Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072147/00068
 Material Information
Title: Tapia
Physical Description: no. : illus. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Tapia House Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tunapuna
Creation Date: July 22, 1973
Frequency: completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Trinidad and Tobago   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1- Sept. 28, 1969-
General Note: Includes supplements.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000329131
oclc - 03123637
notis - ABV8695
System ID: UF00072147:00068

Full Text

SUNDAY JULY 22, 1973







-Juba-doobai man says goodbye after'74

runner-up in this year's Calypso
King competition, and for the last
seven years foremost political and
social commentator in song, is to
quit the calypso stage.
The pint-sized singer. born
Hollis Liverpool 32 years ago6said
he would be "definitely quitting,
after settling down in a job How
soon I don't know, I feel the 197 4
season will certainly be my last".
Chalkdust, a teacher for the last
13 years, recently completed BA

PAGE 4 For w


PAGE 5 Cuba -
after h

PAGES 6 & 7 Black


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PAGE 8 The i




2 0 y


ed pi




studies at UWI St. Augustine. He
expects to return to his teaching job
with the Ministry of Education, but
he looks forward to entering another
field before long where he could
put to use his university training in
sociology, personnel management
and industrial relations.
When he enters this new field, he
expects to have much less time for
calypso, for he would no longer get the
long school vacations in which he could
go on tours.
Talking to TAPIA before leaving for

BEFORE the Prices Co
sion now is the recent
guised price rise for N(
n the Sta Fresh milk, shown
member of the House
Association to be in t.
gion of 60%.
Once again Nestle
'ears been caught out in this
of hide-and-seek with pe
Sd 0a living, and it is time tc
them down once and f
Sgg le PRICE OF Sta Fresh.
Music in

eril the Valley
Valley will on Sunday
ayana 22 be having their a
Block-o-Rama at the
court on Simeon Road.
The programme sta
2 p.m. and will feature
WE DIFFER formances by Andre 1
Lord Relator, St. James
CM mers, Diego Martin V
drummers and the Block

a two-day singing stint in St. Vincent;
Chalkdust emphasised that he would not
be giving up his mission of fighting the
social ills of the country.
It means, he said, that "I'llbefighting
them at a different level".
Asked whether he intended to get
more active in the Teachers Union of
which he is a member, the "Juba Doobai"
man replied: "Perhaps, because they need
some shaking up".
The man whose open defiance of the
Ministry of Education ("To Hell with the
Ministry") and constant satire of the
PNM regime and of other social ills made
him the leading figure in the
wave of protest calypso, de-
nies that political pressure
had anything to do with his
leaving the calypso world.
mmis- For six years, including
t dis- 1973, Chalkdust made the
estle's finals of the Carnival De-
by a velopment Committee-spon-
ewives scored Calypso King Contest.
he re- But he never won the crown
a fact which made him
's has sing this year's outstanding
game lampoon of the judging sys-
ople's tem, "Juba Doobai", in which
hold he declared: "My aim is
for all not to win crown".
THE And this week Chalkdust
who was crowned the 1972
Independence Anniversary
Calypso King and PNM Buy
Local King in 1971 and 1972
said again:
"I was never out to win
Calypso King. I was out to
Petit sing. The crown is nothing to
V July me. Once people accept me
annual and my song then I am satis-
tennis fled".
It seems to him, however,
arts at that "the government wants
e per- to get me off the cultural
'anker scene". Reason for this is the
drum- recent rejection of his appli-
Village cation for two government
Four scholarship, in cultural re-

search and ethno-musicology.
He said: "I've been turned
down in both, and the people
who got them are not more
qualified than me".
He described himself as a
worker in the field of culture,
and stated that while at UWI
he had done a lot of cultural
research. Part of it resulted in
Caribbean Studies final year
He intends later to expand
the thesis into one of the four
books he promised calypso
fans in the brochure for the
Original Regal Tent which
with Superior and the Mighty
Duke he managed this calypso
The book will be entitled
"From the Horse's Mouth"
and it will contain "an
account of how calypsonians
feel, act and think about
their work either as an art
form or simply to entertain


But the protest calypsoes
which Chalkdust was mainly
instrumental in bringing back
in recent years have shown
no sign of dying out. Calyp-
sonians like Valentino, Stalin
and many others have joined
the wave.
And the fact that even
"establishment" singers like
Kitchener ("No More Free-
dom") and Sparrow ("Sedi-
tion" and "Good Citizen")
have since been hitting out in
calypso is proof that even
with Chalkdust off the scene,
protest signing, powerful so-
cial commentary and political
criticism will continue.

Vol 3 No. 20

15 Cents

:. i

SUNDAY JULY 22, 1973

AS EXPECTED the CARICOM countries have begun an-
nouncing delegations to the forthcoming Brussels nego-
tiations with the European Economic Community.
The Trinidad and Tobago delegation led by Errol
Mahabir is scheduled to leave this weekend.
It is said that the Caribbean countries are approaching the
talks as a block following a decision taken at the eighth Heads of
Governmentsmeeting in Georgetown earlier this year.
But the Express reports that "it has not yet been decided
whether there will be a single spokesman".
This uncertainty about whether we will in fact speak with a
single voice mirrors a basic weakness in the whole strategy which we
have been pursuing towards Caribbean economic integration.
Our preoccupation has been trade not production and this
could be a catastrophic error because it has prevented the Caribbean
peoples from lining up behind one clear position.
International economics in the North Atlantic countries has
been centred on questions of trade simply because the countries
concerned have, since the 15th century, been actively and dyna-
mically engaged in the world economy.
The theory of international trade .therefore takes for granted
competition between producers and between countries, free move-
ment of resources inside countries, and creative business enterprise
to take advantage of new opportunities in production.
Against that background policies of economic integration
have not had to concern themselves so much with the problems of
adapting production.
Planners pay more atten-
tion to what effects flow from
integrating markets in the form
of new trade and diversion of O u t o a
old trade.
In this logic, integration
movements developed in a se-
Squence passing from Free Trade
Areas to Common Markets and Er
finally to Economic Commun-
ities pursuing joint policies William Demas saw this a
towards production and ma-
nage t.long time ago when he com-
gem aribbean s situation mented on the Croft Commis-
The Caribbean situation, is
an entirely different one. The sion in 1959.
economy here has always had Later on Alister McIntyre
a passive relation to the world advanced the idea that the most
economy, so we cannot assume important step we should take
that if we integrated .the re-, towards regional integration
gional market the problems of would be to combine produc-
production would somehow tive resources rather than to
take care of themselves, free trade.


helping hand in Brussels

a limb in our

)an safari

Then a whole school of
economists arose in the UWI
which focused on the possi-
bilities of such collaboration.
Nevertheless, the path to-
wards Caribbean'economic inte-
gration'has been the conven-
tional European one.
Although we have recog-
nised the problems of produc-
tion in the discussion of the

Agricultural Marketing Proto-
col, the Caribbean Develop-
ment Bank and the Regional
Investment Company, the ad-
vances we have made so far
relate mainly to the freeing of
trade and the adoption of a
common external tariff.
The sad consequences of
this is that we are now going
to Brussels with two large out-

standing difficulties.
First of all, our diplomats
have no idea whatsoever what
the regional development plan
is for the difficult years ahead.
We shall be discussing the fu-
ture of both our staple com-
modities and our manufactur-
ing industries in what is vir-
tually a planning vacuum.
That adds up to an exercise
in faith which is the same as an
exercise in mendicancy.
Secondly we are discussing
our future without having first
involved the Caribbean people
in understanding what the inte-
gration is all about.
Demas has said that the
government and the media and
the intellectuals should explain
to the people what the Carib-
bean Community means.
But the only way such a
thing could be meaningfully
explained would be to come to
grips with the problems of pro-
duction inside the individual
Caribbean countries.
This would immediately
raise the question of full em-
ployment and income redistri-
bution and freedom from
foreign domination.And people
do not need any invitation to
involve themselves in issues as
vital as these.

By pragmatically avoiding
the issue of production we
have deprived our diplomats in
Brussels of the commitment of
the West Indian people. And
without that crucial support,
the European safari on which
they are embarking this week-
end, is nothing but an exercise
in futility.

Dutch Islands fear sell out to Venezuela

ARE THE Dutch West
Indian islands being used as
pawns in a game of inter-
national oil politics? A
growing number of people
on the islands, Curacao,
Aruba and Bonaire, appear
to be coming to the view
that their future is being
negotiated above their
heads by Venezuela, on
the one hand, and by Hol-
land and the Royal Dutch
Shell Oil Company, on the
Already this year, two sets
of talks between Holland and
Venezuela have been held -
the first in The Hague in April
and the second in Venezuela in
late June/early July.
The most important matter
discussed has been the demarca-
tion of 'territorial waters.
Venezuela claims a 12-mile
limit, while Holland recognized
the traditional three miles.
In fact, in addition to ex-.
tending her territorial waters
to a limit of 12 miles, Vene-
zuela also lays claim to the
Continental Shelf to a limit of
200 miles, reserving the right
to exploit all resources under
the sea-bed within the desig-
nated area.
Since both Curacao and
Aruba lie within the 200 mile
limit, the islanders are naturally
apprehensive about their fate.
So much so, that a report
prepared by the head of the
Department of General Legal
Affairs for Curacao, alleges that
the Dutch Foreign Minister, on
a visit to Caracas in September

1972, entered into a secret
agreement with the Venezue-
lans to hand over the Dutch
West Indies in exchange for
the renewal of oil concessions
to Royal Dutch Shell after
1983, the year in which all
foreign oil concessions in Vene-
zuela lapse.
Holland, of course, is an-

xious to divest herself of re-
sponsibility for her Caribbean
dependencies. As for the other
players in the game, Venezuela
has her eyes, on potential off-
shore oil supplies, while Shell is
seeking to maintain its strong
position in the oil industry
down the main.
The Dutch have shrewdly

sought to bring the island
governments into the discus-
sions to ensure their support
for any eventual agreement.

