Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00069
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: July 29, 1973
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00069

Full Text

Vol 3 No. 30

9 .\ -

SUNDAY JULY 29, 1973




Do you know this man



IN THE small hours of
the morning, a bullet
crashed,a man fell dead,
shot through the skull,
and the ill-starred Trini-
dad/Tobago Regiment
suffered another trauma-
tic reversal of fortunes.
Another name was added
to the list of casualties, both
literal and symbolic of the
running conflict between
the police, the forces of
"law and order," and the
public, and more alarmingly,
in the long rivalry between
the Regiment and the police.
And the following day
Brig. Serrette urged his men
not to entertain ideas of
"vendetta" but to allow just-
ice to take its course.
It was a shattering blow
to start "Army Week" during
which time the Army
was to be on show in an
attempt to promote its new
image of community service.
Groaning under the pres-
sure of increased work fall-
ing upon a smaller number
of men, some relief came
with the recent passing out
of 60 recruits and announce-
ments of plans to take in

40 more.
And then, the shocking
loss last Monday of one of
its apparently more popular
and able officers, Lieutenant
Oliver Walker.
It depleted even further
the ranks of the Regiment's
junior commissioned officers
following the loss of Lts.
Shah, Lassalle, Bazie and
Brizan, and the apparent
abandonment of the policy
of sending "cadets" for
officer training courses over-
Ironically, the late Lt.
Walker had been one of the
Army officers who had train-
ed the police in the use of
their new weapons.


Which raises another
perennially tortured ques-
tion the arming of the
police and their use of wea-
pons in situations of "self
defence" and alleged crime
The cases of Des Vignes
in Fyzabad, Basil Davis and
Santa Claus in Port of Spain,

remain unsatisfactorily
answered in the public mind.

wv vu

got the


Guantanamera -

Were the police justified
in using such a degree of
force which would result in
death of presumed suspects
or criminals?
Why must police shoot-
ing mean shooting to kill?
Consider the case of that
man in Moruga last week-
end who went beserk, wound-
ing his mother and killing a
number of livestock.
According to press re-
ports, he was finally brought
down by a villager who shot
him in the arm and legs. Was
this villager, also reportedly
actingin self-defence, trained
in the use of modern wea-
Did he have the benefit
of regular courses on the
rifle range, and could he be
said to be acting in less fear
for his life in a situation any
'ess perilous than in those in
which men have been shot
dead by the police?
People must ask which is
the greater social menace:
a fugitive in the hills or a
policeman with itchy fingers
on a self-loading rifle on any
street corner?
The shooting of a sol-
dier by police posted at the

by a different hat keeps
What keeps


gate to the old US base also
reminds of us Chaguaramas
which, for all these years,
hasnotreallybeen integrated
into the nation.
The wheels of justice
have been set in motion
with unprecedented speed
by ..the Attorney General
after the Lt.Walker shooting.
No doubt the nervous
regime, whose Minister of
National Security has seen
the necessity to be trained
in the use of guns, in anxious
to forestall what could be
an alarming dispute between
the police and the Regiment.


This, however, is one of
the consequences of arming
the police in the way they
have been, and the loud
championship of their
"cause" in conflicts with
supposed criminals by
The regime must now be
wondering where it will all
end. They clearly haven't
the moral courage to take a
stand against this high-
handed assumption of power
by the police and their reck-
less use of guns.
But they must be won-
dering where the next SLR

will be pointed.

*Pag9 *Page CAICOMtogtherPags6&




15 Cents


T A P I A will be literally
"playing for change" this
afternoon, July 29, The
game will be football, how-
ever, and our "opponents"
will be members of the
Blackgold Cooperative in
The match will end a
day of political activities
in that community. Start-
ing with a 10 a.m. meeting
in the Community Centre,
there will be the usual
round of political ground-
ing and selling of papers.
Blackgold members
also organised some recrea-
tion all fours and table

THE KEY factor in the result
of the recent Guyana election
was the army which took full
responsibility for transporting
ballot-boxes from polling sta-
tions to one central counting
depot in Georgetown.
Making this claim is PPP leader
Dr. Cheddi Jagan whose party lost
an election which produced a 75%
plus majority for Mr. Burnham's
ruling PNC.
Apparently, boxes were trans-
ported from the far-flung regions of
this 83,000 square mile country
mostly by air, but party agents
were not allowed to tag along.
Boxes remained anything be-
tween 18 and 26 hours at the Head-
quarters of the Guyana Defence
Force before transhipment to the
counting depot.
For boxes from the North-West
and the Rupunnini it took two to
three days before counting started.
In 1968, counting took place
in three centres: New .Amsterdam,
Suddee and Georgetown. Follow-
ing the decision to count in George-
town alone, the PPP demanded a
preliminary count at the polling
stations, proper sealing of boxes,
and party agents to accompany
transport vehicles.


Dr. Jagan claims that on the
Saturday before the election he
telephoned Mr. Butler, the Chief
Elections Officer, and write him a
letter on the next day.
On election morning, Monday,
he managed in the presence of the
Minister of Home Affairs to secure
the agreement of Mr. Butler to all
except his demand for a preliminary
But when his party agents turned
up they found that no instructions
had been issued to Polling Officers.
The Army commandeered the
boxes, brushing aside the human
blockades which some people at-
tempted to form. In the ensuing
fracas, two were killed and several
more injured.
According to Dr. Jagan, many
boxes arrived in Georgetown with
seals broken, locks tampered with
and keys missing.
The PPP claim that at the
Canals Polder polling station on the
Demerara West Bank, party agents
saw all the ballots being mistakenly
stamped on the front instead of the
Yet at the central counting
office in Georgetown, the stamp-
ings had miraculously moved to the
right place.
See Page 10.

oPage 9 Page 2

CARICOM together Pages 6& 7

This week Tapia duly joins the 26th of context and to be honest with ourselves as to I ent tune to suit the moment and whose capricious
July Movement in celebration of its ulti- what it means. methods have now brought the Afro-Saxon regirhe
mate victory but it is our revolutionary re- Otherwise we might well join those oppor- to the brink.
sponsibility also to fix that triumph in its wider tunist students of history who simply sing a differ-







of tune


I N 1970 when February
Revolution cut loose in all
its fury, the Scribes and
Pharisees discerned yet
another senseless episode
in the aimless drift of
Caribbean history. Some
of the more reckless even
ventured the insolence that
demonstrations w h i c h
brought countless thou-
sands into the people's
parliaments were just
another creole mas.
What must they have said
in 1953 when Fidel Castro
and a squad of seemingly
starry-eyed romantics broke
through the barrier of impo-
tence and cynicism and hero-
ically attacked the caudillo's
barracks at Moncada? Doubt-
less they must have said there
goes another bunch of middle
class misfits directing guerilla
bands in the name of the
workers and farmers.
Now that 20 epic years
have passed they are forced to
change that story. By some odd
miracle of history, those mis-
fits have successfully chal-
lenged the power of Goliath,
mobilized the entire population
in the task of reconstruction
and rid Cuba of the legacies of
This week Tapia duly joins
the 26th of July Movement

in celebration of its ultimate
victory but it is our revolu-
tionary responsibility also to
fix that triumph in its wider
context and to be honest with
ourselves as to what it means.
Otherwise we might well
join those opportunist students
of history who simply sing a
different tune to suit the mo-
ment and whose capricious
methods have now brought the
Afro-Saxon regime to the
"The revolutionaries," said
Fidel Castro at his trial, "must
proclaim their ideas courage-
ously, define their principles
and express their intentions so
that no one is deceived, neither
friend nor foe."
The Cuban Revolution was
a revolution,not at all the same
thing as a coup. The military
dimension was present and in
that particular context, it was
important too. But Castro's
victory was not a military but
a moral and political one.
The Revolutionary Army
never bad more than 1,500
actual soldiers, it was out-
numbered 50 to 1.
It won its way by insisting
on the simple ideals of hu-
manity, integrity, justice and
freedom where the old regime
knew only the conventional
politics of duplicity, brutality,
corruption and terror.
It kindled hope, liftedmorale,
and above all,generated trust in
people, and was therefore able
to face the task of changing


