Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00070
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: August 5, 1973
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00070

Full Text

Vol 3. No 31

SUNDAY AUGUST 5, 19,'-A ..
'n '' i7 73 .,
'tl- : 0 .73

A SINISTER air of mystery surrounds the
detention by the police of Ruth Bayley,
a 22-year old UWI student who has been in
police custody since May 9 without a charge
being laid against her.
Miss Bayley, who is being held in
some undisclosed place by the police, was
taken from her Curepe home by a party of
policemen headed by Supt. Burroughs.
As is now customary, no warrant was
produced as the police ransacked her home
in a "pre-dawn raid", making threats to kill
all "guerillas".
The police have since denied that Miss
Bayley is being detained by them. Ag. Asst.
Commissioner Toppin told a member of her
family that she had chosen to remain in
police "protection", and that she was free to
leave at anytime. And he challenged them
to get a writ of habeas corpus.
Yet, the student who took her second-year
examinations last June has not returned home save
for short visits under police escort and TAPIA wants
to know why.
According to family
sources Miss Bayley has denied
that she is free to leave the
place where she is being kept.
That might have been so in the
first two weeks, she said, but
l _.u !* ^ B ^ ^

sure because she was "not
quite collective".
Members of her family
further report her view that
her detention is a "political
act". She has not explained
this, but has indicated she was
certain that decisions about
her were taken by higher autho-
rities than the police.
But though she has said
she wants to be set free, Miss
Bayley has not taken the ini-
tiative to seek legal assistance
nor has she accepted the offer
for her family to do so on her
The position is confusing.

SSince May

9, this girl

has been

in custody,






But this much is apparent
Miss Bayley would, like
anybody else, prefer to be
That she has a right to be
set free or to be charged and
to face trial;
That some unknown

factor prevents the free exercise
of her will.
What that factor is we sus-
pect the police know more
about than anyone else. And
we call upon them to make a
statement clearing up this
bizarre episode with all its
undertones of intrigue, mystery,
and duress.

If the police have, as they
obviously do, accommodation
and facilities to keep a young
woman under their "protection"
for three months, the impli-
cations of this are alarming.
The public must understand
what all this means:
THAT anyone can appa-

rently be picked up and kept
in a half-prisoner, half-free
status for as long as someone
in authority chooses.

THAT her parents, rela-
tives, friends etc. and the public
are inadequately informed
about her whereabouts while
all kinds of rumours circulate.

No meeting,says PNM man

A PNM Village Councillor
brought the police in an
attempt to stop a meeting
between Tapia and mem-
bers of the Blackgold Co-
operative in the Whiteland
Community Centre last
But the policemen saw
nothing requiring their
intervention, and they got
for their pains an object
lesson in how police power
could be used for political
That was the sequel to an
incident which took place
shortly after midday when a
large Tapia contingent re-
grouped in the Centre from
"grounding" with the people of
Corosal and putting up posters.
Arriving at the Centre for
lunch and the entertainments
scheduled* by Bla,;kgold, Tapia

members met a middle-aged
man at the door shouting that
no political meeting could take
place in that building.
He was Mr. Joseph "Reds"
Bertley, and he described him-
self as President of the Village
Holding a political meeting
in the Centre was against the
constitution of the Village
Council, he said. Games could
take place, but in any case the
Centre was for the people of
Whiteland, Corosal and not
for "outsiders".
"Keep politics out that
is my contention!"
Led by Secretary Lloyd
Best and Community Relations
Secretary Ivan Laughlin, the
Tapia team stoutly rejected the
PNM Councillor's demand, de-
claring that nobody could stop
us from having a meeting of any
kind in the centre. It was a

democratic right as citizens of
the country and the Centre
belonged neither to the Govern-
ment nor to the PNM but to the
people of the country.
A crowd gathered round as
voices rose with the hopelessly
outnumbered Mr. Bertley vow-
ing to use any means necessary
to stop the meeting, which he
felt empowered to do as Presi-
dent of the Village Council.
"What Village Council?"
asked several Blackgold mem-
bers each time Bertley men-'
.tioned the term. "Mr. Bertley,
you know that the Village
Council hasn't met for two
years," one girl told him.
Lloyd Best declared that
as far as he was concerned the
meeting was going on.
Said Best: "The Village
Council can't make any laws to
Continued on Page 2

15 Cents

NEXT SUNDAY, August 12, Tapia will be continuing its
conversation with the people of New Village, Point Fortin.
We shall be renewing a contact initiated on Sunday, July 15,
when a Tapia contingent spent a day in the village, as part of
our programme of groundings.
In response to a request from the sisters of the
village who would like to complete their housework before
taking up the politics, the meeting has been scheduled for
3 p.m. in the Community Centre.

Thursday Sessions
OUR Thursday night discussions continue this coming Thurs-
day, August 9, when the theme will be-: "Why the Govern-
ment's Banking policy has failed, and what the radical
alternatives are". Venue: the Tapia House, Upper St. Vincent
Street, Tunapuna. The public is invited.

Council of Reps

AREA representatives are reminded of the Council of Repre-
sentatives meeting which comes off on Monday,'August 13th,
at 8 p.m.

_I _

9 1 91 1 I I



--- -r



FOR THE election of 1971 the
PNM campaign was a law and order
one. In practical terms that has,
meant terror in a legal cloak.
Judge for yourself how far the
police have left behind the old
bootoo days.
Call it absurd, paradoxical,
tragic, if you like. But the fact
remains that the Little King back
of all this is a Pussonal Nonarch,
a Victorian liberal gone sour, who
cannot even take off tie for
shirt-jac. "He judges himself and
his behaviour by Britain's pro-
fessed values" (Tapia No 17, May
23, 1971).
The Doctor does not have the stones
for a Caribbean caudillo, all he affects
is the appropriate posture. For the real
McCoy you have to look for a Burnham
or Gairy. "His most unprincipled mea-
sures are those which he feels the great-
est need to disguise in legal masks".


As predicted before the last election,
Williams proceeded, after being returned
as the constitutionally elected govern-
ment of this country, to reintroduce the
Public Order Bill. We have witnessed the
progressive growth of an arbitrary police
The Firearms Act relieved the police
of the need to walk with warrants; the
SeditionAct and the Summary Offences
Amendment Act have snuffed out spon-
taneous political mobilization by re-
stricting meetings, marches, demonstra-
tions, handbills, posters, gestures and
utterances; and the combination of
crash-programme expenditure and best
village patronage has placed such a
crooked stranglehold on the Village
Councils that if you hold a political
meeting in a community centre, you
are engaged in subversive activity.


If you demanded time on the elec-
tronic media, as Tapia has done, you
would be told that the opposition will
get equal time but only when an election
is called; "we would not want to whip
up a political fever to no avail." Or you
would be told that our franchise does
not permit us to sell time to political
parties. The repression is perfectly de-
mocratic and wholly legal.
It is such oppression which breeds a
politics of unvarnished expediency,
which engineers the death of budding
parties and renders parliamentary poli-
tics an illusion. Finding that many nor-
mal political channels are blocked, con-
ventional politics becomes limited to
one or the other or some combination
of two now quite futile options.
The first of these choices is band-
waggon politics pure and simple. This
political method means whipping up po-
pular indignation over emotional com-
munity causes. The "Black Power"
Movement utilised this method to great
effect in the evolution of The February
The whole series of episodes from
the Rodney March through Anguilla,
Five Rivers, Santa Flora, Joe Young's
Strike, Camacho, St. Francois School,


4on course

all remain indelibly imprinted on the
nation's mind as crucial steps towards
Nowadays this strategy is no longer
valid and it is nothing less than charla-
tanry to be trying to exploit the fisher-
men or the forest-workers or the house-
wives or the garment workers. Shah and
Millette and Jacobs have found that
although the sugar farmers and workers
are extremely restless, they have not
been able to carry on where Granger
left off.
Some may delude themselves that it
is because Millette lacks "charisma" as
if charisma is some objective quality; or
that Shah's charisma was negated by
his alliance with UNIP; or some such
metaphysical idiocy as dominates the
commentary in the morning press and
the soda fountains.
Bandwaggoning mobilization is over
because our failure in 1970 has allowed
Williams to let the police loose all over
the place; and because bandwaggons can
succeed only where there already exist
community groups with leaders and
organization capable of responding
lightning-quick to political command.
Granger succeeded in 1970 only be-
cause of men like McFarlane and Lord.
NJAC failed at the crucial moment
because, most of the local leaders have
now admitted, local organization was
in place but it had not developed and
rooted itself deeply enough.


