Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00072
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: August 19, 1973
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00072

Full Text

Vol. 3 No. 33

SUNDAY AUGUST 19,f97t3 <' ';:
lt2 '-`~ 71 STREETi
NE Y 'R7, 23
AUG23J '73

* Tuesday in San F'do

* Gayap this weekend

THURSDAY coming, August
23, we will be holding another
of the Tapia self-education dis-
cussions at The Tapia House,
82 St Vincent Street, Tuna-
The public is invited to
take part along with Tapia
members and associates. Start-
ing time 8 p.m. sharp.

TAPIA Vice-Chairman Volney
Pierre will on Tuesday August
21, be leading a discussion on
"How Tapia would solve Un-
The venue is the Tapia
House Southern Office at 17
Royal Road, San Fernando;
Starting time 8 p.m. The pub-
lic is invited. More details
about these Tuesday discus-

sions from 652-4878.

AT THE Tapia House this
weekend, members, associates
and friends will be joining
hands to extend our printing
plant. An area 30' by 10' is
being enclosed and fitted out
to accommodate camera and
plate-making facilities.
As usual, the password is
gayap or lend hand. Those
intending to join in the hard-
wuk are invited to phone us
at 662-5126 or drop in at 82,
St Vincent Street Tunapuna.
(We should have a royal time).
Tapia people are also re-
minded that donations of
building materials and furni-
ture or of liquid cash are al-
ways welcome at the House.

COMMUNITY Relations Secretary Ivan
Laughlin, has called on all Tapia mem-
bers and associates for increasing dis-
cipline "to meet the demands of a
rapidly deteriorating political situation".
In a soul-searching address to the
Council of Representatives last Monday,
Laughlin implored the governing body
of National Tapia to acknowledge "the
critical juncture" which our country
has reached.
- "As I range up and down the

AFTER an animated discus-
sion of the internal working
of the movement and the
deteriorating political situa-
tion, The Tapia Council of
Representatives last Monday,

country, I cannot help sharing the frus-
trations of all sections of this nation;
and I know that we must buckle down
and strengthen our commitment so as
to be able to make a reality of all our
many dreams".
Every Tapia person must ask him-
self, said Laughlin, whether our effort
was enough. The assembly then passed
to a discussion of Tapia strategy and
tactics for the coming 60 days.
(See Page 2)

decided to step up and inten-
sify our Group's political work.
Among decisions made are
the following:
* An Assembly of Tapia peo-
ple is to come off at the

House on September 23.
* An open-air Grounding is
to be held in Port of Spain on
Saturday September 8. De-
tails of this occasion are to be-
announced shortly.

ImP st orem n t e alk r iqus t1

teacher of Yoga, and no doul
has meditated a lot on the vei
of justifiable homicide whicl
delivered for an hour in the I
of-Spain Third court on Wed
day, August 8.
Such men are prone to trus
the spiritual vibrations which 1
get from people. Somehow it se
that throughout the inquest
the death of her husband,
Walker struck Coroner Khan
negative force.
It is puzzling how he arrived al
conclusion that "on all material iss
accepted and believed the evidence
Asst. Murray and all the witnesses
and except Mrs. Walker".
It is even more astonishing wh
is recalled that on July 30 Mr. Ben
the Deputy Solicitor General, ha
apologise "on behalf of the P
Association" for the conduct of
stable Gilbert at the hearing.
On this the Coroner said: "I
surprised at the evidence of the
stable. His evidence is valueless.
should not be entrusted with a rif
all. It is dangerous".
Moreover,there appeared to be n
contradiction in the police evid,
which at times conflicted with
the circumstances. Some of
these points were raised by
Theodore Guerra, Counsel for
Mrs. Walker, but they were
give no cognisance in the Coro-
ner's summary. Murray himself
was very shaky under cross-
examination, and protected
from incriminating himself.
Said the Coroner: "Mrs.
Walker said she went up to the
body first, and remained there
sometime, so blood ought to
have accumulated on the spot
five feet from the door. If the
body was moved or dragged
one would expect to see a trail
of bloodFrom the old position





--- K
Syl Lowhar

to the new position where it
was moved.
"There was none, and that
puts the lie to Mrs. Walker's
evidence on that point. The
real evidence the flowing of
the blood shows beyond any
doubt that Lt. Walker was
shot 12 ft. 6 ins. from the door
of the charge room. This is
the crux of the matter the
master key of the whole situa-
tion, for it opens the door to
the truth of the matter and
exposes the unworthiness of
Mrs. Walker's evidence".



Now it seems perfectly
reasonable to expect Mrs.
Walker to rush instinctively to
the fallen body of her husband,
no matter what quarrels they
might have had earlier.
It is certainly more natural
for her to behave in this way
than to expect a terrified Mur-
ray to run quickly to the body,
pick up the pistol and put it in
his pocket. "Mind you," ob-
served the Coroner, Asst.
Supt. Murray had left the pistol
on the ground near to the body
it would be stronger evidence
on his behalf".

So he too is awar
action was a strange
he has no doubts. W
certain about is tha
ceased had a felonio
To him Murray acted
reasonably and res
not delegating anyth
junior officers".
Hear the Coron
"Mrs. Walker insisted
was the first to reach
All the other witne
that Asst. Supt. Mu
up first. Mrs. Walker
she went up to the
bawled out, "Murray

you shoot him? Why did you
kill him? Why didn't you shoot
him in the leg?"
How did she know Asst.
Supt. Murray shot her husband?
Actually, no one knew it was
Asst. Supt. Murray who fired
the shot, unless, of course,
Asst. Supt. Murray really went
up to the body first with his
rifle, and when Mrs. Walker
ran after and saw him she
presumed it was Asst. Supt.
Murray who shot, and then
used the words, "Murray, why
did you shoot him ..."
If this is the type of logic
that is going to prevail in our
Courts, "So help us God!"
Mrs. Walker is the sole witness,
an eye witness reporting homi-
cide to the Coroner. It is her
word against that of seven
policemen who, it can be pre-
sumed, will tell the same story.
Yet he accepts the evidence
MURRAY of the police without question.
It was his duty to balance the
probabilities. Evidently there is
e that the another probability which the
one, yet Coroner has failed to consider,
that he is and it is this: precisely be-
ut the de- cause both Mrs Walker and
us intent. Murray were running towards
'honestly, the body of the deceased it was
iponsibly, easy for her to identify him
ing to his with the rifle. She said she saw
er again: him moving up and down in the
That she doorway, and he admitted that
the body. he came through that door.
sses said Now let us consider a major
sses said conflict in the evidence of Cpl.
said when Bastien and Asst. Supt. Murray
body she whichthe Coroner ignored com-
, why did Continued on Page 2

15 Cents

Grounding in POS, September 8

e -~'f~n~V-ZB"-BCeffBBj~L~

The comin 60 days

La g li alsfr oe iciln






"POLITICAL commitment is a profoundly moral even
religious issue".
Tapia Secretary, Lloyd Best, put this thought to our Council
of Representatives when that governing body of National Tapia met
at The House on Monday August 13.
Responding to an appeal by Community Relations Secretary
Laughlin for a rededication to Tapia's hardwuk strategy of political
mobilization, the Tapia Secretary confessed that he had been making
his own statement about commitment for something like 15 years
and that there was not too much that he wanted to add.
"All I can say is that we must take up our beds and walk.
We must look inside ourselves and by our own efforts, simply lift
ourselves out of the morass".
Ivan Laughlin had emphasised that the country is in the
middle of a revolutionary situation and Lloyd Taylor had pointed
out that both Tapia and the country were inhibited by the ways of
our old political culture.
In our attempt to make a breakaway, added Lloyd Best
"there was bound to be uncertainty and doubt about the uncon.
ventional response of Tapia".
"There are discerning people in the country who regard
Tapia as our only valid organisation. We are not simply dashing
together another conventional
election party with a manifesto,
a symbol, some now-for-now
dedicated citizens and a few
declarations in a Saturday
morning press conference.
"If we were, everybody
would readily understand our
method because it has been
tried and tested many many
times before.
"Tapia's strategy seeks to
breakfrom this coloidal poiiti-
cal culture, and chart new chan- :"
nels of advance. We can only .
learn the way as we proceed .-
with the actual doing. It was a Community Relations Sec. Laughlin
matter of organic progress not
a question of one big apocalyp- '
tic leap.