Yet Williams has found it
possible to write in Columbus
to Castro that "the essential
feature" of the revolution was
its anti-Americanism. T hi s
strident Crown Colony obses-
sion with the metropole is to be
contrasted with James' quiet
insistence that the Revolution
marks the ultimate stage of a
Caribbean quest for national
identity, a logical advance from
the Haitian Revolution when
"West Indians first became
aware of themselves as a
Williams has never per-
ceived this "inherent move-
ment" towards self-respect be-
cause his view comprehends
only statistics and forces, never
people. He would agree with
James of course, but only as a
Otherwise his Government
could never have "forgotten" to
reward Butler or "resolved" to

settle Chaguaramas for $51
million. If the essential feature
of the Chaguaramas campaign
was anti-Americanism, that was
only for those historians who
live by tactics.
Now at this moment of
rededication on July 26, we
must be clear as to what the
inherent movement of Carib-
bean society is. We are moving
inexorably towards an ack-
nowledgement and a legitima-
tion of our own original pattern,
of the uniqueness of our com-
mon experience with the sugar
We have inherited a new
situation and, as James sug-
gests, although the majority of
the Cuban people was white and
never slave, their underlying
social identity is the same as in
the rest of Plantation America.


Against this background,
the distinctive feature of the
Cuban Revolution was its initial
ideological independence and
the self-confidence and capacity
for action which that bred. The
stock criticisms of Cuba, even
by such perceptive and sym-
pathetic critics as Seers and
Dumont have missed the point
by many moons.
The accusation of so-called
planlesss planning" and of "a
failure to grasp the magnitude
of the task" may be evidence
of economic mismanagement
But more significantly, they are
evidence of a kind of confi-
dence and daring, a willingness
to engage and see and to make
mistakes in a way which puts
to shame all thsee mendicant
welcomers of capital in Puerto
Rico and the other islands.
In other words, the Cuban
programme has been to pro-
mote economic development
but the higher priority has been
to maximise self-respect. Roads
and bridges and schools are
important to the Cuban people
but not so much as the capacity
to make their own mistakes.
On the other hand, Castro
has said that he is a Marxist-
Leninist and that is an equivo-
cation which we can hardly
stomach. It is an undoubted
qualification on the inherent
movement and this could lead
us into all kinds of difficulties
if we are not careful.
Importing false categories
is the surest way to blur our
creative perceptions and blunt
our native sensibilities. We do
not need to legitimate our
radical perspectives by refer-
ence to any universal creed.

But we must understand
why Castro and Cuba em-
barked on that dangerous path
in the first place. Was it not
that they were abandoned in
1960 by their sister states in
the Caribbean?
When Castro and Guevara
opened the floodgates of his-
tory in early 1960, the rest of
the Caribbean had to declare
exactly where we stood. What
we did in Trinidad and Tobago
adds up to one of the most
shameful incidents in our re-

cent history.
After the big Chaguaramas
March Williams simply turned
around and ran. It is now clear
that he made some kind of,
neo-colonial deal with McCleod
so that by December 1960
he reached a facile settle-
ment with the Americans. Soon
the cannibals were descending
on the Cuban sugar quota.
It took us a full ten years
to turn the tide again in 1970.
Moncada is now behind us;
Havana is just beyond the thres-

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Adults only 18 yrs & over
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De Luxe
Danish Teak finish
Living Room Suite
Reversible Cushions




68 70 HENRY ST.

SUNDAY JULY 29, 1973


SUNDAY JULY 29, 1973

-!qoum aalIq JO aiuab!sa pIpui LLUAndo lobaeo as w
S1 rc ..aoad l 0o uoriEZ

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;- a weekly digest
to visit Yugoslavia. nl AXs MOiAi m.I auoqdaoa:


SINCE Wilfred Best mounted the stand at the WASA probe a
few weeks ago more clear stuff has flowed from his lips than
has come out of WASA pipes in years. For example, he has
cleared up wonder about why as head of an organisation never
distinguished* for public service he got the Chaconia Gold
Medal in 1970, officially for "long and meritorious public
The Express last week gave the inside story: "My
reward was a sum total of my devotion to the country for what
I didin April, 1970". (He had persuaded 400 WASA strikers to
return to work.)
Not all his candid comments and "disclosures" provide
instructive reading, though. While stoutly maintaining that
complaints had been exaggerated, he "would not say" that
WASA was "a coherent organisation". Yet there had been
"tremendous improvement" in the water supply though a
"great gap" had opened between demand and supply.
He should know, for, as he said, he remembered as a
boy having to fetch water with a bucket.
But he would have known better had he not let his
bucket down in WASA.

GRANT unto the New Caribbean Man his New Caribbean
Church The prayer goes up from the mountain retreat of
St Benedict, uttered by 76 Catholic representatives from 16.
Caribbean countries meeting now in a continuing effort to
blend the secular vision of William Demas with the Perspec-
tives for the New Theology.
Busily meeting, writing, thinking aloud and organising
to do all those things more effectively, the Church militants
want to unclasp the Roman collar and don
the Afro-Caribbean dashiki, to lay Latin to rest and revive folk
traditions with the "missa Ujamaa" using Hindu, Muslim and
African drums.
But if the revolution in the vestry has not lifted the
yoke of Rome, it certainly is defining new dimensions of the
word of God. So last week's Catholic News quotes this state-
ment from a recent theological tract:
"It is our contention that if we are near-sighted in our
reaction to the attempts to indigenize christianity in the
Antilles, we may be actually opposing the word of God".

From our Guardian files:

"MR CARLTON GOMES pointed out to the delegates that a
look at the world picture was necessary in order to understand
the problems which face the country, and particularly, the
constituents of San Juan West".
"WE appreciate that the inhabitants of Shanty Town, sorry,
the Beetham Estate, earn their living by rummaging in the La
Basse, but it is time that they are encouraged to find other
means of livelihood".


"T HIS IS a terrible
y e a r". It was only the
end of May, but for Eric
Roach writing in the Even-
ing News, the past months
and the future prospects
appeared to justify the con-
clusion that he offered in
calypso: "bat bite we, bat
bite this country, in this
Calypsonians had al-
ready endorsed that view.
Before March, Kitchener
had sighed: "Oh what a
country!" and had pre-
dicted that "the vengeance
of Moko will surely fall on
this land".
Stalin, attempting to
update the honky-dory
"Portrait of Trinidad",
flatly stated: "Our country
has grossly deteriorate".
Last week, when the failure
of electricity, telephones and
water services seemed to be
reducing us at one stroke to a
pre-technological state of na-
ture, both daily papers caught
the mood of hapless despair.
Never thought I'd see a
Sunday Guardian editorial
headlined "It's pressure all
But it happened. The "ob-
jective conditions", palpably
undeniable at the time, deter-
mined no less. Documenting
ketchass might be tiresome to
me, but when the writing on
the wall is set in such large
headline type, that is what
turns out when you're record-
ing the here and now.
People aren't even bored
with the expressions of gung-ho
optimism, whether it's the pep
song of a departing Vernon
Charles: "I am very confident
about the tremendous potential


here". Or whether it's that
halting trumpet solo on the
theme of "our positive achieve-
ments", Roy Boyke's "Patterns
of Progress".
Robert P. Ingram writing
on "the quality of life" de-
plored the tendency to wash
our dirty linen in public,
another country's public.
"Soon, one feels sure, this
period of doubt and question-
ing will be over," warbled In-
gram. But who is listening? Is
there any linen that's not
That must be how we made
our bed, and if anything, it is
good what we're now beating
out the dirt on the stones of
our disillusion.
And what a lot of dirt is
coming out!
A few weeks ago Derek
Walcott told an interviewer
"there's not a lot of subtlety
around", and that the dialect
"has got a little tired in terms
of its own originality".
Long before that, I had
decided to ban a whole family
of terms like "yuh tink it
easy", "horrors", "dread", and
"ketchass" from the pages of
TAPIA. They just seemed to
have been beaten to a thread-
bare meaninglessness.
But now, I'm not so sure.
They don't seem to have the
kind of independent existence
that comes from merely
reflecting an objective reality
any more.