When we needed national organiza-
tion to confront the Caesar, we put our
tails between our legs. The Movement
ended up with only leaders. It turned
out to be a crowd without plan or
party. The inevitable result was depen-
dence on messiahship and the ratooning
of Doctor Politics with a vengeance.
After this experience, the country
will never again at least, not for long
time give its heart to a bandwaggon
movement. After 1956, 1970 has des-
troyed our trust and if there is anything
that bandwaggon politics needs for vic-
tory it is a trust and a faith that's
The other conventional option, now

being exploited by ANR Robinson and
DAC is just another variant of band-
waggon or Doctor Politics. The differ-
ence is however, highly important. In
the first or 1970 case, the movement
ended up with a hero and a rapidly
dwindling crowd.
In the second or DAC case, the
Messiah has in advance been appointed
by a soothsayer. Robinson has had the
impertinence to announce that he found
dedicated citizens in a few evenings'


In 1968, the Black Power Move-
ment made the understandable error of
allowing impatience to dictate the pace.
The unemployed and the dispossessed
and the young necessarily wanted deli-
verance without delay. There was trust,
idealism, hope: it was a romance, a
dream of a newer and better world.
Contrast in 1970, the ACDC and the
coalition with the DLP, the child of
bitterness, calculated cynicism and
The bandwaggon politics of 1973 is
nothing but profiteering on a historic
new situation by merchandisers grown
fat on the old.
This variant of Doctor Politics can
succeed on one condition. There must
exist a Crown Colony Governor to hold
the ring between the old Doctor and the
new. When Williams arrived on the
scene as a sweeter gun-talker than
Gomes, the British had already decided
to go; it was merely a question of hold-
ing a contest to determine the successor.
Williams and the PNM, however,
not intending to go a place.
"They do not want to go, and they have
moreover, nowhere to go Their
vested interests, their jobs, their status,
their privileges are here, and we must
expect that they will be prepared to use
whatever means might seem necessary
to them to maintain their status". (Tapia
No 17, May 23, 1971).
We are not inventing this interpre-
tation of the PNM just to attack Robin-
son and the DAC for going through the
conventional manoeuvres of a colonial
parliamentary party. We have held the

position since before the last election.
Tapia broke with the UNIP orMillette
faction of New World over precisely this
issue of strategy. Millette and UNIP have
since come a cropper; Robinson and the
DAC must draw their own conclusions.
These old PNM and DLP deputies
must know that the ruling party can-
not afford to call an election that they
stand a chance of losing. They certainly
cannot afford to let another administra-
tion least of all one which flaunts
a grudge against Williams on its sleeves
get hold of the guns and the Courts
and the jails. Not with Nelson Island and
the Royal Jail in that inhuman state;
not with the evidence of corruption piling
up in every Ministry.
Williams may hold an election of
course. But if he does, he will have to
hold it on terms very similar to those
fairy-tail elections of Mr. Burnham.


At least, we must assume that, if we
believe what Robinson keeps telling us
about the Williams mania for being in
Doubtless some will be asking what
is the way out of all this and the answer
is very simple. The radical and uncon-
ventional option is one that requires the
patience and the confidence to wait for
It is obscure only because it is
beyond the experience of the country
uptonow. It can be perceivedand under-
stood only in the doing.
Our option is to build a permanent
community movement, one with a reli-
gious commitment to change, an un-
swerving loyalty to its ideals and organi-
sation that is solid on the ground. The
success of this strategy depends upon
each of us putting down roots in our
local area, in those places where we
work and live.
One of these mornings, thena.ion is
going to reach the end of its patience.
The time will have come for the crisis__
to resolve itself.
The grave risk of such a moment is
that it could turn out to be just another
disappointed Day of Judgement,
another revolution frustrated by a mili-
tary coup or even thwarted by the non-
narch's troops. All that is certainly
very possible but the risk cannot on
that account be at all avoided.


The other possibility is that we will
found a genuine political party based on
a coalition of interests that are real and
solid. What will in fact happen,
Tapia is no position to say. All we
can say is that that is the horse we are
backing, and we are backing it all the
On the evidence up to this moment,
our judgment of history and politics
stands proud.
We feel that the kind of civilization
and culture which this long-suffering
country has been reaching out for since
October 1968 is the same dream which
has kept us going.
The pundits say that the old regime
will stay afloat until The Doctor decides
to retire. But Tapia can recognize a
revolutionary situation when we see it
and we are seeing one here as clear as

PNM Councillor tries to stop TAPIA meeting

Continued from Page 1
keep people out of the Com-
munity Centre. This is an ex-
ample of the use of power in
partisan political interest which
is taking place all over the
country. We have to put our
foot down, and we'll do it
right here!"
Enraged and shouting even
louder, Bertley roared away in
his car. "If you don't know
the kind of man I am allyuh

better make inquiries".
One hour later two bemused
policemen returned with Bert-
ley from the Gasparillo Station
four miles away to make in-
The PNM headman had
reported a threat of violence
to his person, but when the
police arrived to see table ten-
nis, all fours and rapping going
on peaceably in the Centre,
they quickly stood back to

witness confrontation that en-
sued between the youthful
members of Blackgold, their
Tapia guests and the Councillor.
In no time Bertley was
literally in a corner, getting
increasingly pacified as young
people of the district put it to
him that the Village Council
did not exist in fact, that he
had no authority to stop any-
thing in the Centre and that
they had obtained the keys in

the normal way to carry on
their activities.
It was an apologetic man
who backed out of the building
eventually to attend a wappie
game in Moruga.
"I don't want nobody em-
barrass me," he said in parting.
"Allyuh know what query I
will have to answer when they
get, to find out about some-
thing like this in the Centre.
Look, I am a PNM, but I ent

against nobody. PNM is not
But Tapia lost the friendly
confrontation on the football
field later that afternoon when
Blackgold beat us two-none.
That ended an otherwise suc-
cessful day of cementing closer
relations with Blackgold, view-
ing their agricultural lands,
making contacts in Corosal...
and a meeting in the Com-
munity Centre.


-!qotu aalepq Jo amuts~Ppniipul! ILnnd 'lobagn ,i,
s .I ,II *' 0 ,8 n r *l(OO 3 d 0 lJO UO!q
es uue3A f ,c .- I J o juo

fru V, _'Ju0p!sod s,,Ienzou3AW ',." 7--
[ a nn p e O O=^.7- ,
< = i o *rz -- c1 A r-!!

mmDr. Castro announced pli!" aqI 1au p^taq f A[
to ..... f I .PT. MarnHaT. auinida1:
a weeky dest

BIS 01 0D IO 1 t&1 1 .TpA
oliBii a1 o inn G 1iuinnr aons o'v o nunooanads


SO THE national bird is a pest, and the national music a
suspected cause of deafness. What else is news? Well, gun-
owning farmers will soon be training their sights on the crop-
eating cocrico. And Pan Trinbago may soon be training steel-
bandsmen to wear oil-soaked cotton plugs to protect their
ear drums and to read music.

And as there's been a long-suspected deafness in
official quarters to vocal concern about public health, the
whole question simply raises an old issue in this country:
can the dea eafld the deaf?

"CHARISMA" once used to be regarded as a store of political
wealth. And the job of "political analysts" was to show the
gap between the haves and the have-nots and to draw the
necessary conclusions.
The currency has changed, it seems. And since Valen-
tino observed "Life is a s btae", political punditry at times can
sound more like drama criticism.
Soff "Why in the name of democracy does Dr. Williams not
woar a smile?" complained Hiralal Bajnath in the BOMB last
week. "Can he not even pretend he has a loving affection for
his people?"
But though Bajnath criticized the "grim-faced" Prime
Minister's portrayal of "schoolmaster" at Chaguaramas, the
Express' Jeff Hackett analysing Hudson-Phillips' "theatrics,"
felt the AG had been more successfully cast in that role in the
House last week Friday.
After an "in-depth lecture on the fascinating phenome-
non of the present youth culture", which left the House
spellbound", the AG "strode jauntily out of the chamber
hugging a huge pile of books and with a cigarette dangling
from his lips".
"It appeared to me to be done for effect ... as part of
Karl's campaign," Hackett insightfully commented.