"Tapia people therefore have
to have faith, faith being the
substance of things hoped for".
Faith was a spiritual matter, a
private connection made by
each individual with himself.
Perhaps we could better achieve
that connection if we were clear
and confident about the intel-
lectual foundations of the poli-
tical method espoused by Tapia.
The intellectual issue was
an old one, continued the Tapia
Secretary. It was usually dis-
cussed in terms of the merit of
organization as against the merit
of spontaneous political move-
"Since 1968, we have seen
the dangers of conventional
organisation in the comedy of
the conventional electoral part-
ies from UNIP to the DAC. We
have also witnessed the tragedy
of unbridled and undisciplined
spontaneity in our 1970 Move-
In contrast, Tapia has to
adopt a dialectical approach.
We have to design creative and
flexible organization which, at
the right historical moment,
would permit disciplined spon-
taneity to blossom".
Lloyd Best went on to dis-
cuss the pressure being placed
on Tapia to form a conven-
tional party which he was sure
would amount to a serious
error. His own response was to
draw attention to the historical
He was persuaded that in a
revolutionary situation, the or-

Administrative Secretary, A Harris

Treasurer, Baldwin Mootoo

ganisation would come, and he
quoted CLR James, "as Lil-
burne's Leveller Party came, as
the sections of the popular so-
cieties of Paris 1793, as the
Commune of 1905, with not a
single soul having any concrete
ideas about them until they
appeared in their power and
their glory".
"One of these mornings a
bugle is going to call," con-
cluded our Secretary, "and the
question I wish to pose to every
Tapia person, is whether that
dawn will find you ready?"

From Page 1
pletely but which is really the crux of the matter. It is great wonder that no one, not the Deputy
Solicitor-General who has claimed to be seeking the interest of justice, not even Wills and Guerra,,
counsel for Mrs. Walker, made capital of it.
Cpl. Randolph Bastien of the Carenage Police Station is the witness who supports Mrs.
Walker's contention, but no mention of his evidence was made by the Coroner in arriving at his verdict.
According to the report on page 9 of the Trinidad Guardian of July 31: Cpl. Bastien said: T.G. P9.
Although the Coroner has said that he believed all the witnesses save and except Mrs. Walker it is
clear that he cannot believe both Cpl. Bastien and Asst. Supt. Murray. Murray said: P 17 T.G. 3/8/73.
Now, is it reasonable to believe that a wife, after seeing her husband shot in that manner, would
allow about 25 to 30 minutes to pass before going to the dead body almost the length of time it took
the photographers to reach
Such indifference would
contradict not only all natural
instinct, but the view of Bastien,
and of the Coroner himself who
accepts that Mrs. Walker ran
and saw Murray going to the
But what is also interesting
in Bastien's evidence is his im-
pression of the distance from
the door where Lt. Walker was
shot. It tallies with Mrs. Walker's



"When about 16 to 18
feet from the post he saw the
man (Walker) go through a
motion ... The man continued
for a few more steps". The
step of an infuriated man of
Walker's stature is about 3 feet
which means that Walker came
closer to the post by about 9
to 12 feet.
Mrs. Walker's estimate is
5 feet.
At no time did Bastien see
Walker draw his pistol. How
then can the Coroner be so sure
that Mrs. Walker could not
have seen lihether her husband
had Ids pistol in lus hand?
So the Coroner's master ke.
is not as ttustworth. as he
trunks. Heshould hae examined
thl 1...._- ':F h tl i' rr... I r
What- wa-ithere-ito-prevenr*t-h-
[.:',,' u.. [I,. i ii; .ti Ire i
blo,_,d-tains during the hour
before Dr. Goliath came?
\\e hate it from Guerra that
no one knows better than the
police how to manufacture
evidence to suit their purpose .
And he should know. He has
been one of them.
The Coroner should have
tested his key against the find-
ings of a chemist. Traces of
blood often escape the naked
eye. Expert testimony must be
given by experts in the field.
Deepan,our pathologist in exile,
has already demonstrated to us
how skilfully the police can
cover their hounding tracks.


When Fitzroy Dasent was
ordered to stand trial for the
murder of Kenneth Cadogan,
all that was certain was that
death resulted from police bru-
talisation in which the accused
was implicated. In those days
it was an outrage whenever a
citizen died at the hands of the
police. Today it is common
Starting with the accidental
shooting of a woman by In-
spector Peters in Curepe, the
police have made corpses of
Basil Davis in the centre of
Port of Spain, Santa Claus in
Belmont Dezvignes in Fyzabad,
Cowie in Tobago. Alan Caton
alias Mc Feeble in St. Anns,
Beddoe and others in Trou
Macaque, Laventille, de Masia
in Lopinot, and recently in the
South a seaman called Vincy;
During the State of Emer-
gency in '70 people were shot
innocently. A man who was
riding to work early one morn-
ing, was shot dead while at-

Audley Walker Dr. -cu i itr C- ,

the p,..kit.
Thus Chicja ,:,-tI pe gnii., ti
isn or, the part ofi tle Phice
lias Jaused the Crornr'n r in-
quest to be modified so as to
prevent the police from having
to face the judge and jury.
The speed with which the
Walker inquest was held is a
clear indication that the law
here is a great respector of per-
sons. One policeman told me
that if Walker had been shot
by an ordinary constable his
goose would have been cooked.
Had the dead man not been an
officer of rank in the army, a
colleague of Brigadier Serrette,
and probably a friend of the
Commissioner of Police and
other important persons, had
there not been the fear that the
incident would trigger off ten-
sion between the Army and the
police, the "law's delay" would
have been as depressing as it
has been to the relatives of
Vincy, Santa Claus, and so
many others.


There was a time in Eng-
land when the jury was made
up of the people who actually
witnessed the crime. The mo-
dernjury is made up differently.
It would be contempt of
court for anyone to try to bias
their minds one way or the
other. They are supposed to be:
impartial judges of the facts. In
an inquest which is a pre-
liminary hearing, the Coroner
sits in the place of the old jury
of presentment. Ideally he
should be a citizen of probity
and standing in the community.
There should be legal counsel
to instruct him on matters of


tii ,i l.; ': t l ;., ; '. 11I 1. l'. ;r-,_l l lt'O:
tlu i h lilut h u .reajinegl the
P,:,l hal e '.e l.c. n ci minitting
telonious acts against the rest
of the population. The duty of
the Coroner is to ascertain
whether there is prima facie
sufficient evidence to warrant
a trial in the High Court.


If so, a warrant is to be
issued for the arrest of the
person charged. The duty of
the Coroner is not to try the
case. To do so wouldbeto oust
the jurisdiction of the High
Court where the judge is pre-
sumed to know the law.
That is why in the Walker
inquest the charge of man-
slaughter was not considered
at all. Both the Deputy Solici-
tor General and Mrs. Walker
kept insisting that if Mrs. Wal-
ker's evidence is given credit,
then the Coroner must issue a
warrant for murder.
It was patently out of order
for the Deputy Solicitor Gener-
al to have assumed the role of
an impartial referee, instruct-
ing the Coroner on matters of
law. That is an invidious posi-
tion for him to be in.
That is why independent
judges are necessary. The De-
puty Solicitor General could
not help apologising to the
Coroner on behalf of the police
Association of which Murray is
a member because he is con-
stitutionally the legal advisor
to the police. What is real
exposed is the ambivalent role
of the Solicitor-General as de-
fender and prosecutor of the



A DOZEN half-naked
wretches climbed to the
roof of the Royal Jail last
week and held a press con-
The luckless beggars on
the roof threw down for
the world to see the evi-
dence of their dehumaniza-
tion. It looked to us like
200 tins cups, night soil
utensils and some buttered
A lucky beggar in the
street below collected the
manna and made off to
feast his friends. Images.
Two days later a headline
gave me a start: "Kiwanis feed
city beggars".


