leopard
skin upholstery with aqua- :
deo speaker at my head, : I
the. pdded cell treatment
was having its effect.
I itoolook for the:bigger,: A n!
; shinier .cars with the. whirling
wind vanes and the multiple ,
lights coming on as the brakes
are touched. : ast: .Monday, the PTSC
They do go all out what- put eight extra buses on the
ever the cost to get us to road, the PH cars put every-
srpprt:our local -taxis. w. thing they bad into it, and the
and then you could even get report from the newspapers
one to turn off the Main Road next day was that the strike
and race up St. Vincent Street, was either "a veritable flop" or
saving you half a mile of .n, its effect "could not be ascer-
or rain. tained".
I don't know how they do To hear some drivers talk,
it, but our support has been you'd feel that taximen, as
making them appear more pros- "tires", have no rights, that
perous. Cool, sleek operators y operate only by the too
with the air of men fully in- :benigrtolerance of theauthoo
charge, they power down the rities, and that their very pre-
road deftly managing anything ceon te roa isanin-
like $17,000 worth of hardware sence. on the roads isan in
and assets into the best line:of creasingly unbearable nuisance.
business for that minomeit in The intolerance of that position
traffic. apart, it is an understandable
.r .. ,c .. ". ... one. : .
; ROSY PICTURE: The.e bus service can't be-
:': come viable as long as there
That rosy picture doesn't ar these "pirates" on the
however, stand up to the harsh the 'highways. The taximen
glare of Main Road realities. can't make money because
What the 1961 Rose Commis- .parts are too high, roads are
ion called "obstructive bad, traffic administration un-
nianoeuvring in congested imaginative and PH cars go on
areas" with all its dangers for making God laugh. God knows
the heart, the nerves and in- :ithefe must be about 69,000
deed, for life and lipb, is simply or more unemployed people
the way taxiidrivers have to here.

work. And that's not the whole
SAlso, as LloydTaylor, once .:.transport story. But whenyou
put it in TAPIA, whether the .add the rest it amounts to the
taxi-driver makes money or not indisputable fact that we can't
S"remains a subject for enthu- .:get proper public transport -.
siastic enquiry". So that we as indeed we can't get proper
may assume that the San Juan. public anything despite all
drivers who decided to strike .the effort appliedto the getting
last Monday were not kicking it.
up their heels just to get more
luxury or prosperity for them- NEW ROTER
selves or their cars. .NEW FONTIER
An t (tii'..P..ra dtn
2AA I.L~ I~jjJ~A 1WA~A~ I~j

posed to be giving them didn't
make all that much of a dif-
ference either., .
M After my experience with
.the Tunapuna taxi-drivers who
were driven to similar exaspera-
tion early this year, the scenario
of the San Juan taxi-drivers
strike looked familiar.


There was the same heady
belligerence at the start -"to
let those in authority know we
have strength" and the same
calls to brethren drivers for
solidarity "so that we can
make a big impact". And then
what? '
The Tunapuna drivers also
voted for "action now!", and
they motored to Port of Spain
in a blaring convoy, demanding
to see the Minister of Works.
Limited victory was claimed
when the Transport Commis-
soner, happily on hand, agreed
fo reserve parking for 12 cars
on Independence Squarenorth.
Resentfully protesting,
.truck operators were moved to
give space as the reserved park-
ing sign went up, but within a
few months they were back on
the spot where they had them-
selves been squatting. For the
Tunapuna men,.it seemed that
even the token concession was
quickly lost, except that they
went on to form a permanent
association. .-

So the,charges for obstruc-
tion, and the charges of haras-
ment, and the complaints about
the roads are flung back and
forth in a circle of frustration
in which everybody is partly
right, and what is entirely
wrong is ourhaving to live like
this, atomized in the effort to
get something going, each man
for himself.
Policemen are only doing
their jobs, said Asst. Commis-
sioner Duff in response to the
San Juan drivers' complaints.
And so are the taxi-drivers,
so are the PH drivers, so are the
bus drivers and so you wold
like to do, without unnecessary
trouble, while you wait for
transport in the morning.
The thing is, these days
you can't stand up for your
right to human dignity without
butting somebody under the
chin, without shocking some-
body else's sense of propriety,
without throwing back even
farther the frontier of look-
Since October 1968 when
UWI students held a meeting on
the steps of Whitehall, a new
frontier had been reached. Last
week it was prisoners in the
jail, before that, woodcutters,
before that, fishermen, Matelot
people, nurse, housewives,
school-children always a dis-
ruption, physical or psycholo-
gical. '
However much they were
in sympathy, taximen didn't


column 1

--L: nnox Grant

rgy of egg breaking

competitive .enemies, are here
4to stay until we can decentra-
lize, eliminating the inordinate
convergence of vehicles and
people on a single area, and
bringing the mountain to
Meantime, we go on like

so many crabs in a barrel,
clawing at each other as we
try to make .a bread, in a
country where nothing works
as expected, the makeshift de--
vice become permanent policy,
and we must just go n breaking
eggs if not some. heads be-
fore long.

strike when the busmen did
in 1969. This week it was the
"pirate" taxi-drivers who had
.to walk the plank, while people
cheupsed and sighed and found
other means of going about
their business.
Not that Fm assuming the
strike was ineffectual, or. that
similar.uprisings don't have a
value in demonstrating the ex-
istence of kindred spirits of
rebellion. We have to break
eggs, but as the. omelette has
been so long in the making, it
seems that these things only
thicken the messy stew that
we're in.
But what I find is curious
is the way popular initiatives
inindustry (and by that I mean
people seeing an opening to
make a legal bread and actig ,
on it) become problems when
they become established, prob-
lems whose dimeonionsi were
apparently not foreseen by
those charged with putting
order in this society. The taxi-
drivers are the most notable:
Who imagined, for example,
that the route taxis whose
privateering enterprise develop-
ed to take up the slack in
public transport, would them-
selves become the major prob-
-lem m in public transport? It
wasn't until one night when we
noticed a solid phalanx of
smoky food vans on Inde-
pendence Square that questions
about public health and un-
authorized electricity genera-
tion began to be asked. Only
when the handful of admirable
draw brothers grew to a' bustl-
ing bazaar of small businessmen
did all the implications become
We no longer have the
option ofaskingwhether route
taxis are the most efficient
means of getting from place to
place, all things considered. As
our roadways extend in length
they shrink in width, narrowed
by more and more cars and,
now, stalled buses.
The route taxis, now re-
garded by PTSC as mortal




SteSPA hens




and Footnotes

-a weekly digest

BEAMING into the Evening News' camera one day last week were two
men on whom the spotlight had fallen a lot lately as they re-enacted
before a Coroner the "drama" in which Lt. Oliver Walker of the Regi-
ment was shot dead.
The two men CpL Clement and Asst. Rodwell Murray
were receiving awards.
Shortly after being adjudged by Coroner Nazrudeen Khan the
blameless and conscientious upholder of law and order who had
"acted honestly, reasonably and responsbily", Asst. Supt. Murray
accepted his long service award.
SMeanwhile, Lt. Oliver Walker, held by Khan to be "author and
creator" of the drama, lay unrewarded in his grave.


"TO ME this condition (a stinking, malfunctioning sewerage plant
next door to her home] is unforgivable. It defies the intentions of all
individuals and groups devoted to health, sanitation and environment.
And it is an eye opener to those dedicated to commissions of inquiries.
I submit this might-is-right attitude is the main cause of disturbances in
the nation. It has bred and nurtured frustration, protest, demonstration
and the alleged guerilla in the hill". LYLEE PRASAD Express, Sun-
day August 19.
"THEpolicein all democratic countries today, are under severe mental
and physical pressure by forces in their midst which tend to disrupt
law and order and create chaos.
"In the exercise of their duties, police officers very often act on
the spur of the moment such action in the light of sober and prolonged
thinking may, on occasions, be found to be wrong, Happily, these
occasions are very few indeed". COMMISSIONER BERNARD -
Express August 18.
"OUR armed action is and continues to be politically motivated and in
answer to the situation as it exists in Trinago today, which faces
inflation, massive unemployment and underemployment and poor
quality of life of the masses. Mass frustrations, disenchantment, general
turmoil, increase in suicides represent a total dissolution of social
morality. We KNOW that the palliatives like commissions of enquiry,
task forces, special works projects etc. will continue to contribute
nothing and are on the orders of the Man". NATIONAL UNITED
FREEDOM FIGHTERS release received by TAPIA August 22.
"THE quality of life in this country has deteriorated and continues to
do so. Our towns are filthy and overcrowded, our rivers are polluted.
our mountains have been hacked away, our trees and forests destroyed,
wild life seriously disturbed or destroyed, our water sources have bene
exposed and destroyed". HAZEL BROWN Express, August 19.