"BEFORE the ceremony, the Minister (Campbell opening Rio
Clar market) said that the people of oTrinida and aTobago
were of the opinion that Government was not thinking of
them. He assured that was not so".

Column 1
-;- ,a '. 1'

Lennox Grant


"THE GOOD, The Bad and The Ugly", that early Italian
Western, changed the traditional pattern of Hollywood
Westerns which put "good guys" against "bad guys", to
make the moral of the story plain to see.
In the Italian approach, three guys presumably representing
Good, Bad and Ugly, were equally me:,n, equally rapacious, and
equally brutal.
Yet they were all bounty hunters, private entrepreneurs in
the public service of hunting dangerous criminals.
Of course it was cynical scenes of violence exaggeratedfor
effect, ultra-realism as nitty-gritty as the desert sands.
But the film sought to remove the mask of piety from the
exercise of law-enforcement, and I wonder about the kind of influ-
ence such films must have on a society that is, after all, composed
pot only of criminals and "good citizens", but of law-enforcers as
For it's customary to question the impact of films of violence
on crime in the society. Such films would probably not be shown on
television, but this is a society which saw on television the spectacle
of policemen pelting back bottles at people.
"Highway Patrol" was a popular TV series some years ago,
and now we have such a squad white Mazdas on the Solomon
Hochoy Highway.
Block people were quick to label ad "the Mod Squad" the
long-haired, vest-wearing police agents suitably camouflaged for
the terrain in which they were to operate. A helicopter squad has
already got off the ground.


S Expansion and modernization are probably justified in the
interest of providing more effective police work. But such expansion
Sm--c-- rndiz"o, h ,' b' .."'a-~Alei building of more secondary
schools throughout the country, and the quality of the education
provided has not shown any notable improvement.
In late 1969 there was the announcement of a plan to recruit
over 2,000 more policemen over four years. If the expansion has
kept pace with the exodus, attested to and lamented at police
speech days, then we can perhaps safely generalize that the expanded
Police Service is now better housed and better equipped for their
tasks. All of which does not necessarily add up to a better police

I haven't felt that the question of police pelting bottle has
been sufficiently assessed for its significance to the Service today. In
any situation pelting a bottle is a reckless expedient. It is not by any
means a missile capable of precise direction, and it is almost certain
to explode into dangerous fragments when it hits.
To pelt a bottle into a crowd is the kind of desperate act that,
well, is expected of a desperado.
This is not to say that police are not expected to act
desperately in what they perceive a desperate situation. But a police-
man should be trained to handle disorder, and to overcome a diffi-
cult situation by means of the exercise of specialised expertise.
Yet the response of the Police in the Pele incident was the
primordial one of self-preservation. They clearly felt their lives were
in danger. And they lost their cool.
There was no suggestion of
S a calm, confident competence

to be expected from men
trained to respond in emer-
gencies in effective and de-
cisive ways.


Had the men on the field
been armed then, would they
simply have fired their SLRs
into the crowd?
Nobody, least of all a po-
lice official, apparently saw
that Oval incident as one of
infamy, when policemen aban-
doned their higher calling, dis-
regarded the professional ethics
and descended to the level of
the disorder they are meant to
What I am saying is that
the underlying factor in all the
shootings, in all the lawsuits
involving police force, in all the
anxiety in the public mind is a

straight lack of professional
competence i.i the Police Ser-
When a policeman shoots
and kills then that is incom-
petence if it is not to be con-
sidered murder. Such an inci-
dent is bound to focus public
attention unfavourably on the
It involves the expense of
time attending trials, inquests,
writing reports etc. It ties up
valuable manpower for days in
exercises merely ancillary to
essential police work.


Every case of police bru-
tality to a suspect or a prisoner
further alienates the public and
shows the police profession in
a bad light.
Who asks questions about
the cost of ammunition issued
to police? How do we know it is
being used with due economy?
it seems natural to expect
tiat in an armed force the rule
should be to use every bullet
for no less nor more effect
than the purpose for which it is
mintnded. Soldiers ought not
waste bullets.
It's not simply a question of
a constable telling an inquiry
he does not know the parts of
a rifle. If he didn't he should
learn about it before mount-
ing a witness stand and dis-
gracing the entire Police Service.
All these are matters which
I feel, should be engaging the
attention of people who make
police a career. Instead, it often
seems the one ideology that
binds policemen together is
"protection" of themselves
against the public police for
police and the vocation of
service takes a back scat.


So there is a lot of solemn
finger-wagging each time a po-
liceman is wounded or killed
on duty. We are harangued to
rise in moral indignation when
not enough is being done about
a policeman wtoulnded in a
Of course, it sounds callous
to say it is part ol a policeman's
job to get shot. But isn't the
question of being wounded or
even killed in duty just one of
the hazards?
Wlile there's nothing wrong
in praising a man for doing his
duty under great stress, I don't
think it's nyv duty to offer such
We have to straighten out
ourselves on these matters.
There is no var going on here
that I know about, and there
is no sense in which casualties
on our side can appear as
heroes, while the enemy dead
and wounded are simply sta-
tistics attesting to our glorious














PROXY postal and over-
seas voting has not yet be-
come an issue in Trinidad
and Tobago. But in Guyana
it's a big thing.
The overseas vote in Guyana
this year amounted to no less
than 34,000 as against a home
electorate of 384,434. Only
2% of the overseas electors
number voted for the. Opposi-
This year, the Opposition
was not as worried about
proxies as in 1968 when the
vote amounted to 7% of the
home electorate and when, as
it turned out, the ultimate PNC
counting a close finish amounted
to only 50.7% of the votes cast.
It is odd that the 1968
distribution of the proxy vote
has not ever been published.
Proxy voting is allowed for
certain specified persons who
are unable to turn up to vrte.
In 1961 the total number
eligible was 300; in 1964 when
the British conspired with
Burnham to depose the Jagan

Government, the number
jumped to 6,635 of which the
Opposition received a bare 8%
of votes cast. In 1968,the figure
reached a high of 19,000.
This year the proxy elec-
torate fell to 10,000, but postal
voting accounted for 22,000.
However, it takes 8,000
votes to secure one seat, so
fraud designed to carry a Go-
.vernment from 51% to over
66% would demand a technique-
of rigging other than proxy or
postal voting.
Dr. Jagan claims that the
turnout in the remote back-
wood areas, traditionally con-
trolled by his party, was
strangely some 20% higher than
in suburban and urban George-
tiis suggestion is that this
high turnout is largely a bogus
thing, explained only by the
padding of ballot boxes with
votes for the governing party.


The real turnout in the
country areas was probably
no more than 50%.
In the North-West where
most people are highly under-
politicised the turnout was 96%
and the PNC gained 8,421
more votes than in 1968.
In Mazaruni, another out-
post, the corresponding jump
for the PNC was 7,211.
It is beyond belief, claims
the PPP.
We may not have reached
so far in Trinidad and Tobago
But the attitude that we see
here to radio and TV time, to
the Elections Commission, the
Boundaries Commission and to
so much else, warns us to take
heed of developments in tlic
sister country down the main.


We sang

Adrian Espinet...speaking
at Tapia's poetry reading
December 31, 1969:

THE SONG with which we
have opened our pro-
gramme tonight is based on
a poem by the first of the
great Cuban patriots, Jose
Marti. The poem tells of
Marti's commitment to his
native Cuba, the land of
palm trees,and clear rivers.
He wishes to leave to the
people verses that are both
"clear green" and "Incen-
diary red" the pledges of
his tenderness and revolu-
tionary purpose.
For a long time Cuba was
almost completely unaffected
by the independence movement
embodied in the Spanish-
American War the war which
overthrew Spanish rule in
Mexico, Central America, and
South America. With its fine
natural harbours, Cuba was
Spain's chief base for naval
and military operations against
the patriots on the mainland,
and the Spaniards clung stub-
bornly to it.
Thus Cuba experienced
Spanish rule for many more
years than did the other colo-~
nies, and during the 19th cen-
tury that rule was appallingly
In. the 1890's this situation
began to change. United States
intervention in Latin America
became more and more force-

on old

ful, and attention was now
turned towards Cuba. In the
later decades of the century
numerous unsuccessful insurrec-
tions against Spanish rule oc-
curred, and a special Cuban
revolutionary technique was
Rebels would go to the
nearby American mainland,
where they plotted their cam-
paigns, collecting money from
sympathizers, enlisting soldier-
adventures, and buying muni-
tions. Then they would sail in
one or two small ships, disem-
bark on Cuba's eastern shore,
far from Havana, and disappear
into the rugged, forested moun-
tains of the Sierra Maestra.