In the meantime, Venezuela
is playing a waiting game, and
refraining from pushing her
territorial claims too hard. They
probably argue that when Hol-

land eventually disentangles it-
self, the islands will be there
for the taking.
At the same time Holland
is working to guarantee its
own economic interests, with-
out provoking the kind of popu-
lar resentment on the islands
which could upset their seem
ingly well-laid plans.

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SUNDAY JULY 22, 1973

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"COMMENTARY" is the name of a programme which offers
local and foreign journalists Radio Trinidad time to deliver
themselves on "topical issues". The topical issue one day last
week was probably inspired by the Bahamian independence
ceremonies attended by Britain's Prince Charles.
And to mark the occasion here, one British-accented
journalist remarked on the remarkable atmosphere of goodwill
and good humour which has pervaded the independence cere-
monies in the former colonies. Princess Alice and Prince
Charles have both appeared genuinely pleased, he noted, to
hand over the constitutional keys. In the few colonies still
remaining he thought that the governors should be commended
for the excellent job they were doing. And so on and so
on ...
Everything, in fact, short of suggesting that we should
replace "God Save The Queen" with "For She's A Jolly Good
"IN THE day, Malik. In the night, Barnabas". Thus, nearly
a year ago, we named the double-programme of Life Today.
So that when, last week, a defence lawyer made headlines by
calling Malik "a Barnabas.. .they both drink blood", it seemed
disturbingly that the lines separating the day and nighttime
shows were becoming blurred.
For the daily press have been taking night to make
day in making sure we missed none of the gruesome details.
Breathless in the rush to plaster across the skies the latest
"highlights" of the trial, the Guardian one morning had to
make do with a decidedly lowkey development "ILL
JUROR HALTS BENSON TRIAL", No matter, it made front
p a g 9 IS S3 *i a -d I IM e .'s '- -. ......-..... --- I.... .. I..... .
Who cared if anybody else was getting sick of the
bloody thing, as the shorthand reporters'filled theircolumns
with the unedited script of the "drama" with the Attorney
General in starring role, strutting and fretting his hour?'
"HEY JOE! Got any gum?" Warned by travel writers, tourists
probably expect to be greeted this way by urchin kids in
"unspoilt" Tobago. But perhaps the rod has been spared too
much and it is the children who have become spoilt.
So much so, that the Chamber of Commerce's July
Newsletter referred to complaints that children have been
,"molesting" the tourists. Clearly this was a case for the timely
application of "the rod of correction". And to do the job, the
Chamber got Tobago journalist-schoolmaster Horace Leighton-
Mills to give a lesson in the old virtues of good manners.
Mr. Leighton-Mills' effort 25 lines of rhyming
couplets, "The Magic Keys," published in the Newsletter--
chastises the misguidance of "unkempt factions of a power
group" and ends with this stirring exhortation:
To youngsters of Tobago I appeal,
Not for'myself, but for the common weal -
Be courteous to the strangers who come here
To feast upon the unspoiled beauty, rare,
Of Crusoe's gem set in the Caribbean Sea,
Above all, do not lose the magic keys
That open all doors, the words "Thank You"
and "Please".

The University of the West Indies
St. Augustine

Lecture No. 1

Caribbean sugar and the
European Common Market
By Mr. Norman Girwar

TIME: TUESDAY, 24th JULY, AT 8.00 P.M.

The public is invited.

Column -

COLUMN ONE this week is reduced to a
fraction of its former self.
Thankfully. Yes, for the advertis-
ing which came in late. Funny how the
facts of life, the "circumstances beyond
our control", manage at least to sober the
headiness of idealism.
A few years ago, as a discontented tyro
at the Express, I could never understand why
Editorial could not maintain its pre-ordained
sovereignty over the paper. Sneering at the pre-
eminence of the Advertising interest served to
nourish revolutionary sentiment and to engender
hopes for the establishment of a journalism
that would not have to be circumscribed -
physically and psychologically by the de-
mands of survival.
I imagine that must be every journalist's
dream freedom to get on with the business of
writing "literature in a hurry". And if that is
the work of your life, then it is altogether fitt-
ing that it should provide you with a living.
I still think I'm a tyro, after less than five
years in the business something that I always
remember when confronted with the tremen-
dous multi-competence of some of the dons in
the profession.
I, too, look forward to making mine the
journalists' newspaper. Except that to do so
seems to involve getting others to agree with me
on what a paper should be and how journalists
could make it that.
For the time being, I have to settle for
being guilty of "letting the boys down", for.
being a fifth columnist, so to speak.
For example, the often expressed anxieties
about "freedom of the press" diminishing or
imperilled leave me quite unmoved. Because
I feel, there could be some more questioning of

Lennox Grant

whether that freedom is being threatened
from without by repressive regimes, spiteful
lawyers or peevish politicians, or whether it is
being subverted from within the press.
Invariably, I've been amused by the spec-
tre of normally complacent journalists rushing
to the barricades in ritual "defence" of some-
thing called freedom of the press.
Eager to consecrate apostles of the faith,
journalists have at the appropriate times in-
voked the memory of A.P.T. Ambard whose
trial provoked the immortal dictum "justice is
not a cloistered virtue". But that's about all
I've ever heard about the illustrious Ambard
What, for example were his standards in
determining "all the news that's fit to print?"
And how did he go about ensuring that the
public was so served?
My (admittedly limited) experience
doesn't encourage me to expect that the occa-
sion on which Ambard elected to publish and
be damned could be held to be characteristic
of his career. I am skeptical of the contribution
made to real press freedom by outstanding
individual acts of journalistic derring-do.
For, in the final analysis, journalism re-
duces to the art of filling a given amount of
space within a given (small) amount of time.
And what really decides the final product is not
the raw material available at the last minute so
much as the inputs that went in before.
Which is why, I feel, things like greater or
less enlightenment on the issues of the day,
humanity of spirit, and a sense of contributing
to "the national effort" with all that follows
from the last mentioned help to define a
SAnd which of course is not the whole
story. But then, this is only a fraction of what
needs to be written.

A tyro turns tail

In the World

No.6 is Players

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No 6 the cigarette for people of good taste.










"...Roll the drums. Let us sing and rejoice."


STHE NA TIONAL media paid
little attention last week as a
fu neral procession went
.through the streets of Port-of-
In the casket borne along
the way was Mrs. Millicent
Granger, mother of NJAC's
chairman, Geddes' Granger.
Mrs. Granger died in the
General Hospital on July 11 at
the age of 73. She had been
hospitalized some two weeks
.The last rites on Friday,
July 13 were not like those
expected for a "Mother of the
Year" This is the observation
ofSYL LOWHAR whose report
and reflections on the occasion

ON THE evening of July
13, "Black Friday", the
mother of Geddes Granger,
the NJ A C leader, was,
buried at Lapeyrouse
Cemetery. The body was
churched at Trinity Cathe-
dral with Fr. Raymond
Reid officiating.

Not 'many miouirners at-
tended the ceremony inside.
The crowd gathered outside.
Many wore wraps and dashikis.
Geddes himself did not en-
ter. He received condolences
in the road facing the Square
which had been his stomping
ground during the Revolution
of '70.
The sermon and the choir's
hymn could be heard indis-
tinctly. I knew what he was
thinking: they pay so much
attention to the dead and are,
so unmindful of the living.
"For whom the bell tolls",
sighed Malik, the poet as the
knell for the departed sounded.
And so the funeral march be-
gan, nothing like what Geddes
was accustomed to lead.
With the amended Sum-
mary Offences legislation in
force only such a procession
for the dead is allowed. One
campus sister had to lament,
"Syl, if Geddes were Prime
Minister today this place would
not be able to hold the people.
Where are all his friends?"
But that is how it is. Al-

ways it is liberty or the cem "e-
tery, survive or die.
The body was borne
through the streets. There were
African drumbeat and chant.
At the graveside, Fr. Raymond
Reid performed the last rites.
When he was finished Geddes
stretched forth his hands and
began to address his black peo-


"The newspapers say that
Mrs. Granger died three days
ago. But Mrs. Granger died
three years ago from the harass-
ment, the brutality and in-
human treatment by the Estab-
"When I was sent to Prison
in '70 my mother used to walk
from Laventille to the Central
Market and back. When I was'
released she could do no such
"She was suffering from a
weakened heart, liver, and
'stoppage of water. She could
not even recognize her,son ...