WORKERS AT the Orange
Grove National Sugar Conm-
pany have called on the
company to reconsider its
decision recalling to duty
Mr. Lennox Hunte, Per-
sonnel Manager and Mr.
Clement Tello, Deputy
General Manager.
The Workers' Commit-
tee at the factory has
issued the following state-
ment to this effect, warn-
ing of the likely conse-
quences of the re-instate-
ment of the two officials.
"We the workers of the
Orange Grove Sugar Company
feel deeply wronged and hurt
by the decision of the Board
of our Company to recall to
duty Mr. Lennox Hunte, Per-
sonnel Manager and Mr. Cle-
ment Tello, Deputy General
We have never had any
doubt about the validity of
our complaints against these
two Company officials, but in
May we readily agreed to a
Commission of Enquiry. We
have now studied the Report
of that Commission and we are
satisfied that its substance
vindicates our claims and jus-
tifies our demands for the offi-
cials' removal.
To us there seems to be a
strange contradiction between
the substance and the conclu-

sion of the Report of the ('om-
mission. The investigation re-
peatedly exposes incompetence
and insensitivity on the part of
the two officials. It then oddly
ends up in a summary which
states that:
"All in all however, we
are not satisfied that the evi-
dence led before us, especially/
in the complaints against Mr.
Tello, justify the resentment
against him which was so ob-
vious throughout the enquiry.
We formed the impression that
the resentment is very deep-
seated and nothing which came
before us, in our view, justified
such resentment .


We, the workers, challenge
the view that the evidence
led does not justify our resent-
ment especially in the com-
plaints against Mr. Tello; we
believe that the deep-seated
character of the problems at

Orange Grove and the deep-
seated character of our resent-
ment in no way excuse the
two officials involved, and we
feel that that final paragraph of
the Commission's Report is
nothing but a source of con-


We fail entirely to see that
the Commission's Report pro-
vides any basis on which the
Board could conceivably recall
the two officials to duty. It is
rumoured that the Board's de-
cision to recall both officials is
tactic meant to bring about an
eventual compromise by retain-
ing one and firing the other.
But we, the workers, do not
believe that the fortunes of
Orange Grove can ever be re-
stored if we do not face up to
the facts. If the facts proved the
two officials right, then we
would be fully prepared that
both officials should resume

'Hunte made a mess'

OF ELEVEN complaints
brought against Mr. Hunte
one was withdrawn, one
had no substance and two
were misdirected.
But it is difficult to see how
on the basis of the Commission's
findings in regard to the re-
maining seven complaints, the
Board of Directors of Orange
Grove could have decided to
to retain the services of the
Personnel Manager.
The kindest remarks made
by the Commission about Mr.
Hunte are that on Charge 6 "he
made a mess of things" and
that on Charge 1, he gratuitous-
ly arrogated authority into him-
self. You might say that error
is human and that a touch of
arrogance is not a capital crime
even in personnel relations.
But what better case could
the workers have had than is
established by the following
findings? that Mr. Hunte be-
trayed "an insensitivity to de-
licate Industrial Relations
matters" on Charge 3; that he
abused authority on Charge 4;
that he showed "a lack of ap-
preciation of the role and status
of organised labour" on Charges
7 & 8;and that on Charge 5, he
not only" showed insufficient
acquaintance with the methods
of dealing with organized
labour" but went so far as to
stand "four square on Manage-
ment Rights".
According to the Commis-
sion, Mr. Hunte's insistence on
these rights was evidence of
"an outdated method of re-
garding employer-employee re-
lationships". So much so that
he simply "introduced his code
of discipline and if anyone did
not like it, they could get to
hell out of there".
Against this evidence, how
could the Commission have
failed to call for sanctions? And
how could the Board have
failed to impose them? Unless
Messers Ben Primus, Eugenio
Moore, Frank Barsotti and their

colleagues are thinking, as well
they might, that the crooked
PNM Government cannot con-
cede the principle that the
workers could ever be allowed
to dictate what is right to
They had better stick to
Mr. Hunte and his dogma on
Management Rights. Because


what the workers are claiming
is that their judgment is superior
to that of all these book-sense
bosses being imposed on the
coiLtiHy iilcZC diays Aiitd OLCC
you make the mistake of con-
ceding that, you are on the way
to people's control ; and Doct or
Politics dead.

their duties.
However, since we are con-
vinced that the facts as shown
in the Commission's Report,
condemn both Mr. Hunte and
Mr. Tello. We consider the
Board's decision a frontal as-
asult on the dignity of us, the
workers of Orange Grove. We
regard it as nothing but a slap
m the face.
To our way of thinking,
the decision only aggravates in-
dustrial relations in the National
,Company and obstructs the
restoration of that peace and
goodwill in the factory and in
the fields which are so vitally
necessary to the success of this
enterprise in which both we
the workers, and we the people
of Trinidad and Tobago have a
lasting stake.
We therefore urge the Board
to reconsider its unfortunate
stand and to avail itself of the
good offices of the Ministry of
Labour and the All Trinidad
Sugar Union in concluding a
speedy settlement.
We strongly reject any sug-
gestion that the position we
have taken and are taking re-
gard to Mr. Hunte and Mr.
Tello has in any way been
influenced by larger political
considerations, or by the inter-
vent ion of rival union interests.
Our grievances at Oranee
Grove have been and continue
to be concrete and real. They
have been special Orange Grove
difficulties and they have al-
ways been spelt out and ser-
viced by a Workers' Committee









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of industrial leaders thrown
up from our continuing struggle
at Orange Grove and nowhere
This is not to say that our
struggle at Orange Grove is
separate and distinct from the
larger political and trade union
problems which we suffer on
the national plane. Workers at
Orange Grove do not stand
aside from these problems and
all interested parties just have
to put that in their pipe and
All workers are entitled to
draw technical help, political
advice and industrial support
from wheresoever they think it
beneficial to the trade union
cause. We consider ourselves
free to negotiate with any union
in the industrial field.
We regard it as the con-
stitutional right of any indivi-
dual worker to join, leave and
rejoin different unions as it
pleases him to do. It is entirely
in order for any union to affi-
liate with any party or group,
or organisation provided that
it does so by the democratic
method of consulting with its
We, the Orange Grove
workers and the Orange Grove
Workers Committee, intend to
insist on these simple, ordinary
and inalienable rights. We state
emphatically that they are rights
which are not in any way ne-
gotiable whether workers
choose to exercise them or not.
It follows that we would resist
any attempt to curtail them,
whether by the Ministry, the
Company, or the Union.
The workers of Orange
Grove went on strike, not for
money or better conditions,
but to save and build the eco-
nomy, to keep the factory up
and we want the world to
know about it. It is for the
future, our children's children's
future and for one thousand,
five hundred (1,500)workers".



Cuba's micro-brigades solve the

maxi-problem, better housing

THE microbrigades workers' task forces made
up of people whose normal job is not in con-
struction are solving Cuba's housing problem.
The microbrigade movement was started
only two years ago by the Revolutionary Govern-
ment and the trade unions. Now modern housing
projects built, by the workers for the workers,
are springing up all over Cuba.
Right now there are 1,055 microbrigades working
on 27,667 houses. In the first five months of the year the
microbrigades completed 11,000 houses.
Each microbrigade consists of 33 workers men
and women who volunteer at their work centre.
While they are away the rest of the workers put in extra
effort so their absence has no effect on production.
When the microbrigade completes its building -
most consist of 20 to 30 apartments the houses are
assigned at the general assembly of the centre's workers
where need is the criterion.
The principle behind the movement was outlined
by Prime Minister Fidel Castro:
"If we go all out to build houses, the country
won't be able to pull itself out of underdevelopment: if
we decide to pull ourselves out of underdevelopment, we
won't be able to build houses. There's only one thing for
it: an extra effort from everyone".
Thus the revolutionary concept of the micro-
brigades was born, with workers everywhere answering
the challenge.
And their answer has been an effective one:
houses are going up at record speed here, (the con-
struction industry grew by 40% in 1972) and last year's
increases gave the island a 14% industrial growth rate.