The incident last week once

I suppose, mechanically grind-
ing out the analysis.
For I too have learnt well:
I have had my finger in the
wound these last four years.
And I know it's stained. Sure,
I've cast my vote.
I could start with George
Weekes (Express, July 4,
1969): "The conditions (in the
Poorhouse) are such that no
reasonable human being could
see these unfortunate people
without asking how in a
'civilised', 'Christian and
'democratic' country, it is pos-
sible that human beings in a
Government institution can be
so dehumanised by neglect".
The answer, said George,
"will not be found'blowing in
the wind', but in THE SYS-
Yes, I've cast my vote.
Or I could recall Slim An-
dalcio (on campus, 1971): "As
long as you're able to adjust to
the existence of Shanty Town
and St Clair then you're


Months before, late 1970,
students had rallied in rare
numbers to hear Dave Darbeau
and Geddes Granger among
others. On display was the
already legendary, all-purpose
tin cup.
March4, 1970. The shrunk-
en figure of a Woodford Square
philosopher I had listened to
for years met me at the door
when he came to give me the
story of conditions in Carrera.
He'd just come out. But it
was a bad time: I was on my
way to cover the Shanty Town
march. Like other just-come-
outs, he'd sworn to blow the

scandal wide open. But that was
the wrong time, and he was the
wrong spokesman. After a few
letters to the editor, he dropped
the issue.
I never forget it: the last
column written by the last
editor of TAPIA was his "Re-
flections From a Secluded
Place" Nelson Island.


But that ochre-washed
block in Port of Spain must be
a ship adrift in the doldrums of
changelessness, where 12 des-
perate men skipped breakfast
one morning last week and
clambered to the topmasts to
hoist an SOS.
And who knows what was
going on below deck mean-
while? Before the warders se-
cured the holds and came up to
retrieve the tra&uts?
Who dc,.c-n 't know" It': not
;l 1 o7n- nwhin'-tli 'lnpeetfi -
of Prisons could in response to
detainees' complaints confi-
dently assert:
"1 can conscientiously say
that I can find no ground what-
ever for any complaint. I consi-
der that Government has been
most magnanimous in the treat-
ment of not only the detainees
simpliciter but also those of
them who are charged with
serious crimes".
The Inspector called "trivial,
almost childish" the complaints
by detainees that jail bread is
tough and results in intestinal
But, "I ate piece and found
it unpalatable and unfit for
human consumption," the beg-
gar pronounced last week.


The Inspector of Prisons in
1970, however, got the support
of an Official Visitor, Justice
H. A. Fraser who, after his own
inspection in May that year,
reported that "the whole at-
mosphere bespoke sound dis-
ciplinary procedures and staff
efficiency All the prisoners
appeared to be properly at-
tended to and well treated. This
was so in the case of ordinary
prisoners and persons detained".
The Rasta-plaited men who
paraded their defiance on the
roof last week were saying
something different, different
from the judges who affirm that
everything is all right, different
from the magistrates who plead
inability to do anything about
the complaints of prisoners,
different from the warders
who regard disquiet in the jails
as further inconvenience in the
"work environment".
What made those prisoners

dare to shout from the rooftops
the story of the chambers be-
low? What made men already
judged to have run afoul of the
law, further disregard law and
order in the prison and try to
appeal direct to the public?
In the last few years, since
wehave seen university students
write their finals behind bars.
the jailbird has become a much
less rare species. Journalists,

Column 1

Lennox Grant

Voices from inside

the jailbird cage

soldiers, politicians, trade
unionists are among those who
now wear that feather in their

And the expedient of dra-
matic protest short of the
self-immolatroy leap from a
prison roof has been legi-
timated by demonstrators in a
Cathedral, by schoolchildren in
the streets, by housewifes in-
vadinga County Council office.


I used to watch Shah,
Lassalle and the soldiers during
the court martial. Their stance
of exultant defiance while in
the jaws of the lion used some-
how to suggest militancy feed-
ing upon itself.
I could not see the support
for their issue being sustained
in the country throughout the
long months before Danjuma.
Yes, ,we had marched and
trumpeted "Free Our Soldiers"
outside the jail but the
walls didn't fall down.

Prison officers now see




their own position threatened
by the pressure for reform,
and they have jumped off the
fence. Their clamorous lobby
pushes a hard-line on the prison
administration. "Discipline"
must come before reform.

Well, we saw their baton
charge on the rooftop. And
now they no longer compamin
about the presence of armed
police in the jail.
Their Cuban counterparts,
according to a Prensa Latina
report in TAPIA some time
ago, have been stressing work
and training for all prisoners -
common or counter-revolu-
tionary. But ii; Trinidad, the
emphasis is on the brutal ap-
plication of law and order be-
fore Al else.
The SOS has come through
loud and clear. Members of the
Prison Reform Commission
were on hand to hear the
prisoners talk to them without
the mediation of law-and-order
wardens or mail censorship.
And we all have heard and
seen the demonstration by those
tormented souls on ice.

- --"---~- I



The East Indian House cont'd

Spirit of the East Indian survives

in the

THE development of the
East Indian house in Trini-
dad indicates a gradual
progression towards the
increasing use of western
stylistic values.
The development from
the ajoupa has been mainly
concentrated on improve-
ments to the materials
used for building in order
to satisfy the changing
living standards, require-
ments and status.
However, throughout the
whole development there has
always been and still remains a
certain "Indian quality" more
obvious in their use of material.
In Trinidad we can easily iden-
tify an Indian house, even in
cases where an Indian has
bought a French creole house.


The Indian will always dis-
play his identity in the form of
colour, use of material, deco-
ration, dress or some other
manner. This display of iden-
tity is not always a conscious
one but more one of an innate
expression of identity while
being subjected to the myriad
cultural expressions now pre-
sent in Trinidad.
It has now become almost
impossible to determine what is
actually "Indian" when refer-
ring to the Indian in Trinidad,
for he has gone through such
transformations int he Carib-
bean that he is definitively and
proudly a West Indian.
For over a century the East
Indian immigrant has constant-
ly had to reappraise his culture
allegiance so that today in Tri-
nidad, where so many nations
have been striving for survival.
the Indian is completely at.


For al l that the East Indian
house stands apart from houses
of those of other ethnic back-
grounds. This suggests that the
East Indian still retains a dis-
tinct identity.
This trait towards the East
Indian identity in the form of
stylistic development may be
traced as far back as the ajoupa.
After the East Indian had com-
pleted his period of indenture
and had moved out of the bar-
racks, he was faced with the
problems of basic shelter.
The word "ajoupa" is a
word of Carib origin which was
adopted by the East Indians
from the French-Creole patois.
The ajoupa hut can be traced to
those inhabited by the Amer-
indians, but the ajoupa was at
a primitive stage at that time.
The Amerindian ajoupa was
oval in shape with little evi-
dence of the use of the window.
Instead a hole in the centre of
the thatched roof acted as a
chimney and provided a certain
amount of ventilation. ,
The construction" tech-
niques are very similar to those


basic mud walls and thatched
roof. Often some 15-20 Caribs
occupied an ajoupa so that
there were no interior parti-


There is no doubt that the
East Indian was influenced by
the local use of theajoupa
which he consequently adopted
because it was within his means
at that time. However, the use
of mud walls and thatched
roof construction is familiar to
the Indian and can be traced
as far back as pre-Buddhist
One commentator goes as
far as to suggest that the mud
huts of hte period 1300-500
B.C must have been tery simi-
la to the simple village huts
made today in many parts of
India. Even the sophisticated
houses of the pre-Buddhist
period were made of mud
bricks with straw or leaf roof


Modern huts are still built
of mud and thae eein India
and closely resemble those of
the ajoupa. hut At any rate he
Indian in Tr nhdad did have this
traditional krowI dge of the
pemud hut. And climatic, eo uo-
bric.seolo gicaand vogeaf onal

to thosein pa.rs in India. Itis
therefore not unreasonable to
suggest that the East Indian
immigranint applied his tradi-
tional knowledge of building
techniques, similar perhaps to
those of the Amerindian, to the
problem of shelter which he
faced in Trinidad after the
period of indenture was com-
The mud wall and thatch
roof technique is not reserved
only to the Amerindian and
Indian for it is an almost uni-
versal answer to cheap shelter
in the wet tropical regions
around the equator.
Thus the ajoupa is jtist as
much Indian to the East Indian
immigrant as it was Amerindian
to the Carib settler. The Indian
ajoupa was also a great deal
more refined in design than the
ajoupa used by Caribs with the
use of windows, interior parti-
tions for privacy, weathering
and durability properties. The
use of the windows and bal-
cony particularly illustrate a
much closer similarity to mo-
dern huts in India.
For the last century the
.ajoupa hasbeenas.sociated with
the-East Indian.immigrants and