The greatest of these pa-
triots was Jose Marti, the poet
and journalist who inspired
the most effective, and the last,
revolutionary movementagainst
the Spaniards. From exile, Marti
and his party landed in 1895
near Santiago, near the south-
eastern tip of the island.
Soon after, Marti himself
was killed in a skirmish, but
his followers, having established
themselves in the mountains,
carried on guerilla war des-
troying everything that could
be of use to the enemy, the
same technique that was used
in the 1950's by Fidel Castro

and his companions.
In a sense, Marti's revolu-
tion was a failure, for the heirs
of that revolution rapidly lost
their idealism and were event-
ually content to resume the
corrupt practices of the old
regime. Here in Trinidad we
know what this means.
But in a sense Marti's move-
ment was not a failure it was
a beginning. And the ideals it
represented remained there
even when some men had
abandoned them. These ideals
are embodied in the great
poem, Guantanamera.
We have chosen to lead off
tonight's programme with Mar-
ti's poem because our theme
is that of a people ourselves
dispossessed from our "local
habitation and our name" -
a people expropriated and need-
ing, desperately, to find our
way to dignity and identity.
We hope this is an appro-
priate way to enter the new
decade before us. The Third
World is now more than ever
before conscious of its own
history and of the possibilities
for the future. The struggle
for liberation and for full self-
determination will be intensi-
fied in the seventies.
At this point in tor it
appears that all the cards are
on the table, and the decisions--
must henceforth be made at
home, by those who belong
and love.

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years] 969


Fun and games at Simeon Road Basketball court



SUNDAY, it seems to me,
-has always been a drag.
The radio stations have
for years been pounding
over the waves the same
irrelevant programmes.
Only lately has FM 100
introduced something
If you have neither
FM radio nor car to listen
while you drive, you just
sleep or go theatre after
the calaloo and crab.
But a change has come
about in the communities.
Little more than a year ago
ackpoolTSpiorltsand Cuiiaiit
club introduced Block-O-
Rama, and the idea has


"Is so we does live" was
the answer I received from a
woman when I asked why she
had come all the way from
the top of Simeon Road,
loaded down with two suit-
cases filled with confection-
ary. "Is for the children". She
had some packs of cigarettes
"for them who does buy one
or two".
With the hope and the
conviction that better could
be done, "Efforts Incorpo-
rated" launched its second
Block-O-Rama last Sunday in
the basketball court at the
foot of Simeon Road, Petit


The programme finally
began three hours late at
5 p.m. Supporters came from
as far as San Juan, Belmont
and Woodbrook.
During the three hour
"grace" period people milled
around and looked at the
handicraft carvings done
by the Brothers themselves.
Some purchased bake and
shark, others sucked at Ice
Cream churned up constantly
by Bro. Jones. In the basket-
ball court Brothers matched
(ball) shooting skills.
Bro. Saba started the pro-
gramme: "Brothers and Sis-
ters, welcome to Simeon Road
Block-O-Rama, a new institu-

tion of the people with total
involvement for all".
The Simeon Road Village
drummers started the enter-
tainment followed by the St.
James Drummers, whose

rhythms had the crowd chip-
ping, clapping and chanting.
Valley Harps Steelband also


to Bro. Tuma


later, he revealed that
"Efforts Inc." were also in-
volved in other-community
activities like street cleaning,
and classes in Trinidad and
African History.

They did not intend to
stay where they were, but
rather to pursue an even
more vigorous course towards
fuller community participa-
tion in all activities.

The good lean

taste of STAG

doesult just happen!

The brown bottle is one of the reasons!
Tr, ,M;Il- -.ruHin at-ul Ire t''.r.)vf be-r ril., e Is trial i
Pod Il,~Ih a..: I th,, b.
You sep, be-r 1 jI IL j ary.lhr pterihabi.- kcd Ipm
when f.IA-C1 I: ,rI,.%ht .. .If c*' .j it q~U quiCI,, Ana
Ih; can aftbc&l t he f t l .Il tr.e t- r

a .3 .. :, r a f.."I %IIta ker
pl.C?. nrn of t,.ln )I lay5 jas I&,.r
.ounJE aBi= n,:,r5, the te .: ,[ havlUor of
%3r, 3 my: %alr.r anels omp -jays ou'il
371.r g C Ii l~~at ~ fr cr er 113,G ,:

t, ,or, lac I r,.L.Tc ,.n t..II- e hepis
3,.r.; Jr' a In n. 7 1 r3.,g a o.
Cl I. rit r,,-. .-rr I~ n ,fi,- L gtd' o
the n I ,,1- i.3 'utc 3 m ag aler E.lja
4r, re, Fe ri-igd' An.. 1 if .:er.'f ju5t
r4 311V ran Ti ap o:Tr ,,C-tifle 's c.1 of Ine
reasons whly

The more you know
about Stag ..
The more you know
about beer!






AMONG CARIBBEAN writers, Aime Cesaire, the
Martiniquan poet and playwright occupies a very
special place as the man who launched the 'word negri
tude in a poem which has had a perennial impact on
those concerned with the traumatic after effects of
colonization and slavery, Return to My Native Land.
A number of articles by two UWI lecturers
appearing recently ought to serve to draw our attention
once again to the significance of Cesaire. They are
"The West Indian Attitude to Tragedy: The Example
of Aime Cesaire" by Vere Knight (ASAWI No. 5, 1972)
and "Commitment and Communication in Cesaire's

Henry Lum Kin Mayaro, Rio Claro,
Cedros, Palo Seco, Siparia, Princes Town,
Point Fortin.

Steve Haneiph Marabella, Couva,
San Fernando, Pointe-a-Pierre, Freeport, Service that w orks...



Richard Chin Portof Spain, St. Ann's, Cedric Lee Chaguanas. Talparo,
Diego Martin, Carenage, Cascade, Laventille, Barataria, Valsayn,
Maraval, Belmont. San Juan, Morvant.

Keith Squires Blanchisseuse, Toco,
Manzanilla, Sangre Grande, Tunapuna,
Arima, Curepe.

Matt Carberry
Project Consultant/Decorator.

poetry" and "A Theatre of Frustration the Theatre
of Aime Cesaire" by E. A. Hurley (Black Images Vol.
2 no.1 1973).
They serve to remind us once again, that Cesaire's work
remains largely untranslated, only available in the rather diffi-
cult French of that writer's work. Nevertheless, even a reading
of the far from inspired translations of Return to My Native
Land never fails to impress one with Cesaire's historical genius,
with the way in which he unleashed the psychic energy of the
black consciences of the period (1939) in an overflowing stream
of violence and lyrical imagery, in a manifesto informed by the
grandiose tone of the village toast master but phrased in the

I I ,

nice to have

your own stff of

paint experts

Sure. They're on Berger's payroll.
But they work for you. Go ahead. Check it out.
Just pick up the phone and call any of the
people listed below.. Tell them your problems.
And they'll come in and see about it.
Free to you... since we pick up the bill.
There's a Berger representative for your
area. Call him. or call our Decorator. Get them
through our Port of Spain or San Fernando
offices. 62-32231/3. and 65-77436.
For anything to do with paint or
painting ... you have a partner. Berger.
A partner that offers more. To help you more.
And we're willing to pay to prove it!

L L I I I 'Ir 1 -I I I Il I st I~-I

g"L- I


style of surrealism a movement
counter culture in France.
One must quote: "At ti
creeks, the hungry Antilles, pi
alcohol, stranded in this town's
this lifeless city of lepers, consul
revines, fears perched in trees".