The workers get the same
wage as in their usual jobs.
Each microbrigade gets techni-
cal advice from the state build
ing corporation, DESA, and
workers soon acquire the new
The new houses have rents
that the workers can really
afford only six percent of
the wages of the head of the
household and which are not
subject to the vagaries of the
capitalist market.
Not every member of the
microbrigades works on house-
building. Some are sent off to
work on other jobs necessary
for the new urban areas.
In Alamar, just outside
Havana, an area which was a
pilot project for the micro-
brigade movement, workers
worked to complete a whole
series of jobs in time to herald
the 20th anniversary of the
26th of July.
These included primary
school for 900 pupils, a shopp-
.ing centre, an open-air cinema

for 1,320 spectators, a child-
ren's park and a nursery school.
The buildings constructed
by the microbrigades are of
eight basic types all of them
prefabricated and most of them
developed in Cuba, the Soviet
Union and Yugoslavia. Micro-
brigade workers are on the job
for upwards of 11 hours a day,
and most buildings are com-
pleted in about a year.


At this year's Quito meet-
ing of the United Nations Ec6-
nomic Commission for Latin
America (ECLA), Carlos Rafael
Rodriguez, the Cuban repre-
sentative, said:
"Skyscrapers are going up
in some Latin American cities,
but not houses for the workers
just 'misery villages' and
Cuba's workers, by con-
trast, are building their houses
by their efforts. [P.L.]



Haitians who fled to the
United States to avoid re-
pression at home now face
the prospect of being de-
American government
officials have been arguing
that "there is nothing to
fear from the Haitian Go-
vernment". While the US
government has been giving
asylum to thousands of
Cubans for years, it seems
to view Haiti as a "free"
Between December 1972
and April 1973, 117 Haitians,
fleeing the Duvalier dictator-
ship, arrived in Miami, Florida.
They were not the first Haitians
to arrive in Florida. During the
same period and before that
time, other groups of Haitians
have fled Haiti and come to the
US arriving in Miami and other
cities in the state.
In the greater Miami area it
is estimated there are at least
300 Haitian refugees. Virtually
all of them entered the US
without papers and few, if any,
have attempted to gain citizen-
ship, out of fear of deportation.
On June 8, eight of the
Haitians were called before an
Immigration Dept. hearing in
Miami, where they asked to be
considered refugees and given
asylum in the US.
This was denied, because,
as the Immigration Dept. offi-
cials maintained, "there was

nothing to fear from the Haitian
Government", despite the fact
that 12 of the Haitians are
escaped political prisoners who
were jailed without trial in
At this time the Immigration
authorities began to round up
all the Haitian they could find
and jail them, intending to hold
them under "preventive deten-
tion until deportation" back to
Haiti, despite the fact that the
Haitians called before the Immi-
gration authorities cooperated
Twenty-eight were put be-
hind bars before Rev. John
Jenkins, a Baptist minister who
had been assisting the 117 since
their arrival, and was allowing
many to stay in his church,
-protested against this action.
The remainder of the 117
were allowed to remain free on
their own recognisance.
On Wednesday, June 18,
the Eight, representing those
who were arrested as well as
themselves, appeared before a
US Circuit Court judge, asking
that they be freed, pending an
appeal to the 5th Circuit Court
of Appeals as well as to the
Attorney General that the de-
portation ruling of the Immi-
gration authorities be set aside.
This was denied by the
federal judge, who ruled, in
effect, that because they were
not citizens, and had entered
the US without papers, neither
they nor any other illegal Hai-
tians could be considered as
having any constitutional rights
whatsoever. A writ of habeas

corpus w;as denied.
During the last week of
June, over 50 Haitians gave
themselves up to the Immi-
gration authorities in Miami,
complying with the order of the
federal judge.
Demonstrations were held
in front of the immigration
office to protest the action

and to make clear to the go-
vernment and the public that
defence efforts will continue.
On Wednesday, June 27, a
meeting took place in Washing-
ton, D.C. between the attorneys
and activists defending the Hai-
tians, and the National Immi-
gration Dept. officials.
Under mounting pressure

s -

I ,/' '

. ,,-J-& ............ '

from defence efforts in Miami
and New York they had finally
decided to review the decision
requiring the Haitians to post
bail. This meeting resulted in a
victory for the Haitians and
their supporters. All of those
held in jail were released on
their own recognisance and are
now free.

You always

wanted her to


makes it easy--

and an ideal

Gift too.





--- --- ----- --- -- --- --- --- -- --- -- --------------------- - -
-----~----------------------------------- ------ --------- --



NOBODY introduced me to Nehru; he dis-
covered me himself. I met him briefly with
reprints of my articles, when he was leaving
for Europe in 1938.
He came down like an Assyrian on the
National Herald management on his return
from Europe, and I had joined the newspaper
on my own initiative. He had reluctantly
agreed tobe Chairman of the board of directors,
after his unhappy experience in the twenties
of theIndependen t with its too many managers
and editors.
In his wanderings in a growingly fascist Europe,
sending fiercely anti-fascist articles from Budapest or
Prague or some other centre of storm, he had been
waiting expectantly for the first copies of the news-
papers. He got smudged, shabby copies, with dim
headlines and unreadable print, and he was angry
about it. He was no less dissatisfied with the editing. I
had, fortunately for me, no responsibility for all this.
Apart from providing occasional purple passages
of writing, the purple standing out in the dull acres of
anti-British propaganda and still asked to feed most
lino-machines, I had to produce the foreign page.


From scattered cuttings sent from Krishna
Menon's London office, of stray despatches, articles
and maps, supplemented by my introductions and
efforts at cartography, I was to piece together the
page, day after day, working sometimes throughout
the whole day till the early hours of next morning.
But soon what was known as page nine acquired
character and became the talk of the town.
Each day I took up one country, one crisis, or
one problem, but the theme was anti-fascist, and it
provided continuity. And the page pleased Nehru. At
a staff meeting, which he addressed, he said there
were only two good things in the newspaper, the
despatches from London and page nine.
There could be no more efficient or charming
chairman of the board of directors; he was utterly
free from commercial-mindedness and did not bother
about money. This might not be the way to establish
a newspaper,but he looked upon the National Herald's
struggle as a part of the freedom struggle.
He left the dreary means of finding money to
Rafi Ahmad Kidwai and others. Both he and Kidwai
wanted money but without strings. At one stage, he
lost his temper with an industrialist, who was to be-
come notorious later they were all nationalists then
- for being pompous with his share money, and
wrote to him saying he did not care for his money or
persons of his kind.
He was keen on good editing and efficient
management, but the newspaper's character and
what it stood for were -more important. To this end,
he wrote for the National Herald incessantly. The
early issues of the National Herald are littered with his
articles on national and international issues, and some-
times he wrote unsigned editorial articles which sur-
prised me with their mastery of journalistic diction
which never descended to journalese.
With each prison term the articlesstopped, and
every time he was released, the trickle started again.
The promised articles came in time, neatly typed or
in his beautiful calligraphy.