'"For months her telephone
rang every night at 12 o'clock,
1 o'clock, 2 o'clock, 3 o'clock,
and 4 o'clock ... The sons of
bitches would not allow her to
sleep". (At this point Fr. Reid
withdrew quietly).
Granger went on to talk
about oppression in the coun-
try, and made the pledge over
his mother's dead body never
to rest until his black people
are liberated.
"Let us send her in the
way our people knew ... For
them death was only the passing
into another life. Roll the
drums! Let us sing and re-
Only her misery in this
place has ended, he said, and
he called on every black person
of every age to fight relentlessly
by whatever means necessary
to ensure that as few people as
possible suffer the fate of Mrs.
"As I always say, there is
death in life, and there is life in
Geddes praised his mother
as the kindest, most sacrificing

person-in the world. She shared
whatever she had with others.
She went nowhere, not to the
beach, not even to parties.
"She preferred to save the
15 cents to buy copybooks for.
her four children".
Whether he was conscious
of it or not, what he was des-
cribing was the quality of the
struggle which our parents
made to relieve us from depri-
vation. The black mother spent
a lifetime bending over tubs
and coalpots, washing and
ironing clothes, saving her small
pieces so that she could provide
for the education of her child.
That was her investment,
her insurance against scrunting
in the future. She had no land;
only her bare hands.
These mothers whose life is
martyrdom go in silent grief
every day. They never attain
the honour of Mother of the
Year. For that their children
must become celebrities like
Eric Williams or Ellis Clarke.
The unsung heroines re-
main anonymous. Such is the
society in which we live. Per-
haps this is what George Weekes
was contemplating as he stood
grimly staring in space.
I wonder what James Mans-
well was thinking as he lifted
the coffin to the hole.
Pressing back the tears be-
hind his dark glasses, Geddes
took up the spade and started
the covering of his beloved
It was an act of courage
and determination in a scene of
so much sorrow. Members of
his Organisation, men and wo-
men, borrowed the tool to
heap the earth. A small monu-
,ment perhaps but certainly a
fresh resolve.
I joined them in their cause;
in the clapping and the chanting
and the drumming.




soft, light

Sand delicious.

- -






July 26,1953

Cuba marks 20th Anniversary of the revolution

BY THE start of the
1950s, the revolutionary
sparks that lit Latin Ameri-
ca's skies in the thirties
and forties seemed to have
died down for ever.
The decade of the fif-
ties began under the sha-
dow of the crushing of
the popular insurrection
headed by Eliecer Gaytan
in Bogota in 1948, and a
wave of military coups.
Marcos Perez Jimenez in
Venezuela (1952), Fulgencio
Batista in Cuba (1952), Fran-
cois Duvalier in Haiti (1957).
Carlos Castillo Armas in Guate-
mala (1954) and Gustavo Rojas
Pinilla in Colombia (1953) all
followed the hard-line policy
traced out by the Pentagon and
the White House.
Meanwhile,in one of Cuba's
prisons, there was a 27 year
old lawyer, unknown to the
White House, the rebel Fidel

Some five years earlier in
Cuba, the aggressive policy of
the powerful northern neigh-
bour had sunk the reformist
attempts of the governments of
Ramon Grau San Martin
(1944-50) and Carlos Prio
(Socarras (1950-52) which de-

ge nerrer ror --aanarcnlc
situation of corruption and

The good old days... Vice President Nixon toasts dictator Fulgencio Batista.

The moral and political
breakdown of those govern-
ments created'in the people a
desire to make civic life decent
and to put the country on a
path towards change.

Both governments played
into the hands of the reaction-
aries by introducing anti-com-
munist policies characterized by
armed assaults on the trade
--unions and the-assassination of
workers' Icaders such as Ara-
celio Iglesias (a port worker)

and Jesus Menendez (a sugar
Cuba's political and eco-
nomic subjugation was sealed
on March 8, 1952 when the
Prio government signed a bila-
teral agreement on Mutual Aid
for the Western -Hemisphere
with the US government.
However, for the Pentagon,
the best guarantee was the
existence of strong military
governments which would con-
tain popular demands,

The military coup of March
10, led by a military man of
obscure origins, Fulgencio
Batista, fitted the bill.
Among the people, the
coup raised political conscious-
ness and aroused strong anti-
imperialist sentiments. It led
eventually to demands for an
end to the ambivalence of the
traditional politicians.

Because of the lack of real
political leadership, a new
group of young people came

forth to continue the revolu-
tionary struggle.
The first two years of the
fifties saw great leaps in the
radicalization of a large num-
ber of young people.
.From the ranks of the
popular movement headed by
Chibas, whose slogan was
"Honesty before money",
came groups of workers, pro-
fessionals, peasants and stu-
dents who in 1953, just 100
years after the birth of the
Apostle, Jose Marti, took up
his ideas and started an inno-
vating movement called the
"Generation of the Centenary",
led by Fidel Castro.
Similarly, from the Marxist
groups which arose in 1925
with the creation of the first
Cuban Communist Party, came
leaders who channelled these
struggles into revolutionary
The impact of the Moncada
attack, organized by Fidel
Castro as a revolutionary re-
ply to Batista, nurtured the
revolutionary current which
gave birth to the Cuban Revo-
The reply of the anti-im-
perialists was unanimous and
the impact convulsed the con-
tinent, creating new prospects
for revolution.
The triumph of the Cuban
Revolution in 1959 broke the
monolithic bloc created by the
White House and re-established
the Latin American ideal of
Bolivar and Marti.
A little more than a decade
later, several Latin American
countries, through different
paths, are leading their people
along the same road and solid
revolutionary prospects have
opened up south of the Rio

The Moncada assault-a

beginning and an end

WHEN on July 26, 1953 a
band of revolutionaries, led by
a young lawyer Fidel Castro,
hurled themselves against the
Moncada Fortress in Cuba's
Oriente Province it was for
Cuban history both a culmi-
nation and a start.
Twenty years later, next
week,will be celebrated the
start of the Cuban Revolution
signified by that ill-fated
What Moncada did was at
one and the same time to
establish a connection with the
liberation movement that had
begun nearly a century before
in Cuba, and to point to the
possibilities of a new direction.
a new method, a new movement
of people.
Though the programme of
the "July 26 Movement" had
not been widely known at the
time, many Cubans were imme-
diately attracted to the idealism
and courage of rebels. Every-
thing pointed to the existence
of something new, a forecast
and a promise of change.
After July 26, people be-
gan to join the struggle. Groups
were formed which would later
join up into the July 26 Move-
ment. The March 13 Revolu-
tionary Directorate and the

Popular Socialist Party were
the only organizations that re-
mained separate.
So it was that the Moncada
assault made possible the 1956
landing of the "Granma". the
ship which brought Castro and
his rebel group from Mexico,
and the base of popular support
for the new movement.
Before long, the political
leadership of the Cuban pa-
triots was consolidated in the
Sierra Macstra mountains. From
there to victory in 1959.
But Moncada also took its
bloody toll. The Batista dic-
tatorship sought terrible re-
tribution in the execution of
more than 60 revolutionaries.
Castro was sent to jail on the
Isle of Pines.
But not before the auda-
cious young revolutionary had
made his famous "History Will
Absolve Me" speech at his trial
in which he denounced the
crimes of the Batista regime,
and made a call for armed in-
surrection based on an analysis
of the social, economic and
political conditions in his coun-
That speech also outlined a
programme for the upliftment
of "the great mass of the dis-
possessed, to whom all offers
are made and who are all de-

ceived and betrayed".

And once in power, the
revolution moved to make the
Moncada programme a reality.
After two and a half years,
nationalization of foreign-
owned property trials of the
Batista henchmen and the he-
roic repulse of the Bay of
Pigs invasion had together

amounted to a Cuban assertion
of national sovereignty.
All these measures, all
these acts, all these expressions
of revolutionary activity, con-
stitute a .link in the unbroken
chain which from these days
of the 20th Anniversary, leads
to the quiet dawn of Santiago,
broken by the sudden sym-
phony of bullets. (PL)




Fidel Castro ... The rebel





THE SO-CALLED Revolt of the British Carib-
bean between 1935 and 1938 was the climax
of a situation of depression and disequilibrium
that dated back more immediately to the First
World War. In the late 1920's and the early
1930's, the situation was aggravated further
by a number of factors the squeeze on
West Indian immigration to the United States
and to Caribbean-fronting Latin American
Republics; and the 1929 Great Crash and re-
sultant Depression.
The situation also occurred against a
background of ferment of the Left by the
colonial intellectuals in the area and outside.
The inter-war period was one of the flirtation
by colonial intellectuals generally and by West
Indian-born ones particularly with the inter-
national communist movement.
The flirtation was not a one-way street, com-
munists in the British and French metropoles and in
the United States being keen to recruit black intellec-
tuals into their fold in persuit of their anti-colonial
stragetieo and of their search for theoretical answers
to the Negro Question and Marxism.
In those circumstances, the official mind of
British, French and American imperialisms developed
a McCarthyite concern over "communist" pollution
of and subversion in their respective colonial worlds,
especially as a result of the formation of the League
against. Imperialism in Brussels in 1927 and of the
Sixth Congress of the Cominterm in 1928.