They are the reality, it
seems to me, of a degraded
communication, a degraded
imagination. "What this coun-
try needs is a purge". I had
winced at that one, appearing
two years ago in a UWI stu-
dent's paper.
The "built-in shit detector"
that Walcott recommended four
years ago lies choked, rusted
and disused a relic of the
times when one could sniff and
turn away. But now, you just
have to close your eyes, nose
and ears, and beg the question.
It's not so much the re-
commendation of a "purge",
but the expressed conviction
that the country stands in need
of something so drastic. So you
work back from the desperate
degree of the measure recom-
mended and find that it must
arise from the perception of a
desperate situation.
Imagery is either dead or
it's taken on a shocking literal-
ness. So that every photograph
is a caricature, every picture
grossly overdrawn, larger than
life. Or life itself is somehow
larger in all its unpleasant as-
pects than it used to be.

Lennox Grant

shrieks the DAC. Williams is
Hitler, he is Rawan, he is a
grizzly, mangy, dark-spectacled
manicou hanging from a branch
by his tail -literally the skin of
his arse.
"Let us prey". So the
BOMB captions a cartoon de-
picting the carcass of Robinson
hovered over by three corbeaux
in the persons of Williams,
Bhadase Maraj and Jumadar.
We must be living in ex-
treme times. So every expres-
sion has to be a superlative
and every description a gro-
tesque hyperbole.
So even SHOCK, calling
itself the first West Indian car-
toon magazine, is an under-
statement in its own terms, for
it doesn't really shock. It sim-
ply collects the commonplace
impressions about our times
and presents them in its 47
pages of comic-strips and black-
and-blue jokes.


It portrays a Police Com-
missioner with a gun, a skull, a
book entitled "Shoot to Kill"
and a telephone labelled "Dial
M for Murder" on his desk.
Rats scurry about Police Head-
quarters. There's a bouquet
with the tag "From Your Lov-
ing Concubine", and in the
background, policemen are
pawing and petting police-
women between the filing
There's a centre spread of a
Port of Spain street scene with
at least six crimes taking place
simultaneously, including the
hold up of an armoured car by
the Commissioner's Rasta-
plaited son.
One beggar, three blind men
crossing the street, a news-
paper vendor, a policeman acci-
dentally shooting a passer-by,
a bag-wearing preacher, a reek-
ing man-hole and a sign at the
back of a bus "Don't Stop The
Carnival" complete the picture
by young artist Sel Quamina.
To every midriff halter top
there's an unsightly protruding
navel. A shapely backside
belies a monkey face. Nothing
is the way it seems, and that
assumption is itself perhaps
the only indisputable fact of
the matter. Everybody now
believes the other side of th!
By now I expect I should
be explicitly lamenting all this.
I seem to have led up to a
milk-and-water injuction about
"upgrading" our communica-
tion. But at this point t-o,
I'm not sure that's what I
want to argue.
Mightn't I too be just over-
stating my case?

Larger than life,



Is Step hens


SUNDAY JULY 29, 1973

middle class misfits directing guerrilla
bands .. .and- claiming to act in the name of the
workers and farmers making a blooming
mess of the Cuban economy."
Eric Williams, November 1965
"The Castro Revolution was a belated
attempt to catch up with the nationalist move-
ment in the rest of the Caribbean".
Eric Williams, 1970.
the first Caribbean country to
challenge .successfully the power of the USA in
the hemisphere, sought to establish a regime
based on national independence and social just-
ice, including racial equality ... the first Carib-
bean country to have attempted a decisive
break with the past, if we exclude the Revolu-
tion .in Haiti .. the first Caribbean country
to have mobilised the entire population in the
task of national reconstruction".
"Cuba has got rid of ... the sugar planta-
,ion .economic domination by metropolitan
companies ... the legacy of slavery the obses-
sion with race and colour".
Eric Williams, 1970
"One of the best projects in economic aid
that had been developed in the modern world ...
Vast in scope, grandiose in conception, and
ambitious in principle."
Eric Williams on the Alliance for Pro-
progress, 1963
"The Alliance for Progress sought to pro-
mote internal social revolution by non-violent
means. But by 1964-65 it had already failed,
partly because, when the chips were down, the
U.S. Government became afraid of genuine
social revolution .. and also partly because any



thorough-going social revolution had to affect
adversely the interests of the large American
corporations... "
Eric Williams, 1970.
"... the Cuban Revolution marks the
ultimate stage of a Caribbean quest for national
identity ..."

"... Cuba is the most West Indian island of
the West Indies..."
CLR James, August 1963.
"We have also given assurances that we will
co-operate with Venezuela .. to promote
our mutual security against overt or covert
"In the dispute between the Government of
Venezuela and the totalitarian state of Cuba, we
wish to state emphatically and unequivocally ...
we stand by Venezuela".
ANR Robinson to OAS Foreign
Ministers Meeting 1967.
"The unique Cuban attempt to come to
terms with the sugar society provides a disturb-
ing backdrop to all the diversionary semi-demi.
The failure of the rest of the Caribbean even to
pose the question of radical reform has denied to
the largest of our parishes just those moral and
political resources it needs to reach a settlement
\with the Americas".
Lloyd Best on the Next Round,
Dr. Roa Garcia stated that Dr. Castro
gave him a warm and brotherly message for Dr.
Williams; the Government and the people of Tri-
nidad and Tobago. Dr. Williams has a permanent
invitation to visit Cuba.
Express, July 4, 1973

You always

Wanted her to



makes it easy -

and an ideal

Gift too.



1952 On March 10th, Batista breaks
the expectations of Roberto Agra-
monte of the newOrtodoxo Party
with a coup d'etat.
1953 Fidel Castro, who had been a
congressional candidate for the
Ortodoxo Party, attacks the Mon-
cada Barracks in Santiago de Cuba,
Oriented Province, on July 26th. His
small band of supporters are killed
or captured.
1954 After a semblance of elections,
Batista continues to rule. An am-
nesty in 1955 frees Fidel Castro
and others on May 15th.
1956 Fidel Castro, Ernesto Guevara
and eighty others leave for Cuba
from Mexico in the little boat
Granma. They land on December
2nd in Oriente Province. Twelve
men survive to reach the Sierra
Maestra and begin the guerrilla
war. On November 30th, student
unrest sweeps Oriente Province.
1956 PNM comes to office in
Trinidad as "a bunch of intellec-
tual greenhorns" with nationalist
1957 The new government, con-
trary to the policy with which it
had won the. election, declares
that during the war Winston
Churchill had given away the
Chaguaramas Base to the US and
that it should be returned.
1957 Frank Pais assassinated on
July 31st: General strike movement
1958 Creation of the second front
'Frank Pais' in Oriente on March
1st. August 31st: Cienfuegos and
Guevara invade Las Villas Province.
On December 31st, Santa Clara, the
capital of Las Villas, surrenders to
Ernesto Guevara.
1958 West indies Federation estab-
1959 On January 1st, Batista flees
Havana and the Revolution assumes
control. The U.S. recognizes the
new government on January 7th.
On February 5th, Fidel Castro
initiates Land Reform in Oriente.
The U.S. expresses concern on
June 11th.
1960 It is disclosed on January
22nd that the U.S. Administration
has decided to ask Congress for
power to raise or lower sugar quo-
tas in an emergency. Soviet Deputy
Premier Mikoyan opens Soviet exhi-
bition in Cuba on February 5th. On
the 13th, Russia and Cuba sign a
trade agreement. A little later, U.S.
owned industries begin to be taken
over. On October 13th, Cuban
banks, industries and commercial
and transportation operations are
nationalized. On October 15th,
Urban Reform Law against renting.