If he said he would send three articles by a cer-
tain time, they would all come unfailingly, and he
rejected big offers of money from some newspapers,
saying that he would write only for his newspaper,
the National Herald
There were the frequent restrictive orders, and I
was asked by the editor to contact Nehru on the
phone and ask him for his instructions. One day, he
asked me to read out the whole order banning news
of individual satyagraha.
He was at Allahabad. Could I meet him at Rae
Bareli after two days? There he took me from place to
place and then talked till midnight of Vinoba and
Gandhi and the Viceroy, of China, and of the excit-
ing days ahead. The National Herald came last, and
then he told me what we should try to do. It would
be helpful if we could keep the newspaper alive, but
we must never let down the flag.
This combination of courage and caution was
very difficult, but I was the main censor of the news-
paper and I had to carry out an exacting task.
Then next day, Nehru took me with him for a
day's exciting tour of the villages of Rae Bareli,
Pratapgarh and Sultanpur, and he saw me off, not
knowing when we would meet again. Almost every
time we parted, we did not know when we would
meet next, and it seemed a longgoodbye.
This time, however, he was in Lucknow about

midnight straight from Barabanki, after a fortnight's
further tour, and went straight to theNational Herald
office, asked for a pad of paper from the sub-editor
and wrote an exquisite report of his own speech.
Next morning I was astounded at the Barabanki
correspondent's mastery of expression in English. I
thought the editor had done or redone the report.
The editor thought I had done it. It was beyond us
both; there was a certain freshness about the report
which was beyond any journalism.
We looked at the copy and found it was in
Nehru's own handwriting. When he came to the office
that morning, he seemed pleased with the trick he had
played on us.


Nehru knew the nature of journalism, and
though his books became best-sellers, he did not claim
to be a writer. Writing to him was a part of scll-
expression as a man of action, and at his best, he gave
it a literary touch, with his sense of rhythm.
If journalism consists largely of the capacity to
react and express that reaction quickly and effectively,
Nehru, like Gandhi, was a great journalist.
At times, he surprised us with his grasp of the
mechanical and technical aspects of journalism too.
One day he came straight from the railway
station into the sub-editor's room and took objection
to the way the lead story had been done. It was
a statement by Subhas Bose, and the night sub-
editor had given half-a-dozen headlines in bold type.
"Is this not ugly? Is it all necessary, this garish
display? I am not saying it because it is a statement of
Subhas. He is my friend. But the National Herald
should have dignity about it,"he went on.
He was not without appreciation of the strong
writing in which we indulged. But, he told the editor
often, strong writing is not abusive writing; it can be
simple and dignified and yet be strong.

To the news side too, he applied high standards.
He wanted us to-get anti-official items given by coh-
gressmen verified. But official sources would always
contradict the news, he was told.
It did not matter; even official sources should
be given a chance. If they gave their version, it should
be published.
It was because we did not follow these high
standards that the editor was exposed to criminal
prosecution by Hallett's government. The news item
about lathi charges in prisons was one-sided, un-
verified, and a strong editorial article was based on a
story which could not be substantiated.
The prosecution was at the instance of the
prison superintendent but the government were
behind him. There were thoughts of publishing an
apology, but from prison Nehru wrote that the case
must be fought, whatever happened to the editor, and
if the editor was sent to prison, it would do him good.
So the editor went to prison, and we made a martyr
of him.


Nehru was, in effect, the chief editor of the
paper, even when he was in prison. He not only
insisted on standards but on correct policies, and at
that time, the basis of policy was not only opposition
to the British but opposition to fascism.
It was a difficult combination for most journa-
lists, who like most congressmen could not help re-

On August 15, India
celebrated 26th anniver-
sary of her independence.
The late Jawaharlal
Nehru father of present
Indian Prime Minister,
Indira Gandhi, was one of
the founding fathers of
Indian independence.
His reputation as a free-
dom fighter and later
Prime Minister is worldwide.
Not many people, how-
ever, know of Nehru's
interest and activities in

This article condensed
from a forthcoming book
by M. Chalapathi Rau,
and taken from Indian
News and Foreign Review -
describes Nehru's career
as a journalist in the ser-
vice of the nationalist
movement in India. The
article also looks at how
Nehru combined the roles
of journalist and political
leader, and it shows the
necessarily changed role
of the political newspaper
at the point in time that
the movement of which it
is organ takes power.

joicing over British defeats and nazi victories in the
early days.
And there was always Nehru's humanism. One
day he came into my room and asked me what the
latest news was and I casually mentioned that about
twenty-five persons or so had been killed in a nazi
raid on London.
"Just twenty-five killed", I must have said.
"Is that not enough"? he said. I remember it as
the greatest rebuke I have ever received in my life.


Altogether Neuru had a dominant influence in
the fortunes of the National Herald in the pre-
independence days. The directors and editor were
uncertain, but his objectives were firm. He wanted
the National Herald to take risks, to publish and be
There was no question of editorial independence
for he himself worked as editor, and if anything
appeared in the newspaper which seemed a deviation
from his stand, he did not conceal his annoyance.
But he took great interest in all aspects and it was
exciting to share his sense of adventure.
Whenever he was free, he wrote strongly against
censors and the government and whenever there was
a demand for security, he would make an appeal, and
we got much more than the money we needed. There
were lean days too, and in one spell, some of us had
to live without salaries and then he would visit our


T 26, 1973


chummery like a comrade and lunch or dine with us.
We did not bother about the prospect, penury
or prison. To work with him was enough.
The war was ending, congress leaders were being
released,and Nehru was thinking ahead of the National
Herald. The anti-British mood was still there, but he
was scenting freedom, and the National Herald would
soon have social responsibilities and a constructive
role to play.
This was difficult for some nationalist journal-
ists, and more than ever, when the opportunity arose,
he insisted on my being editor. I had left. a Delhi
newspaper, on which I was working temporarily,
with prospects of going to London or Washington or
Moscow or Djakarta, but my heart was in Lucknow
and with the National Herald.


Some time later I was keen to wander about as a
kind of John Gunther, and desperately I suggested the
names of two well-known persons, then in India and
still unemployed like him. One was to become high
commissioner, the other ambassador soon. We lost
Nehru himself, for he became Prime Minister.
A marwari millionaire, later to achieve great
notoriety, made a strange offer to him through third
persons. The millionaire offered a crore of rupees
(Rs 10 million) for Nehru to start a chain of news-
Some of the directors were excited over the
prospect but Nehru had no hesitation in rejecti'ig the

suggestion outright. I was shocked at the millionaire's
offer and relieved to find that Nehru's idea of the
future of the Indian press was identical with mine.
I was troubled over one matter and I discussed
it with him when he called me to Allahabad for a talk
before the National Herald was to re-start publication.
"Almost all the newspapers are nationalist. They all
write the same sort of thing now. What then is to be
the difference between the National Herald and the
other nationalist newspapers?"
I was suggesting that theNational Herald would
immediately advocate socialism. He appreciated my
impatience, discussed socialists of various kinds, and
told me I was free to shape policy as I liked. "No-
body will interfere with you. Not I".
That was before I became editor, and when I
became editor, he reaffirmed my freedom and scrupu-
lously followed that policy. At Allahabad he referred
to another aspect, "There can be differences between
one newspaper and others even in small matters. That
is the test of character".
I was later to appreciate his perspicacity, when
I found that even in publishing or rejecting some small
item of news, you can make a newspaper's character.
On 1 July 1946, when I formally took over,
Nehru was in Lucknow and spent the whole day in
the National Herald in the company of Krishna
Menon. In the morning he addressed the staff and
opened a discussion; in the evening he told me he
would write two articles for me one of them on the
constituent assembly to be convened.


I said I had just done one on the same subject.
He said he wanted to look at the subject from a par-
ticular angle; I said I had done the same thing. He
wanted to see the proofs of the article, and he took
them home.
I was rather nervous, because expecting him to
come to the office any moment, I had dictated the
article in haste. I was later to find he liked it and
there was complete identity between what I said then
on the subject and what he was to say in the coming
days. He did not write an article on the constituent
Instead, he asked for a pad and wrote for me a
fine article denouncing the American atom bomb test
at Bikini. In the morning the Associated Press man
wanted an interview from him on the test; he refused.
In the evening he probably changed his mind and
expressed his indignation at American arrogance. The
National Herald has published reproduction of the
manuscript several times.
Still, he was writing for the National Herald. But
when he formed the interim government, he stopped
.writing, he also resigned.