Any disturbances in the colonies was generally
attributed to "communist" inspiration and/or machi-
nation. A sort of "Reds under the bed" syndrome,
with the further equation of "Niggers in the pile".
One finds echoes of this in the Caribbean disturbances
of the late 1930's.
For example, in his account of the 1930 Ja-
maican upheaval, we find the American Consul telling
Washington that there was no truth to the suggestions
being mooted about communist involvement in the
situation. He did not cite the source or sourcesofsuch
suggestions. However, I have been able to establish
that one source was The American Embassy in
In a June 1, 1938 despatch, the London Em-
bassy told the State Department of information that

FINALLY, and with specific reference
to the 1937 Trinidad disturbances, there is for
consideration the intriguing question whether
or not the strikers in the oil belt engaged in
acts of sabotage against the oil industry. From
the report of the American Consul, there is no
doubt that Trinidad's oil was then of some
importance to the British. I have found con-
firmation of this in British archives.
As war with Germany became a reality,
Trinidad's ranking in the British oil scheme
went up on account of projections that the
vital Suez-Mediterranean route for Middle and
Far Eastern oil might become untenable and
that the Home industry would be vulnerable
to German air attacks.
The oilfields and refineries in the South
were obvious and attractive targets for sabo-
tage by workers bent on dealing a blow to
British Imperialism. Did they in fact engage
in sabotage in 1937? According to Consul
Moessner, there was damage done to the oil
industry through the closure of wells, wastage
of oil from wells left flowing and so on. He
did not class this as sabotage andconcluded that
there was no evidence of deliberate damage
by the oil strikers.
Perhaps, but the interpretation is open to
question. A lot depends on what is understood by the
word "sabotage". It can take the more dramatic and
open form of the blowing-up of some plant etc.,
e.g. refineries, or there are the more covert, less
spectacular manifestations, e.g. the actions mentioned
in 1937. I would say that the workers did engage in
sabotage in 1937.

had come to hand to the effect that the Cominterm
"may possibly be sending funds for the purpose of
exploiting the labour disputes which have recently
occurred in Trinidad and Jamaica via the Communist
Party of America's headquarters in New York".
Rumour had it, they advised, that funds totalling
between $50,000 and $75,000 had been transmitted
from Prague, Czechoslovakia, to New York to that
end. Although the Embassy stated that they doubted
the veracity of the report, they nevertheless suggested
to Washington that the matter be probed.
It would seem that this triggered the Govern-
ment machinery in Washington into a dig into their
files on some of the prominent black leftists and black
and other leftist organizations in the United States
that might be interested in the developments in the
West Indies and looking for openings to exploit the


Out of the bag were pulled the names of Otto
Huiswood (or Huiswoud), James W. Ford, William L.
Patterson, Harry Haywood, Ben A. Amis, Manning
Johnson, Richard B. Moore and Cyril Briggs. A verit-
able Who's Who of leading black communists of the
period, many of them from the West Indies (see
Harold Cruse: The Crisis of the Negro Intellectuals
and Rebellion or Revolution? for further details.)
Absent from the list were George Padmore
and C. L. R. James,butthenthe list dealt mainly with
black communists in the United States at the time.
Padmore was not in the States and in any case had
become cheesed off with the communists by then,
though still active in international left-wing politics.
As to James, he was, I believe, about that time setting
out from Britain for the United States, where he was
to develop his association with the Trotskyites and to
meet and discourse with Trotsky himself.
Pride of place in the State Department list of
names that was sent on to London went to Otto
Huiswood. Theodore Draper in his book, The Roots
of American Communism,' describes Huiswood as a
West Indian by origin. According to him, Huiswood
came to the communist movement through a group
called the African Blood Brotherhood i.e. "a nation-
alist organization consisting mainly of West Indian
Negroes in the United States" (cf. also Cruse: The
Crisis of the Negro Intellectuals).
With another black West Indian communist,
Claude McKay, Huiswood (using the sobriquet
"Billings") took part in the Fourth Congress of the

The British were certainly alive to the possi-
bilities. So that according to the American Consul at
Valetta, Malta, the opinion among the British naval
and military staff there and of the Chief Justice-
designate of Trinidad, Gerahty, was that "a foreign
power", possibly Italy, might be behind the Trinidad
troubles and seeking to instigate sabotage of the oil
The British reacted swiftly to the disorders in
Trinidad by moving naval and military forces from
Bermuda. It was an index of their jitteriness over
Trinidad that there was a repetition of the movement
in October/November, 1937. According to the
American Consul at Bermuda, this occurred after
Governor Murchison reported to London his fears
about "possible social disorders in that Island (i.e.
Trinidad) attendant upon the investigation by the
Royal Commission into the oil fields riots which
occurred earlier in the year", H.M.S York, the
flagship of the America and West Indies squadron
was immediately despatched to Trinidad. Troops of
the Sherwood Foresters at Bermuda were later sent
down also.


In the wake of the Caribbean disturbances,
the British conducted an enquiry into the state of
internal security in the entire British West Indies.
Trinidad came in for special scrutiny, especially as
the British were contemplating the construction
there of some large-scale, capital-expensive plants for
producing aviation fuel to meet the wartime require-
ments of the Royal Air Force.
Immediate results of all this were a strengthen

lack s



Last in the series

on US reaction to

Cominterm in Moscow in November, 1922, when the
Negro Question was first aired. They reported on
the conditions of the black people in the United
In 1938, he was apparently resident in Paris
i.e. according to the State Department. It is clear that
the American Secret Service endeavoured to keep
track of the movements and activities of Huiswood
and other black communists and leftists of the period.
The State Department was careful to advise
the London'Embassy that they had no firm evidence
that could establish that the Communists were siphon-
ing or trying to siphon funds through people like
Huiswood and Co. to the strikers in the West Indies.
However, they were in no doubt at all that anyone of
them was capable of directing a movement supportive

ing of the regular and volunteer forces in the island -
particularly the latter and the implementation of
measures to defend the oilfields and refineries.

With the war on them, the British, not sur-


''* *-. '' ^ a<< ,* ^ ./

r -r-

Trinidad's oil resources were seen as crucial to the British war


the Congress was said to be the organization in the is something that could be researched further. The
United States that was most active then in champion- web certainly existed on the individual and organiz-
t ing the cause of American blacks and of black people national basis.
elsewhere. According to an article in the July 10, 1938,
In the latter regard, we hear, for example, Sunday Worker, the National Negro Congress es-
that it took up the cause of the Haitian workers who tablished an American-West Indian Defence Commit-
were massacred in the Dominican Republic in late tee under the chairman of one Dr. Max Yergen
gge 1937 by henchmen of the Dominican dictator, apparently to collect information about develop-
mentsin the West Indies and to make recommenda-
Trujillo. Also in 1938, it was engaged in arranging mentsi the West Indies and to make recommenda-
lectures on the conditions of the black people in the tions about ways of assisting the strike movement.
West Indies, by W. Algernon Crawford, the editor of There is evidence that the Americans had a
Sthe Barbados Observer who was then on a visit to the file on Yergen, a note stating that he was the subject
United States. of a memorandum of September, 1937. He was said
too to be linked with the International Committee on
d African Affairs, which sounds like a Pan-African-type
WORKING CLASS organization of the time in the United States.
It is possible that Yergen was also associated
The view was expressed that, though the with the Jamaica Progressive League of New York
Congress was adopting then a low profile on demands which, according to the same Sunday Worker article,
C e such as the one' for a Black Belt of States in the sent assistance to the workers in Jamaica. This last-
United States and that for class revolution and con- mentioned was to all intent and purpose an important
cerning itself with more respectable objectives for West Indian organization in New York.
c e^ an improvement of the lot of the black people of
America, "analysis of the composite features of the PRODUCTION
activities undertaken so far shows clearly that the
sponsors of this movement envisage the awakening of
,y FITZ BAPTISTE class consciousness among Negroes and the creation of I have encountered several references to it in
a class solidarity along working class lines for coopera- American and British archives for the period of the
tion with other working class groups". 1930's and the war years in connection with the
If 'revolt' 7935 -38 workers' Revolt; the movement for constitutional
Indeed, the conception was likened to the reform; and the signing of the 1940 Destroyers/
Popular Front idea of George Dimitrov (or Dimitroff), Bases agreement.
the then President of the Cominterm, who proposed
it as applicable to the problems of organization that Also deserving of some attention, I would say,
faced communist/leftist parties in regions such as the is the National Maritime Union. It would seem as if a
of the workers in the West Indian colonies from the United States and Latin America. number of West Indian leftists of the period were
United States or from Paris via a number of com- at some 4,500 delegates attended associated with it.
Noting that some 4,500 delegates attended
munist/leftist organizations. the convention of the Congress in October, 1937; For example, Alexander in his Communism
Mentioned in that respect were the Inter- that it claimed a membership of one .million; and that in Latin American states that Frank Smith served as
national Trade Union Committee of Negro Workers its executive was dominated by communists, the Secretary of the Union in the 1930's. Smith was a
in Paris and the National Negro Congress, the Inter- State Department said that it feared that the Congress member of the "communist" wing of the PNP of
national Committee on African Affairs, the Jamaica could be the instrument through which contact with Jamaica that was purged in the famous power-struggle
Progressive League of New York and the National the workers in the West Indies might be made. An in the early 1950's. He is said to have been kicked
Maritime Union in the United States itself. Auxiliary to that end could be the National Maritime out of the United States during the war; to have gone
Union, ships of which plied the United States-West to Europe to work with the Communist-affiliated
Of the last-mentioned four American bodies, Indies route. (For more details about the National World Federation of Trade Unions; and to have later
the bodies, the one that clearly mattered most to the Negro Congress, readers are referred to Cruse: The returned to the Caribbean as their area representative,
State Department was the National Negro Congress. Crisis of the Negro Intellectuals, pp. 171/177). becoming involved with the emergent PNP and with
Described by them as "a united front organization ... Whether or not material assistance to the radical politics in postwar Jamaica (N.B. There is no
dominated by Communists" and as "the successor to strikers in West Indies was actually channelled via the mention of Smith in Trevor Munroe's The Politics of
the Communist League of Struggle for Negro Rights", National Negro Congress and/or other organizations Constitutional Decolonization: Jamaica, 1944-62).