1960 April 22. The campaign for
the return of Chaguaramas reaches
its peak with a colossal PNM de-
1960 May-June. Secret negotiations
over Indepenence, Chaguaramas
and Federation with the Colonial
Office via visit of Macleod, Secre-
tary of State for the Colonies.
Agreement never disclosed.
1960 December Chaguaramas
Campaign ends in anti-climas. Deal

reached with the Americans over
Chaguaramas, Uncle Sam would
stay. Trinidad and Tobago would
receive $51m. Popular movement
thrown into complete confusion by
apparent turn-about. Trinidad and
Tobago "firmly placed on the
Western side lof the curtain".
1961 Williams adopts stance of
Massa Day Done Get to hell
outa here you can't bring me
down to your level. Sustained at-
tacks on the population.
1961 Jamaica withdraws from Fede-
1961 On January 3rd, U.S. severs
diplomatic relations with Cuba.
After months of tension, a major
counter-revolutionary invasion force
lands in Cuba and is defeated at
Playa Giron, near the Bay of Pigs,
between 17th and 19th of April.
1962 On February 4th, the Second
Declaration of Havana denounces
the role of the U.S. in Latin
America. Major international crisis
about Soviet rockets in Cuba begins
with President Kennedy's blockade
on October 22nd. A U.S.-U.S.S.R.
agreement is reached on October
28th. Dorticos denounces the OAS
as the "Ministry of Colonies of
Yankee Imperialism". Bosch takes
office in San Domingo and is over-
thrown in 7 months.
1962 One from 10 leaves nought.
Trinidad going to Independence like
a funeral. Monarchist constitution.
Embattled fortress against the peo-
1963 Commission of Enquiry into
Subversive Activities.
1965 March. State of Emergency,
Industrial Stabilisation Act to curb
organized labour. September, com-
munist witchhunt. Williams attacks
"Castro and his methods".
1965 US military intervention in
in Santo Domingo.
1966 In October, the united Revo-
lutionary Party takes the title of
Communist Party of Cuba. January
3rd 14th: First Solidarity Con-
ference of Asian, African and Latin
American peoples (O.L.A.S.)
1967 August: The second O.L.A.S.
conference approves' of the guerrilla
tactics laid down by Guevara and
Regis Debray. October 8th: Che
Guevara is killed in Bolivia.[
1968 Cuba supports Soviet military
intervention in Czechoslovakia.

1968-69 Rodney demonstration -
Transport Strike. Students, intel-
lectuals and militant unionists join
1970 Year of the sugar harvest in
Cuba. Allende comes to power in

1970 February Revolution. Black
Power revolts against the old re-
gime. Widespread popular mobili-
zation without organization. Army
Mutiny. Reaction triumphs and
Govt adopts new headlines on
Cuba and the Caribbean Revolution.

1971 Castro Visits Chile. Approves
constitutional route to the revolu-
1972 October. Seventh West Indian
Heads of Government Conference
decides to resume diplomatic rela-
tions with Cuba. Allende visits Cuba.
1973 Cuba calls for new organiza-
tion to exclude USA and replace
the OAS.

1971-73 Breakdown of Parliament,
institutions, government adminis-
tration. Total .constitutional crisis
Non-political mobilization of the
population. Clergy, journalists,
housewives, lawyers, secondary
students, fishermen, etc. February
Revolution continues, police con-
trol expands.



-C rb e n* Sile

Nw Dorina



soft, light

B and delicious.


SUNDAY JULY 29, 1973

The Revolution in pictures 1953

The bullet-holed facade of the Moncada Barracks in Santiago after the abortive July 26, 1953 assault led by Fidel

- 1973

LATE IN 1971, TAPIA made contact
with the Cuban news agency, PRENSA
LATINA. Since then, we have de-
pended heavily on that source for our
coverage of Latin American, Cuban,
and Third World news and commen-
This connection with Cuba, pre-
dating the Commonwealth Caribbean
governments' overtures to our north-
ern, Spanish-speaking neighbour, has
enabled us to become perhaps the only
medium in this part of the world
regularly offering information about
Cuba information provided by the
Cqbans themselves.
Regional thinking now accepts
the necessity of regarding as one of the
same fold all the Caribbean countries,
regardless of language or socio-poli-
tical organization.
There are plans for the start of
a Caribbean news agency, which would
for the first time, hopefully, present
to Caribbean audiences information
written from a Caribbean standpoint.
We hope, too, that. the proposed
agency would concern itself with a
continual focus on all Caribbean coun-
tries. This, we feel,, would contribute
to an understanding of the real situa-
,tions in which our peoples live and
work, so as to allow us to place in
some kind of coherent context the
more sensational "newsworthy" de-
velopments which are almost all we
hear now about most of our regional
neighbours most of the time.
We hope that our coverage of
Caribbean news, unavoidably limited
through restriction on resources, has
been guided by the kind of perspec-

-- ~ v

Moncada today an educational institution

Under armed guard (at left) is a 27 year old lawyer
arrested after a revolutionary attack on one of the
fortresses of the dictatorship Fidel Castro

tive we advocate for the Caribbean
news agency. To the extent that it has
been so guided, then it has been
through the assistance of our Cuban
friends in PRENSA LATINA.
The photographs on this page
.are chosen from our PRENSA LATINA
files to mirror as far as possible signi-
ficant developments in Cuba over the
last 20 years. From the Moncada
assault in July 26, 1953, through the
literacy campaign of the sixties and
Cuba's advances in the field of educa-
tion to the 1970 fight for the 10 mil-
lion ton harvest of sugar.


Cuba as the land of Women's Liberation-this theme has engaged the attention
of some writers. The guerilla at right is Vilma Espin who fought in the revolu-
tionary war and is now President of the Cuban Women's Federation

M '" t; *'As ,.
4?,.,,. W

-- .--- - _- ----. -- -* ,-^

The fight for the 10 million ton sugar cane harvest involved nearly every man-
jack, including some young Americans who banded themselves into the
"Venceremos Brigade" to help the effort

I.r -


Free education for all ... one of the students posing here (left) is Silvia (Chiba-,
S. teenaged international track star

Armed vwhsymbolic pencils, a battalion of women fighters"ilfabetizadores" parade during the literacy agency ia nformatIva latin oa mern ca na
campaignW "- .',. ,. ?



IT HAS been said that the shorthand terms
"LDCs" and "MDCs" tell more of what sepa-
rates Commonwealth Caribbean countries than
what unites them.
The recent signing of the Caribbean
Community treaty signified the powerful desire
for integration for which there is more enthu-
siasm and oneness of outlook in the larger
(MDC) territories.
Why is it that the larger territories seem
more eager for closer integration than their
smaller, sister territories? To answer this and
other related questions, Vaughan Lewis, De-
puty Director of the UWI's Institute of Social
and Economic Research, offers a political
analysis of the Caribbean Community.
This article, the text of an address de-
livered in Barbados last month, ends with a call
for "full and continuous information" to be
provided to the Caribbean peoples.