For the poet, to return
to return to a purgatory, to
whose degradation by a kind <
source of guilt feelings. Europea
rue- they had turned round an'
their past of slavery. Cesaire ha
together with Senghor, now Pre:
in Paris like himself, he react(
blacks should reject their p
In order to promote this act
the initiative in this move(
himself; we are not French
think of ourselves as black-I
This was a way of afl
a way of revitalizing negro )
was good and valid in the n(
will, out of this effort, to
This was a very imp'
that at this time a history <
written without the negro be:
contribution, so it was felt, w
The word which was
word negro, synonymous w
that the negro was a man lik
ments which deserved to be i
creativity to which we were c
is a positive force. It is a way
have a Caribbean personality
the French.
The section of this mar
prose poem which I like best
black scholarship boy and conf
shape of another black colonial
the metropolis:
But you want to hear the kin'
tram, I sat facing another bl;
tang, and so he tried to make
giant legs and hugefistslook
But he was a sorry E
adrift, his very negritude hi
tanning in reverse, supervis
beast whose claws had scan
nigger whose weary eyes 1
whose stinking toes sneered
And the result was
lous negro, a melancholy
united in prayer on a knob'
worn out vest. A comical, u
laughed as they looked at hir
He was a SIGHT and
I took their part. Ibr
This image, the image
large and clumsy, Black and
serious poet and politician whc
stage since then, every intellec
mulatto by context and birth.
In Naipaul it has arou
and revulsion. In Braithwaite,




Eric Williams around this image and another which I will now
quote, you might construct an important, if partial account of
West Indian sensibility.
To rescue the broken humanity of his people, the poet-
intellectual discovers a vocation and prays for strength to use
his gifts to rescue his people so that he need never again feel
Give me the savage faith of the sorcerer
give my hands the power to mould
give my soul he sword's temper
1 won't duck out, Make my head a prow
Make me a commissar of their blood
make me trustee of their resentments
make me a man of termination
make me a man of initiation
make me a man of meditation
but also make me a man of germination.
My tongue shall serve those miseries which have no tongues
my voice the liberation of those who founder in despair
Cesaire's poetry, committed but at the same time both
difficult and elitist, endowed him with charisma and ushered
him into politics, even perhaps into the treacherous, waters of
Doctor Politics. But while other black intellectuals have come to
power, Cesaire, trapped in the double bind of French colonial
policy towards the Caribbean, has in a sense had the leisure to
be haunted by the problems of leadership and relations to the
masses in the drama of decolonization and the battle for de-
velopment which underlies the tensions in all Third World

[ich was a leading voice of the

edge of dawn, flowering frail
d with smallpox, blasted by
irt At the edge of dawn,
,tion, famines, fears hidden in

his native land in dreams was
colonial concentration camp
inverted logic was made the
had not only enslaved black
made these men feel guilty of
explained in an interview how
lent of Senegal, then a student
to the French proposal that
t and become Frenchmen:
Self mastery, Senghor and I took
t to make the black man aware of
n or Englishmen,.t is absurd to
:nchmen. We are in the first place

ming our fidelity to mother Africa,
ues, a programme to recover what
-o past. And at the same time, the
lake this received heritage fruitful.
tant task for you must not forget
world civilization could have been
g mentioned at all: the negro's only
his savagery.
e antithesis of civilization was the
i barbarism. We affirmed, therefore,
any other and that he had achieve-
:luded within the ambit of universal
mmitted In this sense negritude
)f making it clear to France that we
that we are far more complex than

dlous and at times bewildering
;the following. It catches the
)nts him with his destiny in the
vho has been catching his ass in

of coward I was. One evening in the
:k man. He was as big as an orangu-
limself small in the seat, to make his
itural on the dirty seat of the tram.
;ht. His nose was like a peninsula
.paled under a process of incessant
1 by Destitution: a fat long-eared
d his face into scabby islets A
ere bloodshot, a shameless nigger
rom the half-open lair of his shoes.
completely hideous negro, a queru-
egro, a drooping negro, his hands
y stick. A negro shrouded in an old
;y negro. And the women behind me

gly too.

adly smiled.
if a man eroded by destitution,
igly as sin, has haunted every
has moved onto the West Indian
ial, whether peasant in origin or

-d an almost incredible disgust
n Walcott. in C.L.R. James, in

Cesaire's drama is concerned with leaders and the
masses with whom they would communicate. Speaking in an
interview in Cuba published sometime ago in an issue of the
Casa de las Americas Cesaire said of his conception of a leader
that he is something of a Prometheus:

"My conception of the leader is a bit heteiodox, but I
have always felt that the leader has something of the poet in him,
in the sensein which Rimbaud used the word, for he is ahead of hi:
"He it is who sees before others and almost immediately.
I'm not suggesting a superman, Idon't.conceive of him in terms of
power but in terms of vision and prophecy.
For example, Lumumba had something of the poet about
him. He did not write poetry but he lived it. He may have failed
in the short run; limited spirits can say after all that everything
ended in failure, but that failure is like that of Che. It is the
basis of a greater victory.
In fact, Lumumba by his death created the Congo. Be-
cause the Congo did not exist except in Lumumba's head. In
reality, what was there was an artificial union of tribes in a colonial
context. And then there comes along a man called Lumumba
who thought it all out and from that moment the Congo came
into being; at least that's my view. That's why I say that Lumumba
was a poet, a visionary."
On the other side then, there are the people and here
are Cesaire's views:
I believe I have a view of the people as the depository of
cultural and national values; this seems to me self-evident. The
middle classes are traitors, the profoundest national values are
rescued by the people.
This is not always a conscious process and of course
there are cases of degeneracy. Nor ought one to idealize the
masses in a mystical or romantic fashion. Degeneracy, corruption,
lack of awareness exists; there is a kind of degeneracy which
derives from the lower middle classes, people who are only
devoted to the achievement of immediate gain, who never strive
for a corporate vision. But there is this positive fact I just pointed
out which is that only the masses are capable of understanding
the leader".


In Return to My Native Land one sneering remark from
the superior European boils in the poet's consciousness like an
insult and an injury; it is one which tells of his people, black
people: "Nothing could ever provoke us towards any noble
desperate adventure".
In fact, for Cesaire, the Third World tragic hero is the
politician-poet-visionary who seeks to provoke his people to a
"noble, desperate adventure", the adventure of decolonization
and development from slavery to liberation along a path of
sacrifice. In the Caribbean the only leader who has had the guts
to attempt this adventure is Fidel Castro.
But Cesaire himself, perhaps because of his experience
and the case histories of the black historical figures who have
pre-occupied him Henri Christophe, Patrice Lumumba (about
whom he has written plays, and no doubt personalities like
Kwame Nkrumah and Leopold Sedar Senghor) has fixed on
still-born revolutions. In fact Cesaire in his plays never really
projects an image of a hero rapping with the masses in a coloinal
or neo-colonial polity.
The mould from which his heroes emerge might be
summed up in the following way: visionary types with a messiah
complex tending (in the case of Christophe) to the monomaniac
frenzy of the Pussonal Nonarch-.types who "have a dream which

Lloyd King

turns out to be a mission impossible and who soon feel con-
tempt for the people for' whom they have laid themselves
down as the bridge over the troubled'waters of their carnival
mentality and involvement in corruption in public affairs".
Knight in his article offers us a whole series of quotationsto the
point, which I here reproduce:
The enemy of this nation is its indolence, its impudence, its
hatred of discipline, its spirit of enjoyment and torpor. Gentlemen,
for the honour and survival, of this country, I will not have the
world ever say; ever suspect, that all it would take is. 10 years of
black freedom, )0 years of black slackness and abdication for the
treasure amassed by the martydom of our people during a
hundred years of toil and whiplash, to be squandered. And so, get
it into your heads from this moment, with me you will not enjoy
the right to be tired. (Act 1, Sc. 11 Christophe)
And you, you pack of layabouts and guzzlers, what is
keeping you from going off to dance too? Go on, piss off! Piss off,
I say! Neither women, nor priests, nor courtiers... Haven't you
heard? Get the hell out of here, damn you! I, the king, will keep
watch alone. (Act 1, Sc. VII, Christophe)
But whatever his arrogance, his impatience, or his
contempt, Cesaire finds his protagonist's tragic status in his
commitment to the dream of nation building, to turning ex-
slaves and ex-colonials into new men who will no longer draw a
sneer or a laugh.
This people has to obtain, to wish for, to succeed in an
impossible mission! In the face of Fate, of History, of Nature.
(Act 1 Scene 7 Christophe)
Cesaire's hero-figure is quite likely a prototype of the
revolutionary vanguard of Marxist-Leninist theory who claim
the right to interpret the legitimate aspirations of the masses
such that the view from the village is allowed no status when set
against the view from the top. The Caesarian rebel and his still-
born revolution are, at least in part, the fruit of this kind of