prisingly, emphasised the security aspects of the Assistant, the Secretary of Labour, the Commissioner afraid of the hay the Nazis would have made out of it.
Caribbean situation. They were rather ruthless in their of Police and his Deputy and the Commandant of In the Caribbean colonies, a clamp was placed
treatment of the colonial bureaucracy who, unfairly, the Armed Forces were all sacked (cf. despatch on radicals. Butler spent much of the war locked up.
were made the scapegoats. In Trinidad, for example, from the American Consul, Port-of-Spain, June 30, In Jamaica, Bustamante was also interned for a while
Governor Murchison, the Colonial Secretary and his 1938). under the wartime defence regulations. Despatches
from the American Consul in Kingston tell how the
There is an interestingly sympathetic judge- Colonial Government, in the face of local reactions,
ment by the American Consul on Governor Mur- took advantage of the powers vested in it by the
chison. "The business community (in Trinidad)", he defence regulations to detain persons who were noted
noted in a November 24, 1937, despatch, "is not very as "bitter critics" of British colonialism.
enthusiastic about the present Government and com-
plaints have been made to the Colonial Office charg- INTELLIGENCE
ing laxity and incompetence in dealing with labour
questions. I feel that there is no doubt that Sir One of those detained was Wilfred A.
Murchison is an able man working under difficult Domingo who was described as "a native of Jamaica
conditions and possibly without satisfactory sub- who for some years has been resident in New York
ordinates". from which place he has taken an active part in Ja-
maican politics". He was removed from a ship taking
him from the United States to Jamaica before it
CAMPS actually docked at Kingston and placed in an intern-
ment camp.
As we know, the Governor's crime, in the Domingo was very prominent in the leftist
eyes of the Trinidad establishment and of London, movement in the United States (cf. Cruse: The
was that he dared to give the appearance of being Crisis of the Negro Intellectuals). He was also, I
understanding of the plight of the working people believe, a leading member of the Jamaica Progressive
of the island and, by implication, to be critical of League of New York. The Americans were also
the system that produced and inflicted such misery. running a file on him. It is not inconceivable that the
He paid the price and the British final judgement on news that he was on his way to Jamaica was sent to
him was that he needed his head examining!! You the British authorities by the American and British
think it easy!! intelligence networks in the United States.

This policy of toughness by the British was Intelligence was one facet and an important
continued into the war years. The Moyne Commission one of the developing Anglo-American wartime colla-
'"'reported, but such was the ugliness of its exposures boration in Caribbean defence, with the Americans in
about the British colonial record in the British West the senior role. The mould of the post-war pattern
--Indies that the War Cabinet decided against publica- was being set. It is one of the facts of life in our
ort. tion of its contents till the war had ended. They were region today.

ULY 22, 1973




The Ramayana mn

Indian drama

THE "Ramayaa". has been a
vital element of the civilisation
and culture of India and of the
southeast Asian region, and the
"Ramayana" tradition has greatly
influenced the beliefs, customs,
values and life-style of the people
in these countries.
The "Ramayana" theme has
also inspired and enriched the
literary, plastic and performing
arts in these countries. As a living
tradition it continues to inspire
and stimulate the creative urge
and the sense of beauty in society.
Throughout the centuries the
Ramayana theme inspired poets to
write works of great poetic beauty,
beginning with the poet Valmiki who
wrote his immortal Ramayana in San-
skrit more than 2,000 years ago.
The better known poetic works in
Indian languages on the Ramayana
theme aw.aqmba Ramayana in Tamil
Krirtivasa RSayaun in Bengali and
Ramcharitmais by the poet Tulsidas
in Hindi.


.' The language Ramayanas have been
so! popular with the people:that they
have become an integral part of their
thought and behaviour patterns, and
the people have .drawn inspiration and
strength from these inspired works of
poetry. It has narrated a noble theme
which sets forth ideas on human
behaviour and sensitively portrays
varied human relations.
They have also served for all these
centuries as a store house of episodes
for the traditional theatre and have
supplied rich spokenword material to
the various forms of the theatre.
These have been sung and danced
in various styles and forms all over
the country and have given aesthetic
joy to the people.
The Ramayana tradition has also
inspired artists to paint the theme in
different regions in various styles of
It has inspired and enriched the
folklore of different regions, and the
folk artists and craftsmen have used
the theme portraying the episodes and
the noble heroes in various artistic
Ramcharitmanas of Tulsidas has
been the supreme source of inspira-
tion to the people of the vast Hindi-
speaking region of northern India.
Its power of poetic beauty and
thematic charm crossed the linguistic
boundaries and reached many other
regions, manifesting the basic cultural
unity of the country.
Main episodes from the Ramcharit-
manas were danced in various styles of
classical dance.
As part of the recent celebrations
a photographic exhibition was also
mounted showing places associated
with the writing of theRamcharitmanas
and its poet Tulsidas.
The exhibition included photo-
graphs of the Ramcharitmanas and the
Ramayana theme in the traditional
theatre, painting and sculpture.
The Rama theme was an ideal
material for performing artists through-
out the centuries. It has been exten-
sively performed in a variety of

FOUR centuries ago the poet
Tulsidas started writing his great
epic Ramcharitmanas. Celebrations
to commemorate the event were
inaugurated by Indian Prime Minis-
ter Indira Gandhi on April 11, the
birthday ofKingRama, and will con-
tinue until the same day next year.

As part of the inaugural func-
tion, a one-week festival of music

and dance was organised, featuring
eminent musicians who gave a new
musical dimension to the works of
Ramcharitmanas is one of the
better-known literary works in-
spired by the Ramayana tradition,
the impact of which on traditional
Indian drama is discussed in this
article from "Indian and Foreign
Review "

A page from an old manuscript of 'Ramcharitmanas', believed to have been written by the
poet himself

theatre forms and dance styles all over
the country in various regions.
In northern India, the main tra-
ditional theatrical form using Rama
theme is the Ramalila, the theatrical
spectacle which uses Ramcharitmanas
for its spokenword material.
There are a number of styles of
Ramalila prevalent in different regions
with their distinctive features and
musical content. Ramalila is performed
as processional drama with mounted
scenes on the carts, as localised opera-
tic drama and as dance-drama.
Many rituals and ceremonies are an
integral part of the performance which
enable active participation of the
Apart from the Ramalila in the
north, the Rama theme has been used
in many other forms of the tradi-
tional theatre, auch as Jootiyattam of
Kerala, the only surviving form of
Sanskrit theatre, Kathakali, the clas-
sical dance-drama of Kerala, Yaksha-
gana, highly stylised and developed
operatic drama of Mysore and Ankia
Nat, the ritual lyric drama of Assam
performed in the Vaishnava monas-
teries and the Chhou dances of west
The Rama theme has also been
used in many folk theatre forms like
Jatra of west Bengal and Orissa and
Veedhi Natakam of Andhra Pradesh,
and Maach of Madhya Pradesh.
The Rama theme is used in almost
all the forms of puppet theatre,

namely, the leather puppets, the
glove puppets, the rod puppets and
the marionette.
The use of Rama theme in puppet
theatre goes back to the early centuries
The strongest tradition of the sha-
dow theatre in India is that of Andhra
Pradesh with the most active centre in
the coastal district of Godavari from
where 'it is said to have migrated to
Apart from Andhra Pradesh the
shadow theatre is prevalent in Orissa,
Mysore and Kerala.
Notwithstanding many common
features and conventions, the four
styles of the leather puppets differ in
the size and delineation of figures, the
spokenword material and the music
It is interesting to know that in
delineation of puppets the craftsmen
generally follow the conventions and
practices of plastic art of the region.
Other forms presenting the Rama
theme are the rod puppets of west
Bengal, the glove puppets of Kerala
and the marionettes prevalent in Tamil
Nadu and in Mysore.
The Ramayana drama is the rich-
est and the most representative form
of the traditional theatre in terms of
story and the spokenword material,
-music and dance content and produc-
tion styles.
It is also an enduring and signifi-
cant element of the traditional culture

representing the life of the people in
its totality their beliefs and ideals,
conduct and customs and arts and
The Ramayana also represents an
integrated approach incorporating
elements of the literary, plastic and
performing arts. It is a total theatre.
It is a theatre of stylisation and
conventions. The stylised costumes
and make-up are integral to the total-
scheme of stylisation, the basis for,
which is provided by a non-realistic
approach to theatre.
The stylisation and conventions of
the theatrical presentation are con-
cerned with the treatment of the
actor's face, dramatic speech and the
gestures and movements.
Fantastic and imposing headgears
used in the Kathakali and the Yak-
shagana, the delicate and lyrical masks
of Chhoudances and the highly stylised
make-up of Kathakali are most effec-
tive devices of stylisation.