THE EUPHORIA surrounding the Seventh
Heads of Government Conference in Trinidad
last October was almost too good to be true.
But such was the euphoria, that the promise
made then of an agreement on a Caribbean
Community to be agreed upon at the Eighth
Heads of Government Conference in Guyana
had to be fulfilled in one way or another.
The sense of expectation engendered
among the West Indian peoples could not
once again be disappointed.

We should note what essentials characterized
the Seventh Heads of Government conference in
It was the first meeting since the change of
Government in Jamaica in February, 1972, and it
marked a change in the strategy of Caribbean region-
alism as far as Jamaica was concerned.
It was that change in strategy which has
enabled agreement to be reached on a Caribbean
Common Market and a Caribbean Community. The
viablity of the community as presently envisaged, is
and will continue to be dependent, in large measure,
on the strength of the commitment of the Govern-
ment of Jamaica to it.
For some time previous to the General Elec-
tion in Jamaica of February, 1972, the technocrats
of the CARIFTA Secretariat had been trying to get
the agreement of that country's Government to the
establishment of the CommonExternalTariff (CET).
That is one of the prerequisites to a Common Market.


For a number of reasons some having to do
with genuine doubts about the utility of a Caribbean
Common Market to Jamaica; some having to do with
differences among the leading members of the Govern-
ment leading therefore to policy-making paralysis -
the Jamaica Government was unwilling to make this
So the promised move from free trade area to
customs union was stalled. It is the switch in policy
line, consequent upon the change of Government in
Jamaica that has enabled the agreement to the CET.
This switch has therefore, as I have tried to emphasise,
allowed the protagonists at the Secretariat and else-
where, to attempt the relaunching of the idea of a
common market and the idea of a Caribbean Com-
What, for the time being at any rate, dis-
tinguishes the present commitments to some form of
regionalism from the commitments to Federation of
the late 1950's is the striking unanimity at least
that is the public face among the major countries
of-the region, the so-called more-developed countries
It is that unanimity which, in my view, sur-
prised the leaders of the smaller non-independent
states during the Seventh meeting in Chaguaramas
and muffled into silence their doubts about the
benefits of a Common Market to themselves.
Such doubts would surely have been muffled
again had it not been for the intransigence of Mont-
serrat. And even then, the determination and unani-
mity of the MDCs was so visible that the other
LDCs were not willing to follow the lead of Mont-
Why the unanimity? It is, I believe, the ex-
pression of a perception of certain necessities forced
upon these islands by the forces of the presentday
international environment.
These forces can be summed up under two
heads (1) The movement of the United Kingdom into
the European Economic Community at a time

when the major agricultural crops of the region -
sugar and bananas continue to demonstrate their
weakness in terms of productivity; and (2) the
changes in the world economic and political systems
consequent upon the political initiatives and the
political and economic difficulties of the United
It has I think, become quite clear that some
measure of concerting of policy is required if countries
like Jamaica or Trinidad or Barbados are to make a
meaningful impression on the EEC negotiators with
respect to the kind of economic arrangements that
they can arrive at, now that the whole imperial pre-
ference system which we have been parties to, is about
to change.
The EEC proposes to re-negotiate their eco-
nomic arrangements with the Yaounde countries
later this year, and it seems to be their preference
that, the so-called "associables" make their own
preferences clear by that time.
This requires extensive pre-negotiation
among ourselves; among ourselves and other African
groupings and so on.
The MDCs seem to have wished, in that con-
text, that the economic relationship between them-
selves be fairly clear in order that their bargaining be
meaningful. One cannot talk about reverse preferences
if one does not know what tariff rates are going to be.

Secondly, it has become clear that the Free
Trade Area experiment itself (CARIFTA) might have
been endangered by the fluctuations in the inter-
national monetary system. A free trade area can -
hardly function if there is no predictability in ex-
change rate movements.
That is why the recent informal meetings
between Ministers of Finance and Central Bankers
have been undertaken as much out of necessity as
out of choice in the full knowledge, in addition,
that any bargaining at future international monetary
conferences is going to be done on the basis of
economic blocs, for the most part.
Thirdly, there are the world political move-.
ments. It is undoubtedly a fact that the initiative to-
wards Cuba has made a political impression because
it was undertaken on a group basis that is, by a
number of countries recognized within the OAS as
having a collective political identity.
In addition, there is, in my view, still a not
very clear understanding among the majority of mem-
bers of the OAS as to the character of the political
independence the character of the constitutional
systems of the Commonwealth Caribbean islands.
A correct understanding is likely to be achieved
only on the basis of the demonstration of the collec-
tive sense of initiative of our states.
What do these various international aspects
and the responses of Commonwealth Caribbean Go-
vernments imply? The lesson that seems to be drawn
is this. If there is an increasing necessity to concert
policy on a variety of issues and to keep in constant
contact in order that that concerting of policy be
meaningful, then it may be beneficial to each party
to give an institutional basis to this process of con-
certing of policy.

Here lies, in my opinion, the rationale for
development of a community in addition to a mere
common market.
The requirements of the moment have been
perceived to be for an institution in the area which
oversees the economic integration movement, but
which also gives continuity to the other co-operative
undertakings that the states have to engage in,
primarily in relation to the international environment.
A Caribbean Common Market and a Carib-
bean Community are therefore two different things.
Our political leaders have tried to ensure that
at the institutional level one (the Community) sup-
ports the other (the Common Market). The concept
of common market is an economic one the reality of
common market is an economic arrangement between
states. The concept of community is a political, or
better, a diplomatic concept.
The Caribbean Community could possibly
exist as a diplomatic system without having any trade
relation content.
In fact, at the moment two things coincide to

Barrow Burnham

The "MDCs"

Heads of
at that
with the
with the

make the connection between common market and
community the correct procedural approach. (The
attempt to further the regional integration movement
and the necessity to come to terms with new me-
chanisms for the region's trade (agricultural) relations
in the international environment.
Put another way, the decision to consult on
and attempt to concert foreign policy is as much
concerned with an appreciation of purely political
issues as with matters of foreign economic policy.
Now I think that one of the reasons for the
difficulties, tacit and open, between the MDCs and
LDCs, lies in differences in appreciation of the
necessity for co-operation, for collective endeavour,at
the level of relating to the international environment.
Note that the LDCs have no capacity to fix
the par value of their currency. They move willy-
nilly with the pound. No real necessity is perceived
for decision-making at this level.
Note also, as the Guyana Accord has recog-
nised, that having been allowed to come into the
EEC arrangement as dependencies under Part IV -
they do not necessarily have to negotiate with the
Again, it is not necessary, though I believe
that it would be desirable, to make a decision on this
matter. The subjection to the system of colonial