Chorros of Couva... multi-coloured signs

to most Trinidadians it is today
considered Indian. Unfortunately
ly today the ajoupa is nearing
extinction; at least in -its ori-
ginal form of mud walls and
thatched roof.
The East Indian in Trinidad
today enjoys a relatively higher
standard of living earned by his
own efforts. Today the ajoupa
is associated with poverty.
The few Indians who oc-
cupy ajoupas today no longer
consider it a suitable house and
wish to live in a "nice concrete
house" with all the latest elec-
trical appliances.
The modern Indian homes
throughout Trinidad exhibit a
certain contact with India in
their similarity of design. The
cinema, education and travel,
provide a certain amount of
contact with the contemporary
values of Mother India.Cinema
is perhaps the strongest medium
in providing the local East
Indians with the influence
which is apparent in the sty-
listic similarities between the
houses of the Indians in India
and those in Trinidad;


Modern houses have much
the same use of material, struc-
ture and provide for much the
same social requirements as
houses of a similar climatic
condition in India. This influ-
ence from India may explain
the why, the East Indian, in
manycases, maybe "creolised".
he has always retained a certain
amount of his Indian identity
apparent in the stylistic use of
materials and design.
With the development of
living standards the East Indian
dress adopted various changes.
Under poor living conditions
the East Indian is more liable
to wear his traditional clothing,
or similar make-do versions.
This is particularly true for
the time when the East Indian
had not yet been subjected to
a very long period of Western

In many cases the poor
East Indian wife wore colour-
ful clothes which contrasted
the rather simple white colour
of the ajoupa. Caste, religious
and other traditional symbols
were often painted on the
forehead or embroidered in the
Jewellery was always worn
and, outside the ajoupa, formed
a visual expression of material
Indians never used banks
until the mid 20th century in
Trinidad so that they used
jewellery as a method of in-
vestment and savings and con-
sequently wore them wherever
they went.


The bandal, a brass, silver or
.gold loop worn on the forearm
is the most common piece of
jewellery and has been adopted
by most other races in Trinidad
today for decoration. Often
many bandals were hinged to-
gether so that they could not
be removed at case when
Today East Indians have
become accustomed to the
banking system and therefore
no longer require the function
of bandals as a means of invest-
ment. Consequently East In-
dians wear far less jewellery
today and only when required
for social functions or just for
the sake of decorations.
In the past the East Indian
would replace any imperfect
teeth with gold substitutes as
another means of investment
and decoration. Today this
practise, too, has been largely
outmoded by the use of banks.
The goldsmiths that were
obviously more abundant in
the past have now gone into
jewellery business on the inter-
racial market (i.e. contemporary
jewellery) while others are de-
veloping their skills in the
wrought iron industry.
It is therefore not sur-

prising to see that the use of
wrought iron as a building
material has increased among
the East Indian community in
Colour has today become
a very important element of
expression for the East Indians.
In the past religious and social
symbols were expressed in the
traditionally colourful forms of
dress, but today since the every-
day dress has been reduced to
black and white, the colour of
various building elements has
undergone drastic changes from
the days of the ajoupa.
Today the typical Indian
house is composed of many
colours; each brick of a wall
may be a different colour, floor
and wall materials being of a
complicated and colourful


Colour to the East Indians
often takes on religious and
social connotations (red dot on
the forehead representing caste).
One can only assume that it is
desirable to have as colourful
a house as possible to counter-
act the outmoded expression
of wealth by means ofjewellery.
If a poor Indian cannot
afford for instance a red velvet
curtain (a current vogue
amongst the East Indians) then
a red plastic one will be an
adequate substitute. If one is
really ostentatious then one
has red windows.
Colour is also predominant
in Indian sign making, advertis-
ing and generally throughout
the visual media in Trinidad,
which adds to the already
mixed cultural expressions in
the Trinidad society.
For instance a sign to ad-
vertise food will not only in-
clude colourful and voluptuous
writing but also a drawing of
an ice-cream.
The curious anomaly of
the colourful dressed traditional
East Indian living in a simple
white house has now been
transformed into a black and
white-dressed Indian living in
colourful surroundings. This
can explain most of the de-
velopments through which the
East Indian community has
undergone change over the last
The East Indian now ex-
presses himself with western
materials, and is often sub-
consciously influenced' by
Western values, yet he retains
the innate tendency to ex-
press himself in an Indian



Modern Bengali cottage

;UNDAY AUGUST 19, 1973

To start:10,000 houses a year

THE corrupt PNM Go-
vernment seems to be quite
happy with its achieve-
ments in the housing field.
The Perspectives for the
New Society which they pub-
lished in 1970 boasts about
13,433 housing units built be-
tween 1956 and 1969 for an
expenditure of $68.7m
But in 1969 only 1,157
housing units were constructed
by State initiative, only about
2,000 by private enterprise.
According to the Third Five
Year Plan, 6,000 units are
required a year just to keep up
with the birth rate and new
family formations; 10,000 if
we are to undertake slum clear-
ance and to replace the obso-
lete units.
In 1969, the housing defi-

Basic shape ,non architecture, but true style
cit was estimated at just over must have pushed the figure up
50,000 units, half in the vici- to anything like 70,000 units
nity of Port of Spain. Since in 1973.
then, our failure to keep up Between now and 1983, in
with the minimum requirements which year the Government -

if it lasts hopes to achieve
full employment and bring the
country out of the wood, if the
country survives the crossing,
we are going to need anything
like 15,000 houses a year..
Tapia proposes that we
must begin the discussion with
a sketch of what it would mean
to build houses on this scale.
Suppose we took the modest
target ofl0,000housing units
per year, two-thirds of the
number needed.

What would 10,000 units
mean for employment and
national income; for mortgage
finance? for the building
and furnishing trades? for the
.public utility services such as

transport, water and sewerage;
telephone, electricity and
household gas? for town plan-
ning and local government? for
education, health and sport?


In a meaningful discussion
of housing these are the issues
for which we need a scenario.
As usual the Third Five Year
Plan contains the elements of a
serious discussion. But the op-
pressed state of the media -
especially radio and television
- from which all critical and
informed opinion is system-
atically closed off, has pre-
vented any development of
helpful perspectives on housing
as on so many other issues.


Independence and bust?

Dennis Pantin

THE PEOPLE of Grenada
seem to be heading for
Independence on empty
stomachs. At least these
are the signs while Premier
Eric Gairy is holding "con-
stitutional" talks in
While hinot hanners in

&ree-n wicld gold p-rOlin-n
"Grenada Independence
1974," the economic si-
tuation reads differently.
Most of the secondary
school teachers have not been
paid for the last one to three
months. The assisted schools
have been forced to take loans
from the banks to pay staff.
The outlook for the com-
ing school year (pupils are now
on vacation) indicates that the
secondary schools will be closed.
It seems likely that the Gairy
government will pay the teach-
ers' salaries, but only after it
has weeded out "trouble-
makers" meaning teachers
and students who were in-
volved in anti-government de-


There aee other indications,
however, that the country is
hard pressed for funds. An
American, Bernard Wendt, has
brought court action against
the Grenada National Bank for
the recovery of some $200,000
(EC) allegedly deposited be-
tween 1971 and 1972.
Wendt claims that he was
unable to get the money nine
months after when he presented
a withdrawal notice to the bank
of which the Grenada govern-
ment is one of the shareholders.
Other reports are that the
government has been laying
off agricultural workers in
several districts.
As another penny-pinching,
or intimidatory, device, the
government has closed the
GBSS Hostel in St. Georges
used by students from outlying
areas and the offshore islands.
It is very difficult to assess
the effect on employment since
most Grenadians engage in

some subsistence production
of garden crops.
However, the prolonged
drought affecting the region
has taken its toll on crop pro-
duction in Grenada and the
outlying islands where the
drought has been so severe that
the livestock has been dying off
because of lack of grass.
The island's main agricul-
tural exports cocoa, bananas

periencing fluctuating luoiuncs
in the last two to three years.