The masks and make-up of the
characters like Ravana, Hanuman and
S Garuda have attracted the greatest
attention and inspired the craftsmen to
evclc ?IA J;..e pproschCs res.ugg tngi
a variety of conception and interpreta-
tion of these characters.
The embroidered zari mask of
Ravana used in the Ramalila in Ram
Nagar, near Varanasi, is the most ex-
quisite piece of art. The human-size
mask of Garuda used in the Ankia Nat
of Assam and the mask of Ravana
used in the Sahi Jatra of Orissa are
most dramatic and powerful masks.
The masks of the Chhoudances of
west Bengal extrude an air of earthi-
ness and primitive vitality. The mask
does not duplicate the face of the
actor; it vitally alters it by enlarging
and distorting the features.
The make-up in symbolic colours
and with abstract designs is intended
to highlight the facial features and
accentuate the qualities of the charac=


The scheme of colour symbolism
used in the facial make-up is also more
or less the same in the case of masks
and puppets.
For instance, the Yakshagana string
puppets follow the same principles of
make-up, designs of headgears and
costumes as followed in the Yaksha-
gana human theatre.
The use of poetry, music, dance and
mime, the intermingling of epic and
lyric poetry, and of narrative and dra-
matic story material, highly stylised
and choreographic style of acting illu-
minating the gestures, poses and move-
ments of the actor, conventions of
speech a stylised and rhythmic mode
of delivery with a multiplicity of
delivery-patterns. The use of chorus
and narrators, elaborate costumes,
symbolic facial make-up and fantastic
masks and headgears. Freedom from
the unities of time and place and a
variety of stage conventions.
These are the main features which
characterise the Ramayana theatre of
various forms in various regions of the



SUNDAY JULY'22, 1973


Since the 'teenage issue'everybody

knows there's a problem

Clive Bradley

THE DEGREE of pros-
perity enjoyed by any
nation depends directly
upon its ability to discover,
harness and develop its
natural resources.
However, it would be
indeed unrealistic, if not
impractical, to imagine
that these resources, what-
ever they may be are inter-
minable, that they will
always be in constant
The many abandoned
mining excavations and
-derelict oil wells bear
ample testimony to that
Unfortunately, only a rela-
tively small number of nations
are in such abundant supply of
all the amenities of life so as to
be able to help fill the pressing
demands of others.
Indeed most nations have
population problems of their
own, and must needs be wisely
cognizant of their own obliga-
tions and commitments.


Any projected plan for
economic expansion must ac-
commodate a reasonable esti-
mate of population increase.
An unpredicted rise in the
number of births must warrant
an acceleration of the produc-
tion and supply of all the.
amenities necessary to support
these new lives.
In the event that any na-
tion is unable to equate within
reasonable limits the supply
and demand situation, an ex-
tremely hazardous atmosphere
of social chaos is created.
Here, in Trinidad and To-
bago statistics show that at our
present birthrate in about
twentyfive years time, we will
have doubled our present popu-
lation of one million a figure
which it took us all of 480
years to reach.
To bring the problem into
sharper focus, this works out
to one new soul added every
twenty minutes, born into an
economic atmosphere which
literally reeks of insufficiency.
We must admit that by all
present standards, our birth-
rate is alarmingly high. If it is
not checked the destiny of
this, or any such country, is
economic strangulation, result-
ing in further want, the archi-
tect of corruption, thievery,
prostitution and all the un-
sociable attitudes that attend
situations like this.

A too rapid increase in the
population could be then con-
sidered a physical problem
needing a correspondingly
physical solution which is, a
sensible retardation of our
birthrate, which brings us to
the point of birth control or
more specifically, control in

In 25 years time our present population will have doubled

human fertility. This literally
means asking child bearers to
waive their right to have a child
anytime they feel like it, and
only bear children when they
can be sure that their offspring
will be born into an atmosphere
of less want.
Of course, having a baby is
a very personal matter. This
immediately brings us to the
moral aspect of the issue. As a
matter of fact this moral aspect
by far supersedes the physical
aspect, because it is only
through motivation in this
direction that the physical so-
lution discussed above could
be found.
What makes the matter that
much more tricky is the fact
that there are as many moral
beliefs as there are religions,
ethnic groups and other insti-


The most common insti-
tution however, is that of the
family, and the success of any
attempt to limit population
expansion must of necessity
be achieved through the insti-
tution called the family. Hence
the Family Planning Associa-
tion. If the rapid increase in
births could have been checked
solely by the issue of con-
traceptives then there would be
no need for the Family Plann-
ing Association.

As a matter of fact, con-
traceptives have been available
in drugstores for years and
years. So it is both naive and
unreasonable to assume that as
complex an association as the
Family Planning Association
would be set up purely for the
distribution of pills, condoms,
I.U.D.'s etc.
The practice of birth con-
trol concerns primarily the peo-
ple of child bearing age between
15 and 34 years old, specifically
the women. In this country
statistics show that there are
almost 162,000.
To view the situation fur-
ther, it is to be noted that in

the age group 10 14 years,
that is potential child-bearers
the number is 65,800.
These figures only repre-
sent the number of females.
We must also bear in mind the
number of males who, to
stretch the idea to its limit,
are capable of fathering an un-
limited number of children
over a relatively short period
of time! /
Now, how does the Family
Planning Association go about
educating this vast number of
people about the problems or
population explosion and elicit
their enthusiasm towards par-
ticipation in their programme?
Fortunately the furore
which arose as a result of what
we. might call "the teenage

"An increasing population
brings with it an increase in
crime, violence, social diseases,
poverty delinquency, vagrancy
and unemployment".

to making the whole popula-
tion aware, that there is a
problem. What more people
will have to realise though, is
that an immediate solution is
What must also be appre-
ciated is the fact that a long
term solution is equally import
The short-term solution
that the Family Planning Asso-
ciation is capable of executing
within its capacity is the issue
of contraceptives under medical
supervision, only a small part of
the Family Planning Associa-
tion's activities. As outlined in
its objectives, part of which we
have published (see box), the
first aim of the Family Planning
Association is "the relief of
poverty and ill health... in the
special field of family life ..."


The Family Planning Asso-
ciation's long term solution to
this embodies the delivery lec-
tures at its clinics and in the
!field, showing films on family
life, human biology, social dis-
eases, contraceptive methods
Fieldworkers go from door
to door, visiting people, giving
advice and assistance. Its doc-
tors and nurses concern them-
selves with such important as-
pects of family life as invo-
luntary sterility in husband or
wife, and failure to conceive
or bear healthy children, breast

cancer, and disorders of the
reproductive system.
These activities are amply
supported by on location talks
to workers in industry and
commerce, schools, leaflets and
pamphlets, and comprehensive
advertising in the media.
Whether or not the citizens
of this country are promiscu-
aus, whether or not established
social institutions have failed
to educate the community in
matters of sex and personal
values, whether or not churches
and other such institutions re-
gard contraception as immoral
or criminal, the plain facts re-


This country is getting
populated too fast. The average
breadwinner is saddled with an
extra load of dependents so
that when his salary has run
the vastly diversified gamut
of his family's needs and wants,
all that remains is just enough.
money to go look for more,
money. Many of our women
are unhealthy and weak, be-
cause of making too many
children too quickly.
Our increasing population
is bringing with it an increase
in crime, violence, social dis-
eases, poverty, delinquency and
vagrancy, high prices, lack of
food stuffs,and unemployment.
With the present popula-
tion growth rate,.we will need
twice as muchfood, water and
power and twice as many
jobs merely to maintain the
present unsatisfactory standard
of living of most of our people.
We need population control.
We need an institution like
the Family Planning Associa-
tion, and we need to give them
our support.




SUNDAY JULY 22, 1973

How the Revolution

got its marching song

Agustin Diaz Cartaya, composer
of "CLa Marcha de la Libertad".

THE DAY was fast ap-
proaching. Marksmanship
had to be sharpened. At
the Los Palos estate, near
Havana, a group of young
people headed by Fidel
Castro .were practising
Fidel knew that oneof the
men training with him was a
composer: Agustin Diaz Car-
taya had written several popu-
lar songs, none of which had
been published.
Fidel asked him for some-
thing in keeping with the forth-
coming struggle: an anthem.
"And make it quick; we haven't
much time", he added.
Diaz Cartaya recalls: "I be-
gan work on it right then.
After two weeks I had it ready".
Originally it was called "La
march de la libertad".