His interest in the National Herald remained; as
he liked to see it, in spite of the abundance of news-
papers in Delhi,and he expected high standards from it.
One test he applied to the quality of news-
papers: "If I have many newspapers before me, to
which will I be attracted? Which one will I pick up?"
Not only that, he followed newspapers with interest,
patterns of ownership which be held to be the crux of
freedom of the press and patterns of policy.
Nehru took so much interest in the press be-
cause both during the freedom struggle and after
freedom, he had high respect for the place of the press
in national life. Freedom of the press was a part of the
democratic process to him and he accepted that

criticism, even if it was strong and intolerant, was a
part of it.
Thus, in the years before Avadi, when I was
vehemently criticising the government's policies con-
stantly, he was sometimes upset, but he would not
tell me so, because he respected my freedom, even
nursed and cherished it.
He had his difficulties as Prime-Minister and I
had my responsibilities as editor, and he understood
that an editor hadto function freely, if he was to func-
tion effectively and stamp the newspaper with charac-
ter. Only, helexpected of the editor high standards.
When I resigned in 1948 and the news spread
that 1 was leaving the National Herald because con-
gress socialists were leaving the congress, he sent me a
message through Rafi Ahmad Kidwai saying that it
was for me to shape policy and as they themselves
did not know what to do, it was for me to give a lead.


He was constantly pestered with complaints
fiom congressmen but he answered them himself,
even when once a section of the UPCC executive
raised an uproar against me or when Pandit Pant said
that ninety per cent of his troubles were due to the
National Herald. But all complaining ceased by 1950,
and though I was often resigning, my resignation was
never accepted.
Nehru not only tolerated criticism but appre-
ciated it, if the level was high; what upset him were
malice, lack of dignity, or ignorance of history.
But he upheld the principle of a free press even
when he did not respect sections of the press for not
being equal to the high standards he expected to them.
Nehru addressed editor's gatherings several
times and spoke with greater understanding of the
problems of the press than they did. They talked of
growth, but growth in what direction? What about the
social responsibilities of the press, and how coulditbe
responsible if it was predominantly owned by mil-
lionaires from Marwar?
For him freedom of the press consisted essen-
tially of editorial freedom and not of freedom of the
owner of the press. He disliked press barons of all
kinds and post-war developments in the Indian press
oppressed him so much that he took interest in the
appointment of the press commission. I saw on his
table a copy of the report of the British press com-
mission. often in those days when he repeatedly
challenged the foundations of the press in India.
As president of the federation of working
journalists, I made the appointment of a press com-
mission the theme of my presidential address at the
Calcutta session in 1952, and got a resolution passed
by the session demanding the appointment of a com-
mission and suggesting the terms of reference, when
no other organisation wanted such an inquiry.
I forwarded the resolution to him before leaving
forChinaas a member of the official delegation led by
Mrs. Pandit. On my way back I was pleasantly sur-
prised to learn that the President's address to the
new parliament indicated the appointment of a press
Nehru was a passionate defender of press free-
dom, as a part of the larger freedom. He looked for-
ward to mass circulations, but like the press com-
mission, he wanted the press to develop on the basis
of a democratic, widely diffused ownership.

As statesman... meeting Mao-Tse-Tung in 1949




A placard-draped setting for TIWU leadership at their


IN URGING the sharpening of
the class struggle, speakers at
TIWU's lth Annual General
Assembly called for solidarity
between all groups of workers
and their natural allies.
The "present and potential
allies" of the working class,
said Winston Suite giving the
feature address, were the youth
and student movement, the
peasant and small farmers, the
progressive intellectuals, and
the unemployed and unemploy-
The challenge of the work-
ing class, said Suite, consists
in forging true Caribbean unity
among working class people,
progressive groups,and anti-
capitalist groups. His address
was entitled "The Working Class
Challenge: The Socialist Trans-

THE TRADE unionist must
see a wider role for himself
than merely gaining better
pay and working condi-
This emerged as the
theme of the opening ses-
sion of the Transport and
Industrial Workers' Union
11th Annual General As-
sembly held at the SWWTU
Hall last Saturday after-
noon, August 18.
The five speakers and the
general atmosphere of the meet-
ing showed clearly that the
role being recommended was
one of struggle for a socialist
"Forward March to So-
cialism and Liberation" said
one of the many posters. The
proceedings began and ended
with the singing of the inter-
national socialist anthem "The
East Is Red", and large photos
of socialist and Third World
heroes looked down at the
gathering from the platform.
It was a serious, even so-
lemn, occasion as the leaders
of TIWU joined with leaders


He urged the gathering to
work towards the complete
liberation of human and other
resources of the Caribbean.

On the need for waging all
forms of struggle Suite drew
the attention of his hearers to


"Ask yourselves whether or
not NUFF has not in fact taken
up defence of the working class.
Are we in any position to
criticise, to reject to ridicule
or join in any force against
them" he asked.

from other anti-Establishment
unions to call for greater dedi-
cation and a broadening of out-
look to see the "fundamental
causes" of the problems of
As Joe Young put it in
his President's address, the As-
sembly was another "great de-
mocratic exercise in the tradi-
tion of TIWU" in which the
"leading comrades" of the
branches and the national lead-
ership were meeting to review
progress and to plan for the
Since TIWU had been form-
ed in August 1962, Young said,
great strides had been made,
but the same could not be,
said for the country which
gained Independence that same
"We can see no progress ...
institutions are crumbling; there
is crisis in the judiciary, in the
professions,in organised labour,
in the prisons crisis left,
right, centre and behind".
Yet even the progress of
the unions seen in terms of

President of the Island-Wide
Cane Farmers Union Rafique
Shah emphasised the need for
solidarity with workers in agri-
culture. His union, he said, had
attracted support from all kinds
of agricultural workers.
The crisis in the agricultural
sector, said Shah, derived from
the Government's neglect of
agriculture in its move to pro-
mote industrialization.
He pointed out that. the
majority of the people with
whom his union dealt were not
working class but peasants or
"We form part of the same
struggle", he said, "the struggle

better wages and conditions for
its members was not enough.
"If today a bus driver is
paid $70 a week as against
$35 or $40 which he was paid
10 years ago, it does not solve
the problem. What we may
achieve today by wage increases
are soon snatched away by the
greedy capitalists in the form
of the ever-spiralling cost of
"Having regard to the eco-
nomic system in which we
operate, there, is hardly any-
thing that can be done if
anything at all about control
in the rises in the cost of living.
Is the trade union to continue
seeking 20% more today only
to have that 20% eroded and
reduced next week to 5%?"
Young hoped to "shatter
and destroy the myth that the
trade union must confine it-
self to asking for 10 cents
more an hour every three years.
He urged unionists to speak
out against the abuses like
police shootings, and warned
that if they did not, "our fair
land can be converted into
another Haiti".

to liberate, the struggle to de-
In Shah's view it was not
possible to change in any one
sector alone. The change must
embrace the whole, and hence
the need for complete soli-
Mrs. Beryl Drakes, President
of the Council of Progressive
Trade Unions also made a plea
for inclusion into the category
of working class, and for soli-
darity with the small shop-


The small shopkeepers,
said Mrs Drakes were con-
stituted as a group within the
CPTU. "They are very much
like the peasants, she said, and
they are very much workers.
Their employment is a little bit
different perhaps and a little
more difficult to identify".
But she was convinced that
they shared the same plight as
workers everywhere.

Speaking slowly, in
measured terms, OWTU Presi-
dent General, another guest
speaker, urged the meeting to
regard their deliberations as
planning for the new society.
"Instead of contemplating
as we do here almost every day
on improving wages and condi-
tions, we must understand that
this society is dead ready and
we must plan here how we are
going to set up the machinery
for a new society".
He urged the translation
of the revolutionary slogans
into meaningful action. It was
the task of the working class
to make the transformation to
the new society.
Weekes called for a bridg-
ing of the gap between the
intellectual worker and other
kinds of workers.
The revolutionary spirit
born in 1937 must not die, he
said, even though the body
might be killed.
His message to the gathering
was "think as you have never
done before".

Industrial Workers Union
has charged the Industrial
Court with operating to
frustrate workers.
Speaking at its 11th
General Assembly last Sa-
turday, TIWU President
Joe Young said that the
union had to give serious
consideration to thewhole
question of making ap-
pearances at the Industrial
Court, for it was proving
to be wasteful of time, and
the Court was either un-
willing or unable to re-
instate wrongfully dis-
missed workers.
Young reported that the
Court had in its possession 15
to 17 judgments on matters
brought before it by the union
in the last four or five years. In
the last year his union
had made over 100 appearances
'in the Court and "that has not
advanced the position of work-
ers in this country, the Gat-
cliffes and the Rostants are still
in charge".