It is now a yearly ritual for
the Finance Minister George
Hosten to record in his budget
the ups and downs of these
crops. As in other Caribbean
countries, the import bill con-
tinues to skyrocket.
Tourism, another major
dollar spinner, has also been
bringing less financial returns
than expected.
According to opposition
sources, the government has

squandered millions of dollars
on lavish expositions, overseas
visits and state functions. In
addition to outright corruption,
with an annual budget of
$36.5 (1972) that wouldn't
leave much for normal govern-
ment commitments.
The combination of unfa-
vourable returns for the main
export crops and tourism, rising
prices for imports and squan-
S-f -t-n.- tnw--ea- to---leave
Grenada in a precarious econo-
mic position.
The Gairy Government is
nonetheless pushing ahead with
Independence plans.
A standing joke in political
circles (which is sometimes
taken seriously by ordinary
Grenadians ) is anelection pro-
mise by "Uncle" Gairy to bring
down a money-making ma-
Opposition sources also
charge that Gairy may be mak-
ing a deal with Mafia circles to
grant them one of the Grena-
dines for casino and othe ac-
tivities in exchange for some

Britain is also expected to
provide some initial grant to
tide over the immediate post-
Independence period. After
this it seems that it will be

Grenadians to ketch.
For most people it has al-
ways been a cry of "Independ-
or bust". That cry may well
change to "Independence and






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O God, what am I
To walk without scars
Among all these, my
Thoughts still on the moon?
Wayne Brown.
IT IS becoming more and more obvious to me that
the writing of poetry could soon become an act of
self indulgence and a journey up a literary dead-end.
Given the urgent need to communicate to a wide and
as varied an audience as possible, the writer today is
well advised to move into the fields of playwriting
and film production. Yet, many of us continue to
write poetry.
The poet in the West Indies, if he wants to make a
serious impact on his society, must pay some attention to the
oral tradition, such as it exists in the West Indies. This can be
done wihtout lowering literary standards, as Edward Brath-
waite has demonstrated.
The poet here will have to adapt foreign models to
conditions at home. The result should be a poetry which can
stand up to close analytical scrutiny on the page and at the
same time entertain and instruct, that is, clarify the vision of
the willing listener from any walk of life.
The competent West Indian poet must produce poetry
in any given collection, thirty five percent of which can be
performed. This could not be that difficult for the talented
poet who has something to say, especially if he writes with his
ears tuned to the language of the streets, the rhythms of skin
and steel drums, chants, work-songs, litanies and calypsoes.
Such poetry must maintain its integrity on the page,
for so often the Afro-American poet moving in this direction
produces poetry which remains too insipid and limp on the
page. We must achieve the kind of poetry of which I am
speaking without sacrificing standards. This is why the ex-
posure of Dobru as an important West Indian poet, long be-
fore his written poetry can match the vigour of his perform-
ances, is destructive.


The conscious blend of scribal and oral styles and
impulses in West Indian poetry will inevitably force the poet
away from the quiet contemplation of his own navel, into
areas of group observation and involvement. Many myths and
native points of reference will also find themselves into the
poetry and would broaden and strengthen the European
inherited ones.
Indigenous poetry will have have to go beyond the
studied naming and exploration of the landscape. The people
in the landscape, their vitality, their speech patterns, their
narrative techniques, their way of life, must be explored and
harnessed for our poetry. We can't remain on the coast, there
is the whole island to baptize.
But Wayne Brown is still on the coast. His first collec-
tion of poems which are dedicated to Derek Walcott, justify
the dedication. Walcott's shadow is constantly hovering over
the pages, particularly the Walcott of The Castaway and The
It is a good thing to see a young poet consciously
learning_ craftsmanship from a local master of the calibre of
Walcott, for it means we are witnessing the evolution of our
literary tradition. But Brown has unfortunately also culled the
mannerisms and vocabulary of Walcott, Listen to the following
Now she scythes as the bowsprit scythes,
black broken branch to which she's been
lashed by these fire-haired sailors between
their long-limbed Miss Americas
and the oce. n's miling.
"Song for a Ship's Figurehead" (p. 18)
From Derek Walcott one should copy his skill at
compression, and multiple meanings,rather than his poetic
gestures which are related to how he feels he should relate to
the people. His gestures are usually impressive because of the
skilful bridling of his rage.
Wayne Brown's collection also shows a familiarity with
such English poets as Ted Hughes and Thom Gunn. These
English poets tend to write about animals, birds and insects
while making a quiet and unobtrusive point about world
politics, history or human nature. This brings us to one of the
weaknesses of Brown's collection; political comment is so
deftly hidden that it can easily go by unnoticed.
Too many of the poems make Brown, who is a
genuine poet, sound like a literary technician doing running re-
pairs on the moods, tones and gestures of Walcott, Ted Hughes
and Thom Gunn. One must be so careful that in purifying
one's origins, thus distilling both the pain and the vitality,
leaving one just a charming but useless gesture.
Derek Walcott once said in the Trinidad Guardian, in
an article entitled "Young Trinidadian poets", which was a re-
view of voices Vol. 1. No 6, "The crammed, often confused
shorthand of Wayne Vincent Brown will decode themselves
eventually". This has happened but for two poems, "Vam-

pire" (p. 24) and "Remu" (p. 21). In the case of "Remu", I
still don't understand why the line "Ah Mittlhozer!" was
Too often in the collection we get hints from the poet
implying that he is thinking of trading in his talent. Although
the poet may not be identifying with the protagonist, I find
the preoccupation in one so young very frightening. Take his
"Boulder" (p 26), for example.
- and one poet, come to try
The dog's exhausted. Its head
Snarled in a kerosene tin,
It threads the dark skyline for miles
Then stops. Flames break from its black
Skull, as from a Moses rock,
In one towering column.
This is our burning cenotaph.
("Trip". p. 23)
Or take his "Rilke" (p. 33).
His anthropomorphic graffiti,.
felt the star in his reared wrist wink
out, as the ocean-going moon
Drifts off and leaves its fists of waves
unclenches, inerts
at the foot of some featureless coastline.
(My emphasis)
Wayne Brown's problem is that he wants to write
poetry, but at the same time he wants to keep away from
people, that is, from the source of inspiration. The result is
that, left alone, he dan't say much or he can't say it with the
vigour that he would like, for he has put his soul of ice. As he
declares -:
The poems, he knew now, were lies,
Bright, hot-pawed, skittery cats
Cuffing, triumphant, out of old corners
Dead roaches into the light.
The last lines in "Remu" states his position quitqi clearly.
The syntax of solitude is thickening
my tongue.
So long as Wayne Brown holds himself clear of the
chaos of politics, social change and all the related tensions, his
poetry will not reflect his true talent. In the collection "the
city's avalanche of words" are always far away In fact a lot of
the poetry appears to be written by a man who is looking at
events from behind glass. He sees the gestures but he can't
hear the sounds.
I think that Brown seriously breaks new ground for us
in his use of the seascape. Those of his poems centred around
the sea are usually careful examinations of various states of
mind; an attempt to plumb the depths of his and our thoughts,
and his and our consciousness .
Connected with this is his
examination of near amnesia, insomnia, dreams and loss of
consciousness, (one poem actually being called "Passing Out").
Examination of depths is always played against exami-
nation of surfaces. The connecting symbol and initiator of

I- --

V/ I


Wayne Brown


i You always

wanted her to


makes it easy-
i 1 1

ana an iaeal
Gift too.



I 'C- ~F---a~- I~P -I~ ~I Ir




L~LsP 1 r" e










Robin Rovalis ..there's an island world to be baptized

..there's an island world to be baptized


;1 Clico a company of
West Indians, formed for the
economic upliftment of PEOPLE.
Growing from humble beginnings to one
of the largest financial institutions indigenous to
the Caribbean. Assets for the security of our
policy holders now total over




The Growth is UP

action in the poems is the moon. The bright surfaces (usually
water reflecting light) are contrasted with mist and advancing
darkness. The sensation of being beneath water, also relates to
the silence, the stillness and the sense of nothingness in the
Yet, at the same time, his plumbing of the sea is con-
sciously ironic, since, like most of us, he knows he can't fish
up the answers. He remains lost. As he says in "Snow" (p.
42), "I suppose we're really at sea". Still, his preoccupation
with the sea as important, since it is the sea which gives the
island its definition.
A lot of readers will like the collection for the honest
way in which Wayne Brown confronts his personal world as
example in poems such as "Wide Sargasso Sea" (p 46) and
"Sing Willow" (p. 38). In "Wide Sargasso Sea",Brownrealizes
that despite his poetic insight and his withdrawal, he can't
really escape the pressures of History. He says in part,
I would write poems like mainsails drawn
up the bent masts of motor schooners
floundering in the remu's flow:
held clear of that chaos but quivering,
holding the strain below.
There are a few comments on colour as a social factor
in the collection. For example, "Red Hill" (p. 44) is a com-
ment on the newly arrived blacks in the select residential
And I am the lover between hill and sky
with one other, going away, caught
at the picture-frame of escape.
Then I break and confess
in a mixed tongue,
an alphabet worn rosary-thin
With the primitive terror that I have been
framed with the rest,
and that each
Sunset, when the cardboard galleons come,
my mongoloid brother drums
from time to time on the attic door,
wanting out
wanting in
A poem like "Cat Poem" (p. 29),relates to the kind of
Ted Hughes effort of which I spoke earlier. The poem attempts
to examine the major catastrophes since creation. It begins
We arrive sweating
from the long climb up,
loosen our neckties and lapse
into grins. Red hill-scar, red
bigger preserve
our roses bloom whitely here.
That mixture of control and calculated surprise is
maintained for most of the poem. Or again a poem like
"Noah" can contain the political point, which is not taken to
its logical conclusion.