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_ I


H stryof our peoples

IN. MARCH this year four per-
formances of African traditional
dance.weregiven by the Omo Ajini
Dance Group of the University of
the West Indies, Jamaica, directed
by Maureen Warner. The group'was
started in late 1971 as a practical
and public extension of Miss War-
ner's research into the survival and
continued use of African languages
in Trinidad. The name "Omo
Ajini" is taken from a Yoruba
folksong collected in Trinidad,
and means "children of Africa",
Ajini being the Trinidad Yoruba
form of the French "Guinee" -
The group, which consists almost
entirely of university students, gave
their first performances of "Are O"
(entertainment) in March 1972 at the
Mona campus. Drumming accompani-
ment is provided by its male members,
while dancing is restricted to females
only. This is so both because Miss
Warner admits competence only in
African female dance movements and
because male undergrads seem to consi-
der dancing a feminine art, drumming a
masculine one.
Among the chief aims of Omo Ajini
is to present the more graceful and
artistic aspects of West African dance
than those on which the public here is
fed. The Caribbean public only asso-
ciates African dance with eroticism and
violence a very distorted and narrow
concept of this highly varied African


This realization came home to
Maureen during her two-year stay in
ieiuthe late-'60s and aAgin when
the old Africain descentantiofTTrimda
accompanied their songs by dance
movement.. Further intention is to rec-
?tify another distortion of African danc-
ing in the West Indies that is, the
divorce of dance from song. This is a
Western concept.
: In-addiffibn:the emptiness and repe-
titioiisness of- dance-movements com-
monly labelled "African" in these parts
stems, largely from the inability of
choreographers. to understand the
meaningof the words of African songs
they either collect or come upon. So
apart-from omitting song and presenting
only. movement. and instrumental
accompaniment, there is further
gulf between movement and the
meaning of the original song.
The music is now one-dimensional
in: that it ,consists only of rhythm and
not also of melody and harmony, and
thus we liae a situation where move-
ment devoid' of meaning relates only
to rhythm, resultag in an overall im-
poverished form of-artistic expression.
In the first place, one may say that
to start with, no serious attempt has
been made to collect African folksongs
specifically though invaluable work
has gone into the collection of Spanish,
patois and English folk music in parti-
cular..This is no one's fault rather the
misdirection and deception of our his-
tory and education which led research-
ers until very recently to assume that it
was impossible to ever conceive of
African folksongs still existing in the
Shango chants tended merely to be
labelled "African" but people really
believed they were gibberish. Omo Ajini's
repertoire to date, however, includes
songs in the Yoruba language, collected
in Trinidad.Although Maureen has found
songs in other African languages here,
she has concentrated for the time being
on Yoruba ones because she has so far.
been 'able to get only these translated.
Form and action in Omo Ajini's
dances therefore relate to the meaning


Promise of a


of the songs the dancers sing. The first
half of the programme features secular
songs expressing welcome, love, pro-
verbial sayings and communal activity;
The second half comprises religious
chants to Eshu god of Chance, Ogun-
god of war, Oshun, river goddess,
Osain deity of herbal medicine,
Erinle Ajaja a patron of hunters,'
Shango deified king, god of lightning,
and to Oya goddess of the river
-Niger--at1--Ghief-wife..of Shango,_Wllose_
manifestation is the storm-wind. This
religious section is the only part of the
programme where some amount of solo
dancing is seen, as the devotee possessed,
of a god enters the middle of the circle
to dance.


Apart from correcting the type of
imbalances mentioned already, Omo
Ajini aims at recreating the atmosphere
of traditional African dances for which
the dance arena is a circle with specta-
tors standing around. Such performances
are held in the open air a fact which
determines the high-pitched quality of
traditional outdoor vocal accompani-
ment all over the world.
Of these features, reviewer Jim Nel-
son had this to say: "The effect of the
physical arrangement of the audience in
a circle around the performers, with the
constant movement and dance and
something happening, along with the
chants which are taken at an unusually
high pitch, is to rivet the attention of
the audience, and create an unusually
high level of involvement".
Most of the dances involve the
performers in anti-clockwise movement
based on the circle, though in some the
pattern is a figure of eight or the oppos-
ing movement of two straight lines
facing each other. Foot shuffling, for-
ward bending of the torso, hip and
wrist movement, hand clapping, and the
incorporation of items of clothing in
dance expression are the emphases of
Omo Ajini dances.
Accompanying these are the singing
of the female dancers themselves, the
seed -attles attached to their hips, ankles
and rists, in addition to steel, gourd
and trum percussion. The drummers,
using Jamaican Rasta-made drums, to-
gether with the Yoruba talking drum,
:bata drum (sacred to Shango), and
gudugudu re-create rhythms which range
through the dirge-like Rasta beat, the





Cuban santeria, Trinidad Shango rhy-
thms, the Haitian yanvalou, the calypso
tempo, and the Yoruba apala.
The group's lead drummer and
flautist is Edgerton Henry, and of the
instrumental accompaniment Jim Nelson
wrote: "At time their vigour, enthusiasm
and expertise proved more exciting
than what was happening inside the
Nelson's review came as a result of
his attendance at the performance of
March ;TSITyffea-r wic-, because of a
heavy downpour, had to take place
indoors in the "Round" of the Creative
Arts Centre, Mona. One of the 1972
performances also took place there for
the same reason with the advantage that,
despite the heat and congestion of the
audience in this small space, the ampli-
fication of the sound by the four walls
together with the closeness of the
audience to the performers made for a
dynamism and immediacy of impact
that was mutually satisfying.
The outdoor performances forfeit
this for charm of setting and the relaxa-
tion which comes from the quaintness
of dancing barefoot on the grass or
sitting around on mats or pillows in the
open air. The 1972 open-air perform-
ance was sited under trees, both for
shade and to prevent the dissipation of


This year the group danced in an
open space between two picturesque
stone ruins. Certainly, the type of per-
formance staged by Omo Ajini points
to a need in the West Indies for intimate
circular-stage theatres which would allow
us to take advantage of our natural
scenery, while affording protection from
the extremes of weather.
At the same time the acoustic quali-
ties of these sites ought to be so good
that microphones and amplifiers need
not be compulsory for every kind of
performance. The artistic fidelity de-
manded by Omo Ajini's aim to re-
create the feel of traditional African
dances would be ruined, needless to say,
by the obvious intrusion of electronic
On the other hand, the physical
proximity of audience to performer
as well as the combination of song,
dance and instrumental accompaniment
which formal West Indian theatre has
just begun to look to produced these
tematcs from Jim Nelson:

"I left the Creative Arts Centre
with that tremendous euphoric feeling
which comes after participating in a
fulfilling act. Indeed, I might confess
that I felt some personal inadequacy
(perhaps tinged with envy) that someone
had set about and begun to create
something which we had only managed
to talk about for years.
"The tremendous amount of re-
search that had gone into preparing the
programme was immediately obvious.
The artistic integrity, honesty and faith-
fulness to the traditions which formed
the basis of the songs and dances was


"At no time did I ever feel that tme
authenticity of the effort was being
sacrificed in any way to 'showmanship'.
And I continued to be refreshingly sur-
prised at this with every act. I am not so
naive as to think they were totally
honest, but whatever they did add
subtly complemented the effort.
"The total effect of all this was
that we did not get the feeling of
'watching' a show, but of 'taking part'
in a cultural experience. If this reaction
'is also true of many people who saw the
"Are 0" programme, then perhaps
there are important hints here for
Jamaican and West Indian theatre .. .
"There has been serious talk in the
West Indies about West Indian theatre
for far more years than I have been
alive. For a long time we were satisfied
if we thought a West Indian had written
a play as well as a European could.
Then we were satisfied if he wrote
about the West Indian experience. Even
more recently we have become con-
cerned about form and the whole shape
of what we have perhaps accepted in
the West Indies for too long as 'legiti-
mate theatre'. Maureen Warner un-
doubtedly successfully challenged many
of the concepts we have about what
does and does not 'work on stage'.
"Dancers forgot their scarves and
had them fetched, some left the per-
forming area to have wraps retied, tur-
bans collapsed and were readjusted
during dances, and all this without
spoiling the effort in the least. I was
always deeply aware that Omo Ajini
had achieved a delicate balance between
formality and informality which I have
never seen before".