The Caribbeab


_ __



p* *


-3 i

b. *
Manley Williams

one voice
a 4

arrangements makes for a certain inertia with respect
to movements in the world at large.
Because there is this difference in perspective,
stemming from differences in economic levels; and
types of economic relations and constitutional status
And, it seems to me that the LDCs have tended to
see the idea of the Caribbean Community in the
single dimension of economic integration the
Common Market they tend also to seek for almost
more than the MDCs are willing to concede at the
present time.
So whereas in 1961-62 it was the MDCs who
were reluctant, and the smaller islands extremely
anxious, to integrate; the coin is now reversed. The
MDCs wish to proceed while the LDCs tend to
The difficulty, if the Community as a whole
is seen in only the single dimension of Common
Market, is the political complexities of the whole
The domestic, political repercussions in each
country, that are the response to the system of bar-
gaining which a diplomatic system always is, are lost
sight of.
Surely the LDCs need to be cognisant of the
fact that if Montserrat is likely to develop negative
economic and political side-effects as a result of

entering a Common Market, Jamaica, for example,
has also its domestic effects to deal with. This is
especially because of the fact that her present com-
mitment represents a switch from the policy of the
party which is now the Jamaican Opposition.
I believe that the ways out of the dilemma
which the LDCs perceive does not lie, in the first
instance, in measures like a Caribbean Investment
Corporation. If the economic and human resource
infra-structural base is not sufficiently established in
these islands, then it is unlikely that capital invest-
ment in the form of industrial enterprise will come,
least of all from the MDCs.
There are essentially two important economic
aspects in the present regional experience which the
LDCs should be paying particular attention to.
First, rationalising their systems of planning
infrastructural development with the aid of the
Caribbean Development Bank, the real quid pro quo
for CARIFTA and likely to be the real, though
unstated, quid pro quo for the Common Market.
And secondly, paying particular attention to ensure
the establishment of those industries that have been
reserved for them.
The two activities are inter-connected. It is no
accident that the Economist Intelligence Unit Report
identifying a list of industries possible for the Asso-

ciated. States and Belize was prepared for the Carib-
bean Development Bank.
SThe other aspect of the proposed Caribbean
Community that is of immediate importance for the
Associated States is that their political statuses.should
be regularised. Their non-independent status repre-
sents an impediment to effective participation in
the discussion and solution of regional and Inter-
American problems. that affect them. It is also a
source of illusion as to the extent to which the
British Government will for much longer be capable.
of, or willing to, protect their interests.
'With respect to the question of independence
for the Associated States, as I have. written else-.'
where, if economic advancement and employment '
are placed as the central.priorities of the activities of
independence, then the proper exercisee of sovereign
independence requires .to begin with a system of
policy planning institutions, common to these states.
Whether these common institutions are organ-
ised on the basis of a previously declared indepen-
dence of the separate states or on the basis of.a
federation formula is a matter for discussion.

One of the really depressing aspects of the.
tragi-comedy that took place in Grenada and in-Lon-
don in the last few weeks was that no attempt was
made on either side to see the problem in terms of a
debate along these lines. Instead, independence has
been raised to a fetish on the one hand, or on the
other people have managed to stand, in 1973,
against national independence.
The proposed Caribbean Community ex-
periment is as yet an extremely fragile set of mecha-
nisms, in the sense of the political basis on which it
has been erected.
In one of the main adherents to the Com-
munity Guyana the Opposition party has pro- .
claimed its opposition to the new endeavour. And in
that country positions of political principle tend.
:. quickly to follow the lines of the racial stratification
of the country.
In Jamaica, important members of the Oppo-
sition side have argued that a common market, as
against a free trade area, is the wrong path for Jamaica :
to follow at the present time.
The growing relationship between the. Jamai-
can economy and the American, economy; the size of '
the Jamaica economy and its relative diversification,.
induce some in that country to feel that the gains.
from regional integration, against autonomous inte-
gration into the general international capitalist sys-
tem are slight.
The intensity of such people's hostility.to the
idea of a Caribbean Community will be determined
not so much by the line of development that the
Community takes. The greater determine factor will
be the extent, if the Government has other domestic
political difficulties, to which the community might
be aided for purposes of political exploitation.


That is why a much closer mutual monitoring
of each other's political system, in order to perceive
what types of political and other initiatives might be
acceptable at any particular time, will be necessary
as the Community becomes a meaningful reality.
The movement to regional integration occur-
ring in the Caribbean during the last few years is part
of a movement occurring in various parts of the globe.
The movement has tended to be patterned on the
experience of the European Economic Community;
and we have been able to draw two broad lessons
from these experiences.
(1) That the further integration of that
Common Market is by no means automatic but is
subject to political discussion, political argument, to
deliberate planning on the basis of reciprocity.
(2) That in the Third World, economic
questions have become very rapidly politicised and,
the stakes of regional economic growth as presently
defined being not too substantial to begin with, the
question of the gains from integration can much
more rapidly than in Europe, become dragged into
the political arena and subjected to emotionalism
rather than to rational debate.
In the light of such lessons, the central
requirement in the Caribbean at the moment should
be commitment to purposive planning of the Com-
munity system. At the same time the Caribbean
peoples wouldbe provided with full and continuous


I. IV iY/j

SUNDAY JULY 29, 1973

THE "youth-against-famine"
campaign has got off to a
good start in India. Students
and youth numbering 20,000
have already participated in
nearly 200 camps.
According to a report in
"Indian and Foreign Review",
the main emphasis has been on
projects designed to increase

water supply, conserve soil and
add to food production.
Wells have been dug, ponds
desilted and deepened, canals
cut and bundling work under-
In some areas, essential link

roads have been constructed
and in one State, the youth
camps have helped to give a big
push to low-cost housing.
Villagers, university autho-
rities and voluntary workers
hae all been contributing to

the success of the effort.
A national water grid is
now contemplated to link
various rivers in India and to
achieve better distribution of
water in the country.

Seven out of ten Indians
depend on agriculture for a
living, and irrigation carries a
great importance for many
Water for farming has been
one of the highest priorities in
Indian Five Year Plans since

off the cuff

Times change.
No more stiff collars and cuffs.
Get the original Guayabera by Botany. Cool and casual.
Slacks, Double knit by Gold Seal.
Permanent pressed. 100% Polyester. Belts, for so.
Get it all together at Habibs, definitely!



Indian youth fight famine



SUNDAY JULY 29, 1973

ESTHER LE GENDRE reports on the visit of Harlem Dancers







Pre-daparture old talk trom a Irlnliaaaan.

BROOKS had an idea. As
a teacher of Caribbean
Dance in New York, she
found that it just was not
enough to work in the
dance studios. Technique,
the knowledge spring-
board to "correct" danc-
ing was not enough either.
She did not think that
dance should be a mechani-
cal exercise. If the feeling
was to be real it had to
evolve from a real ex-
So she decided to come
back to the Caribbean where
the real feeling still lives. To
Martinique, next door to her
native Guadeloupe, and to Tri-
nidad where she grew up.
She sent out a call to all
children between the ages of
10 and 17 who wished to re-
search the life-style, customs
of the Caribbean people. Out
of 65 applicants she selected 21.
Of this number some be-
long to the Junior Dance
theatre of Harlem (the Senior
Theatre performed here last
year) where she teaches Carib-
bean Dance and the particular
technique of bar and floor work
created by Catherine Dunham.
The others are members of her
own Experimental Dance