I I 1~111

In the Beginning
The cat
Watched for a while from the edge of the world.
On the seventh day
It moved in,
Like your dead neighbout's casually.
Yet, Wayne Brown is prepared to strike the previous
generation's hackneyed pose of homelessness. It comes right
at the end of his title poem "On the Coast", a moving little
poem, spoilt by the theatrical gesture.
Finally one bird, unasked, detached itself
And battered around inside his skull.
Thankfully Noah released it, fearful,
Hoping, watching it flit and bang
Against wind, returning each time
Barren. Till one day, laden with lies,
It brought back promise of fruit, of
Resolution and change. (p. 32)
Given this pose, he does not really care enough about
our political and social future to go beyond peoms such as
"Aquarium" and "Monos". As he says in "A Sterner
And I am an orphaned islander.
on a sandspit of memory,
in a winter
of bays. I have no home. (p. 40).
We cannot afford our poets position without responsibility.
"Monos" summarizes Wayne Brown's approach and
attitude. Monos when translated from the Spanish, means
monkeys. The people are all so many monkeys to poet Brown
He attempts to plumb the depths of our consciousness only to
discover that -:
I do not care if we crash
I do not care (p. 37).
Wayne Brown shows a great sense of recoil from
people, whether they be the rural folk or the urban folk.
Thus, we don't get the voices of the street, we don't get our
myths, we don't get poems that can be performed. Another
reason for this is the fact that Brown has not decided what is
is the function of his art. He has not asked himself "whose
poet am I"? Derek Walcott constantly asks himself this
question, and the reply he gets makes hima ngry, and this
leads to further poetry, as he strives to be able
It's all
a waste of regatta time. These creatures
have their own lives.
And even if I
should sink naked into their mists
how could I think
that this migrating Ishmael's
that drowned, crushed, in some galley's hold,
and next was lifted up on a white
peopled chain of sterilized buoys
could meet these quiet monsters on those grounds
of indifference such
as only common knowledge breeds? (p. 11; my emphasis).
Continued on Page 9

19, 1973



All thru the night...

Michae I Harris

setting up

to see wha

really goin on

"Sleep my brothers and sisters
And Peace attend thee, all
through the night".

THERE IS this Dream
Curse that is going around
the world. In fact it has
been going around for a
hell of a long time.
Not many people know
about until now about this
Curse but it has been mak-
ing itself felt throughout
history; any time you read
of a civilization or society
that has declined through
corruption and evil make
no mistake about it, is the
Dream Curse at work.
For example places like
Sodom and Gomorrah or Rome
or any of those long-time
places, they didn't fall because
God got vex; it was the Dream
Curse that did it. And the Curse
still in operation up to today.
It really surprising how
little is known about the Curse
after all this time. Nobody, not
even those .who have been
studying this, thing for years,
can say with any degree of
certainty when or where it
goingto hit next.
In fact the only thing that
is known for sure about this
Dream Curse is that it only
affects people when they are


John F. Kennedy once
wrote a book called "Why
England slept". In this book
Kennedy tried to analyse the
political and psychological state
of England in the years before
the Second World War.
Why England was sleeping
not important here, what is
important is what happen to
them while they were sleeping.
The Dream Curse hit them.
While they were sleeping Hitler
and the rest of his madmen
came to power in Germany
and almost turn over the whole
In fad it took nearly six
long years of bloody war to
shake off the Curse.
And now the Dream Curse
Iit, America. A lot of the
Americans bawling over the
Wiatergate incident. They want
:o know how in Heaven's name
t could happen there.
They want to know how
:hey could elect a President
who could turn around and
:ommit so many crimes against
:he very people who elected
lim. The same man who pro-
nise them law and order turn
)ut to be the biggest thief and
)andit of all.
But in fact is their own
lamn fault. The American
peoplee were sleeping. This
)ream Curse don't respect
nobody. No matter how rich
)r powerful you might be, once

you fall asleep it going to hit
And the Americans fall
asleep a long time ago. For a
long time now the American
people have been concerned
only with themselves and each
one trying to get richer than
the other and as the country
get bigger and the problems
get harder and more compli-
cated they decide that they
couldn't be bothered.

So they were quite pre-
pared to elect a President every
four years and leave him to
run the damn business and
solve all the problems. And
whatever he ask for they give
him and whatever he tell them
they believe and the only time
they get interested is when
something happen to them per-
And so now when they
let the President get so power-
ful that he could do all this
damn dirtiness and they find
they can't do nothing aboutit
they bawling. But everybody
does bawl when the Dream
Curse hit.
And is not to say they did
not see the symptoms. The
signs were there plain as day.
The rumours was flying about

a long time about all the secret
deals and about police brutality
and how the F.B.I. was break-
ing into people's homes and
bugging people's telephones.
But each one of them
thought that it wouldn't
happen to them and is only
when the mark bust they
realise that when the Dream
Curse hit, it hitting every-
body, every bitch and they
brother. The whole set of
them was asleep and now they


But anyway I don't figure
that we in Trinidad have to
bother about the Dream Curse.
It not going to hit Trinidad.
After all we don't have any
corruption here.
We living happy and peace-
ful, nobody really scrunting.
The Government and them
looking after we interests and
they not fattening they poc-
kets like some of them other
politicians away.
We and the police is good
friends. They don't brutalise
and kill nobody, they don't
lock up people for no rhyme
or reason.
Look this place, this place

is a paradise. Everyman who
want to get up and say he
holding a meeting could do so
whenever he like, he could
march whenever he like, what
more anybody could want?
The way I figure it the
Dream Curse go have a long
wait before it hit La Trinity.
This is one place where the

people not sleeping, is only
a little doze we taking.
"So sleep my brothers and'
And peace attend thee, all
through the night;
Guardian angels, well-armed
shall protect thee
All through the night"

The good dean

I e of STAG

doesrt just happen!

The brown bottle is one of the reasons!
Tie '.lmpie Irulh abouI me brown beer botlle is that it
acia3i, c'ren ut Siurliirh from entering Ine Dottle thereby
proleclirq mte Ilavoul 01 the beer
You see. beer just ile any other perishable food item,
when exposed to sunlight will deleriorale quite quickly. And
th i, can alfeci the tasle of the beer.
On a sunny day. deteriorallon will take
_.,- r place master than on a cloudy day. And since
S.- we ve got plenty of both kinds of days wi.n
k countless variations. the tastl or flavour of
"P beer if and when exposed to sunlight will
vary as Ine weather varies Some days you'll
have a good lasting beer. other days you
won'l And that is a fact!
But witn Stag. the brown bottle helps
prevent all that In fact you've probably heard
people saying that Ihey find Stag has a good
clean taste Inat never varies from one Stag to
tne next, day in day out. Stag alter Stag.
41- And they're rignhl And it doesn't just
happen' The brown bottle is one of the
reasons why.




74 Independence Square, P.O.S.
1) 19 30 High St., San Fernando,
(Trinidad, W.I.)







c,,Ige be


Esther Le Gendre reporting from Barbados



From Page 7
...to declare
today, I am your poet, yours ....
(Homecoming: Anse La Raye," p. 51 of The Gulf).