-- L;:.- ''


From the

horses mouth

"Franklin is an old horse though, which began as a six furlong specialist"

I COULDN'T HELP being reminded, as I watched Wole Soyinka's "The Lion and
Jewel" staged by the Caribbean Theatre Guild at St. George's College last Friday of
my mother's efforts in years f by to protect my mind from being corrupted. In
particular, I remember the toriie lashing s gave to my uncle for taking me to a
Yee-little did she realize that the real danger to my mind was being done by
those Tarzan pictures which she reluctantly allowed me to see, on the assumption
that they ere "safe".
Tarzan nd his ape have
died, a death brought on by
the "cultural and historical
awareness of the Afro-Carib-
bean peoples, for no longer do
we accept the distorted pic- FO X I
tures of Africa presented by
As I sat in the audience I
wondered what would have
been the play's impact had it
been staged in the open air THE LIO
across the street in the savan-
nah where a larger section of
the community would have
been able to judge how far we
have, come in such a short D
space of time in understanding
ourselves, in the performing
arts and in the growth of our chief (Baroka) who blocks pro- applause. I was particularly im
consciousness of ourselves as a gress by "bribing" the surveyor pressed with Celia Fullerton's
Caribbean people. and continuing with his performance-as Sadiku. .
The startling differences in "harem" and other activities Predictably Sadiku betrays
thought between a young "unbecoming of any civilized the chiefs "secret" to Sidi and
westernized African and the existence", with both Sidi and they both poke fun at his
people of his native village, Sadiku (Baroka's head wife) "misfortunes" in dance and
where he is now a school paying careful attention. song. Sidi decides to go to the
teacher, runs throughout the The school teacher is played chief and mock him.
play. He constantly refers to by Dominic Kalipersad whose When she enters the house
"these barbaric and primitive occasional over-enthusiasm she finds him wrestling. In
people" seemingly forgetting makes it difficult to understand response to his query, she re-
that this was his birthplace. what he is saying. plies that there was no one to


He had returned to his
village Ilujinle after visiting "the
big cities, where they ate with
knives and forks, and danced
the waltzes and the foxtrot in
the great ballrooms". The Afro
Saxon in him asserts itself,
for he, the chosen one, who
had visited the big cities with
their European customs, was
now in a position to teach his
fellow villagers a "civilized"
way of life.
His obsession with the
primitivenesss" of these people
causes him more anxiety when
he falls in love with the village
,maid Sidi who rejects his ad-
vances because he refuses to
pay the customary bride price
for, as he puts it, "if I were to
do this you would be merely
my property".
S His hopes of bringing Sidi
round to his view are further
crushed when he attempts to
kiss her on the lips.
Her refusal because she
finds this custom "revolting
and filthy",pointo a rejection
of a culture wlch is not her
He sees progressstrictly in-
terms of buildings and rail-
roads. He relates the tale of the

Meanwhile Sidi is dis-
covered by a magazine photo-
grapher who "traps her natural
beauty on the glossy paper".
She discovers that her beauty is
"like the sun in the early
morning when the dew drips
over the mossy stones"-,
Sidi is played 'Tasilda
Joseph who, I felt, never really
got inside the character which
required an immature and child-
like portrayal.


The Baroka sees a copy of
the magazine with Sidi's pic-
ture, and decides that maybe
it is about time that he took
another wife. Sadiku, his head
wife (with 41 years service),
is asked to invite Sidi to his
house. Sidi turns down the
request, which infuriates the
Baroka who takes it out on
While Sadiku seeks to
soothe his frustrations by
massaging his feet, the Baroka
tells her that it is just as well
since his manhood left him
near a week ago, and sternly
warns her against betraying this
This scene was excellently
performed and was the occasion
of side-splitting laughter and


meet her at the door.


He uses the first oppor-
tunity to dismiss the wrestler,
and begins to complain bitterly
about "his favourite", who, he
says has caused him much
pain when removing the hair.
from his armpits.
He speaks to Sidi in a
warm and fatherly way, telling
her that he intends to spread
her fame even farther by plac-
ing her picture on postage
stamps. But he invokes the
authority of the school teacher
when he admits that it may be
necessary to start small by
circulating the stamps only in
A dance performed by the
men coming towards the end
of the play seemed rather use-
less. The play is full of sur-
prises at the end.
-The central theme is marvel-
lously projected throughout
the play-,-by constantly show-
ing up the'failure of a European-
ised- African to win over the
minds of his native villagers,
while on the other hand through
wit and a basic understanding
of his fellow villagers, the chief
scores a victory for an African
way of lfe. (Jerry Pierre)

(This article is written by
Victor D. Questel, and gives
some inside dope on the sport-
ing side of our local theatre).

TRINIDAD'S theatre
goers are looking for a
jockey who can go the
distance. Many suggest
D.W., others D.A., and a
few F.K. who likes the
easy going where the quick
laugh and the fast buck
Anyway, today's sports
column will discuss the
performances of D.W. con-
centrating on his rides at
the Queen's Hall, Bishop's
and the Town Hall turfs.
What is D.W.'s background
like? Well he is from up the
islands and began riding quite
young. He began getting more
recognizable mounts after his
victory on DRUMS AND
COLOURS, which did the open
mile in record time at the
Federal Cakes. The Federal
Stakes has since been struck off
the local turf club list, after
doping from outside was dis-

STI-JEAN- ... .

Doping from inside was
also suspected, but was never
proved. Anyway, D.W. was
considered good enough to be
sent on a scholarship so he
could improve his riding skill,
since it was felt that he was
still too tardy and his crouch
in the saddle was too much
like Shakescene a foreign jockey
who D.W. liked, as his mount
In New York, he found the
going rough and spent a lot of
time in the stables, but little
time riding. Some punters even
gave him a clout or two one
night, so he returned home,
but not before having looked
at the technique of riding side-
saddle on the Japanese Noh
theatre turf.
To his. credit he returned
with a young thoroughbred
called Ti-Jean. Ti-Jean is still
a very good mount, and a pro-
fessional trainer-jockey, E.H.
thinks it is his best mount so
Ti-Jean is a mount which
gives no trouble at .the gates,
and because of his universally
known ancestors, he can even
out pace the Devil.
As I said D.W. returned
and he started his own stable
in Trinidad and joined up with
an establishedlocal turfhandler,
B.M. so that his mounitswould
look good in the parade ring.
But soon there was the parting
of ways, as parading in the ring
is one thing, but winning a
name for yourself pass the
winning pole is a next.
These days D.W. has some
controversial mounts such as

In A Fine Castle, Franklin and
The Charlatan. In A Fine Castle
was hastily conceived, ill-
trained and carelessly ridden.
This caused quite a row among
the bookies who could not
agree on the odds.
Moreover, when it placed
fifth, a complaint was lodged
and the camera called in, then
it was discovered that D.W. had
crossed and squeezed another
mount to the rails. He also
rode a very controversial race
in Jamaica.