He mentioned three recent
judgments in which the Court
had found the dismissals unjust
but had not ordered re-instate-
ment. Two other judgments for
matters TIWU had taken to
court in 1967 and 1969 were
delivered only last week.

"We have never called for
an Industrial Court," said
Young. "The court can neither
give, nor is it qualified to give
what the workers can get by
their own struggle. And if the
status quo is that there must be
a court, then it must be properly
Ordinary workers suffered
disadvantages at the Court,
Young said. They came up
against top barristers represent-
ing the employers who often
sought adjournments and "have
the matters drag on to the


Referring to the recent
signing of an air transport agree-
ment with Cuba, Young re-
called the persecution some
years ago of trade unionists
who had attended an OLAS
conference in Cuba.
"How can things change
so?" he asked.

He saw the change as proof
that the Trinidad and Tobago
government had been forced to
recognize the positive develop-
ments that had taken place in
Cuba, "changes that we too
long for here, changes that can-
not come through reformism,
or from localisation and other
nebulous formulas".
He was confident that
TIWUwould grow from strength
to strength,, convinced that
liberation could only be pur-
sued by analysis and political







take over



FORTHEfirst time Orange
,Grove workers have to
turn their attention to the
possibility' of sharing con
trol of the National Com-
pany with the Government
in Port of Spain.
Everybody realises now that
PNM nationalisation has proved
to be a colossal fake. Where
Trinidad Sugar Estates once
dominated and bullied the
workers, the' Government has
since stepped in to impose the
identical style of management.
They claim to be managing
on behalf of the people's sec-
tor. How then could they bring
back Hunte and Tello?


What they want is a genuine
localisation of managerial con-
trol so as to bring power to the
people 'who live and work on
the spot.
The PNM Government has
been deliberately confusing the
issue by pretending that local-
isation is achieved when shares
are bought by the Government
or by some set of well-to-do
Trinidad and Tobagonian
But localisation, as
Tapia intends it, means
that the people in the local
area must take charge. Call
it socialism or people's
participation or anything
you like, but give the
workers and the surround-
ing communities effective
In the absence of consti-
tutional reform, nationalisation
or PNM localisation concen-
trates power in the hands of
the political managers at White-
hall. There does not exist any

Municipal Government which
is responsible for the Tunapuna-
Tacarigua Region.
In this situation, the work-
ers must take the initiative and
establish an Orange Grove
House Union able and willing
to share power with the Go-
vernment. Such a Union must
claim at least half of the seats
on the Board.
Recent events have proved
that only the workers can run
the factory. The time has come
for them to run it.

Workers tell Hunte
to his face;during the
Orange Grove strike
last May.
Below the factory
yard, canes to be made
into yellow crustals.

PNM Midas touch in reverse

In the,tractor shed, in the
cultivation, and in the factory
everybody saying that Emery's
presence on the Board of Direc-
tors has made no noticeable
Although all of Tello's wild
scheme% were made known in
advance to the Union repre-
sentative on the Board, the
workers still did not know on
which side their bread was
And when the time reach
to call strike, it was a workers'
Committee which had to act.
Emery admitted to the
Commission of Enquiry that,
as a member of the Board, he
actually knew of the proposals
to mechanise the planting of
cane and to introduce self-
loading trailers. But did all
Trinidad take any action al-
though many workers were
afraid the machines might put
them out of work?


Yes, Emery said he raised
the matter with the General
Manager and hoped to have a
meeting to discuss it." (p. 18)
But it never occurred to him
to tell the workers what was
about to take place, and so
activate them to fight their
own cause. So it is just as if
the workers have no representa-
tion on the Orange Grove
Board of Directors.
t Now people are saying that
the entire system must go. The
workers have no use for
nationalisation when that is
only another word for State
Capitalism and Company

THE confrontation which
is now being acted out at
Orange Grove between
workers and management
has added something to the
February Revolution. What
the Report of the Com-
mission exposes is how
superlatively book-sense an
administration, the Afro-
Saxon regime has produced.
As is ritually revealed
by the lengthening parade

of'frustrations on the,green
outside of Whitehall (by'
fishermen, woodcutters,
taximen and who else) new
ground of public sector
incompetence is becoming
increasingly more difficult
to break.
Cite Chagacabana or
Cowboy Jack; call Telco,
Mayfair Knitting and Trini-
dad Printing. The public

sector seems to possess
some reverse kind of Midas
touch. Even the normally
unflappable T& TEd seems
recently to have been
blighted by the PNM
The nation has long
resigned itself to incom-
petence, ineptitude and in-
tentions unfulfilled: Who
really cares about NP or
Caroni or Workers' Bank?

Who even bothers to put a
Yet in the welter of
inside info, we get sur-
prisingly little insight into
how the new technocracy
actually choreographs the
blundering with taxpayers'
hayd-earned money. It is
this extra insight which the
Orange Grove Report now

What probe says about Hunte: See page 9

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THE BASIC ajoupa dis-
cussed in thefirstarticlehas
undergone a definite series
of developments while still
retaining the basic princi-
ples of shelter and enclo-
sure. Although the basic
ajoupa still exists today it
is closely approaching ex-
However, the various hy-
brids of,the ajoupa, which have
a longer life due to improve-
ments in construction, are much
more conlmon today in the rural
districts of Trinidad. These hy-
brids are mostly occupied by
the poorer Indians who have
not progressed noticeably from
the station of their predeces-
The main reasons for con-
struction variations, of the
ajoupa can be attributed to im-
proved maintenance and dura-
bility of shelter. As mentioned
previously, the tapia walls of
the ajoupa require a very high
degree of maintenance, and
secondly, the entire building is
limited by the life span of the
carack thrash roof.
'The basic ajoupa is normally
built on ground level, thus
eliminating the need for a sus-
Spended floor and also founda-
tions. For those farmers who
lived in the sugar cane belt
there was an added problem of


Sugar cane grows well above
the height of a mnan, and if a
house is surrounded bycane all
prevailing winds pass overhead.
No matter how open a house
was built the occupants had no
means of cross ventilation.
The use of reinforced con-
crete allowed them to overcome
the problem of the micro-
climate by raising the house
off the ground. The raised
floor level offered many ad-
vantages to the occupants such
as increased privacy, better ven-
tilation, a covered area, space
for a shop, garage or other
activity under the house.
The floor of such dwellings
was built of timber joist con-
struction, as one suspects that
difficulties of constructing a
suspended concrete floor had
not been overcome simultane-
ously with the introduction of
the concrete column.
The walls of the house were
still made of tapia, though
sometimes white washed. The
use of rooms'however remained
the same and the kitchen re-
mained downstairs.
A wooden staircase would
lead up to the front porch, and
in many cases it was a crude
form of ladder. This raised



rise to



Brian Lewis
floor level possibly indicated
raised status, as in 'Manasatra
(India) state the custom is that
"lower classes must never con-
struct' their houses of more
than a single storey".
Many of the raised houses
have small shops below thus
qualifying as double storey.
This one storey innovation de-
veloped into an accepted solu-
tion and the majority of new
houses are raised off the ground
With, the rising economic
position of the Indian farmer
together with the introduction
of new materials, he could:
afford more durable materials
Requiring less maintenance.
The first change was the
replacementofthe carack trash
roof with corrugated galvanised
iron roofing. Galvanised roof-
ing offered a fairly long life in
a relatively cheap material and
the added advantage of being
re-usable on another home.
Many of the ajoupas are

.to the

no it ve
440u IZ


flags on bamboo poles indicates religious events in the fam

todIy still with galvanised roofs
and, in most cases, its use ex-
presses a lack of sensitivity for
this kind of roofing. In fact the
carack roof had been replaced,
in most cases, without any con-
structional changes to accom-
modate a new material.
Sometimes galvanised roof-
ing can be bought with decora-
tive designs. The unfortunate
result of, this innovation was
the loss of the skill of trash
roof construction.