Wayne Brown is paying the price of being an agnostic.
As he said in the Trinidad Guardian in an article entitled "On
Art, artists and the people", my "present position .. is that
of the literary agnostic who can by no means claim to have
worked out a coherent theory of art".
If we compare Brown's collection with the Jamaican,
Anthony McNeille's Reel From "The Life Movie", we imme-
diately realize that both men are equally talented, both men
are equally concerned with craft, but that McNiell is prepared
to let his poetry get closer to the pulse beat of the people, than
Wayne Brown. Dennis Scott the Jamaican poet and playwright
in his introduction to McNeill's poems, says in part,

McNeill identifies freely, and possesses
painfully, the condition of a young and
privileged West Indian. But he speaks too
for the dispossessed, the urban prisoners
of the Third World whose lives are making
a beautiful and terrible music that is at
once a lullaby for tonight and drum-beat
warning of tomorrow's violence. A great
many of these are coldly, violent poems.
(Savapou Vi p. 12)

'Hear Ted Hughes the English poet in his brief introduction
to Wayne Brown's poems-:

and vwy sem to me to be pressing beyond
even their present sophistication, moving
towards something really unusual and fine.

I hope it is not towards an unusual silence.
Surely if Brown was able to listen to the pain of the
people, his collection would have included poems of the
quality of McNeill's "Husks", "For the D Don," "Ode to
Brother Joe", and "Straight Seeking", I will quote briefly
from McNeill's "For the D Don".

May I learn the shape of that hurt
which captured you nightly into
dread city, discovering through
streets steep with the sufferer's beat;
teach me to walk through jukeboxes
& shadow that broken music
whose irradiant stop is light;

A JAMAICAN woman journalist deported from Barbados on August 8 appeared to a High
Court judge to have been "treading on people's corns".
This is what Supreme Court Justice.Dieghton Ward suggested when the attractive
28-year old freelancer appeared before him on July 27 in the final stage of a five-week
series of legal actions.
The game of legal cat and mouse began on June 30 when Miss Bailey defied Bar-
bados Immigration authorities' order that she leave the country.

For four days thereafter,
till July 4, she eluded arrest
until she was finally held at
the Ministry of Home Affairs
whileseeking a marriage cer-
tificate to marry a Barbadian.
A specially convened session
of the Bridgetown Magistrate's
court that day remanded her
in custody where she remained
isolated in a small, unlit cell
which was equipped with a
single cot and blanket but no
sanitary facilities.
Through her lawyer, Tom
Adams, Miss Bailey appealed
the order deeming he a pro-
hibited immigrant. A series of
delays and adjouinments fol-
lowed during which time Miss
Bailey was released.
On her way to hear the
appeal she was rearrested and
put on a Jamaica-bound let
on July 27.


Her departure from the
island, so anxiously sought by
unknown powers, was again
delayed by a bombscare.
This allowed her lawyers time
to file a writ of habeas cor-
SWhat followed was more
legal argument before Jusuce
Ward on the question of
whether or not the Noung

journalist snouic n o-oU' It'Iu
and whether or not the order
issued by.the authorities v.da
Eleven witnesses, includ-
ingtwoGovernment ministers,
testified. But they brought no
evidence that Miss Bade, was
a security threat.
After getting $500 ball
and undergoing a minor opera-
tion at the Queen Elizabeth
Hospital, the woman who the
judge felt was treading on
people's corns finally% got the
boot after the court ruled that
the expulsion order was valid.




Carmen Bailey

McNeill's point is that one can use the language of the streets,
without lowering standards, without degenerating into pole-
mics. It is a pity though that so many of McNeill's poems also
read like dress rehearsals for a projected suicide.
Comments by Wayne Brown on the world scene are
limited to headlines.

Five hundred Viet Cong captured.
Race riots errupt in Atlanta.
(p. 31; "Cat Poem")

The best poems in the collection, for me, are the four poems
which form "Aquarium". The poems, "The Tourists" and
"Drought" seem to be the weakest.
Wayne Brown in the Trinidad Guardian in an article
entitled "Teaching poetry in West Indian Schools" said that,

Poetry is ... not an "escape" from life, as
many people (and some of our fake practi
tioners of verse) believe, but a vehicle
for confronting life more fully and excitingly.

On the Coast confronts life, but if in the future Wayne Brown
wishes to have more to tell us he will have to confront life
more fully. Incidentally the book-jacket design for On the
Coast is done by his wife Megan, and features a flaming disc
set in an indifferent sky, hovering over restless waves.
In his next collection of poems, I would like to see
Wayne Brown shatter the glass, the story book calm, and tell
me more about the "number chaos" up his sleeves.

Youth-against-famine campaign

apace in India

THE YOUTH against famine campaign designed
to channel the energy of the youth for develop-
ment work, got off to a good start. Forty-two
camps have already completed their work in
Gujarat and 146 camps were in progress in the
states of Bihar, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Mysore,
Maharashtra, Orissa and Tamil Nadu.
About 15,000 students and 5,000 non-
student participated in these camps. Over 200
camps began in the last week of May in the states
of Andhra, Bihar, Mysore, Maharashtra, west
Bengal and Orissa.
The main emphasis has been on projects
designed to increase water supply, conserve soil
and add to durable community assets and food
production. A number of wells has been dug,
ponds have been desilted and deepened, canals
have been cut and contouring and bunding work
undertaken. Essential link roads have been con-
structed in some areas. In Kerala, the camps have
also helped to give a big push to the "one hun-
dred thousand houses scheme for harijans".
Construction of link roads has been under-
taken in some villages, where due to the lack of
communication facilities, the villagers could not
get their supplies of food or other consumer
goods or, in turn, send their produce to outside
places. A number of women's camps have also

been organised, especially in Kerala.
A girls' college in Cochin (Kerala) could
claim that the campers had completed 1,385 feet
of contour bunding and were making an approach
road by filling in a huge drain. The Nehru arts
and science college in Nileshwaram in Kerala, has
undertaken the construction of a one kilometre
long road linking the trunk road and the govern-
ment ayurvedic hospital. This is a vital necessity
to the patients and the general public of this
rural area who depended on this hospital.
Some of the outstanding achievements of
the Gujarat camps are: (1) lift irrigation at
Akhteshwar, providing water for 500 acres of
land; (2) reclamation of 200 acres of land at
Rohiyal; (3) levelling and bunding of 200 acres
of land for a project of lift irrigation at Tamach-
chadi; (4) helping in the preparation of a dam to
reclaim saline soil in Broach district; and (5)
digging of four tanks in Bulsar, Broach and Suren-
dranagar districts.
Everywhere the villagers came forward to
extend their cooperation after some initial re-
serve. The change of attitude on the part of the
non-student participants was remarkable.
The government agencies, university autho-
rities and voluntary workers cooperated enthu-
siastically to make the programme a success.
The youth against famine campaign marks
a major effort by India's education ministry to-
wards the creation of a framework for launching
youth movement. (Indian and Foreign Review)

I 1 ~ I






Caura,forgotten valley

of the Northern Range

Peyrene one of the pools of the Caura river

Jerry Pierre

IT HAS been claimed that
the Northern Range pro-
tects us from the hurricanes
which in the past have
ravaged other Caribbean
islands. The range also has
tremendous value, both
agricultural and recreation-
al. And in both respects,
the mountains could help
us break out of the strangle-
hold the political and eco-
nomic system has us in.
As Column One noted
last week, .money
make to spend on con-
sumer durables and perish-
ables because there isn't
much incentive for people
to spend their money on
anything else". Not only
do we spend all our time
spending money, but the
fact is there's little time to
spend on anything else.
Of course, transport is in a
mess, but I still feel there is
more to it than that. For there
are things which don't cost
us a lot and in which we can
fruitfully spend our time.


The highest peak in the
Northern Range is El Tucuche,
rising to 2,207 feet. Eleven
miles to the east, and dividing
the range in half, is a valley of
immense potential, forgotten in
the trend towards urbanization,
the valley of Caura.
If you have walked the
area you will probably never
forget it. For as you descend
into the valley and your eyes
feast on the natural vegetation,
the crystal clear waters of the
Caura River, you are unable to
resist the urge to sit and stare
in disbelief at the surrounding
The serenity of the valley
overwhelms you and the words
of J. H. Collins, in his book,
A Guide to Trinidad, come to
mind,"... to come to the island
on pleasure and stay any length

C. a

of time without taking a ride
up Caura valley would be a
downright sin, the luxuriant
tropical vegetation with its
giant trees, gorgeous shrubs,
fantastic creepers and dainty
ferns lining the hillsides .
"The deliciously cool and
sparkling streams now mean-
dering gently along, then rush-
ing down a miniature rapid,
tumbling over huge boulders,
and suddenly turning round
corners like a harum-scarum
schoolboy just let loose all
gratify and charm the scenes.
..."whoever can go through
one of nature's gardens, such as
this without coming out a
better man, than he entered,
must have something radically
wrong his constitution .."
The pages of the book have
long since changed colour to
brown. The valley? It remains
in some areas as a memento
to attest to what Christopher
Columbus said when landing
in Trinidad: "All these islands
are very beautiful and distin-
guished by a diversity of scen-
ery filled with a great
variety of trees of immense
height ."