In Martinique the group had
the opportunity of seeing the
rNational Folk Company per-
form, and did a demonstration
in exchange. It strikes you that
Marie-Francois is a passionately
honest person. Her long career
in Dance has taught her that
you never get something for
nothing. Her group not only
wishes to extract ideas from the
Caribbean but attempts to give
back as much as they could in
exchange demonstrations.
When the group arrived in
Trinidad they were each carry-
ing 3 pounds of rice. They had
been warned by a friend of the
rice shortage here. But she still
was not prepared for the high
cost of living.
You people must be getting
adequate salaries, she assumes.,
And she wondered if $300 US
was usual to hire a mini-bus
at intervals over a three week
Though enjoyable, the
venture proved to be a rather
expensive one. Her only fear
was that the expenses would
discourage future ventures of
the kind.
Nevertheless Marie figures

but the feeling's still here

Marie-Francois Brooks

that the Caribbean countries
depend on tourist dollars, and
it was not too much to pay -
again in exchange for the wealth
of experience they would be
taking away.
Although it would have
been easy to obtain a sponsor
for their research trip, -the
group paid out of their own

pockets. Sponsorship, Marie
feels, also implies a certain
amount of dependence and'
limited freedom. The trip was
not to be only about dance but
the participants also practised
As part of the experience of
living in a multiracial society,
the group first lived with a Mr.
Narine. As Mr. Narine is a
Hindu, they ate no meat at his
Request during their stay at his
They also had the oppor-
tunity of attending- a Hindu
wedding ceremony, hearing
vows taken that sounded
strange to western ears. Es-
pecially when the groom pro-
mised to take the family of the
bride as well as she herself
.under his protection.
The group has been on the

receiving end of the generosity
of Trinidad artistes. Besides
lecturing to the children, M.P.
"Alladin made useful contacts.
Through J.D. Elder the group
was supposed to have visited or.
interviewed people involved in
Shango cult but they were
Beryl McBurnie, the grand
old lady of the Little Carib
Theatre, taught them two
dances and held a party in their
honour. Gabriel Francis, Di-
rector of The Company of
Players, proved to be a great
source of information for the
research the group is doing.
Providence Girls' School,
alma mater of Marie-Francois
was first honoured with a lec-
ture demonstration, Next they
visited a Morvant school where
they were invited to an end-of-'

term concert.
Then came the beach and
Toco where they did an ex-
change of social dances. An old
friend Jean Coggins-Simmons
Sorganised dance classes and her
expert drummers exposed the
visitors to various folk rhythms.
Astor Johnson offered to teach
the bele.
In all, the group had quite
a time, travelling more in their
three week stay than the average
Trinidadian does in his life-
time. Marie-Francpis showed
me a diary already filling up
with agpointments for the
group's last week in Trinidad.
She was invited to Pointe-a-
Pierre then she goes to Siparia
where Ma Pope, head of the
village group that won the
Prime Minister's Better Village
Continued on.Page 10






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Scarborough 639-2160

I -


SUNDAY JULY 29, 1973

* From Page 9
Trophy for two consecutive
years, will teach them the old
movements to various dances.
At the spacious home of
Mrs. Glenford Roberts I met
members of the group. Marie
is obviously very proud of the
boys Donald Williams and
Patrick King. Donald, 13, won
two scholarships, one for aca-
demic studies and the other for
dance at the Dance Theatre of
But Donald had a problem,
he lived way over in Chicago
and the dance scholarship was
tenable at Harlem. Marie
stepped in and offered to take
Donald into her house.
And so Donald is happy,
working very hard to maintain
both his scholarships. Sounds

like a fairy tale, doesn't it?
Perhaps Marie is a modern
day fairy god-mother. The same
happened with Patrick. Patrick
comes from even further away,
St. Croix, and now lives with
the Brooks family while he
studies and dances at the Junior
Dance theatre. This year, Pat-
rick tells me, they will be part
of the famed Harlem show
called the "Homecoming".


Since last year, the child-
ren of Harlem who "made it"
in the world return home to
perform at the Lowes Victoria

Theatre. Free, and to the poor?
I asked. "What!" Donald ex-
claimed. "Last year we were
ushers and the tickets were
$50 and $100; only rich people
could go to that show." So
much for the "Homecoming"
I thought.
Other members of the
group include Aulando Howell
whom Marie thinks of as "an
experiment in positive think-
ing". Aulando, one of her
Counsellors in Training, danced
formerly with the Harlem
Theatre but had no real interest
in the ballet oriented pro-
When he joined Marie's

Experimental school, she dis-
covered that he could sing
and now he does all the parts
that require singing in the
group's programme.


The group brought along
their own photographer, Mrs.
Paula Davis; a writer Sylvester
Leeks who, though called back
to New York on business, de-
cided to return, just to spend
the remaining week here.
Also travelling with them is
a Mrs. Neals, teacher, poet and
writer, voted one of the out-

The feeling's still here


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to hold

private poll

HOPES OF a reconciliation in
Guyana between Burnham's
PNM and Jagan's PPP have
vanished completely. Dr. Jagan
told TAPIA in a 20-minute
telephone interview last Tues-
day that he had met the Prime
Minister's offer with a bouf.
In no way rattled by re-
sults which claim a devastating
defeat for his party, the Leader
of the Opposition dismissed
the Government offer as "pure
eyewash, nothing but a public
relations stunt".
The PNC, Dr. Jagan added,
"has already defrauded the
whole nation in order to stay in
power so Burnham's form of
co-operation is out.
"What is needed is a poli-
tical settlement based on re-
spect for the Constitution, and
for freedom and democracy".
What now? Dr. Jagan said
that a new stage has been
reached. He did not wish to
abandon electoral struggle "but
if there is to be electoral
struggle, it must be free and
The PPP and two other op-
position parties will not be
taking seats in the new Parlia-
They plan to conduct a
private poll to be supervised
by an independent commission
drawn from the TUC, the
Church, the Bar Association,
the Chamber of Commerce and
the University campuses in the
Caribbean Community.

Caldera to

meet Castro

SOVIET Communist Party
leader Leonid Brezhnev will
underline support of Cuba by
visiting there for the first time
in December or January.
Venezuela's President,
Rafael Caldera, en route to the
United Nations in New York,
will meet with Dr. Castro in
Havana in late September. Visit
will include signing of bilateral
anti-sky jack pact.
Dr. Castro announced plans
to visit Yugoslavia.

standing teachers in America
for 1973.
Marie-Francois Brooks and
her group leave Trinidad on
Thursday July 26, but they
will be back next year. As they
leave, they give an invitation to
dancers who wish to follow the
summer-course at the Harlem
Theatre. So far one girl, Sharon
Mitchell, has taken up the
invitation and is presently a
guest pupil at the school.
Marie wishes to say a special
thanks to the people of this
country for their easy friendli-
ness, and to show just how
much she and her children ap-
preciated the food, she is taking
a Trinidadian cook back with
her. "The food may be over
there, but the taste is here,"
she says.



.ai~ ;:

SUNDAY JULY 29, 1973

"TAKE UP thy bed and walk" was Christ's exhortation to
the colonised Jews. That message, spanning twenty cen-
turies has meaning to us here in our struggle to break free
from a past that has moulded impotent minds, a past that
has chained our souls and says that we have never built

anything and that we will
never build anything.
But everyday we are learn-
ing that the change lies within
us. That for there to be a
bright tomorrow we have to
build for it today.
And building means doing
it ourselves, it means taking
up our beds and walking. True
it is a process of steady, con-
tinuous hardwuk but that is
the only road to our new
In Corosal the Blackgold
Coop has taken another giant
step along that road. It is
going on five months since the
brothers started their journey.
For them life has always been
hard. School meant walking
miles to Hard Bargain in the
South or Mayo in the North.
The land itself bakes hard
and cracks in the dry season.
Yes the land expresses all the
hardships of Corosal. But you
can grow pigeon peas when
the rains come.
When school life has ended,
there is no work save the de-
grading labour on the cocoa
plantations. Imagine $3.00 -
$3.75 for eight-hour day on
the estates owned by former
M.P. Seukeran and PNM Cha-
guanas M.P. Balraj Deosaran.