Franklin dwelt badly at the
gates, by Jove what a weak
start. It limped badly and even
changed the limp from the fore-
leg to the hindleg. Franklin-is
an old horse though, which
began as a six furlong specialist
and has since been trained to
go the mile.
He collapsed in a heap.
Some lovers of horse flesh told
me that he was doped in Jamai-
ca and ran quite well, but you
know how the bookies in
Jamaica love a white horse,
especially if ridden by D.W.
The Charlatan is a genuine
little horse, with tremendous,.
pluck, but in that racc D.W.
._g_ait, fo_rthe_ whip too early
and spoilt what would have
been a good ride. The first
stage of the race was beautifully
ridden, and he was well posi-
tioned for victory when .the
upshot of it was that D.W. was
not as sound as a bell as we all
thought. He introduced music
hall tactics and was dis-


The calypso style crouch
at one point was a good indica-
tion of things to come, and
might be the key to future
successes. D.W. obviously has
a comic style of riding which
he should use more often. Pity
he was lying on the rail for so
much of the race pocketed
between bacchanal and Class,
who though very old mounts,
prevented The Charlatan from
getting into winner's row.
D.W.'s weakness is that he
is owner, trainer and jockey.
D.W. don't even have a stable
of his own. Is a hustle here and
a rent there. But it is symbolic
somebody tells me. The literary
top jockey of no fixed place
of abode.
Some of the grooms have
been with him a long time,
others have just joined. D.W.
has a weakness for piebald
mounts. He gets this 'bias from
his grandfather one bookie told
me. Anyway, D.W. good, but
he does go for the whip too
I even thought of joining
his stable once but I feel I will
stick to sports reporting, the
only whip there is the whip of
indifference. Oh Gawd another

-- I I I I I







Ruthven Baptiste

THE HUNTER in Trinidad
is a rare breed. He must
love animals, particularly
his dogs. He sacrifices
many a night rest to brave
the hazards of the bush.
Chasing a deer might re-
quire lying in wait for two
or three days and when it
is forced into the open it
might still escape.
The hunter takes dis-
appointments like those in
his stride.
Carl Totesaut is that kind
of person. Carly, as he is affec-

tionately called by his friends
and relatives, lives at Fairley
Street, Tunapuna, with his
family (that includes his dogs).
Only in his early thirties, most
of his life has been spent

I have known Carly a long
time and one of the pleasures
of my childhood was to hear
him describe a hunt, see him
build a bird cage and try to win
from him one of his semp or
Coming from school with
some friends one day, we saw
Carly standing before a cap-
tured audience at the steps of a
disused church. He was des-
cribing how his dogs cornered
a wild hog.
It was a performance, in-
deed. He told how the hog cut
in half the ear of one of his
dogs and killed another, imita-
ting what the hog did, what the
dogs did and what he himself
was trying to do at the time.

It was theatre.
His interest in hunting be-
gan with his love for dogs
about 15 years ago. He had
hero worshipped William De
Freitas, an experienced hunter
and dog breeder. De Freitas
was the owner of the St. Charles
Dispensary, and many of his
customers used to complain
about how he used to allow
his dogs to stray into the store.
Not Carly. Carly was at-
tracted to the establishment
because of the dogs. Just as I
used to weary Carly with ques-
tions about his birds, so Carly
used to pester Mr. De Freitas
about his dogs.
Realising Carly's genuine
interest in dogs. De Freitas

gave him a breakdown of the
different species he bred, their
different qualities, what type
of animal each will hunt, etc.
He showed Carly his cabinet
of trophies won at numerous
dog shows.
This was the beginning of a
life-long association.
De Freitas assisted Carly in
setting up his own kennel with
a gift of two beagle hounds.
Immediately Carly transferred
all his previous interest in birds
to his pair of dogs. Today his
kennel is one of the largest in

NEXT WEEK: .Carly learns
the ropes.



THE nationalised banks of
India are actively associated
with organizations of small far-
mers and agricultural labourers
in different parts of the country
to see how they can finance
agricultural development.
The banks are financing
small farmers and agricultural
labourers up to specific
amounts under various schemes
without insisting upon mort-
gage of land, with the emphasis
on lending for productive pur-

Till June 1972, the nation-
alised banks had opened 4,860
offices in rural areas to mobi-
lise deposits as well as to pro-
vide credit fciultie. to small
On the eve of nationalisa-
tion in 1969, there were only
1,860 bank offices in rural
The national banks in India
disbursed over Rs 20 million to
small farmers, and other weaker
sections of society and tther
the differential interest scheme
up to March 31, 1973.

San Juan parcel

THE SAN JUAN Credit Union
held its parcel evening last
Sunday at the San Juan Secon-
dary School, Calvary Hill, San
The evening was to raise
funds for the Education Com-
mittee and a total of 40 persons
were in attendance.
Financially,the evening was
a success, and at many times
laughter could be heard out in
the streets, as members received
their parcels and opened them
to find curious assortments
from toilet paper to sugar and


The proceeds should serve
to set the education committee

to work in its function of pro-
grammes for the general mem-
ship and the community.




NAME ---- ---------


PHONE--- ---

I enclose $ ........ as per rates listed below

T&T............. $12.00 TT
CARIFTA.......... 18.00 WI
CARIBBEAN........ 12.50 US
US/CANADA........ 15.00 US
UK.............. E 8.00 UK
W. EUROPE ....... 10.00 UK
WEST AFRICA.......L2.00 UK
INDIA............. 12.00 UK
AUSTRALIA........ 12.00 UK
EAST AFRICA...... 15.00 UK
FAR EAST......... 15.50 UK
All overseas deliveries airmail.
Surface mail rates on request.
RETURN TO: Tapia House Publishing Co Ltd.
91 Tunapuna Rd., Tunapuna, Phone: 662-5126
Trinidad and Tobago




I- -I -



.3sirl"'A %UtytjajL IY1S

I* /ndrea Talbutt
,erch Institute for
Study of ian
162, Tiast 78th Street
i.r YORK, 1.-y. 10021
Ph. Lehigh 5 8448,


I ,

m -




Stollmeyer 1973 is the
year of protest. But 1973
is really the year of bright
Earlier this year,
Stollmeyer and Walcott
attempted to reverse the
movement initiated by
the 1960/61 WI/Australia
series by pushing Kanhai,
the new captain, into an
uncharacteristically de-
fensive game. That the
WI lost to Chappell's men
was a triumph for bright
But free from the over-
lordship of Stollmeyer and
Walcott, Kanhai is playing
his natural game and the result
is bright cricket with a ven-
"Kanhai knows as much
as anyone in the contempo-
rary game. He is a product of
the Worrell days. He must
show his mettle now, flex his
muscles in the selection and
committee rooms as a posi-
tive captain should". Baldwin
Mootoo, Tapia Vol 3, No. 16.
There is no doubt now
that Kanhai is a positive cap-
tain, flexing his muscles. He
selected Ron Headley over
the two Greenidges, Geoff
and Gordon. He never had
less than five fielders in catch-
ing positions throughout
both of England's innings and
at times eight.
All the commentators
were unanimous in their
praise of his aggression and
shrewdness. Bright cricket
triumphs again.

Of great significance in
the victory by the WI over
England in this first test were
Gary Sobers' grand return to
test cricket and the perform-
ances of Clive Lloyd and
Keith Boyce, the player of
the match.
In the West Indies we
have been making hasty
judgements about these three
players. So-called pundits
have said that Gary Sobers is
talented but that he can't
handle his men, yet, after
Tuesday's victory, Kanhai
commented that Sobers has
brought a steadying influence
on the team and that he was
honoured to have Sobers
playing under him.


Those words should
silence a lot of critics. Lloyd
and Boyce also should have
silenced their critics.
These three players, and
WI players generally, play
aggressively. When what they
attempt comes off, it is exhi-
larating and matchwinning,
but, it can easily work out the
other way. The doctor shop
knife cuts both ways.
It was bright cricket in
the sixties that made the WI
world champions, and it was
the same style that brought
them down in 1968. When
Boyce or Lloyd fails, it is not
because of "typical West In-
dian mentality" but rather
that bright cricket contains
a great element of risk.
It may seem heretical to
say in this hour of jubilation
that it is quite possible we

may go on to lose this present
series, unlikely as that may
be. That's the way our play-
ers are and we have to accept
that. We just have to learn to
take the bitter with the sweet.

When WI players are
sweet, they are very sweet;
when they are bitter, they are
very bitter; there is no in-
Incidentally, after the

short tour of England in
1969 Sobers predicted that
WI cricket would be back on
top in five years time. He
must be a obeah man, eh?
Ruthven Baptiste


rl om-

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