SThe; second innovation,:
though not of visual-character,
was the use of concrete. The
technology of this new internil
was at a very primitive stage'
among the East Indians in the
early 20th century, and during
the early stages of its introduc-
tion concrete was used only in
its mass form.
The mud floor was replaced
by concrete and produced a far
more durable surface. Some-

times the hybrid ajoupi
found with both the c
around floor and the ea

The final development of
the basic tapia hut was the pecu-
liar practiceofrendered plastered
tapia which still exists today.
One feels that this practice in-
dicates that the East Indian
regarded the rendered finish as
more desirable than the tapia
finish and so tapia was plastered
to give the effect of a rendered
construction (that is, concrete
or blockwork with a plastered
This development illustrates
the Indian's endeavours to
better his visual expression of,
status on a domestic scene.
Contemporary West -Indian.
architecture had introduced the
block wall construction some
years previously and one must
assume that the Indian ajqupa
had progressed throughvarious
stages until, with the use of
rendered walls, it became dif-
ficult to tell the difference be-
tween the East Indian and West

The wooderr ajoupa is the
last remaining hybrid of the
basic ajoupa and perhaps it is
the most interesting ofthem
all, since, i visual'terms, it is
the first stage of total material
development from the basic
construction of the ajoupa.
The tapia walls were re-
placed by; local timber boards
and the floor finish and con-
strucuon "ere also in timber.
SIt is important to note that the
wooden hybrid had been used
b\ the creoless" long before
the Indian adopted its use."
The timber construction
provided a totally dismount-
able structure and was perhaps
Developed by quaites. .
Quite often the roof may
Sstdl be made of carack' "trash
and is the only similarity to
the ajoupa. The use of wood is
perhaps the nearest association
withthe "creole" contemporary
houses which many East Indians
were to adopt.




S-soft, light

and delicious.

: ~ ~. i

Indian houses.
S : This.plaster-tapia construc-'
tion continued through to .the
early 1950's though there were
few changes from the concept
of the basic ajoupa. The. main
innovation w as the introduction
of a dining room within the
'nhilared house proper, while the kitchen.
..a. ed still remained ari outside annex
or separate building.
S .By hall" .ay in the.20th
S century\ developments' were
mainly associated with the
: changing use of material. The
tapia floor. tapia llaUs. and.
carack roof were being replaced
by concrete, rendering, and gal-
vanised roofing.
Most of these innovations
can be considered as construc-
S The development of material
is not only on a utilitarian
basis but also on the basis of
ily .'status. a certain degree of cul-
tural change, and. possibly a
a can be isual clue suggesting western-
:oncrete ization of the East Indian n
Ivanised Trinidad




Baldwin Mootoo







ready well on its way to-
wards proving or
disapproving my predic-
tions. The second test
which ended in the inevit-
able draw on August 14,
was a very peculiar one.
It was a dismal match as
the spectators were con-
cerned just over 1,100
runs scored and 442 overs
bowled in five full days'
cricket. That is to say,
just about four normal
days' play stretched over
This third test should be
very different. With the ten-
sions of the second test be-
hind them, both sides should
play much more open cricket,
and the spectators could ex-
pect to get their money's
worth. The West Indies is
better equipped all round and,
I expect them to take this
one and end the series 2-0.


From this side of the
Atlantic, 3,000 miles away
from the action, I would have
to be careful in advancing
factors to explain how the
West Indian "bright cricketers"
contributed to and were in
turn affected by such a dull
But there are certain
things I know:
(1) there is tremendous
racial tension in Britain today,
and the match was played
against a background of Powel-
lism and the recent tough
immigration laws;
(2) the crowds were very
partisan and split almost
50-50 between England and
the West Indians;
(3) neither team had any
advantage of being "at home"
in fact the West Indies
with four players from War-
wickshire were probably more
at ease on the Edgbaston
ground than the English team
with no players from that
(4) both teams were made
up essentially of full-time pro-
fessionals each team being
led by a tough, seasoned pro-
fessional captain.


These factors were enough
to make the test series hard
and tense. After the West
Indian victory in the first test,
tension increased. There was
much talk, led by the chair-



man of the English selectors,
Alec Bedser, suggesting that
the presence of so many im-
ported professionals in the
English county games have
served to lower the standards
of the English team by ex-
cluding so many English play-
ers from top county com-


Frank Hayes reportedly
insinuated in a press interview
that Lloyd's presence in the
Lancashire team at No. 4 had
stifled his own development.
Lloyd was apparently sur-
prised by this since he claimed
that he had always tried to
help Hayes on the Lancashire
In addition, the West In-
dian players are not pleased
with the administration of the
West Indian Cricket Board of
Control. Some of the older
players, for example, think
that we have not got a good
financial deal on this tour.
They think that the West
Indies' share of the gate re-
ceipts is too small, particularly
when the West Indies is in
need of the money to develop
our own cricket.
Foster, we understand, is
spearheading the formation
of a West Indian Cricketers
Association which will give
the players more say in the
game. This we welcome.


So it is against this back-
ground that we must consider
the happenings of those five
days the slow hard cricket,
the warning about slow cric-
ket to the West Indian side
when both sides were equally
slow, and umpire Fagg's ob-
vious over-reaction to Kanhai's
unfortunate outburst.
Outbursts from players do
not help, but they are part
of the occupational hazards
of umpiring.
Fagg, I think has umpired
his last test.
Kanhai we know is one of
the great "walkers" in the
game. No one leaves the
middle as quickly as he when
he is out, so it must be ex-
asperating to him when what
seems an easy decision goes
against him.
But as captain he must
understand that being a good
hard tactician is only part of

his job. We can't help but
remember the two previous
West Indian captains when an
incident like this takes place.
The pitch of course did
not help to make a game of it.
The West Indies went into the
test one up. The wicket, which
Kanhai knows better than any-
other, was expected to get
easier as the game progressed.
Thus both teams approached
the game with a wait-and-see
However, the onus was on
Illingworth, one down in a
three-match series, rather than
Kanhai, to try and force the
pace if the opportunity arose.
It was thus rather curious
that, after the West Indians
had lost half their side for
less than 150, England con-
tinued to bowl at such a slow

That in fact, was playing
right into West Indies' hands,
for our primary concern at
that time was occupation and
taking whatever runs could
come in the process.
By the time the West
Indies were finally bowled
out midway through the se-
cond day's play, the match
was well ontheway to a draw.
At the end of that day,
England 96 without loss on
an easy paced wicket, prob-
ably could still make a match
of it, but they were already
paying the price for bowling
so few overs for such a long
Their chances were as good
as finished when Boycott
found it impossible to con-
tinue batting on the third
day and Fletcher had to bat
lower down the order, due to

So both sides opted for a
lingering game, professional
captains giving nothing away
and waiting for the other side
to fall into error.
In the meantime, the spec-
tators must have suffered. This
trend continued to the last
day when the final nails were
driven into the coffin by
Illingworth taking the new ball
and bowling 12 overs in an
hour and Kanhai deciding to
bat on.
But the real turning point
in the match was on the first
day when England bowled
with such a lack of urgency
after half the West Indian
side was down,
So once again we have
to look beyond the boundary
to explain the whole atmos-
phere and the outcome of the

Techniques of the

deer J l N


THE DEER is the hunter's
most treasured catch. It is an
elusive,wily creature, extreme-
ly particular about its privacy.
Given our colonial educa-
tion, when we think of deer
we probably conjure upimages
of Rudolph the Red-nosed
Reindeer. But the Trinidad
deer bears no resemblance to
Rudolph. Instead it looks
very much like a goat.
Most deer are white with
a greyish or dark brown strip
running from the back of the
head down to the fluffy bob
tail, and a pair of six-inch
The Deer likes a flat
forested area and the popula-
tion is concentrated in the
forests of Arena, Valencia,
Matura and Talparo. It usually
feeds by night and rests by
Hunters prefer to chase
them at night when they are
feeding, because without the
sun to dissipate their scent,
dogs can follow their trail
more easily. However, the
Forestry Department in the
interest of preserving the
animal from extinctionhas out-
lawed deer hunting at nights.
The deer has a homing
instinct with a semi fixed rest-
ing place which it may change
to preserve its privacy. Its
feeding pattern is mostly re-
gular. It will leave its resting
place early in the night, travel

Posing with prize-winning hunting dogs Carly (right) and his friend and men-
tor, William De Freitas.

along an eight to 25 mile
track, feeding off herbs and
It returns to its resting
place just before dawn. The
distance between the feeding
track and homecoming route
averages a half mile.
While the habits of the
deer are predictable, making
it possible for a hunter to
plan its capture, its habits are
also its strength. Whenever
caught unawares by hunting
dogs and diverted from its
regular routes, it gets lost in
the wilderness. Then the deer
can be caught by a pot hound
which only has a 30-minute
endurance. But, if it picks up
the scent of his tormentors in
time,as is usually the case, not
even the foxhound with its
24-hour endurance will catch
Using its tracks as a base,
the deer will tie the dogs in
knots. It will rur, in circles,
make figures of eight and up
and clown streams. The dogs

have no chance then and only
the intervention of the expert
hunter as Carly can even the
The expert hunter knows
that after the deer exhausts
its artful dodges it will return
to its homeward track, and if
Carly and his colleagues have
"barred off" properly the deer
is likely to cross the path of
one of them.
In the hunting dictionary
"barring off' means station-
ing oneself in those strategic
positions where the deer is
likely to pass on its way to its
resting place. The distance be-
tween the outgoing anid i-
coming track, is about half a
mile. So, when a feeding track
or resting spot is found, the
hunter boosts his dogs tdong
the trail and then "bars -f".
about a half miie 'n either
side of the deer's tracks.