Fidel gave his approval to
the composition; the lyrics ex-
pressed the desire for liberty
which was the driving force of
the group, the "Centenary
Generation" as they became
known for their following of
the teachings and example of
the leaders of the Cuban War of
Independence from Spain.
Then came July 26, 1953.
In the Siboney farmhouse near
Santiago de Cuba where the
rebels gathered before the at-
tack on the Moncada Barracks,
the country's second most im-
portant military base, detailed
plans were laid, patriotic
speeches were made and every-
one sang:
We are marching on towards an ideal
Knowing that we're sure to win
In the quest for peace and prosperity
We'll all fight for liberty
The Moncada attack was
a military failure given the
dictatorship's numerical superi-
ority in arms and men.
In the Boniato jail, where
those of the rebels whom the
dictatorship had failed to kill
in the wave of repression that
followed were sent, the

"Liberty March" met with an
upsurge in popularity. In jail
it was given a new name: the
July 26 March.

During the hearings of Case
37 in the Santiago Emergency
Court, the voices of the young
men who made the Moncada
attack could be heard singing
the March as they entered and
left the courtroom:

Onward, Cubans, Cuba will reward
our heroism
Since we are soldiers who are
going to free the homeland
Sweeping clear with fire that razes
the infernal plague
Of hated rulers and insatiable
Who have sunk Cuba in evil.

Diaz Cartaya recalls: "We
used to sing it as if the words
were bullets; it was the only
way we had of letting the dic-
tatorship know that we hated
it. The guards used to shout:
'Shut your mouths!' But that
just made us sing all the more


:'The Moncada rebels were
given long sentences on the
Isle of Pines in a dingy jail
ironically known as the "Model
But they never forgot their
anthem. Once, Batista visited
the prison.
When the revolutionaries
heard of his.visit, they agreed
to welcome him with the
March. At a signal from Juan
Almeida (now Major Almeida),
they chorused:
The blood that flowed in Cuba
We can never forget
That's why we have to be united
Remembering those who are dead
When the dictator realized
what the lyrics meant he blazed
with fury. Fidel and Diaz Car-
taya were both put into solitary
Fidel and the volunteers
who later formed the basis of
the Rebel Army, eventually re-
turbed to Cuba on November
25, 1956, aboard the Granma,
a cabin-cruiser yacht.


Che Guevara recorded the
departure in his diary:
"We left with the lights out
from the port of Tuxpan, an
infernal conglomeration of all
kinds of material and men. We
had very bad weather, but al-
though sailing was prohibited,
the river estuary was calm.
"We crossed the mouth of
the port and a little further on
we put the lights on. We'began
a frantic search for antihis-
tamines for seasickness, but we
couldn't find them; we sang
the Cuban national anthem and
the "26 of July".
The guerrilla foco was es-
tablished in the Sierra Maestra,
in eastern Cuba, despite the
trouble-torn disembarkment

and the reverse suffered at
Alegria de Pio on December 5.
The closing lines of the martial
song were a stimulus:
And we are determined to risk all
For our cause
Even life itself...
At the beginning of 1957
the March of the 26th of July
was heard by a Havana musician
who belonged to the clandes-
tine revolutionary movement.
His name: Carlos Faxas.
He recalls: "We got in touch
with the leadership of the 26th
July Movement about possibili-
ties for recording the March.
After we got the go-ahead we
set about looking for comrades
who would make it and collect-

ing funds for the Revolution".
Only a handful of people
took part in the recording. The
group consisted of two trum-
pets, a trombone, piano and
six vocalists, one of them a
After several incidents in
which the revolutionaries
managed to get round the re-
gime police, the March was
recorded late at night in the
studios of a tiny radio station,
Radio Cadena Habana.
A few days later Evelio
Rodriguez Curbelo, a young
Havana shop assistant on his
way to join the guerrillas, took
the record to the Sierra Maestra.
Rodriguez Curbelo was later

to fall in action fighting
Batista's troops, but that first
mission was a very important
one: the notes of the March of
the 26th of July were used to
identify the guerrillas' radio
station, Radio Rebelde, in its
broadcasts from the mountains.
Faxas was forced into exile
by police persecution. In Miami
he made a new 45rmp recording
of the March with a bigger
group of vocalists. The guerrilla
anthem reached the world; its
melody raised the spirits of
exiles and revolutionaries every-
It has since been translated
into Russian, Chinese, Viet-
namese and English.

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C I I I I i, I I-



SUNDAY JULY 22, 1973



Baldwin Mootoo

MANY would have ex-
pected Imtiaz Ali, the
young Trinidad right-arm
spinner, to spearhead the
Trinidad attack in the
Youth Tournament in St
Lucia next month. He is
the only member of the
National team who is still
eligible to play for the
youth side.
Instead, he was not con-
sidered for selection. This
follows an incident in the
North-Central Wes Hall
League match at the end of
June on Presentation College
ground in Chaguanas.


The only report in the
press was in the BOMB of
June 29 which suggested that
Ali as captain of the North-
Central team, had acted quite
irresponsibly, conceding the
match before time so he could
leave with a waiting girlfriend.
The young cricketer is
concerned about this report
which he considers totally
erroneous.- He claims, and
other cricketing officials who
were there attest to this, that
the match was called off only
after a very heavy downpour
at about 5.15 p.m. when all
present were convinced that
there was only a very remote
possibility of any further play
that day.
At the time Central had
already lost eight wickets and
were well behind North-Cen-
tral's total. They had, how-
ever, outscored North-Central
in the first 20 overs.
Thus, according to the
rules, Ali and his team's only
way of winning then was to
get the two remaining Central
wickets before they reached
North-Central's total an
easy task if some more play
was possible.
If the innings was not
completed, then the match
would go to Central for their
better scoring rate in the first
20 overs. It was, therefore, in
Ali's interest to try and
squeeze in some more play

instead of calling off the
match then and ensuring a
victory for Central.
As it turned out, the
heavy downpour which led
Ali to call off the match
changed to a drizzle, and the
light improved shortly before
time for the close of play. So
it may have been possible to
get the two remaining wickets
and a victory for North-Cen-
tral instead.


Ali makes no excuses for
his erroneous judgement. He
admits the error and, in fact,
in a letter which he volun-
teered to the Trinidad Under
19 Selection Committee, he
"I told the umpires to call
it off when the downpour
came without consulting any-
one. I admit I am wrong and I
would take full responsibility
for this mistake. But it was
only due to the weather that I
did this".
Imtiaz Ali is disturbed
that an error of judgement on
his part is being made to look
like gross irresponsibility.
The North-Central Com-
mittee agrees that it was a
case of hasty judgement
rather than anything else. Yet
curiously enough, instead of
-relieving him of the captaincy,
they decided to drop him for
one match.


The Trinidad Cricket
Council (Under 19 Selection
Committee) asked them for a
report on the incident. The
report admitted to a case of
bad judgement.
Ali volunteered a letter
giving his side of the story. He
was not called by them, but
they have decided not to
consider him for the Youth
Imtiaz Ali is not yet 19.
He is a very promising right-
arm legbreak and googly
bowler. The Trinidad selec-
tors recognized his promise
when they included him on
the Trinidad team last year
in addition to the established

spinners Inshan All and Juma-
But Imtiaz has had his
problems with cricketing
authority. Two years ago,
Harvard suspended him for
not turning up for a Trinidad
Cricket Council match and
playing in a Minor League
game instead.
He said he deserved his
suspension and accepted the
punishment. Other people in
the game claim that he tends
to be difficult.
"Difficult" sportsmen are
nothing new. Some have come
a long way with proper handl-
ing. Freddie Truman, that
great post-war bowler was
"difficult" at the start. Imtiaz
Ali is still very young. While
not condoning indiscipline
and irresponsibility (and I do

not think that this was the
case here) it is to be hoped
that Imtiaz will be treated
with some degree of under-
The decision not to con-
sider him for selection in the
Youth Series seems haish in
the circumstances.
Last year the national
captain withdrew his team
from the field in a North-
South match conceding fully
to South because the South
captain did not make a
declaration to open the game
for North. Again, under simi-

UWI wins sevei

lar circumstances in Guyana
he bowled an over "under-
arm" in the Shell Shield
Guyana-Trinidad game.
These misdemeanours
seems incomparably more
serious than the Imtiaz Ali
incident. Yet up to now, not
a single word of disapproval
of Carew's actions has been
uttered by any section of the
Trinidad Cricket Council.
Now young Ali errs and,
immediately is harshly
punished. Is there one law for
the strong and another for
the weak in Trinidad cricket?
Maybe,when the Com-
mission of Inquiry into
cricket eventually gets off the
ground some light will be
thrown on this matter.
In the meantime, we will
continue to be the Cinderella
of West Indian cricket not
appreciating real talent when
we see it, or even when we
do, not knowing how to go
about nurturing it.