But in March of this year
thirteen of the sons of the
District of CorosaTilTinedf heir
backs on a past of unemploy-
ment, dependence and perpe-
tual- scrunting, and focused
their vision on a horizon of
hope and adventure. A future
of new possibilities.
Errol, Carlton, Hamil and
Kenneth from Corosal proper,
Linton from Esmeralda and
Panalal from down Poonah Rd.
rallied the others. The Black-
gold Coop. was formed. (Tapia
Vol. 3 No 19).
In the months since then,
ten acres of land have been
cleared and planted in pigeon
peas and ochro. Another five
acres are now being cleared.
Of the original thirteen brothers
eleven have held together.
Morale is high, their
muscles, like their resolve,
have hardened. They walk tall.
Their community realise that
they are witnessing something
deep and far-reaching.
But having established a
base for economic survival,
Blackgold has now turned its
attention to community life.
The Village Council is inactive,
community life is in fact non-

San Juan Secondary School
certainly give the lie to the
stereotyped picture of to-
day's youth. This was indi-
cated in their end of year
d rama production,
"Souries". "Souries" was
a delightful mixture of
drama, poetry, music and
dance running three con-
secutive nights beginning
July 14, 1973.
The group is under the
guidance of art teacher Terry
Chandler who is an artist,
drama-director, stage-prop de-
signer and lighting control man
in his own right.
The students were able to
overcome the lack of facilities
by sheer hard work. The props
they made themselves together
with a makeshift stage which
left just enough breathing space
between the tallest head and
the ceiling.
"Souries" presented a pro-
gramme which drew not only
from West Indian sources but
also from the student's own
creations. Naushad All read
poetry and a short story of
his own composition.
Sandra Maharaj added a
new dimension to the old story
of the returned immigrant who
has adopted the language of
the foreign country and des-
pises the home surroundings
he now finds "primitive".

A scene from the San Juan
Secondary drama

"Goose and Gander" is a
30-minute play written by Wil-
fred Redhead. The story is
that of two old friends Vannie
and Benjy who lived together
for years with their families on
a piece of land.
At first there was no need
to employ a surveyor, but
Vannie's wife is behind him to
add a bit more on to the house.
To do so he must claim as

rightfully his own land which
used to be regarded as Benjy's.
The friends decide to settle
in court and proceed to take
lawyer. However, Benjy dis-
covers a plot between the two
lawyers to reap a harvest off
their quarrel and he decides to
pay up to his friend.
-Finally, the romance which
budded between the son and
daughter of the two families is
resolved and the quarrelling
wives become friends once
None of the play's intended
impact is lost in the hands of
these inexperienced performers.
The acting was handled pro-
fessionally and good use was
made of the available props.
Perhaps the true-true grog
Vannie and Benjy licked from
time to time was partly re-
sponsible for the confidence
and good humour.
From a vast store of raw
material made available by
Carnival each year sprung the
idea of the "Slave". Built
around the title song by the
Mighty Sparrow, "The Slave"
and is the joint effort of the
drama and music group.
Choreography of the
dances was done by Astor
Johnson who found time off
from a busy round to lend
a free hand to this group.
What "The Slave" did was
to explore every dramatic pos-
sibility of this moving song.


Ivan Laughlin

Members of Blackgold Cooperative

And that is Blackgold's
giant step forward, for in seek-
ing to revitalize the social at-
mosphere the sisters have be-
come a part of their journey.
The Blackgold Sports and

Cultural Club brings together
for the first time the young
people of the district and the
sisters are taking the 1 e a d.
Marilyn Atwell is the President,
Joyce Marshall Secretary,

Anne-Marie Le Gendre trea-
surer and Sherwin Atwell (the
only brother on the executive)
Funds are being raised for
netball, table tennis and foot-

ball activity. In fact the sisters
are hard at work preparing their
netball ground. On Fridays and
Saturday the Club sells TAPIA
the commission from sales
going to the Club's treasury.
There can be no doubt, the
Blackgold Coop is a living ex-
ample of what it means to
assert our independence and
manhood. It is in fact a living
example of the new movement.

The phrase "I'm a slave
from a land so far" gave rise to
a nostalgic dance recalling the
days in Africa before the com-
ing of the ships.
Then followed scenes of the
death and despair of the holds,
the slave market and the birth
of rebellion on the plantations.
The idea of the joy mixed
with uncertainty on the grant-
ing of freedom to the slaves was
quite sensitively handled.
The dancing may not have
been expert but the drama in-
herent in the situation was fully
appreciated. The atmosphere
was complete with the novel
mingling of voices, drums, gui-
tars and steel.
Prior to the show, none of
the students had danced before.
Yet this was not discernible.
There's no limit to the powers
of hard work.
All the music was played
by the students themselves, the
music and chants composed by
ex-pupils Glen Sween and An-
thony Voisin.
So enthusiastic were the
large audiences after the shows,
that it was suggested that the
programme be taken around the
country. Arrangements are
now being made towards this.
All proceeds of the shows
went towards a trip to Vene-
zuela by the school's Spanish
Society. (EleG)





62 QUEEN ST. .P.O.S.

Bhlaekgoid's great

A novel mix of drums, guitars,steel and voices

- --



iMrs. Andrea Talbutt,
Research Snstitute for
Study of Ilan,
162, East 78th Street,
I- l4 YORKC, N.Y. 10021,
Ph. Lehigh 5 88,




WE HAVE yet another
football coach.
On Friday July 20 at
Skinner Park a double
header programme was
put on to introduce Eng-
lish coach Kevin Verity
to Trinidad.
POSFL's Defence
Forces came up against
SFL's Point Fortin Civic
Centre and North/E a s t
opposed South/Central:
-Verity has been con-
tracted by the TFA, and
brought down with the
help of the BOMB sisters,
to prepare our national
squadfor theforthcoming
world cup preliminaries
in Haiti, and he has four
months to do this.
He seems elated over his
new job, but I doubt very
much whether the state of
our football administration
will sustain that elation.
Verity is the latest in a long
line of coaches who have never
been able to get very far with
their assignments.

The records show that
every year a new coach is ap-
pointed after the preceding
one has left the job in disgust
and frustration. It was Joffre
Chambers, who did a marvel-
lous thing with Dynamos
club in the early sixties, then
Noel Pouchet, Conrad Braith-
waithe, the Hungarian Brun-
ner, Michael Laing, Ken Hen-
ry, Edgar Vidale and now
Kevin Verity.
The most creative of them
Chambers, Brunner and
Laing left the most frus-
Brunner was outstanding.
He was a former Hungarian
national player and his per-
sonal experience with the
game at World Cup level was
of immense value to our
Brunner really made a
great impact on the game
It is now history that the
high standard of play achieved
by the St. Benedicts College
team in the mid sixties was

the fruit of the Hungarian's
Brunner's troubles began
when he was made national
coach. The-free hand he en-
joyed with St. Benedicts he
never had with the national
This has been the central
problem our coaches have
had to face. Brunner, because
he had gained deserving popu-
larity with football fans,
managed to achieve some
measure of flexibility.
But Edgar Vidale, our:
most recent ex-coach,Jhas had
to live with a selection com-
mittee whose members seldom
if at all attend practice ses-
sions, yet they are the ones

who select national teams.
Verity is likely to have
many more problems than
the restriction of his free-
dom. Were he to select a
national team from players'
performances in the intro-
ductory match, Muhammad
Aleem (formerly Dick Fir-
longe) would surely have been
one of them.
But Muhammad is one of
T F A's footballing outcasts.
According to the grape-
vine, he had a falling out with
former TFA Secretary Eric
Verity will have to learn
who are the'bad boys' over the
next four months. He will al-
so learn that you have to
pick a man from Tobago,
from the East and from Cen-
tral. Merit doesn't matter.
When he learns all that,
and he begins to feel the
limitation on spirit, he will
discover that nothing serious is
If he can settle for being,
just a highly paid trainer,
praise the beauty of the coun-
try and its multi-racialism at
cocktail parties, and present
the illusion that the TFA is
doing everything for our foot-
ball, then he is likely to en-
joy his stay in Trinidad.


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