Bridle paths, or what used
to be those, are still very much
in existence. A waterfall is
somewhere in the area, accord-
ing to one of the residents who
is now too old to take you to
the site. J.H. Collins also re-
ports that "... .not very far
:waV one s'cs at a wa lei-
fall with a height of 375 feet
where the pool is conducive to
a bath".
A cave which can house two
families quite comfortably is
also said to exist, though I have
not yet been able to see it.,


During the state of emer-
gency (1970) the cave was
searched as a possible hideout
of the "rebel soldiers".
Most of the land was form-
erly in the hands of estates like
El Dorado. Today most of the
surrounding area is forest re-
serve, and the Forestry De-
partment is now engaged in
some reafforestation. There are
small private holdings of some
The valley has been in the
"news" a couple of occasions,
most memorably with the Caura

I. r,. e .]]l k l I Jl plju.,ll n nr ,I
. r.. r "11 he ,?isje n ... ,,.. ,
T.lrk .- l I i : I IIn ;
Thi. i e e r.. i l- rl .h,,t1 i"
lI. n. e h, ere n. ,i. g p. I u:J
people most of whom are en-
gaged in small farming and are
employed either with the re-
afforestation project or the
Works Department who are
charged with keeping the trails
in the area clear.
The tonka bean had at one
time enjoyed some economic
imporlaince as an export crop.
The decline of this commodity
has been a direct result of
the breaking up of the estate.
Another legacy of that period
is the groves of citrus which
still play a substantial role in
the area's economy. Coffee and
plantains are also much planted,
and form a major part of the
small farmer's agriculture.
There are a few farmers
from Tunapuna and Taca-
rigua who have the equipment
and transport necessary foi cul-
tivating a large area, and they're
not doing badly from mainly
short term cash crops (toma-
toes etc.).
There is one school in the
area with one teacher for about
25 children ranging in ages
from four to twelve. The teach-
er has often been accused by
the residents of lack of punc-
tuality. The school was a form-
er police station, former estate

*IJ.: .... 1I .11 wa I tr aban-
J,.icd ', il.. p,-.I :e l ien bhC. .
,-_,_,'m p l.],Tn .'d II |..ii tlU ',,, ..u as
hauntedd "
Tl-. : arrii :e ,:ral pd.......li
vI ar. in 1-pii i ,Nd U
'.' I I, ,a f, ,1'J plhc I d in rn
be enjoyed by all depending on
your swimming aptitude.
Peyrene has a depth of 18 to
20 feet and a length of a little
over 90 feet, 20 feet wide.
The plant which was con-
structed to house the pumps
has long been deserted. The
surrounding waters have be-
come a bathing spot, and the
government has embarked on
creating a "beauty" spot. All
that has been accomplished is
that they have managed to rid
the site of its natural vegeta-
tion; planted flowers have re-
placed the bamboo.
Alonzo pool located a little
higher up at one of the man
made breakers for dam project
has a varying depth of from
three to eight feet and a little
over 15 feet in length with a
width of 12 to 14 feet.
If you plan to visit, it is
more comfortable to walk, the
road is bad. There are no
street lights, though the mark-
ings for electric lights have been
for the past two years.
You could, however, be
taken for a "guerilla" in which
case you would be in a mon-
key's pants, for up to six
weeks ago roadblocks were up.



Our printing-plant is open at The Tapia
House, 82-84 St. Vincent Street,
Tunapuna. Kindly phone orders to:






... is a classic shirt-suit, in 100% Polyester; gently
waisted and flared, with deep pockets
and a high styled collar. The slacks tailored to perfec-
tion.Shoes soft, casual, in dual tones by Tecnic.
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'-.4.I. -
L .~
~ -'--

. ^n ...^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^------^.- ^..,^ *

I__ L __ __---,I


rsSiC~i~L~i;r r !Tt~(i~Yri~ll?~-.:~_: .~

tive oforo i sn9
c6a, apot 78th Streetl o /
Ir6 h K- B,.Y.1 0O021, 0
Ph. igh-h 5 4489

THE Blackgold Co-opera- has had hard times, but with
tive of Corosal is now the help of well wishers we
clearing a piece of land on were able to have a football
which to build a netball and netball coach, and.that
court. This is a further has helped us to reach our
step in the development present stage.
Some of our fellow vil-
of the Co-operative which lagers who were saying ill re-
consists of young people marks about the Sports Club
in the Whiteland, Corosal are now thinking differently.
ilrea. The Tapia Group supply
According to Secre- us weekly with issues of Tapia
which has enabled us to raise
tary Joyce Marchan, f r f t l

whose report for TAPIA
follows, the co-operative
spirit is as high as Black-
gold hopes.
We started the Blackgold
Sports and Cultural Club with
twenty persons, mainly un-
employed school leavers, be-

TAPIA Sport writer Ruthven Baptiste and a Blackgold
member look at the netball court site.

cause there was little com-
munity spirit in our village
of Corosal. In this phase we
were consistently encouraged

by Michael Bellamy, an agri-
cultural officer, and Ivan
Laughlin of Tapia.
The club, like other groups,

iuna stor tme ciub.
The first sporting activity
of the group was a football
match against Tapia who
spent a day with us two
weeks ago, creating a day of
enjoyment for villagers in the
Whiteland Community Cen-
tre and on the football field.
The brothers and sisters

are now clearing land to make
a netball court, in the future
we hope to branch out to
table tennis.
We are happy to say that
co-operation is developing
and the club is well on the
way towards success.



Godfrey Harris
Godfrey Harris

ulric 'Buggy"-- aynes

Ruthven Baptiste

IT IS NOT surprising that
the Tunapuna-Tacarigua
Village Olympics match
ended prematurely in fis-
ticuffs at the Tacarigua
Savannah last Saturday,
August 11.
Age-old rivalry be-

tween the two eastern
communities has sharp-
ened in recent years and
relations are now marked
with mutual envy.
Tunapuna has an abun-
dance of high quality talent
which Tacarigua hasn't. But,
Tacarigua has a highly suc-
cessfulleague which Tunapuna
hasn't. So: Tunapuna, the
players; Tacarigua, the league.
The game started smooth-
ly with Tacarigua playing with
a grim determination and
Tunapuna with a quiet con-
fidence. Tension rose when
Tacarigua opened the scoring
midway in the first half, but
it subsided five minutes later
when Tunapuna equalised.
In the second half Tuna-
puna approached the game
with resolve while Tacarigua's
first half dash began to fade.
With Lyle Jeffery playing a
masterly game in the half line
and Godfrey Harris spearhead-
ing the attack, Tunapuna gra-
dually dominated.
But midway in this half,
with the score still one all,
Buggy Haynes (Tacarigua) and
Willy Bailey (Tunapuna)
clashed and it ended in an
exchange of kicks.
Spectators who were en-
croaching upon the field piece-
meal all the while, did the
ultimate, swarming on the
entire field. Sporadic fighting
broke out all over. As fast as
one was broken up, another

What was important about
this match was that the game
was well attended, the spec-
tators were ,closely identified
with the teams.
Because of community pa-
triotism, the players showed
enthusiasm and purpose that
are seldom seen in the
"official" leagues.

I am not condoning the
uncontrolled exuberance that
leads to storming of fields and
roughplay. Nevertheless, when
players leave their communi-
ties to play as merceneraries
for clubs in Port-of-Spain, they
never put into their game any
effort comparable with when
they are representing their
Veteran fans claim that a
Malvern/Colts match or an
Intercol final a few years ago
would attract a test match
crowd and that no inter com-
munity match was as hard
fought or stimulated such
interest. The veterans dismiss
the uninspiring football seen
in the league matches today
as the "young generation's"
lack of interest and faulty
temperament. What is true, to
my mind at any rate, is that
this present generation is not
affixing their loyalty to any
entity like Colts, Malvern,
QRC or St. Mary's but to
something that is more real
and immediate their com-



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How Carly became a hunter