Nk LT WEEK: Carly's
Most Memorable Hunt.




Earl Best
IF YOU GO to the top of
El Dorado Road in Tuna-
puna and turn east at Hill-
view College, you come to
a sprawling playground.
Time was when you could
not pass here after 3 p.m.
on any day in the week or
any time on a weekend,
public holiday or the
school vacation, and not
find a game in progress.
Football or cricket sea-
son, you could always find
the fellas making a run or
knocking with anything
from a leather ball to a
breadfruit, playing three
line for jig, x-and-zop,
marble or button win, fe-
laying at zwilled mad bulls,
chickie chongs or home-
made brown paper kites
or simply waiting around
for the inevitable action.
Nowadays, except for a
few enthusiastic East St. George
Basketball Association players
and a handful of no less enthu
siastic Wes Hall Youth Cricket
League cricketers, Honeymoon
(yes, despite the stern white
letters glaring down from the
official County Council sign
on high "Recreation Ground")
Honeymoon is deserted, life-
less. Yet, on almost every block
the fellas are playing some
kind of ball.


That the Eddie Hart Foot-
ball League (EHFL) began in
the year Honeymoon was
temporarily closed was a mis-
fortune for Tunapuna. True
enough, it was to this league
that a lot of the Honeymoon
crowd turned when it was clear
that the closure was less tem-
porary than we had thought.
If Tunapuna's sportsmen
and sport lovers had raised a
hue and cry (as well they
might have, were it not for the
EHFL!), Honeymoon would
have been quickly restored to
us. But precisely because we
had somewhere to turn, we
played our football and kept
our mouths shut mistake.

We abandoned our ground
to the inefficiency and inepti-
tude of the powers that be. We
said nothing much when work




was begun threequarter way
through the Sunday morning
competition and no one had the
courage or the courtesy to
notify us beforehand. We said
nothing when the work was not
completed in time to allow the
next year's competition to be-
gin. We have not as a body said
anythingin the four years since
then that the ground has lain
idle, so the authorities con-
tinue to drag their feet.
Never again at Honeymoon
will we see five simultaneous
cricket matches on Saturday
and Sunday afternoon, never
again will we see six football
matches run off in a single
Sunday morning, never again
will Honeymoon be Honey-


No. Several years ago, as I
imagine, it, some nameless
faceless, pusillaninous bureau-
crat sitting at some paper
strewn desk in some remote
government office drove the
first nail into the coffin of
Honeymoon with a single fate-
ful stroke of his pen.
I feel sure that he had never
been to Honeymoon on a Sun-
day or Saturday afternoon in

March/April or a Sunday morn-
ing or afternoon in October/
November. Still he got word
that the ground needed fixing
and resolved that he would fix


He did. He fixed it so that
Tunapuna's sportsmen (Jimmy
Springer, Fitzroy Valentine,
Godfrey Harris are names that
come immediately to mind)
were forced to become a part
of the dog fight that is "town
football", so that Matadors and
Zone 17 and Russians and
Juniors soon became names of
an era past.
None of us realized, on that
October morning some six years
ago when the terrible teeth
marks of some mechanical
giant which had come, not
uncharacteristically, like a thief
in the night, told us unequi-
vocally that there would be no
more football for that season
in Honeymoon, that we had
probably played our last match
Naturally, we were vexed,
blasted vexed, at the manner in
which the whole business had
been done but our vexation was
tempered by the thought of

next year's improved playing
It's funny how the un-
politicized take these things
for granted. "We government
was going to fix we savannah
for we Magnum est PNM ...
etc". In our youthful exuberance
we failed until years later to
see the light.


It didn't dawn on us then
the local culture had been
irrevocably raped. Raped, yes,
despite Constantine Park which,
presumably, was intended to
serve the community's needs
during the brief period that
Honeymoon received daily at-
tention from the throng of
mechanical giants and dwarfs.
The idea was, I think, to
convert the ground into pre-
cisely what the sign says
"Recreation Ground". Now-
adays I marvel less at the in-
sufferable arrogance of the pro-
posers of the plan because of
the Shanty Town Development
and the proposals to convert
the Queen's Park Savannah or
George V Park into a stadium.
It is a different colour of
the same horse. I suppose that
one day somebody will be
able to use the single turf
wicket, the lawn tennis and
basketball courts and the foot-
ball ground. (Happily frequent
use has so far been made of the
set of concrete wickets laid
down in the south-eastern cor-
ner of the field). I wonder,
though, if it is for this alone
that we have already waited
six years.


The only obvious improve-
ment to the terrain was the
drainage system and even that
was, it is now clear, a shoddy
job since widish gullies are
clearly visible all along the
banks of the embankment and
several yards have already been
eroded from the projected play-
ing area by the flowing water.
The ground whose actual
playing area is greatly reduced
has been, at any rate, seems
likely to be, completely en-
closed but no provision seems
to have been made for a pavilion
of any consequence. Indeed,
the general lay-out of the
ground does not seem to allow
for a pavilion with a commandi-
ng view of the whole.
So where are the better

facilities our Councillor has
been promising us ever since
the days of his election cam-
paign? Is the proposed Sport-
ing Complex, as I have heard it
called, ever going to get off the
ground and provide the same
services or be as much a part of
the community's life as was
Constantine Park, whichjs
less than a mile away -. .t
minutes by car stands as a.
living testimony to the bluiit.
ings of an administration cor-
pletely devoid of imagination,
originality and foresight.
Not a cent has come into
public coffers as a result of its
construction and the local foot-
ball leagues must pay rental to
Lever Bros. on the occasions
that they decides to take gates,
impossible at Constantine Park.


Clearly, it is an error to
impose on a community a set
of facilities preconceived by
some master planner and having
little or no relation to the
specific needs of that com-
munity. It happened every-
where with the Community
Centres, so many white ele-
phants, it happened in Shanty
Town and again with George
V Park.
The Honeymoon situation
is manifestly identical. Who's
next: Well, the Eddie Hart
Football League,it is rumored,
is attempting to acquire its
own grounds in Tacarigua. If
the authorities get wind of it
early, who knows what will
Anyway, in Tunapuna
Blackpool has managed to keep
alive and give birth to what is
fast becoming the most popular
form of community entertain-
ment (and protest) the
Blockorama. That phenome-
non is sure to throw up a
unique type of athlete in the
not too distant future but
what is going to become of our
footballers with over-zealous
policemen seeking to arrest us
the minute we start a game of
raising, up and down, or pass
out in the street.
The community is slowly
adjusting to the absence of
Honeymoon, but unconscious-
ly. Consciously, each and every-
one of us waits for Honeymoon
to be restored to us. Less and
less patiently as we become
more and more certain that all
the King's horses and all the
King's men cannot put Honey-
moon together again.



of the Caribbean

Printed by Tapia House Printing Co. Ltd., for Tapia House Publishing Co. Ltd., 91 Tunapuna Rd. Phone: 662-5126

Horse play in Orange Grove Savannah for Eddie Hart League opening,
but no kind of play at Honeymoon Grounds.

~Yk~ R