siderugby series

Fly Half

THE Trinidad and Toba-
go Rugby Football Union
opened their 1973 season
officially with a Seven-a-
Side Tournament at UWI
on Sunday July 8.
Together the Union, the
referees and the UWI Rugby
Football Club put on a well
run and enjoyable opening to
the season. The large crowd
saw a long session of rugby
which never lost its impetus,
reaching a truly fine climax
with the final between UWI
and Caribs.
In the first round, a
Royalians side made heavy
weather of the Caribs' second
team. UWI overcame potential
conquerors Regiment; Gue-
varas, newcomers this season,
gave a spirited display.
Northerns' first team
played attractive rugby to beat
Rebels; Caribs were jolted
from their complacency by a
tenacious Badjacks side, and
Scarborough of Tobago began
a fine run to the semi-final

by ousting Barbarians.
YTC gave warning to
others with some fine runn-
ing by Douglas and Domi-
nique; Northern faltered sadly
against old rivals Caribs, and
Scarborough entered their
first ever semi-final by beat-
ing Exiles, with Granville and
Hamilton showing good com-
In the semi-finals, UWI
showed class and cohesion
against a less experienced
YTC squad and won com-
fortably 28-4.
Caribs ended Scar-
borough's run 14-0 but this
game squad from Tobago
performed creditably.
The final must surely
have been the best ever wit-
nessed in Trinidad. The first
half ended 22-0 with UWI
very comfortably ahead. The
Taylor Brothers, Baitholo-
mew, and newcomee Passini
from Samoa were making
their older, more orthodox
and experienced opponents
look like a slow motion out-
Came the second half:
28-0 and still one-way traffic.

Then a truly remarkable fight
back by Caribs. Having pulled
back to 28-12 Caribs' Captain
O'Farrell elected not to take
the commissions of two other
tries, one a superb dummying
run by himself.
This left the score at
By this time the atmos-
phere was electric. Then Pat
Laurence scored after a fine
long sprint 28-24. O'Farrell
drop kicked the commission,
hit the post and alas the final
whistle went. The end of a
really great final.
UWI showed command of
the Seven-a-Side art and,
hopefully, their example will
encourage other teams to
wrest from them a title which
will have to be won by a
talented, well organised outfit.
Let's toast Caribs too for
providing excitement up to
the final seconds of the after-
Finally, praise for the par-
ticipating teams who were all
present and eager to get on
sportingly with the business
at hand.

De Luxe
Danish Teak finish
Living Room Suite
Reversible Cushions




68 70 HENRY ST.



'mis. Andrea Talbutt,
Research Institute for
Study of fian,
162, East 78th Street,
T127 YORK, N.Y. 10021,
Ph. Lehigh 5 848,



plays the

Lion and

the ]ewel

TICKETS for the Caribbean
Guild's three-play presentation
of "The Lion and the Jewel"
by Wole Soyinka "Africa Sling-
shot" by Cecily Waite-Smith
and "The Tout" can be ob-
tained from Stephens or the -
Tapia House from July 23.
The presentation begins on .
Friday, July 27 and continues
to August 4th at St Georges .
College, corner 6th Avenue and
10th Street Barataria. *
The group's 1972 success,
Soyinka's "The Lion and the
Jewel" from the 26th to the
28th July with a matinee show
6n the 27th, Errol Jones' "The
Tout" and Cecily Waite-Smith's
"Africa Slingshot" from the
August 2 to 4 with a matinee
show on the Friday August 3.


"The Lion" discusses the
erosion of traditional African
patterns of life by European
influence, and the changing role
of the woman in Africa. Lead
actors for the play are: Cassilda
Joseph as Sidi the village
beauty, Dominic'Kalipersad as
as Lakunla, a school teacher
and a crusader of European =
culture, Arnaldo Rodriguez as
Baroda, Ceciha Georges as Sadi- *
ku, the Chief's wife.
"The Tout" is a young
hoodlum who strays from
home and eventually commits
In order to finance his
escape from justice he sells his
sister's virginity to a friend.

The sister is raped while
the crippled uncle watches on
helplessly. "The Tout" is played
by David Bigford, his sister by
Andreana Sylvester, and the
uncle by Patrick Cambridge.
"The Slingshot" is set in a
Jamaican village, where a
stranger who claims to have
been to Africa, mesmerises the
village with talk of their Mother-
land. The stranger is played by
Arnaldo Rodriguez.
Admission for the matinee
shows will be 75 cents, the
regular 8 p.m. shows can be S
seen for $1.50.
Absent from the Guild this
season will be founder and
artistic director Slade Hopkin-
son who is in Jamaica for
medical treatment. Acting
director will be Terrance



Ruthven Baptiste

bert Phillips? Nobbie as
he is called by his friends
and admirers is a Tuna-
puna and Trinidad foot-
Former Trinidad and
Tunapuna player is
a more accurate descrip-
tion of his present state
because an injury he sus-
tained while playing for
Trinidad is threatening to
keep him out of football
The TFA, last year's In-
dependence celebrations com-
mittee, (the organizers of the
Santos /Trinidad match last
year) and the government are
really playing the arse with

Nobbie's health and career.
Nobbie was not injured
in some backyard fling or
Sunday morning outing. He
was injured while representing
Trinidad against Santos in
celebration of our tenth anni-
versary of Independence.


While making one of his
characteristic solo runs along
the right flank he was violently
cut down by a Santos de-
At the time it did not
appear to be a seiious injury,
but up to now whenever he
starts running his knee swells
up. A doctor has said that he
needed a $2,000 cartilage
The matter was brought
to the TFA and in customary





Mickey Matthews

League last Sunday
opened with a march past
of teams before a huge
crowd at the "Gallows"
on Delhi Road.
The opening of the
League spelt the revival
of community sport
which virtually died with
the exist of Gary Cross
froin SPAY and the de-
mise of such community
groups as Pepper Village
Youth League and Star-
dots. That was in the early
The League was organised
by Councillor W. Campbell,
Roy Hanky and a committee
drawing its membership from
among the teams. Juventus of
Pepper Village won the march
past and went on to beat
The Rest 3-0.
The game was rough,
bringing back memories of

the days when players came
to the "Gallows" with their
cutlasses that's how the
ground got its name.
After two years of Prime
Minister Better Village pro-
ject work, the Gallows looked
good. MP Muriel Donawa
McDavidson was there, talking
to the Lee-wearing, plaited-
hair men no doubt trying
to woo them.
"Why didn't you send
your team?" she asked.
"We play basketball", a
brother growled.
"All yuh asking for thing
and when we give you you
all not responding?"
The work put in by Coun-
cillor Campbell might give
the impression that the League
is a PNM thing. But one look
at the players would change
that impression.
Then why didn't, the
plaited hair men organise the
thing? Well, they are making
one mistake: they are divorc-
ing political activities from
community activities.

style it is still pending after
nearly a year. In this particu-
lar case, however, the govern-
ment should foot the bill
since it was a government ap-
pointed committee that or-
ganised the match.
The government under-
took to repair the fences that
were levelled prior to that
same match. It must now do
the same for Nobbie.
I suggest that, as usual,
Nobbie's case must be caught
up in the red tape between
the TFA and the Indepen-
dence Committee with a lot
or argument about who should
foot the bill.
Nevertheless the TFA
must ultimately shoulder the
blame in this affair. For
donkey years now proposals
have been coming from vari-
ous quarters; esp-eially play-

ers, calling upon the TFA
to organise an injury insurance
They have not done this,
and a player of Nobbie's
ability has been condemned
to the sidelines at the peak of
his career, because to their
colonised minds administra-
tive convenience must be
given pieerefence t-'5people7

A depleted


tastes defeat

FIELDING one of its
weakest teams since the
inception of the Village
Olympics, Tunapuna cap-
tured only fleeting mo-
ments the skill and subtle
movements that charac-
terised their play in pre-
vious matches.
Four of their leading
players Nobbie Phillips, Calvin
Lewis, Jimmy Springer and
Steve Pierre were absent,
while some of those who
played had had a match earlier
in the day when the Industrial
League opened its 1973 sea-
son at the Lever Bros. ground.
Leg weary and depleted,
it was no surprise that a fit
and confident SFA team took
the initiative from early in
the match.
It was during that early
stage under some duress,
Tunapuna's left back Lenny
Legendre flicked back to his
goalkeeper who was not in
position to collect the pass
and SFA went one up.
Tunapuna's morale was
further undermined when
Leon Carpette, a contender
for national honours, further
enhancing his claims by a
splendid display in this match,

sent SFA further ahead.
SFA however made the
mistake of going flat in the
first half, there by giving
Tunapuna the opening to re-
trieve their position in the
second half.
Godfrey Harris, now a
mature and cool campaigner,
heralded things to come.
From the touch off, with-
out an SFA player touching
the ball, Harris collected from
the right wing in SFA's goal
area, evaded one defender and
banged a powerful shot in to
the roof of the net.
From then on Tunapuna
looked something of them-
selves only to see their re-
vived morale dissipate when
SFA was awarded a penalty
as Fitzroy Valentine fouled
Carpette in the penalty box.
This penalty made the
score 3-1.
Towards the end of the
game "Poultry" substituting
for Willie Bailey in the for-
ward line did a "Pele".
He took an inaccurate
shot; it struck a defender and
deflected into the goal. The
only difference with himself
and Pele is that Pele can do
that kind of thing deliberately.


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